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Sample records for glucose amperometric biosensor

  1. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2016-11-10

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  2. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Nayuk, Pranati; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  3. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W. [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNICHAPECO), SC (Brazil); Fernandes, S.C. [Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Centro Universitario Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Orleans, SC (Brazil); Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  4. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W.; Fernandes, S.C.; Riella, H.G.; Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  5. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margalida Artigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%, reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%, accuracy (95–105% recovery, and robustness (RSD = 3.3%. Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated.

  6. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95–105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated. PMID:29135931

  7. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigues, Margalida; Abellà, Jordi; Colominas, Sergi

    2017-11-14

    Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO₂NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx-Chitosan/TiO₂NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM -1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95-105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx-Chitosan/TiO₂NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated.

  8. An amperometric biosensor for glucose detection from glucose oxidase immobilized in polyaniline-polyvinylsulfonate-potassium ferricyanide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma; Beskan, Umut

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate-potassium ferricyanide (Pani-Pvs-Fc) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Potassium ferricyanide was used as the mediator. Determination of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of potassium ferrocyanide at 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated, and the optimum pH value was found to be 7.5. The storage stability and the operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied.

  9. Layer-by-layer assemblies of chitosan/multi-wall carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Baoyan; Hou Shihua; Yu Min; Qin Xia; Li, Sha; Chen Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on multilayer films containing chitosan, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) was developed. MWCNTs were solubilized in chitosan (Chit-MWCNTs) used to interact with GOD. Poly (allylamine) (PAA) and polyvinylsulfuric acid potassium salt (PVS) were alternately deposited on the cleaned Pt electrode surface ((PVS/PAA) 3 /Pt). The (PVS/PAA) 3 /Pt electrode was alternately immersed in Chit-MWCNTs and GOD to assemble different layers of multilayer films. PBS washing was applied at the end of each assembly deposition for dissociating the weak adsorption. Micrographs of MWCNTs were obtained by scanning electron microscope, and properties of the resulting biosensors were measured by electrochemical measurements. Among the resulting biosensors, the biosensor based on eight layers of multilayer films was best. The resulting biosensor was able to efficiently monitor glucose, with the response time within 8 s, a detection limit of 21 μM estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, a linear range of 1-10 mM, the sensitivity of 0.45 μA/mM, and well stability. The study can provide a feasible simple approach on developing a new immobilization matrix for biosensors and surface functionalization

  10. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K{sub s}) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s{sup −1}. The higher K{sub s} value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination.

  11. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K s ) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s −1 . The higher K s value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination

  12. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer films of microperoxidase-11 and liposome-encapsulated glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, J S; de Oliveira, R F; de Moraes, M L; Ferreira, M

    2014-04-01

    An important step in several bioanalytical applications is the immobilization of biomolecules. Accordingly, this procedure must be carefully chosen to preserve their biological structure and fully explore their properties. For this purpose, we combined the versatility of the layer-by-layer (LbL) method for the immobilization of biomolecules with the protective behavior of liposome-encapsulated systems to fabricate a novel amperometric glucose biosensor. To obtain the biosensing unit, an LbL film of the H2O2 catalyst polypeptide microperoxidase-11 (MP-11) was assembled onto an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode followed by the deposition of a liposome-encapsulated glucose oxidase (GOx) layer. The biosensor response toward glucose detection showed a sensitivity of 0.91±0.09 (μA/cm2)/mM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.6±1.1 μM, demonstrating an improved performance compared to similar biosensors with a single phospholipid-liposome or even containing a non-encapsulated GOx layer. Finally, glucose detection was also performed in a zero-lactose milk sample to demonstrate the potential of the biosensor for food analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22s(-1). The higher Ks value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05-23.2mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. © 2013.

  14. Implantable enzyme amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Carrara, Sandro; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-05-15

    The implantable enzyme amperometric biosensor continues as the dominant in vivo format for the detection, monitoring and reporting of biochemical analytes related to a wide range of pathologies. Widely used in animal studies, there is increasing emphasis on their use in diabetes care and management, the management of trauma-associated hemorrhage and in critical care monitoring by intensivists in the ICU. These frontier opportunities demand continuous indwelling performance for up to several years, well in excess of the currently approved seven days. This review outlines the many challenges to successful deployment of chronically implantable amperometric enzyme biosensors and emphasizes the emerging technological approaches in their continued development. The foreign body response plays a prominent role in implantable biotransducer failure. Topics considering the approaches to mitigate the inflammatory response, use of biomimetic chemistries, nanostructured topographies, drug eluting constructs, and tissue-to-device interface modulus matching are reviewed. Similarly, factors that influence biotransducer performance such as enzyme stability, substrate interference, mediator selection and calibration are reviewed. For the biosensor system, the opportunities and challenges of integration, guided by footprint requirements, the limitations of mixed signal electronics, and power requirements, has produced three systems approaches. The potential is great. However, integration along the multiple length scales needed to address fundamental issues and integration across the diverse disciplines needed to achieve success of these highly integrated systems, continues to be a challenge in the development and deployment of implantable amperometric enzyme biosensor systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mediatorless amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase cross-linked to multiwall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhou, Shiyi; Zhang, Xinfeng; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2014-01-01

    We report on a bienzyme-channeling sensor for sensing glucose without the aid of mediator. It was fabricated by cross-linking horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The bienzyme was cross-linked with the MWNTs by glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin. The MWNTs were employed to accelerate the electron transfer between immobilized HRP and electrode. Glucose was sensed by amperometric reduction of enzymatically generated H 2 O 2 at an applied voltage of −50 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). Factors influencing the preparation and performance of the bienzyme electrode were investigated in detail. The biosensor exhibited a fast and linear response to glucose in the concentration range from 0.4 to 15 mM, with a detection limit of 0.4 mM. The sensor exhibited good selectivity and durability, with a long-term relative standard deviation of <5 %. Analysis of glucose-spiked human serum samples yielded recoveries between 96 and 101 %. (author)

  16. The use of different glucose oxidases for the development of an amperometric reagentless glucose biosensor based on gold nanoparticles covered by polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, Natalija; Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Semashko, Tatiana; Mikhailova, Raisa; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- ABSTRACT: The amperometric glucose biosensors based on adsorbed electron transfer mediator (ETM) tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) or 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PD) and glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger (GOx A.niger ), Penicillium adametzii (GOx P.adametzii ) or Penicillium funiculosum (GOx P.funiculosum ) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were investigated. ETM and enzyme were immobilized layer by layer on bare graphite rod electrode (GR) premodified with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) of (i) 3.5 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP 3.5 /GR), (ii) 6.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP 6.0 /GR) and (iii) 13.0 nm (GOx/ETM/AuNP 13.0 /GR) size. The amperometric signals for all the developed biosensors were higher using PD in comparison with TTF. The biosensor based on GOx P.funiculosum showed higher analytical signal to glucose in a comparison to biosensors based on GOx A.niger and GOx P.adametzii . The registered current to glucose using GOx P.funiculosum /PD/AuNP 3.5 /GR electrode was linear in the glucose range from 0.1 to 10.0 mmol L −1 and the limit of detection was 0.024 mmol L −1 . Enzymatical synthesis of polypyrrole (Ppy) layer on the electrode was applied in order to expand the linear glucose detection range. After 22 h of polymerization the amperometric signal was linear in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 25.0 mmol L −1 , while after 69 h this rage was increased up to 50.0 mmol L −1 . Additionally Ppy layer on the electrode surface reduced the influence of interfering species on the amperometric signal. The performance of developed biosensor was investigated in human serum samples

  17. Amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube modified electrode with electropolymerized poly(toluidine blue O) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenju; Wang Fang; Yao Yanli; Hu Shengshui; Shiu, Kwok-Keung

    2010-01-01

    The amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor utilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized in poly(toluidine blue O) (PTBO) film was constructed on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode. The HRP layer could be used to analyze hydrogen peroxide with toluidine blue O (TBO) mediators, while the bienzyme system (HRP + GOx) could be utilized for glucose determination. Glucose underwent biocatalytic oxidation by GOx in the presence of oxygen to yield H 2 O 2 which was further reduced by HRP at the MWNT-modified electrode with TBO mediators. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeded with electron transfer between GOx and the electrode mediated by TBO moieties without H 2 O 2 production. The bienzyme electrode offered high sensitivity for amperometric determination of glucose at low potential, displaying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bienzyme glucose biosensor displayed linear response from 0.1 to 1.2 mM with a sensitivity of 113 mA M -1 cm -2 at an applied potential of -0.10 V in air-saturated electrolytes.

  18. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoyan; Hou, Shihua; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Cong; Ji, Yanhong

    2015-09-18

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD)₄/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01-8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  19. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembling Gold Nanorods and Glucose Oxidase onto Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized Sol-Gel Matrix for an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs and glucose oxidase (GOD onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-functionalized three-dimensional sol-gel matrix. A thiolated aqueous silica sol containing SWCNTs was first assembled on the surface of a cleaned Au electrode, and then the alternate self-assembly of AuNRs and GOD were repeated to assemble multilayer films of AuNRs-GOD onto SWCNTs-functionalized silica gel for optimizing the biosensor. Among the resulting glucose biosensors, the four layers of AuNRs-GOD-modified electrode showed the best performance. The sol-SWCNTs-(AuNRs- GOD4/Au biosensor exhibited a good linear range of 0.01–8 mM glucose, high sensitivity of 1.08 μA/mM, and fast amperometric response within 4 s. The good performance of the proposed glucose biosensor could be mainly attributed to the advantages of the three-dimensional sol-gel matrix and stereo self-assembly films, and the natural features of one-dimensional nanostructure SWCNTs and AuNRs. This study may provide a new facile way to fabricate the enzyme-based biosensor with high performance.

  20. A novel, disposable, screen-printed amperometric biosensor for glucose in serum fabricated using a water-based carbon ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-11-15

    Screen-printed amperometric glucose biosensors have been fabricated using a water-based carbon ink. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) and the electro-catalyst cobalt phthalocyanine were mixed with the carbon ink prior to the screen-printing process; therefore, biosensors are prepared in a one-step fabrication procedure. Optimisation of the biosensor performance was achieved by studying the effects of pH, buffer strength, and applied potential on the analytical response. Calibration studies were performed under optimum conditions, using amperometry in stirred solution, with an operating potential of +500 mV versus SCE. The sensitivity was found to be 1170 nA mM(-1), with a linear range of 0.025-2 mM; the former represents the detection limit. The disposable amperometric biosensor was evaluated by carrying out replicate determinations on a sample of bovine serum. This was achieved by the method of multiple standard additions and included a correction for background currents arising from oxidizable serum components. The mean serum concentration was calculated to be 8.63 mM and compared well with the supplier's value of 8.3 mM; the coefficient of variation was calculated to be 3.3% (n=6).

  1. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Amperometric biosensor based on carbon nanotubes coated with polyaniline/dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lihuan; Zhu Yihua; Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong

    2009-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on the nanocomposites of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated with polyaniline (PANI) and dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) is prepared. CNT coated with protonated PANI is in situ synthesized and Pt-DENs is absorbed on PANI/CNT composite surface by self-assembly method. Then Glucose oxidase (GOx) is crosslink-immobilizated onto Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT composite film. The results show that the fabricated GOx/Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT electrode exhibits excellent response performance to glucose, such as low detection limit (0.5 μM), wide linear range (1 μM-12 mM), short response time (about 5 s), high sensitivity (42.0 μA mM -1 cm -2 ) and stability (83% remains after 3 weeks).

  3. Enhanced amperometric response of a glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase based bienzyme glucose biosensor modified with a film of polymerized toluidine blue containing reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Gong, Wencheng; Wang, Lili; Chen, Zilin

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was used to construct a bienzyme biosensor containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx). A poly(toluidine blue) (pTB) film containing RGO acted as both enzyme immobilization matrix and electron transfer mediator. The bienzyme biosensor was characterized by electrochemical techniques and displays a highly sensitive amperometric response to glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at a potential as low as −0.1 V (vs. SCE). It is shown that use of RGO causes a strong enhancement on the amperometric responses. H 2 O 2 formed by the action of GOx in the presence of oxygen can be further reduced by HRP in the pTB film contacting the RGO modified electrode. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeds by another mechanism in which electron transfer occurs from GOx to the electrode and with pTB acting as the mediator. Amperometric responses to glucose and H2O2 follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The experimental conditions were optimized, and under these conditions glucose can be determined in the 80 μM to 3.0 mM range with a detection limit of 50 μM. H 2 O 2 , in turn, can be quantified in up to 30.0 μM concentration with a detection limit of 0.2 μM. The bienzyme biosensor is reproducible, repeatable and stable. Finally, it has been successfully applied to the determination of glucose in plasma samples. (author)

  4. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of mn doped ZnO nanopencils for development of amperometric glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Agrawal, Jitesh; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2018-05-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanopencils were synthesized via low temperature hydrothermal process for fabrication of enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The KMnO4 was found to play a dual role in modifying morphology and inducing Mn doping. Interestingly, two different types of morphologies viz nanorods and nanopencils along with Mn doping in the later were obtained. Incorporation of Mn has shown a tremendous effect on the morphological variations, repression of defects and electrochemical charge transfer at electrode electrolyte interface. The possible reason behind obtained morphological changes has been proposed which in turn were responsible for the improvement in the different figure of merits of as fabricated enzymatic electrochemical biosensor. There has been a 17 fold enhancement in the sensitivity of the as fabricated glucose biosensor from ZnO nanorods to Mn doped ZnO nanopencils which can be attributed to morphological variation and Mn doping.

  5. Flow-injection amperometric determination of glucose using a biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase onto Au seeds decorated on core Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphao, Anchalee; Butmee, Preeyanut; Jitcharoen, Juthamas; Švorc, Ľubomír; Raber, Georg; Kalcher, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on chemisorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) on Au seeds decorated on magnetic core Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au) and their immobilization on screen-printed carbon electrode bulk-modified with manganese oxide (SPCE{MnO2}) was designed for the determination of glucose. The Fe3O4@Au/GOx modified SPCE{MnO2} was used in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) arrangement. The experimental conditions were investigated in amperometric mode with the following optimized parameters: flow rate 1.7 mL min(-1), applied potential +0.38 V, phosphate buffer solution (PBS; 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 7.0) as carrier and 3.89 unit mm(-2) enzyme glucose oxidase loading on the active surface of the SPCE. The designed biosensor in FIA arrangement yielded a linear dynamic range for glucose from 0.2 to 9.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 2.52 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.1 mmol L(-1) and a quantification limit of 0.3 mmol L(-1). Moreover, a good repeatability of 2.8% (number of measurements n=10) and a sufficient reproducibility of 4.0% (number of sensors n=3) were achieved. It was found that the studied system Fe3O4@Au facilitated not only a simpler enzyme immobilization but also provided wider linear range. The practical application of the proposed biosensor for FIA quantification of glucose was tested in glucose sirup samples, honeys and energy drinks with the results in good accordance with those obtained by an optical glucose meter and with the contents declared by the producers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A new amperometric glucose biosensor based on screen printed carbon electrodes with rhenium(IV - oxide as a mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBANA VESELI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhenium(IV-oxide, ReO2, was used as a mediator for carbon paste (CPE and screen printed carbon (SPCE electrodes for the catalytic amperometric determination of hydro-gen peroxide, whose overpotential for the reduction could be lowered to -0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl in flow injection analysis (FIA using phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH=7.5 as a carrier. For hydrogen peroxide a detection limit (3σ of 0.8 mg L-1 could be obtained.ReO2-modified SPCEs were used to design biosensors with a template enzyme, i.e. glucose oxidase, entrapped in a Nafion membrane. The resulting glucose sensor showed a linear dynamic range up to 200 mg L-1 glucose with a detection limit (3σ of 0.6 mg L-1. The repeatability was 2.1 % RSD (n = 5 measurements, the reproducibility 5.4 % (n = 5 sensors. The sensor could be applied for the determination of glucose in blood serum in good agreement with a reference method.

  7. Amperometric detection of glucose in fruit juices with polypyrrole-based biosensor with an integrated permselective layer for exclusion of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-08-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor. The biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility (1.9% rsd, n=10), high stability (more than 2months), wide linear range (0.5-24mM), low K m (8.4mM), high I max (77.2μAcm -2 ), low detection limit (26.9μM) and good sensitivity (3.5μAcm -2 mM -1 ). The bilayer biosensor was successfully employed for glucose determination in various fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amperometric, screen-printed, glucose biosensor for analysis of human plasma samples using a biocomposite water-based carbon ink incorporating glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Eric; Cowell, David C; Hoskins, Stephen; Pittson, Robin W; Hart, John P

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the optimisation of a screen-printing water-based carbon ink containing cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and glucose oxidase (GOD) for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. To optimise the performance of the biosensor, the loadings of the electrocatalyst (CoPC) and enzyme (GOD) were varied. It was found that the maximum linear range was achieved with a CoPC loading of 20% (m/m, relative to the mass of carbon) and a GOD loading of 628 U per gram of carbon. In our studies we chose to employ chronoamperometry, as this technique is commonly used for commercial devices. The optimum operating applied potential was found to be +0.5 V, following an incubation period of 60 s. The optimum supporting electrolyte was found to be 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, which resulted in a linear range of 0.2-5 mM, the former represents the detection limit. The sensitivity was 1.12 microA mM(-1). The effect of temperature was also investigated, and it was found that 40 degrees C gave optimal performance. The resulting amperometric biosensors were evaluated by measuring the glucose concentrations for 10 different human plasma samples containing endogenous glucose and also added glucose. The same samples were analysed by a standard spectrophotometric method, and the results obtained by the two different methods were compared. A good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.95) and slope (0.98) were calculated from the experimental data, indicating that the new devices hold promise for biomedical studies.

  9. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  10. Development of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on the Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on the Se-MCM-41 Mesoporous Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Yusan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new bioenzymatic glucose biosensor for selective and sensitive detection of glucose was developed by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD onto selenium nanoparticle-mesoporous silica composite (MCM-41 matrix and then prepared as a carbon paste electrode (CPE. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to probe the catalytic behavior of the biosensor. A linear calibration plot is obtained over a wide concentration range of glucose from 1 × 10−5 to 2 × 10−3 M. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor exhibits high sensitivity (0.34 µA·mM−1, low detection limit (1 × 10−4 M, high affinity to glucose (Km = 0.02 mM, and also good reproducibility (R.S.D. 2.8%, n=10 and a stability of about ten days when stored dry at +4°C. Besides, the effects of pH value, scan rate, mediator effects on the glucose current, and electroactive interference of the biosensor were also discussed. As a result, the biosensor exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to glucose as well as unique stability and reproducibility.

  11. Elaboration of new method of enzyme adsorption on silicalite and nano beta zeolite for amperometric biosensor creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatkin O. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Optimization of a new method of enzyme immobilization for amperometric biosensor creation. Methods. The amperometric biosensor with glucose oxidase immobilized on zeolites as bioselective elements and platinum disk electrode as transducers of biochemical signal into the electric one was used in the work. Results. The biosensors based on glucose oxidase adsorbed on zeolites were characterized by a higher sensitivity to glucose and a better inter-reproducibility. The best analytical characteristics were obtained for the biosensors based on nano beta zeolite. It has been found that an increase in the amount of zeolite on the surface of amperometric transducer may change such biosensor parameters as sensitivity to the substrate and duration of the analysis. Conclusions. The proposed method of enzyme immobilization by adsorption on zeolites is shown to be quite promising in the development of amperometric biosensors and therefore should be further investigated.

  12. Design of Amperometric Biosensors for the Detection of Glucose Prepared by Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on Conducting (PolyThiophene Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-based sensors have emerged as important analytical tools with application in diverse fields, and biosensors for the detection of glucose using the enzyme glucose oxidase have been widely investigated. In this work, the preparation of biosensors by electrochemical polymerization of (polythiophenes, namely 2,2′-bithiophene (2,2′-BT and 4,4′-bis(2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol-2,2′-bithiophene (4,4′-bBT, followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase on the films, is described. N-cyclohexyl-N′-(2-morpholinoethylcarbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate (CMC was used as a condensing agent, and p-benzoquinone (BQ was used as a redox mediator in solution. The glucose oxidase electrodes with films of 2,2′-BT and 4,4′-bBT were then tested for their ability in detecting glucose from synthetic and real samples (pear, apricot, and peach fruit juices.

  13. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of

  14. Reagent-less amperometric glucose biosensor based on a graphite rod electrode layer-by-layer modified with 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione and glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Simanaityte, Ruta; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Glumbokaite, Laura; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2017-08-15

    A reagent-less amperometric glucose biosensor operating in not-stirred sample solution was developed. A working electrode of the designed biosensor was based on a graphite rod (GR) electrode, which was modified with 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PD) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The PD and the GOx were layer-by-layer adsorbed on the GR electrode surface with subsequent drying followed by chemical cross-linking of the adsorbed GOx with glutaraldehyde (GA). Optimal preparation conditions of the working electrode (GR/PD/GOx) were achieved with 12.6μg and 0.24mg loading amount of PD and GOx, respectively and 25min lasting cross-linking of the GOx with GA. A current response to glucose of the GR/PD/GOx electrode was measured at +200mV potential vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Maximum current response was registered when the pH of the buffer solution was 6.0. The registered current response to glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.1-76mmolL -1 (R 2 =0.9985) and a detection limit was 0.025mmolL -1 . The GR/PD/GOx electrode demonstrated good reproducibility and repeatability with the relative standard deviation of 6.2% and 1.8% (at 4.0mmolL -1 of glucose), respectively, high anti-interference ability to uric and ascorbic acids. It was highly selective to glucose and demonstrated good accuracy in the analysis of human serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10−5to 1 × 10−2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis–Menten constantkm and the maximum current densityi maxof the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm−2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  16. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos; de Vries, M.G.; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P.E.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will

  17. Determination of Different Saccharides Concentration by Means of a Multienzymes Amperometric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Portaccio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-electrode amperometric biosensor for the detection of two different saccharides (lactose and glucose in aqueous solutions is described. On the graphite working electrode, the glucose oxidase (GOD and β-galactosidase (β-gal were coimmobilized by means of covalent bonding. The response of the biosensor as a function of the relative concentration of the two immobilized enzymes was investigated and the best working conditions were identified by measuring the sensitivity and the linear range response. In particular, our best lactose biosensor shows a linear range up to 0.010 mM and a limit of detection (LOD and a sensitivity equal to 0.001 mM and 850 ± 81 μA/mM, respectively. For glucose, the values of the above-mentioned parameters are equal to 0.015 mM for the linear range, 0.001 mM for LOD, and 505 ± 55 μA/mM for the sensitivity. The working parameters of our biosensors are significant in comparison with other biosensors developed for concentration determination of the two saccharides investigated in the present work. In particular, low (LOD and high sensitivities are obtained for lactose and glucose. To challenge our biosensor with real samples, it was tested using fruit juices, skim milk, and whey.

  18. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensor Used for Synergistic Substrates Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Simelevicius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operation of an amperometric biosensor producing a chemically amplified signal is modelled numerically. The chemical amplification is achieved by using synergistic substrates. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on the electrode surface, a dialysis membrane covering the enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer which is modelled by the Nernst approach. The equation system is solved numerically by using the finite difference technique. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by altering the model parameters influencing the enzyme kinetics as well as the mass transport by diffusion. The biosensor action was analyzed with a special emphasis to the effect of the chemical amplification. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed effect of the synergistic substrates conversion on the biosensor response.

  19. Evaluation of permselective membranes for optimization of intracerebral amperometric glutamate biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahono, N.; Qin, S.; Oomen, P.; Cremers, T. I. F.; de Vries, M. G.; Westerink, B. H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of extracellular brain glutamate concentrations by intracerebral biosensors is a promising approach to further investigate the role of this important neurotransmitter. However, amperometric biosensors are typically hampered by Faradaic interference caused by the presence of other

  20. Parallel synthesis of libraries of anodic and cathodic functionalized electrodeposition paints as immobilization matrix for amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngounou, Bertrand; Aliyev, Elchin H; Guschin, Dmitrii A; Sultanov, Yusif M; Efendiev, Ayaz A; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    The integration of flexible anchoring groups bearing imidazolyl or pyridyl substituents into the structure of electrodeposition paints (EDP) is the basis for the parallel synthesis of a library containing 107 members of different cathodic and anodic EDPs with a high variation in polymer properties. The obtained EDPs were used as immobilization matrix for biosensor fabrication using glucose oxidase as a model enzyme. Amperometric glucose sensors based on the different EDPs showed a wide variation in their sensor characteristics with respect to the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) representing the linear measuring range and the maximum current (Imax(app)). Based on these results first assumptions concerning the impact of different side chains in the EDP on the expected biosensor properties could be obtained allowing for an improved rational optimization of EDPs used as immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensors.

  1. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by enzyme amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of the procedure of ethanol determination in wine by an enzyme amperometric biosensor. Methods. The amperometric biosensor method of ethanol analysis has been used in this work. Results. The paper presents comparative analysis of two methods of alcohol oxidase (AO immobilization for development of amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination in wine. The method of AO immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour was chosen as optimal for this purpose. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by amperometric biosensor on the basis of platinum printed electrode SensLab and AO was optimized. The analysis of ethanol concentration in wine and must samples was carried out using the developed high-stable biosensor. A good correlation between the data obtained by the biosensor and densitometry methods was shown. Conclusion. The proposed method of ethanol analysis could be used in wine production

  2. Alginate copper oxide nano-biocomposite as a novel material for amperometric glucose biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buk, Vuslat; Emregul, Emel; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy

    2017-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on alginate-CuO nano-biocomposite and glucose oxidase (GOD) film was developed and characterized. The properties of the alginate-CuO-GOD film were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric measurements were employed to characterize the analytical performance of the biosensor. Several parameters including amount of alginate, concentration of GOD and cross-linkers, amount of CuO nanoparticles, and effect of pH were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the developed alginate-CuO-GOD biosensor was shown to have two linear ranges; from 0.04 mM to 3 mM (with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 and the sensitivity of 30.443 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) and from 4 mM to 35 mM (with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and the sensitivity of 7.205 μA mM −1 cm −2 ). The overall detection limit was estimated to be 1.6 μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and the K m value of 2.82 mM. The biosensor exhibited rather good performance with long-term stability (remainder of activity is 78% after 15 days) and significant specificity for glucose when compared to possible interfering molecules such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. - Highlights: • An amperometric biosensor was constructed by using Alginate-CuO nano-biocomposite complexed with Glucose Oxidase • Glucose Oxidase immobilized to the surface via cross-linking. • Alginate-CuO film was characterized by SEM and FTIR. • The biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance to glucose with a wide linear range and high sensitivity.

  3. Alginate copper oxide nano-biocomposite as a novel material for amperometric glucose biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buk, Vuslat [Ankara University, Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Emregul, Emel, E-mail: eemregul@yahoo.com [Ankara University, Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy [Ankara University, Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Tandoğan, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2017-05-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on alginate-CuO nano-biocomposite and glucose oxidase (GOD) film was developed and characterized. The properties of the alginate-CuO-GOD film were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric measurements were employed to characterize the analytical performance of the biosensor. Several parameters including amount of alginate, concentration of GOD and cross-linkers, amount of CuO nanoparticles, and effect of pH were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the developed alginate-CuO-GOD biosensor was shown to have two linear ranges; from 0.04 mM to 3 mM (with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 and the sensitivity of 30.443 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and from 4 mM to 35 mM (with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 and the sensitivity of 7.205 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}). The overall detection limit was estimated to be 1.6 μM (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and the K{sub m} value of 2.82 mM. The biosensor exhibited rather good performance with long-term stability (remainder of activity is 78% after 15 days) and significant specificity for glucose when compared to possible interfering molecules such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. - Highlights: • An amperometric biosensor was constructed by using Alginate-CuO nano-biocomposite complexed with Glucose Oxidase • Glucose Oxidase immobilized to the surface via cross-linking. • Alginate-CuO film was characterized by SEM and FTIR. • The biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance to glucose with a wide linear range and high sensitivity.

  4. [Amperometric biosensor for ethanol analysis in wines and grape must during wine fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, L V; Slast'ia, E A; Zhyliakova, T A; Soldatkin, O P; Schuhmann, W; Dziadevych, S V

    2005-01-01

    The amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination based on alcohol oxidase immobilised by the method of electrochemical polymerization has been developed. The industrial screen-printed platinum electrodes were used as transducers for creation of amperometric alcohol biosensor. Optimal conditions for electrochemical deposition of an active membrane with alcohol oxidase has been determined. Biosensors are characterised by good reproducibility and operational stability with minimal detection limit of ethanol 8 x 10(-5) M. The good correlation of results for ethanol detection in wine and during wine fermentation by using the developed amperometric biosensor with the data obtained by the standard methods was shown (r = 0.995).

  5. Design of nanostructured-based glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirisetty, Archana; Williams, Frances; Pradhan, Aswini; Konda, Rajini B.; Dondapati, Hareesh; Samantaray, Diptirani

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of glucose sensors that will be integrated with advanced nano-materials, bio-coatings and electronics to create novel devices that are highly sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable. In the work presented, a glucose biosensor and its fabrication process flow have been designed. The device is based on electrochemical sensing using a working electrode with bio-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods. Among all metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO nano-materials play a significant role as a sensing element in biosensors due to their properties such as high isoelectric point (IEP), fast electron transfer, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and chemical stability which are very crucial parameters to achieve high sensitivity. Amperometric enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase (GOx) are used due to their stability and high selectivity to glucose. The device also consists of silicon dioxide and titanium layers as well as platinum working and counter electrodes and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. Currently, the biosensors are being fabricated using the process flow developed. Once completed, the sensors will be bio-functionalized and tested to characterize their performance, including their sensitivity and stability.

  6. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  7. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K 3 Fe(CN) 6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  8. Amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue for glucose determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Al-Issa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue is reported for glucose determination that contains eight sensor electrodes constructed using different metal electrodes (Pt, Au, oxidoreductase enzymes (glucose oxidase, ascorbate oxidase, uricase, and membrane coatings (Nafion, chitosan. The response to varying concentrations of glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen was tested for two models, concentration determination by current density measurements at individual electrodes and concentration determination by a linear regression model for the entire electrode array. The reduced chi-squared for the full array model was found to be about one order of magnitude lower than that for the individual-electrode model. Discrimination of glucose from chemical interference by the other three species is accomplished through a combination of enzyme catalysis, metal electrocatalysis, and membrane surface charge. The benefit of incorporating enzyme electrodes into the sensor array is illustrated by the lower correlation coefficients between different enzyme electrodes relative to non-enzyme coated electrodes. This approach can be more generally applied to detection of other substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes.

  9. Construction of ferrocene modified conducting polymer based amperometric urea biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Dervisevic, Esma; Senel, Mehmet; Cevik, Emre; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Camurlu, Pınar

    2017-07-01

    Herein, an electrochemical urea sensing bio-electrode is reported that has been constructed by firstly electropolymerizing 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline monomer (SNS-Aniline) on Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE), then modifying the polymer coated electrode surface with di-amino-Ferrocene (DAFc) as the mediator, and lastly Urease enzyme through glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The effect of pH, temperature, polymer thickness, and applied potential on the electrode current response was investigated besides performing storage and operational stability experiments with the interference studies. The resulting urea biosensor's amperometric response was linear in the range of 0.1-8.5mM with the sensitivity of 0.54μA/mM, detection limit of 12μM, and short response time of 2s. The designed bio-electrode was tested with real human blood and urine samples where it showed excellent analytical performance with insignificant interference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reengineered glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose determination in diabetes analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Gutierrez, Erik; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Meier, Thomas; Duefel, Hartmut; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-12-15

    Glucose oxidase is an oxidoreductase exhibiting a high β-D-glucose specificity and high stability which renders glucose oxidase well-suited for applications in diabetes care. Nevertheless, GOx activity is highly oxygen dependent which can lead to inaccuracies in amperometric β-D-glucose determinations. Therefore a directed evolution campaign with two rounds of random mutagenesis (SeSaM followed by epPCR), site saturation mutagenesis studies on individual positions, and one simultaneous site saturation library (OmniChange; 4 positions) was performed. A diabetes care well suited mediator (quinone diimine) was selected and the GOx variant (T30V I94V) served as starting point. For directed GOx evolution a microtiter plate detection system based on the quinone diimine mediator was developed and the well-known ABTS-assay was applied in microtiter plate format to validate oxygen independency of improved GOx variants. Two iterative rounds of random diversity generation and screening yielded to two subsets of amino acid positions which mainly improved activity (A173, A332) and oxygen independency (F414, V560). Simultaneous site saturation of all four positions with a reduced subset of amino acids using the OmniChange method yielded finally variant V7 with a 37-fold decreased oxygen dependency (mediator activity: 7.4 U/mg WT, 47.5 U/mg V7; oxygen activity: 172.3 U/mg WT, 30.1 U/mg V7). V7 is still highly β-D-glucose specific, highly active with the quinone diimine mediator and thermal resistance is retained (prerequisite for GOx coating of diabetes test stripes). The latter properties and V7's oxygen insensitivity make V7 a very promising candidate to replace standard GOx in diabetes care applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C A; de Vries, M G; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P E; Cremers, T I F H; Westerink, B H C

    2015-05-15

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will provide better understanding of brain energy metabolism and its role in neuropathologies such as diabetes, ischemia, and epilepsy. We have developed and characterized an implantable multiplex microbiosensor device (MBD) for simultaneous and continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. First, we developed and characterized amperometric microbiosensors for monitoring lactate and pyruvate. In vitro evaluation allowed us to choose the most suitable biosensors for incorporation into the MBD, along with glucose and background biosensors. Fully assembled MBDs were characterized in vitro. The calculated performance parameters (LOD, LR, LRS, IMAX and appKM) showed that the multiplex MBD was highly selective and sensitive (LRS≥100 nA/mM) for each analyte and within an adequate range for in vivo application. Finally, MBDs were implanted in the mPFC of anesthetized adult male Wistar rats for in vivo evaluation. Following an equilibration period, baseline brain levels of glucose (1.3±0.2 mM), lactate (1.5±0.4 mM) and pyruvate (0.3±0.1 mM) were established. Subsequently, the MBDs recorded the responses of the animals when submitted to hyperglycemic (40% glucose i.v.) and hypoglycemic (5 U/kg insulin i.v.) challenges. Afterwards, MBDs were recalibrated to convert electrochemical readings into accurate substrate concentrations and to assess biofouling. The presented MBD can monitor simultaneously multiple biomarkers in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing amperometric biosensor sensitivity by length fractionated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Federico; Gorton, Lo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    In this work the sensitivity-increasing effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in amperometric biosensors, depending on their average length distribution, was studied. For this purpose the SWCNTs were oxidatively shortened and subsequently length separated by size exclusion...

  13. A novel glucose biosensor based on phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of glucose in real samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wenbo; Fang, Yi; Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Kuai; Liu, Min; Huang, Xiaohua; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preparation amperometric biosensor by using the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs) as special modified materials is proposed. In such a strategy, glucose oxidase (GOD) was selected as model protein to fabricate glucose biosensor in the presence of phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs). The PFSi NPs were first modified on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode, then, GOD was adsorbed onto the PFSi NPs film by drop-coating. The PFSi NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The interaction of PFSi NPs with GOD was investigated by the circular dicroism spectroscopy (CD). The results showed PFSi NPs could essentially maintain the native conformation of GOD. The direct electron transfer of GOD on (PFSi NPs)/GCE electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. The proposed biosensor modified with PFSi NPs displayed a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current–time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 5.00 × 10 −4 to 1.87 × 10 −1 M, and a low detection limit of 2.44 × 10 −5 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor can be used for assessment of the concentration of glucose in many real samples (relative error < 3%). The GOD biosensor modified with PFSi NPs will have essential meaning and practical application in future that attributed to the simple method of fabrication and good performance

  14. Influence of different nanoparticles on electrochemical behavior of glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenkova, R. D.; Ivanov, Y. L.; Godjevargova, T. I.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of nanosized particles on the glucose oxidase loading and the performance of amperometric glucose bionsensors were studied. Four enzyme electrodes (Pt/PAN/GOD, Pt/PAN/NZ/GOD, Pt/PAN/NZ/MNP/GOD, Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD) were prepared by cross-linking of glucose oxidase (GOD) on nanocomposite material. Nanocomposites were prepared by entrapping nanozeolite (NZ), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) film. Cyclic voltammetric kinetic studies have been carried out with the four biosensors and the surface concentration of the adsorbed electroactive species on the electrodes was estimated. The highest enzyme concentration on the electrode surface corresponded to the electrodes prepared by nanozeolite separate (Pt/PAN/NZ/GOD) and combined with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD). The sensitivity of these two biosensors was the highest and that is in accordance with the greater amount of the adsorbed electroactive species on the electrodes (0.373 mol.cm-2). This was indication that a good synergistic effect happened when MWNTs and NZ were combined and these greatly improve the electron transfer ability of the sensor interface. Amperometric measurement of the two glucose oxidase electrodes (Pt/PAN/NZ/GOD and Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD) with best results was carried out. The linear concentration interval of the Pt/PAN/NZ/MWNT/GOD biosensor was up to 3 mM, the detection limit - 0.02 mM glucose and the storage stability - 81% of its initial current response after 30 days.

  15. Biosensor-based analyser. Measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate and alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.T. Jr. (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes an instrument, the YSI 2700, for the measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate, and alcohol by means of biosensors. Each biosensor consists of an amperometric, hydrogen peroxide sensitive electrode combined with an immobilized oxidase enzyme trapped between two membranes. Each biosensor differs from the others only in its enzyme layer. The instrument can be used to measure these analytes in complex sample matrices; often directly, e.g. in whole blood and fermentations, after dilution with water, e.g. in molasses and corn syrup, or after extraction into water, e.g. in cheese and cereal products. (orig.).

  16. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized at gold nanoparticles decorated graphene-carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Huang, Tsung-Tao; Lin, Chun-Mao; Hwa, Kuo-Yuan; Chen, Ting-Yo; Chen, Bo-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Biopolymer pectin stabilized gold nanoparticles were prepared at graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWNTs/AuNPs) and employed for the determination of glucose. The formation of GR-MWNTs/AuNPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy methods. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was successfully immobilized on GR-MWNTs/AuNPs film and direct electron transfer of GOx was investigated. GOx exhibits highly enhanced redox peaks with formal potential of -0.40 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The amount of electroactive GOx and electron transfer rate constant were found to be 10.5 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 3.36 s(-1), respectively, which were significantly larger than the previous reports. The fabricated amperometric glucose biosensor sensitively detects glucose and showed two linear ranges: (1) 10 μM - 2 mM with LOD of 4.1 μM, (2) 2 mM - 5.2 mM with LOD of 0.95 mM. The comparison of the biosensor performance with reported sensors reveals the significant improvement in overall sensor performance. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability, reproducibility and practicality. The other advantages of the fabricated biosensor are simple and green fabrication approach, roughed and stable electrode surface, fast in sensing and highly reproducible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Amperometric biosensor for lactate analysis in wine and must during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shkotova , L.V.; Goriushkina , T.B.; Tran-Minh , Canh; Chovelon , Jean-Marc; Soldatkin , A.P.; Dzyadevych , S.V.

    2008-01-01

    MADICA 2006 Conference, Fifth Maghreb-Europe Meeting on Materials and their Applicatons for Devices and Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors, MADICA 2006 Conference, Fifth Maghreb-Europe Meeting on Materials and their Applicatons for Devices and Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors; International audience; A lactate oxidase-based amperometric biosensor is designed for lactate determination. Two methods of lactate oxidase immobilization on the surface of commercial SensLab platinum p...

  18. [Amperometric biosensor for lactate analysis in wines and grape must during fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkotova, L V; Horiushkina, T B; Slast'ia, E A; Soldatkin, O P; Tranh-Minh, S; Chovelon, J M; Dziadevych, S V

    2005-01-01

    The amperometric biosensor based on lactate oxidase for determination of lactate has been developed, and two methods of immobilization of lactate oxidase on the surface of industrial screen-printed platinum electrodes SensLab were compared. A sensor with immobilized in the Resydrol polymer lactate oxidase by the method of physical adsorption is characterized of narrow dynamic range and greater response value in comparison with a biosensor based on immobilised in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) lactate oxidase by the method of electrochemical polymerization. Operational stability of the biosensor developed was studied and it was shown, that the immobilization method does not influence their stability. The analysis of the lactate in wine and during wine fermentation has been conducted. High correlation of the data obtained by means of amperometric lactate biosensor and a standard method of an ionic chromatography has been shown. The developed biosensor could be applied in the food industry for the control and optimization of the wine fermentation process, and quality control of wine.

  19. Amperometric Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Application in Food and Beverage Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöoregi, Elisabeth; Gáspñr, Szilveszter; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mattiasson, Bo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    Continuous, sensitive, selective, and reliable monitoring of a large variety of different compounds in various food and beverage samples is of increasing importance to assure a high-quality and tracing of any possible source of contamination of food and beverages. Most of the presently used classical analytical methods are often requiring expensive instrumentation, long analysis times and well-trained staff. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors on the other hand have emerged in the last decade from basic science to useful tools with very promising application possibilities in food and beverage industry. Amperometric biosensors are in general highly selective, sensitive, relatively cheap, and easy to integrate into continuous analysis systems. A successful application of such sensors for industrial purposes, however, requires a sensor design, which satisfies the specific needs of monitoring the targeted analyte in the particular application, Since each individual application needs different operational conditions and sensor characteristics, it is obvious that biosensors have to be tailored for the particular case. The characteristics of the biosensors are depending on the used biorecognition element (enzyme), nature of signal transducer (electrode material) and the communication between these two elements (electron-transfer pathway).

  20. Thick-film textile-based amperometric sensors and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang-Li; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Lou, Shyh-Liang; Wang, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The incorporation of amperometric sensors into clothing through direct screen-printing onto the textile substrate is described. Particular attention is given to electrochemical sensors printed directly on the elastic waist of underwear that offers tight direct contact with the skin. The textile-based printed carbon electrodes have a well-defined appearance with relatively smooth conductor edges and no apparent defects or cracks. Convenient voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements of 0-3 mM ferrocyanide, 0-25 mM hydrogen peroxide, and 0-100 muM NADH have been documented. The favorable electrochemical behavior is maintained under folding or stretching stress, relevant to the deformation of clothing. The electrochemical performance and tolerance to mechanical stress are influenced by the physical characteristics of the textile substrate. The results indicate the potential of textile-based screen-printed amperometric sensors for future healthcare, sport or military applications. Such future applications would benefit from tailoring the ink composition and printing conditions to meet the specific requirements of the textile substrate.

  1. Influence of aspect ratio and surface defect density on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods towards amperometric glucose biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Dixit, Tejendra; Prakash, Rajiv; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrothermally grown ZnO Nanorods Array (ZNA) has been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate, for biosensing applications. In-situ addition of strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth was found to have profound effect on the physical properties of ZNA. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was later immobilized over ZNA by means of physical adsorption process. Further influence of varying aspect ratio, enzyme loading and surface defects on amperometric glucose biosensor has been analyzed. Significant variation in biosensor performance was observed by varying the amount of KMnO4 addition during the growth. Moreover, investigations revealed that the suppression of surface defects and aspect ratio variation of the ZNA played key role towards the observed improvement in the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and response time of the fabricated biosensor. Among different biosensors fabricated having varied aspect ratio and surface defect density of ZNA, the best electrode resulted into sensitivity and response time to be 18.7 mA cm-2 M-1 and <5 s respectively. The observed results revealed that apart from high aspect ratio nanostructures and the extent of enzyme loading, surface defect density also hold a key towards ZnO nanostructures based bio-sensing applications.

  2. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  3. Glucose oxidase-modified carbon-felt-reactor coupled with peroxidase-modified carbon-felt-detector for amperometric flow determination of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yue; Hasebe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were covalently immobilized on a porous carbon-felt (CF) by using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a linking reagent. The resulting GOx-modified-CF (GOx-ccCF) was used as column-type enzyme reactor and placed on upstream of the HRP-ccCF-based H 2 O 2 flow-detector to fabricate amperometric flow-biosensor for glucose. Sensor setting conditions and the operational conditions were optimized, and the analytical performance characteristics of the resulting flow-biosensor were evaluated. The chemical modification of the GOx via CC was found to be effective to obtain larger catalytic activity as compared with the physical adsorption. Under the optimized conditions (i.e., volume ratio of the GOx-ccCF-reactor to the HRP-ccCF-detector is 1.0; applied potential is − 0.12 V vs. Ag/AgCl; carrier pH is 6.5; and carrier flow rate is 4.3 ml/min), highly selective and quite reproducible peak current responses toward glucose were obtained: the RSD for 30 consecutive injections of 3 mM glucose was 1.04%, and no serious interferences were observed for fructose, ethanol, uric acid, urea and tartaric acid for the amperometric measurements of glucose. The magnitude of the cathodic peak currents for glucose was linear up to 5 mM (sensitivity, 6.38 ± 0.32 μA/μM) with the limit detection of 9.4 μM (S/N = 3, noise level, 20 nA). The present GOx-ccCF-reactor and HRP-ccCF-detector-coupled flow-glucose biosensor was utilized for the determination of glucose in beverages and liquors, and the analytical results by the sensor were in fairly good agreement with those by the conventional spectrophotometry. - Highlights: ► Glucose oxidase (GOx) and peroxidase (HRP) were modified on carbon-felt. ► GOx-CF reactor and HRP-CF detector-coupled flow glucose biosensor was developed. ► This flow biosensor enabled the determination of glucose in beverages and liquors.

  4. Glucose oxidase-modified carbon-felt-reactor coupled with peroxidase-modified carbon-felt-detector for amperometric flow determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yue [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology LiaoNing, 185 Qianshan Middle Road, High-tech Zone, Anshan, LiaoNing, 114501 (China); Hasebe, Yasushi, E-mail: hasebe@sit.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Green Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690, Fusaiji, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were covalently immobilized on a porous carbon-felt (CF) by using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a linking reagent. The resulting GOx-modified-CF (GOx-ccCF) was used as column-type enzyme reactor and placed on upstream of the HRP-ccCF-based H{sub 2}O{sub 2} flow-detector to fabricate amperometric flow-biosensor for glucose. Sensor setting conditions and the operational conditions were optimized, and the analytical performance characteristics of the resulting flow-biosensor were evaluated. The chemical modification of the GOx via CC was found to be effective to obtain larger catalytic activity as compared with the physical adsorption. Under the optimized conditions (i.e., volume ratio of the GOx-ccCF-reactor to the HRP-ccCF-detector is 1.0; applied potential is - 0.12 V vs. Ag/AgCl; carrier pH is 6.5; and carrier flow rate is 4.3 ml/min), highly selective and quite reproducible peak current responses toward glucose were obtained: the RSD for 30 consecutive injections of 3 mM glucose was 1.04%, and no serious interferences were observed for fructose, ethanol, uric acid, urea and tartaric acid for the amperometric measurements of glucose. The magnitude of the cathodic peak currents for glucose was linear up to 5 mM (sensitivity, 6.38 {+-} 0.32 {mu}A/{mu}M) with the limit detection of 9.4 {mu}M (S/N = 3, noise level, 20 nA). The present GOx-ccCF-reactor and HRP-ccCF-detector-coupled flow-glucose biosensor was utilized for the determination of glucose in beverages and liquors, and the analytical results by the sensor were in fairly good agreement with those by the conventional spectrophotometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucose oxidase (GOx) and peroxidase (HRP) were modified on carbon-felt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GOx-CF reactor and HRP-CF detector-coupled flow glucose biosensor was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This flow biosensor enabled the determination of glucose in beverages and

  5. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  6. Determination of ammonium ion using a reagentless amperometric biosensor based on immobilized alanine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ling Ling; Musa, Ahmad; Lee, Yook Heng

    2011-01-01

    The use of the enzyme alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) for the determination of ammonium ion (NH(4)(+)) usually requires the addition of pyruvate substrate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) simultaneously to effect the reaction. This addition of reagents is inconvenient when an enzyme biosensor based on AlaDH is used. To resolve the problem, a novel reagentless amperometric biosensor using a stacked methacrylic membrane system coated onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE) for NH(4)(+) ion determination is described. A mixture of pyruvate and NADH was immobilized in low molecular weight poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) membrane, which was then deposited over a photocured pHEMA membrane (photoHEMA) containing alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) enzyme. Due to the enzymatic reaction of AlaDH and the pyruvate substrate, NH(4)(+) was consumed in the process and thus the signal from the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at an applied potential of +0.55 V was proportional to the NH(4)(+) ion concentration under optimal conditions. The stacked methacrylate membranes responded rapidly and linearly to changes in NH(4)(+) ion concentrations between 10-100 mM, with a detection limit of 0.18 mM NH(4)(+) ion. The reproducibility of the amperometrical NH(4)(+) biosensor yielded low relative standard deviations between 1.4-4.9%. The stacked membrane biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of NH(4)(+) ion in spiked river water samples without pretreatment. A good correlation was found between the analytical results for NH(4)(+) obtained from the biosensor and the Nessler spectrophotometric method.

  7. Modification of polypyrrole nanowires array with platinum nanoparticles and glucose oxidase for fabrication of a novel glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guangqing [NanoScience and Sensor Technology Research Group, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, Victoria 3842 (Australia); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Adeloju, Samuel B., E-mail: Sam.Adeloju@monash.edu [NanoScience and Sensor Technology Research Group, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, Victoria 3842 (Australia); Wu Yucheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang Xinyi [NanoScience and Sensor Technology Research Group, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, Victoria 3842 (Australia)

    2012-11-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of well aligned PPyNWA of 20 nm diameter within AAO template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement of electrochemical properties by decoration with PtNPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitive amperometric and potentiometric detection of glucose by adsorption of GOx on PPyNWA-PtNPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of as little as 5.6 {mu}M glucose with potentiometric detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparable or better detection limit and sensitivity than some glucose biosensors fabricated with nanomaterials. - Abstract: A novel glucose biosensor, based on the modification of well-aligned polypyrrole nanowires array (PPyNWA) with Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) and subsequent surface adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx), is described. The distinct differences in the electrochemical properties of PPyNWA-GOx, PPyNWA-PtNPs, and PPyNWA-PtNPs-GOx electrodes were revealed by cyclic voltammetry. In particular, the results obtained for PPyNWA-PtNPs-GOx biosensor showed evidence of direct electron transfer due mainly to modification with PtNPs. Optimum fabrication of the PPyNWA-PtNPs-GOx biosensor for both potentiometric and amperometric detection of glucose were achieved with 0.2 M pyrrole, applied current density of 0.1 mA cm{sup -2}, polymerization time of 600 s, cyclic deposition of PtNPs from -200 mV to 200 mV, scan rate of 50 mV s{sup -1}, and 20 cycles. A sensitivity of 40.5 mV/decade and a linear range of 10 {mu}M to 1000 {mu}M (R{sup 2} = 0.9936) were achieved for potentiometric detection, while for amperometric detection a sensitivity of 34.7 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1} at an applied potential of 700 mV and a linear range of 0.1-9 mM (R{sup 2} = 0.9977) were achieved. In terms of achievable detection limit, potentiometric detection achieved 5.6 {mu}M of glucose, while amperometric detection achieved 27.7 {mu}M.

  8. Modification of polypyrrole nanowires array with platinum nanoparticles and glucose oxidase for fabrication of a novel glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guangqing; Adeloju, Samuel B.; Wu Yucheng; Zhang Xinyi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of well aligned PPyNWA of 20 nm diameter within AAO template. ► Improvement of electrochemical properties by decoration with PtNPs. ► Sensitive amperometric and potentiometric detection of glucose by adsorption of GOx on PPyNWA–PtNPs. ► Detection of as little as 5.6 μM glucose with potentiometric detection. ► Comparable or better detection limit and sensitivity than some glucose biosensors fabricated with nanomaterials. - Abstract: A novel glucose biosensor, based on the modification of well-aligned polypyrrole nanowires array (PPyNWA) with Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) and subsequent surface adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx), is described. The distinct differences in the electrochemical properties of PPyNWA–GOx, PPyNWA–PtNPs, and PPyNWA–PtNPs–GOx electrodes were revealed by cyclic voltammetry. In particular, the results obtained for PPyNWA–PtNPs–GOx biosensor showed evidence of direct electron transfer due mainly to modification with PtNPs. Optimum fabrication of the PPyNWA–PtNPs–GOx biosensor for both potentiometric and amperometric detection of glucose were achieved with 0.2 M pyrrole, applied current density of 0.1 mA cm −2 , polymerization time of 600 s, cyclic deposition of PtNPs from −200 mV to 200 mV, scan rate of 50 mV s −1 , and 20 cycles. A sensitivity of 40.5 mV/decade and a linear range of 10 μM to 1000 μM (R 2 = 0.9936) were achieved for potentiometric detection, while for amperometric detection a sensitivity of 34.7 μA cm −2 mM −1 at an applied potential of 700 mV and a linear range of 0.1–9 mM (R 2 = 0.9977) were achieved. In terms of achievable detection limit, potentiometric detection achieved 5.6 μM of glucose, while amperometric detection achieved 27.7 μM.

  9. An Amperometric Biosensor for Uric Acid Determination Prepared From Uricase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polypyrrole Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new amperometric uric acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polyaniline-polypyrrole (pani-ppy composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. Determination of uric acid was performed by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear working range of the biosensor was 2.5×10-6 – 8.5×10-5 M and the response time was about 70 s. The effects of pH, temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 9.0, 55 oC, respectively. The stability and reproducibility of the enzyme electrode have been also studied.

  10. Application of L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase for development of amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of amperometric biosensor based on L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (flavocytochrome b2, FC b2 for lactate determination. Methods. All experiments were performed using the amperometric method of detection. The methods of electrochemical polymerization and immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapors were used for FC b2 immobilization on the surface of electrodes. Results. The FC b2 preparation, which demonstrated the best operational characteristics after immobilization in poly (3,4-ethylen dioxythiophene, was selected. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The analysis of L-lactate in the model solutions and wine samples was carried outusing the developed biosensor. Conclusion. The FC b2-based biosensor due to its high stability can be effectively used for lactate determination in blood and other liquids containing no ethanol. After the selectivity optimization, the devise can be also applied for wine analysis.

  11. Graphene-metallic nanocomposites as modifiers in electrochemical glucose biosensor transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Derya Bal; Tepeli, Yudum; Anik, Ulku

    2016-09-01

    Graphene sheets and three different graphene-metallic nanocomposites including graphene-copper (graphene-Cu), graphene-nickel (graphene-Ni) and graphene-platinum (graphene-Pt) were prepared and characterized in the first place. Then the electrochemical performances of these nanocomposites were tested in glucose biosensor transducers, which were formed by combining these metallic nanocomposites with glucose oxidase enzyme and glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE). This is the first work that includes the usage of these graphene-Me nanocomposites as a part of glucose biosensor transducer. Fabricated amperometric biosensors linear ranges were obtained as follow: For the plain graphene, the linear range was found in the concentration range between 50 μM and 800 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 12.86% and LOD value of 7.2 μM. For graphene-Pt modified glucose biosensor, the linear range was between 10 μM and 600 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 3.45% and LOD value of 3.06 μM. In the case of graphene-Ni modified glucose biosensor, the values were 25 μM to 600 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 8.76% and LOD value of 24.71 μM and for graphene-Cu modified glucose biosensor linear range was 25 μM to 400 μM with the RSD (n = 3 for 50 μM glucose) value of 3.93% and LOD value of 2.87 μM.

  12. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. An improved amperometric creatinine biosensor based on nanoparticles of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Pundir, C S

    2017-11-15

    An improved amperometric biosensor for detection of creatinine was developed based on immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI), and sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for characterization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) at different stages of its amendment. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer and 25 °C, when operated at 1.0 V against Ag/AgCl. Biosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.01 μM to 12 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μM. The analytical recoveries of added creatinine in sera were 97.97 ± 0.1% for 0.1 mM and 98.76 ± 0.2% for 0.15 mM, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.06% and 3.09% respectively. A good correlation (R 2  = 0.99) was observed between sera creatinine values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor. This biosensor measured creatinine level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from renal and muscular dysfunction. The ENPs electrode lost 10% of its initial activity within 240 days of its regular uses, when stored at 4 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bo [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shu [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Lang, Qiaolin [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology of Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liu, Aihua, E-mail: liuah@qibebt.ac.cn [Laboratory for Biosensing, Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provinicial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy & Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Songling Road, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • E. coli surface-dispalyed Gldh exhibiting excellent enzyme activity and stability. • Sensitive amperometric biosensor for glutamate using Gldh-bacteria and MWNTs. • The glutamate biosensor exhibited high specificity and stability. - Abstract: A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP{sup +}-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP{sup +} involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current–time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM–1 mM and 2–10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N = 3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  15. Biosensors and environmental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-01-01

    ..., bacterial biosensors, antibody-based biosensors, enzymatic, amperometric and electrochemical aspects, quorum sensing, DNA-biosensors, cantilever biosensors, bioluminescence and other methods and applications...

  16. [Properties of modified amperometric biosensors based on methanol dehydrogenase and Methylobacterium nodulans cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T A; Beschastnyĭ, A P; Alferov, S V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The properties of amperometric biosensors based on methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), Methylobacterium nodulans cells, and the ferrocene-modified carbon paste electrode were investigated. It was shown that the addition ofhydroxyapatite (HA) to a carbon paste increased the sensitivity and operating stability of MDH biosensors. The linear range of the electrode was 0.0135-0.5 and 0.032-1.5 mM for methanol and formaldehyde, respectively. The detection limit of methanol and formaldehyde was 4.5 and 11.0 microM, respectively. The loss of activity of the electrode within 10 days of storage in the presence of 2.0 mM KCN did not exceed 12%. Cyanide (10 mM) completely inhibited the sensor responses to formaldehyde (1.0 mM), which allowed for the selective determination of methanol in the presence of formaldehyde. The biosensor based on cells exhibited lower stability and sensitivity toward methanol and formaldehyde; the sensitivity coefficients were 980 and 21 nA/mM, respectively.

  17. Amperometric biosensor based on a single antibody of dual function for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Gersson; Rey, Alba; Rivera, Camilo; Iregui, Carlos; Orozco, Jahir

    2017-01-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for several diseases in humans and in a variety of hosts. Detection of pathogenic bacteria is imperative to avoid and/or fight their potential harmful effects. This work reports on the first amperometric biosensor for the rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae). The biosensor relies on a single biotinylated antibody that immobilizes the bacteria on a screen-printed carbon electrode while is further linked to a streptavidin-conjugated HRP reporter. The biotinylated antibody provides selectivity to the biosensor whereas serves as an anchoring point to the reporter for further amplification of the electrochemical signal. The resultant immunosensor is simple, responds rapidly, and allows for the selective and highly sensitive quantification of S. agalactiae cells in a concentration range of 10 1 -10 7 CFUml -1 , with a detection limit of 10CFUml -1 . The approach not only enables a rapid detection and quantification of S. agalactiae in environmental samples but also opens up new opportunities for the simple fabrication of electrochemical immunosensors for different target pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Sapsford, Kim E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensor...

  19. Layer by layer assembly of glucose oxidase and thiourea onto glassy carbon electrode: Fabrication of glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Although various enzymes immobilization have been approve for the construction of glucose biosensor, a layer by layer (LBL) technique has attracted more attention due to simplicity of the procedure, wide choice of materials that can be used, controllability of film thickness and unique mechanical properties. → In this paper, we described a novel and simple strategy for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer self assembly of glucose oxidase on the glassy carbon electrode modified by thiourea. → Thiourea has two amino groups that the one can be immobilized on the activated glassy carbon electrode and the other can be used for the coupling of glucose oxidase enzyme. → The biosensor exhibited good performance for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, short response time and wide concentration range. → Finally, the new method is strongly recommended for immobilization of many other enzymes or proteins containing carbaldehyde or carboxylic groups for fabricating third generation biosensors and bioelectronics devices. - Abstract: For the first time a novel, simple and facile approach is described to construct highly stable glucose oxidase (GOx) multilayer onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode using thiourea (TU) as a covalent attachment cross-linker. The layer by layer (LBL) attachment process was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-RS) techniques. Immobilized GOx shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation using ferrocenemethanol as artificial electron transfer mediator and biosensor response was directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active GOx per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ), of immobilized GOx were 1.50 x 10 -12 mol cm -2 , 9.2 ± 0.5 s -1 and 3.42(±0

  20. Layer by layer assembly of glucose oxidase and thiourea onto glassy carbon electrode: Fabrication of glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistsn, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistsn, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engenering, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, University of Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > Although various enzymes immobilization have been approve for the construction of glucose biosensor, a layer by layer (LBL) technique has attracted more attention due to simplicity of the procedure, wide choice of materials that can be used, controllability of film thickness and unique mechanical properties. > In this paper, we described a novel and simple strategy for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer self assembly of glucose oxidase on the glassy carbon electrode modified by thiourea. > Thiourea has two amino groups that the one can be immobilized on the activated glassy carbon electrode and the other can be used for the coupling of glucose oxidase enzyme. > The biosensor exhibited good performance for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, short response time and wide concentration range. > Finally, the new method is strongly recommended for immobilization of many other enzymes or proteins containing carbaldehyde or carboxylic groups for fabricating third generation biosensors and bioelectronics devices. - Abstract: For the first time a novel, simple and facile approach is described to construct highly stable glucose oxidase (GOx) multilayer onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode using thiourea (TU) as a covalent attachment cross-linker. The layer by layer (LBL) attachment process was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-RS) techniques. Immobilized GOx shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation using ferrocenemethanol as artificial electron transfer mediator and biosensor response was directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active GOx per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}), of immobilized GOx were 1.50 x 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 9.2 {+-} 0.5 s{sup -1

  1. Amperometric Biosensor for Monitoring Respiration Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Presence of Cobalt and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mikšaj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient control of heavy metal concentrations electrochemical methods, such as polarography and related techniques, are applied. Their advantages are simplicity, short analysis time and small quantities of samples needed. The presence of some heavy metals, such as zinc and cobalt, accelerates the growth of yeast. For the measurements of concentration changes, amperometric biosensor containing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. The influence of zinc and cobalt on respiratory activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was estimated by measuring oxygen in the solution that was earlier enriched with cobalt or zinc. Measurements were performed using modified Clark’s oxygen electrode and the investigated concentrations of cobalt and zinc were up to 100 mg/L.

  2. Glucose Oxidase Biosensor Modeling and Predictors Optimization by Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Navarro, Felix F; Stilianova-Stoytcheva, Margarita; Renteria-Gutierrez, Livier; Belanche-Muñoz, Lluís A; Flores-Rios, Brenda L; Ibarra-Esquer, Jorge E

    2016-10-26

    Biosensors are small analytical devices incorporating a biological recognition element and a physico-chemical transducer to convert a biological signal into an electrical reading. Nowadays, their technological appeal resides in their fast performance, high sensitivity and continuous measuring capabilities; however, a full understanding is still under research. This paper aims to contribute to this growing field of biotechnology, with a focus on Glucose-Oxidase Biosensor (GOB) modeling through statistical learning methods from a regression perspective. We model the amperometric response of a GOB with dependent variables under different conditions, such as temperature, benzoquinone, pH and glucose concentrations, by means of several machine learning algorithms. Since the sensitivity of a GOB response is strongly related to these dependent variables, their interactions should be optimized to maximize the output signal, for which a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are used. We report a model that shows a good generalization error and is consistent with the optimization.

  3. Glucose Oxidase Biosensor Modeling and Predictors Optimization by Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Gonzalez-Navarro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are small analytical devices incorporating a biological recognition element and a physico-chemical transducer to convert a biological signal into an electrical reading. Nowadays, their technological appeal resides in their fast performance, high sensitivity and continuous measuring capabilities; however, a full understanding is still under research. This paper aims to contribute to this growing field of biotechnology, with a focus on Glucose-Oxidase Biosensor (GOB modeling through statistical learning methods from a regression perspective. We model the amperometric response of a GOB with dependent variables under different conditions, such as temperature, benzoquinone, pH and glucose concentrations, by means of several machine learning algorithms. Since the sensitivity of a GOB response is strongly related to these dependent variables, their interactions should be optimized to maximize the output signal, for which a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are used. We report a model that shows a good generalization error and is consistent with the optimization.

  4. Optimization of Glucose oxidase towards oxygen independency and high mediator activity for amperometric glucose determination in diabetes analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Gutierrez, Erik Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Glucose oxidase is an oxidoreductase exhibiting a high β-D-glucose specificity and high stability which renders glucose oxidase well-suited for applications in diabetes care. Nevertheless, GOx activity is highly oxygen dependent which can lead to inaccuracies in amperometric β-D-glucose determinations. Therefore a directed evolution campaign with two rounds of random mutagenesis (SeSaM followed by epPCR), site saturation mutagenesis studies, and one simultaneous site saturation library (OmniC...

  5. Selenium containing conducting polymer based pyranose oxidase biosensor for glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglan, Tugba Ceren; Soylemez, Saniye; Kesik, Melis; Toksabay, Sinem; Toppare, Levent

    2015-04-01

    A novel amperometric pyranose oxidase (PyOx) biosensor based on a selenium containing conducting polymer has been developed for the glucose detection. For this purpose, a conducting polymer; poly(4,7-bis(thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5] selenadiazole) (poly(BSeTT)) was synthesized via electropolymerisation on gold electrode to examine its matrix property for glucose detection. For this purpose, PyOx was used as the model enzyme and immobilised via physical adsorption technique. Amperometric detection of consumed oxygen was monitored at -0.7 V vs Ag reference electrode in a phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0). K(M)(app), Imax, LOD and sensitivity were calculated as 0.229 mM, 42.37 nA, 3.3 × 10(-4)nM and 6.4 nA/mM cm(2), respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques were used to monitor changes in surface morphologies and to run electrochemical characterisations. Finally, the constructed biosensor was applied for the determination of glucose in beverages successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An amperometric enzyme biosensor for real-time measurements of cellobiohydrolase activity on insoluble cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Guilin, Ren; Tatsumi, Hirosuke

    2012-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme biosensor for continuous detection of cellobiose has been implemented as an enzyme assay for cellulases. We show that the initial kinetics for cellobiohydrolase I, Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei, acting on different types of cellulose substrates, semi-crystalline and amorphous......, can be monitored directly and in real-time by an enzyme-modified electrode based on cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc). PcCDH was cross-linked and immobilized on the surface of a carbon paste electrode which contained a mediator, benzoquinone. An oxidation current...... of the reduced mediator, hydroquinone, produced by the CDH-catalyzed reaction with cellobiose, was recorded under constant-potential amperometry at +0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The CDH-biosensors showed high sensitivity (87.7 µA mM−1 cm−2), low detection limit (25 nM), and fast response time (t95% ∼ 3 s...

  7. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  8. Amperometric Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor Based on Multilayer Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes-chitosan Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia SUN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with five layers of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-chitosan (CHIT composite was proposed, and thus a fast, sensitive and stable amperometric sensor for quantitative determination of pesticides was developed. Five layers of MWNTs-CHIT promoted electron transfer reactions at a lower potential and catalyzed the electro-oxidation of thiocholine, thus, it improved the detection sensitivity of biosensor. Based on the inhibition of pesticides to the enzymatic activity of AChE, using carbofuran as a model compound, under optimal conditions, the inhibition of carbofuran was proportional to its concentration in two ranges, from 5×10-4 to 7.5 μg/mL and 7.5 to 20 μg/mL with a detection limit of 1×10-4 μg/mL. The constructed biosensor showed prominent characteristics and performances such as good precision, acceptable stability, fast response and low detection limit, which provided a new promising tool for pesticide analysis.

  9. Highly sensitive amperometric biosensor based on electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide-chitosan/hemoglobin nanocomposite for nitromethane determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yunping; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-05-15

    Nitromethane (CH3NO2) is an important organic chemical raw material with a wide variety of applications as well as one of the most common pollutants. Therefore it is pretty important to establish a simple and sensitive detection method for CH3NO2. In our study, a novel amperometric biosensor for nitromethane (CH3NO2) based on immobilization of electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide (rGO), chitosan (CS) and hemoglobin (Hb) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the Hb-CS/rGO-CS composite film. The effects of scan rate and pH of phosphate buffer on the biosensor have been studied in detail and optimized. Due to the graphene and chitosan nanocomposite, the developed biosensor demonstrating direct electrochemistry with faster electron-transfer rate (6.48s(-1)) and excellent catalytic activity towards CH3NO2. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited fast amperometric response (<5s) to CH3NO2 with a wide linear range of 5 μM~1.46 mM (R=0.999) and a low detection limit of 1.5 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the biosensor had high selectivity, reproducibility and stability, providing the possibility for monitoring CH3NO2 in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe3O4-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijun; Li Yongfang; Li Zhonghua; Feng Jiuju; Sun Yanli; Chen Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 × 10 −9 mol·cm −2 , and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 ± 0.6 s −1 . The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 μA·mM −1 cm −2 and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: ► Synthesis of monodispersed Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. ► Fabrication of core/shell Fe 3 O 4 -silica-Au nanoparticles. ► Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  11. Preparation of carbon paste electrodes including poly(styrene) attached glycine-Pt(IV) for amperometric detection of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Sarı, Nurşen; Kurnaz Yetim, Nurdan; Arslan, Halit

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a novel carbon paste electrode that is sensitive to glucose was prepared using the nanoparticles modified (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) with polystyren (FMPS) with L-Glycine-Pt(IV) complexes. Polymeric nanoparticles having Pt(IV) ion were prepared from (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) polystyren, glycine and PtCl4 by template method. Glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized to a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Determination of glucose was carried out by oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Effects of pH and temperature were investigated, and optimum parameters were found to be 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. Linear working range of the electrode was 5.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-3) M, R(2)=0.997. Storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. Glucose biosensor gave perfect reproducible results after 10 measurements with 2.3% relative standard deviation. Also, it had good storage stability (gave 53.57% of the initial amperometric response at the end of 33th day). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A fine pointed glucose oxidase immobilized electrode for low-invasive amperometric glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Koinkar, Pankaj; Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito

    2016-12-15

    A low invasive type glucose sensor, which has a sensing region at the tip of a fine pointed electrode, was developed for continuous glucose monitoring. Platinum-iridium alloy electrode with a surface area of 0.045mm(2) was settled at the middle of pointed PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) tubing and was employed as sensing electrode. Electrodeposition of glucose oxidase in the presence of surfactant, Triton X-100, was performed for high-density enzyme immobilization followed by the electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine for the formation of functional entrapping and permselective polymer membrane. Ag/AgCl film was coated on the surface of PEEK tubing as reference electrode. Amperometric responses of the prepared sensors to glucose were measured at a potential of 0.60V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The prepared electrode showed the sensitivity of 2.55μA/cm(2) mM with high linearity of 0.9986, within the glucose concentration range up to 21mM. The detection limit (S/N=3) was determined to be 0.11mM. The glucose sensor properties were evaluated in phosphate buffer solution and in vivo monitoring by the implantation of the sensors in rabbit, while conventional needle type sensors as a reference were used. The results showed that change in output current of the proposed sensor fluctuated similar with one in output current of the conventional needle type sensors, which was also in similar accordance with actual blood sugar level measured by commercially glucose meter. One-point calibration method was used to calibrate the sensor output current. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrodeposition of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles on ionic liquid-chitosan composite film and its application in fabricating an amperometric cholesterol biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Farjami, Fatemeh

    2011-01-15

    An electrodeposition method was applied to form gold-platinum (AuPt) alloy nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) and chitosan (Ch) (AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE). AuPt nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE electrocatalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) and thus was suitable for the preparation of biosensors. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was then, immobilized on the surface of the electrode by cross-linking ChOx and chitosan through addition of glutaraldehyde (ChOx/AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE). The fabricated biosensor exhibited two wide linear ranges of responses to cholesterol in the concentration ranges of 0.05-6.2 mM and 6.2-11.2 mM. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 90.7 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and the limit of detection was 10 μM of cholesterol. The response time was less than 7 s. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) was found as 0.24 mM. The effect of the addition of 1 mM ascorbic acid and glucose was tested on the amperometric response of 0.5 mM cholesterol and no change in response current of cholesterol was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of immobilization technique on performance ZnO nanorods based enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, ZnO Nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate with in-situ addition KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth process. Significant variation in ZnO nanostructures was observed by KMnO4 addition during the growth. Glucose oxidase was later immobilized over ZNRs. The as-prepared ZNRs were further utilized for glucose detection by employing amperometric electrochemical transduction method. In order to optimize the performance of the prepared biosensor two different immobilization techniques i.e. physical adsorption and cross linking have been employed and compared. Further investigations suggest that immobilization via cross linking method resulted in the improvement of the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and linear range of the fabricated biosensor. Among the two types of biosensors fabricated using ZNR, the best performance was shown by cross linked electrodes. The sensitivity for the same was found to be 17.7 mA-cm-2-M-1, along with a wide linear range of 0.5-8.5 mM.

  15. Bi-enzyme L-arginine-selective amperometric biosensor based on ammonium-sensing polyaniline-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Smutok, Oleh; Gayda, Galina; Vus, Bohdan; Koval'chuk, Yevgen; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2012-01-01

    A novel L-arginine-selective amperometric bi-enzyme biosensor based on recombinant human arginase I isolated from the gene-engineered strain of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha and commercial urease is described. The biosensing layer was placed onto a polyaniline-Nafion composite platinum electrode and covered with a calcium alginate gel. The developed sensor revealed a good selectivity to L-arginine. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 110 ± 1.3 nA/(mM mm(2)) with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) derived from an L-arginine (L-Arg) calibration curve of 1.27 ± 0.29 mM. A linear concentration range was observed from 0.07 to 0.6mM, a limit of detection being 0.038 mM and a response time - 10s. The developed biosensor demonstrated good storage stability. A laboratory prototype of the proposed amperometric biosensor was applied to the samples of three commercial pharmaceuticals ("Tivortin", "Cytrarginine", "Aminoplazmal 10% E") for L-Arg testing. The obtained L-Arg-content values correlated well with those declared by producers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Amperometric Biosensor Based on Alanine Dehydrogenase for the Determination of Low Level of Ammonium Ion in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ling Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric electrochemical biosensor has been developed for ammonium (NH4+ ion detection by immobilising alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH enzyme in a photocurable methacrylic membrane made up of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE. The current detected was based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH that is proportional to the consumption of NH4+ ion whilst enzymatic amination of AlaDH and pyruvate is taking place. The biosensor was operated amperometrically at a potential of +0.6 V and optimum pH 7. The NH4+ biosensor demonstrated linear response to NH4+ ion concentration in the range of 0.03–1.02 mg/L with a limit of detection (LOD of 8.52 μg/L. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of NH4+ ion in river water samples without any pretreatment. The levels of possible interferents in the waters were negligible to cause any interference on the proposed method. The analytical performance of the biosensor was comparable to the colorimetric method using Nesslerisation but with much lower detection limit and linear response range at ppb level.

  17. In vitro evaluation of fluorescence glucose biosensor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Sapsford, Kim E

    2014-07-08

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  18. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Aloraefy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  19. Amperometric xanthine biosensors using glassy carbon electrodes modified with electrografted porous silica nanomaterials loaded with xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadaoui, Maroua; Sánchez, Alfredo; Díez, Paula; Raouafi, Noureddine; Pingarrón, José M.; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with silica materials such as silica nanoparticles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and mesoporous silica thin films with the aim to introduce scaffolds suitable for the immobilization of enzymes. Xanthine oxidase was selected as a model enzyme, and xanthine as the target analyte. A comparison of the modified electrodes showed the biosensor prepared with mesoporous silica nanoparticles to perform best. By using the respective biosensor, xanthine can be amperometrically determined (via measurement of enzymatically formed hydrogen peroxide) at a working voltage of 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a 0.28 μM detection limit. The biosensor was evaluated in terms of potential interferences, reproducibility and stability, and applied to the determination of fish freshness via sensing of xanthine. (author)

  20. Development of an Amperometric Biosensor Platform for the Combined Determination of L-Malic, Fumaric, and L-Aspartic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhlen, Désirée L; Pilas, Johanna; Schöning, Michael J; Selmer, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Three amperometric biosensors have been developed for the detection of L-malic acid, fumaric acid, and L -aspartic acid, all based on the combination of a malate-specific dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and diaphorase (DIA, EC 1.8.1.4). The stepwise expansion of the malate platform with the enzymes fumarate hydratase (FH, EC 4.2.1.2) and aspartate ammonia-lyase (ASPA, EC 4.3.1.1) resulted in multi-enzyme reaction cascades and, thus, augmentation of the substrate spectrum of the sensors. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in presence of the cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and the redox mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) (HCFIII). The amperometric detection is mediated by oxidation of hexacyanoferrate (II) (HCFII) at an applied potential of + 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For each biosensor, optimum working conditions were defined by adjustment of cofactor concentrations, buffer pH, and immobilization procedure. Under these improved conditions, amperometric responses were linear up to 3.0 mM for L-malate and fumarate, respectively, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.7 μA mM -1 (L-malate biosensor) and 0.4 μA mM -1 (fumarate biosensor). The L-aspartate detection system displayed a linear range of 1.0-10.0 mM with a sensitivity of 0.09 μA mM -1 . The sensor characteristics suggest that the developed platform provides a promising method for the detection and differentiation of the three substrates.

  1. Amperometric biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide using catalase modified electrodes in polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Shailly; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-09-23

    A simple biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in organic solvents has been developed and coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Catalase was entrapped in polyacrylamide gel and placed on the surface of platinum (working electrode) fixed in a Teflon holder with Ag-wire (auxiliary electrode), followed by addition of filter paper soaked in KCl. The entrapped catalase gel was held on the electrode using membranes. The effects of cellulose and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) membranes on the electrode response towards hydrogen peroxide have been studied. The modified electrode has been used to study the detection of hydrogen peroxide in solvents like water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 1,4-dioxane using amperometric techniques like cyclic voltammetry (CV) and FIA. The CV of modified catalase electrode showed a broad oxidation peak at -150 mV and a clear reduction peak at -212 mV in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Comparison of CV with hydrogen peroxide in various solvents has been carried out. The electrode showed an irreversible kinetics with DMSO as the solvent. A flow cell has been designed in order to carry on FIA studies to obtain calibration plots for hydrogen peroxide with the modified electrode. The calibration plots in several solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane have been obtained. The throughput of the enzyme electrode was 10 injections per hour. Due to the presence of membrane the response time of the electrode is concentration dependent.

  2. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes.

  3. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  4. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on Hemoglobin/DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Zhongqiang; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Chen Shihong; Xie Yi

    2007-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was fabricated based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine (PPD) modified Au electrode. PPD thin films were firstly electro-deposited on Au electrode surface which provide a template to attach negatively charged DNA molecules by electrostatic attraction. The adsorbed DNA network provides a good microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promotes electron transfer between the immobilized Hb and the electrode surface. The fabrication process of the biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as pH, potential and temperature were assessed and optimized. The proposed biosensor displayed a good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H 2 O 2 , its linear range is 1.7 μM to 3 mM with a detection limit of 1.0 μM based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) under the optimized conditions. The Michaelis-Menten constant K m app of Hb immobilized on the electrode surface was found to be 0.8 mM. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and stability. Importantly, this deposition methodology could be further developed for the immobilization of other proteins and biocompounds

  5. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carralero, Veronica [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: yseo@quim.ucm.es; Pingarron, Jose M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL{sup -1} with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng{sup -1} mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL{sup -1}. The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 {+-} 3% and 99 {+-} 3%, respectively, were obtained.

  6. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carralero, Veronica; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Pingarron, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL -1 with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng -1 mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL -1 . The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL -1 concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 ± 3% and 99 ± 3%, respectively, were obtained

  7. Determination of Patulin Using Amperometric Tyrosinase Biosensors Based on Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Varlamova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New amperometric biosensors based on platinum screen printed electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and immobilized enzyme – tyrosinase have been developed for determination of patulin in the concentrations of 1·10–6 – 8·10–12 mol/L with an error of no more than 0.063. The best conditions for obtaining gold nanoparticles have been chosen. The conditions for immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on the surface of the planar electrode have been revealed. The conditions for functioning of the proposed biosensors have been identified. The results have been used to control the content of patulin in food products within and lower than the maximum allowable levels.

  8. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate crosslinker/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane surface modified ITO glass electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Tarushee; Rajesh; Kumar, Devendra; Tanwar, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Vikash; Singh, Nahar; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2010-01-01

    A label free, amperometric uric acid biosensor is described by immobilizing enzyme uricase through a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a crosslinker, Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate (BS 3 ) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The biosensor (uricase/BS 3 /APTES/ITO) was characterized by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric response was measured as a function of uric acid concentration in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The biosensor shows a linear response over a concentration range of 0.05 to 0.58 mM with a sensitivity of 39.35 μA mM -1 . The response time is 50 s reaching to a 95% steady state current value and about 90% of enzyme activity is retained for about 7 weeks. These results indicate an efficient binding of enzyme with the crosslinker over the surface of APTES modified ITO glass plates, which leads to an improved sensitivity and shelf life of the biosensor.

  9. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M −1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis–Menten (K M app ) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor. (papers)

  10. Detection of Waterborne and Airborne Formaldehyde: From Amperometric Chemosensing to a Visual Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory prototype of a microcomputer-based analyzer was developed for quantitative determination of formaldehyde in liquid samples, based on catalytic chemosensing elements. It was shown that selectivity for the target analyte could be increased by modulating the working electrode potential. Analytical parameters of three variants of the amperometric analyzer that differed in the chemical structure/configuration of the working electrode were studied. The constructed analyzer was tested on wastewater solutions that contained formaldehyde. A simple low-cost biosensor was developed for semi-quantitative detection of airborne formaldehyde in concentrations exceeding the threshold level. This biosensor is based on a change in the color of a solution that contains a mixture of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, horseradish peroxidase and a chromogen, following exposure to airborne formaldehyde. The solution is enclosed within a membrane device, which is permeable to formaldehyde vapors. The most efficient and sensitive biosensor for detecting formaldehyde was the one that contained alcohol oxidase with an activity of 1.2 U·mL−1. The biosensor requires no special instrumentation and enables rapid visual detection of airborne formaldehyde at concentrations, which are hazardous to human health.

  11. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on in situ reconstituted cholesterol oxidase on an immobilized monolayer of flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan-C; Espuelas, Javier; Castillo, Juan-R

    2004-10-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for determining cholesterol based on deflavination of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and subsequent reconstitution of the apo-protein with a complexed flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) monolayer is described. The charge transfer mediator pyrroquinoline quinone (PQQ) was covalently bound to a cystamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on an Au electrode. Boronic acid (BA) was then bound to PQQ using the carbodiimide procedure, and the BA ligand was complexed to the FAD molecules on which the apo-ChOx was subsequently reconstituted. The effective release of the FAD from the enzyme and the successful reconstitution were verified using molecular fluorescence and cyclic voltammetry. The optimal orientation of FAD toward the PQQ mediator and the distances between FAD and PQQ and between PQQ and electrode enhance the charge transfer, very high sensitivity (about 2,500 nAmM(-1)cm(-2)) being obtained for cholesterol determination. The biosensor is selective toward electroactive interferents (ascorbic acid and uric acid) and was tested in reference serum samples, demonstrating excellent accuracy (relative errors below 3% in all cases). The biosensor activity can be successfully regenerated in a simple process by successive reconstitution with batches of recently prepared apo-ChOx on the same immobilized Au/SAM-PQQ-BA-FAD monolayer (it was tested five times); the lifetime of the biosensor is about 45-60 days.

  12. Amperometric Determination of Glucose at Parts per Million Levels with Immobilized Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittampalam, G.; Wilson, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment on the operation and utility of an amperometric immobilized enzyme electrode (or probe) is described, including advantages of the experiment, equipment, reagents, preparation of phosphate buffer, enzyme immobilization techniques, laboratory procedures, precautions, and discussion of experimental results. (SK)

  13. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 . • Incorporating Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co 3 O 4 /MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10 −7 –1.9 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10 −7 . The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  14. Platinum decorated carbon nanotubes for highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jining; Wang Shouyan; Aryasomayajula, L; Varadan, V K

    2007-01-01

    Fine platinum nanoparticles (1-5 nm in diameter) were deposited on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) through a decoration technique. A novel type of enzymatic Pt/MWNTs paste-based mediated glucose sensor was fabricated. Electrochemical measurements revealed a significantly improved sensitivity (around 52.7 μA mM -1 cm -2 ) for glucose sensing without using any picoampere booster or Faraday cage. In addition, the calibration curve exhibited a good linearity in the range of 1-28 mM of glucose concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to investigate the nanoscale structure and the chemical bonding information of the Pt/MWNTs paste-based sensing material, respectively. The improved sensitivity of this novel glucose sensor could be ascribed to its higher electroactive surface area, enhanced electron transfer, efficient enzyme immobilization, unique interaction in nanoscale and a synergistic effect on the current signal from possible multi-redox reactions

  15. Nonenzymatic amperometric determination of glucose by CuO nanocubes-graphene nanocomposite modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liqiang; Zhu, Limei; Wang, Zhenxin

    2012-12-01

    Here, we report a nonenzymatic amperometric glucose sensor based on copper oxide (CuO) nanocubes-graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (CuO-G-GCE). In this case, the graphene sheets were cast on the GCE directly. CuO nanocubes were obtained by oxidizing electrochemically deposited Cu on the graphene. The morphology of CuO-G nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The CuO-G-GCE-based sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and high stability for glucose oxidation. Under optimized conditions, the linearity between the current response and the glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 2μM to 4mM with a detection limit of 0.7μM (S/N=3), and a high sensitivity of 1360μAmM(-1)cm(-2). The proposed electrode showed a fast response time (less than 5s) and a good reproducibility. The as-made sensor was applied to determine the glucose levels in clinic human serum samples with satisfactory results. In addition, the effects of common interfering species, including ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and other carbohydrates, on the amperometric response of the sensor were investigated and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Green Chemistry Glucose Biosensor Development using Etlingera elatior Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, A.; Anggraeni, M. D.; Zusfahair; Iqlima, H.

    2018-01-01

    Glucose biosensor development is one of the important strategies for early detection of diabetes mellitus disease. This study was aimed to explore the flower extract of Etlingera elatior for a green-analysis method of glucose biosensor. Flowers were extracted using ethanol: HCl and tested its performances as an indicator of glucose biosensor using glucose oxidase enzyme. The glucose oxidase react with glucose resulted hydrogen peroxide that would change the color of the flower extract. Furthermore, the extract was also studied including their stability to pH, oxidizing and reducing, temperature, and storage. The results showed that the Etlingera elatior extract had high correlation between color change and glucose concentration with regression equation of y = -0.0005x + 0.4724 and R2 of 0.9965. The studied biosensor showed a wide linear range to detect glucose sample of 0 to 500 mM. The extract characterization showed a more stable in low pH (acid), reducing agent addition, heating treatment and storage.

  17. An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity based on co-immobilization of carbon nanotubes, hematein, and β-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bi; Ma Ming; Su Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity was successfully developed by co-immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), hematein, and β-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Under catalysis of the immobilized enzyme, penicillin was hydrolyzed, decreasing the local pH. The pH change was monitored amperometrically with hematein as a pH-sensitive redox probe. MWCNTs were used as an electron transfer enhancer as well as an efficient immobilization matrix for the sensitivity enhancement. The effects of immobilization procedure, working potential, enzyme quantity, buffer concentration, and sample matrix were investigated. The biosensor offered a minimum detection limit of 50 nM (19 μg L -1 ) for penicillin V, lower than those of the conventional pH change-based biosensors by more than two orders of magnitude. The electrode-to-electrode variation of the response sensitivity was 7.0% RSD.

  18. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization of enzymes. The determination of glucose levels using biosensors, particularly in the medical diagnostics and food industries, is gaining mass appeal. Glucose biosensors detect the glucose molecule by catalyzing glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. This action provides high accuracy and a quick detection rate. In this paper, a single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensor for glucose detection is analytically modeled. In the proposed model, the glucose concentration is presented as a function of gate voltage. Subsequently, the proposed model is compared with existing experimental data. A good consensus between the model and the experimental data is reported. The simulated data demonstrate that the analytical model can be employed with an electrochemical glucose sensor to predict the behavior of the sensing mechanism in biosensors.

  19. Amperometric inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase and gold sononanoparticles immobilized onto different electrodes for cyanide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; de Cisneros, José Luis Hidalgo-Hidalgo; Palacios-Santander, José María; Amine, Aziz

    2015-02-01

    New biosensors based on inhibition for the detection of cyanide and the comparison of the analytical performances of nine enzyme biosensor designs by using three different electrodes: Sonogel-Carbon, glassy carbon and gold electrodes were discussed. Three different horseradish peroxidase immobilization procedures with and without gold sononanoparticles were studied. The amperometric measurements were performed at an applied potential of -0.15V vs. Ag/AgCl in 50mM sodium acetate buffer solution pH=5.0. The apparent kinetic parameters (Kmapp, Vmaxapp) of immobilized HRP were calculated in the absence of inhibitor (cyanide) by using caffeic acid, hydroquinone, and catechol as substrates. The presence of gold sononanoparticles enhanced the electron transfer reaction and improved the analytical performance of the biosensors. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal non-competitive binding of cyanide with an apparent inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.7μM and I50 of 1.3μM. The determination of cyanide can be achieved in a dynamic range of 0.1-58.6μM with a detection limit of 0.03μM which is lower than those reported by previous studies. Hence this biosensing methodology can be used as a new promising approach for detecting cyanide. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  1. Development and testing of a fluorescence biosensor for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Sapsford, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive biosensors for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance management of diabetes mellitus and improve patient outcome in intensive care settings. Recent studies have indicated that implantable biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) can provide high sensitivity in quantifying glucose concentrations. However, standard approaches for determining the potential for interference from other biological constituents have not been established. The aim of this work was to design and optimize a FRET-based glucose sensor and assess its specificity to glucose. A sensor based on competitive binding between concanavalin A and dextran, labeled with long-wavelength acceptor and donor fluorophores, was developed. This process included optimization of dextran molecular weight and donor concentration, acceptor to donor ratio, and hydrogel concentration, as well as the number of polymer layers for encapsulation. The biosensor performance was characterized in terms of its response to clinically relevant glucose concentrations. The potential for interference and the development of test methods to evaluate this effect were studied using a potential clinical interferent, maltose. Results indicated that our biosensor had a prediction accuracy of better than 11% and that the robustness to maltose was highly dependent on glucose level.

  2. Bioelectroanalysis in a Drop: Construction of a Glucose Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-Gutierrez, O.; Rama, E. C.; Fernandez-Abedul, M. T.; Costa-García, A.

    2017-01-01

    This lab experiment describes a complete method to fabricate an enzymatic glucose electroanalytical biosensor by students. Using miniaturized and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), students learn how to use them as transducers and understand the importance SPEs have acquired in sensor development during the last years. Students can also…

  3. Self-assembly of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide-magnetic nanoparticles nanocomposite-based direct electrochemistry for reagentless glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakapongpan, Saithip; Poo-Arporn, Rungtiva P

    2017-07-01

    A novel approach of the immobilization of a highly selective and stable glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry was fabricated by a self-assembly of glucose oxidase (GOD) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) modified on a magnetic screen-printed electrode (MSPE). The RGO-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite has remarkable enhancement in large surface areas, is favorable environment for enzyme immobilization, facilitates electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surfaces and possesses superparamagnetism property. The morphology and electrochemical properties of RGO-Fe 3 O 4 /GOD were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The modified electrode was a fast, direct electron transfer with an apparent electron transfer rate constant (k s ) of 13.78s -1 . The proposed biosensor showed fast amperometric response (3s) to glucose with a wide linear range from 0.05 to 1mM, a low detection limit of 0.1μM at a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N=3) and good sensitivity (5.9μA/mM). The resulting biosensor has high stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and successfully applied detection potential at -0.45V. This mediatorless glucose sensing used the advantages of covalent bonding and self-assembly as a new approach for immobilizing enzymes without any binder. It would be worth noting that it opens a new avenue for fabricating excellent electrochemical biosensors. This is a new approach that reporting the immobilization of glucose oxidase on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) covalently conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) by electrostatic interaction and modified screen printed electrode. We propose the reagentless with fabrication method without binder and adhesive agents for immobilized enzyme. Fe 3 O 4 NPs increasing surface area to enhance the immobilization and prevent

  4. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Xie, Yibing; Du, Hongxiu; Xia, Chi; Wang, Yong; Tian, Fang

    2014-01-01

    A glucose biosensor has been fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using an optimized cross-linking technique. The TiO 2 nanotube arrays were synthesized directly on a titanium substrate by anodic oxidation. The structure and morphology of electrode material were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performances of the glucose biosensor were conducted by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements. It gives a linear response to glucose in the 0.05 to 0.65 mM concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981, a sensitivity of 199.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 , and a detection limit as low as 3.8 µM. This glucose biosensor exhibited high selectivity for glucose determination in the presence of ascorbic acid, sucrose and other common interfering substances. This glucose biosensor also performed good reproducibility and long-time storage stability. This optimized cross-linking technique could open a new avenue for other enzyme biosensors fabrication. (author)

  5. An amperometric H2O2 biosensor based on hemoglobin nanoparticles immobilized on to a gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Vinay; Yadav, Neelam; Thakur, Manisha; Pundir, Chandra S

    2017-08-31

    The nanoparticles (NPs) of hemoglobin (Hb) were prepared by desolvation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectroscopy and Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. An amperometric H 2 O 2 biosensor was constructed by immobilizing HbNPs covalently on to a polycrystalline Au electrode (AuE). HbNPs/AuE were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) before and after immobilization of HbNPs. The HbNPs/AuE showed optimum response within 2.5 s at pH 6.5 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) containing 100 μM H 2 O 2 at 30°C, when operated at -0.2 V against Ag/AgCl. The HbNPs/AuE exhibited V max of 5.161 ± 0.1 μA cm -2 with apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m ) of 0.1 ± 0.01 mM. The biosensor showed lower detection limit (1.0 μM), high sensitivity (129 ± 0.25 μA cm -2 mM -1 ) and wider linear range (1.0-1200 μM) for H 2 O 2 as compared with earlier biosensors. The analytical recoveries of added H 2 O 2 in serum (0.5 and 1.0 μM) were 97.77 and 98.01% respectively, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 3.16 and 3.36% respectively. There was a good correlation between sera H 2 O 2 values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor (correlation coefficient, R 2 =0.99). The biosensor measured H 2 O 2 level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from diabetes type II. The HbNPs/AuE lost 10% of its initial activity after 90 days of regular use, when stored dry at 4°C. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Development of a novel biosensor based on a polypyrrole-dodecylbenzene sulphonate (PPy-DBS) film for the determination of amperometric cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Bayram Oğuz; Çete, Servet

    2017-06-01

    Herein a novel amperometric biosensor based on a conducting polymer with anionic dopant modified electrode was successfully developed for detection of cholesterol. Polypyrrole is deposited on a platinum surface and the sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (DBS) ion-doped polypyrrole film was electrochemically prepared by scanning the electrode potential between -0.8 and +0.8 V at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The present electrochemical biosensor was optimized in terms of working potential, number of cycles, concentrations of monomer, and anionic dopant. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was physically entrapped in PPy-DBS to construct an amperometric cholesterol biosensor. Amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H 2 O 2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. Kinetic parameters, operational and storage stabilities, pH, and temperature dependencies were determined. Km and Imax were calculated as 0.11 μM and 0.967 nM/min, respectively. The operational stability results showed that 90.0% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. Morphology of electrodes was characterized by SEM and AFM. Additionally, contact angle measurements were made with 1 μL water of polymer film and enzyme electrode. As a result, the cholesterol biosensor suggested in this study is easy to prepare and is highly cost-effective. This composite (PPy-DBS) can supply a biocompatible and electrochemical microenvironment for immobilization of the enzyme, making this material a good candidate for the fabrication of highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensors.

  7. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  8. Water-dispersible triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene: Preparation, characterization and application as an amperometric glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qunxiang; Feng, Li; Fan, Ronghua; Ge, Xin; Sun, Yingying, E-mail: syyxiluda@hotmail.com

    2016-11-01

    The triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene (TFGn) was prepared using graphene oxide (GO) and triethylenetetramine as raw materials through a one-step reaction under alkaline condition. The triethylenetetramine not only acted as cross-linker to combine GO, but also as reductant of GO. The TFGn was characterized by its ultraviolet spectrum (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that triethylenetetramine was successfully grafted onto the surface of the GO through covalent bonding between amine and epoxy groups. The resultant TFGn was uniformly dispersed in water over several weeks, suggesting that the introduction of amino groups greatly increased the hydrophilicity of TFGn. The triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene was then applied to fabricate glucose biosensors with IO{sub 4}{sup −} oxidized glucose oxidase (GOx) through layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly by the covalent bonding between the aldehyde groups of GOx and amino groups of TFGn. The gold electrodes modified with the (GOx/TFGn){sub n} multilayer films were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and showed outstanding electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocenemethanol was used as an artificial redox mediator. The response increased with an increasing number of GOx/TFGn bilayers, indicating that the analytical performance, such as the sensitivity of the glucose biosensor, could be adjusted by tuning the number of deposited GOx/TFGn bilayers. The linear response range of the biosensor constructed with six bilayers of GOx/TFGn to the concentration of glucose can extend to at least 8 mM with a sensitivity of 19.9 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. In addition, the sensor exhibited good stability due to the covalent interactions between the GOx and TFGn. - Highlights: • Water-dispersible triethylenetetramine

  9. A portable measuring system for a competitive binding glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Lydia E.; Means, A. Kristen; Grunlan, Melissa A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2018-02-01

    Central to minimizing the long- and short-term complications associated with diabetes is careful monitoring and maintenance of blood glucose at normal levels. Towards replacing conventionally used finger-prick glucose testing, indwelling continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) based on amperometric electrodes have been introduced to the market. Envisioned to lead to a CGM with an increased lifetime, we report herein a fluorescently-labeled competitive binding assay contained within a hydrogel membrane whose glucose response is measured via a novel portable system. The optical system design included a laser source, bifurcated fiber, laser filter and simple fiber coupled spectrometer to obtain the change in FRET pair ratio of the assay. Glucose response of the assay in free solution was measured using this system across the physiologic range (0-200 mg/dL). The FRET pair ratio signal was seen to increase with glucose and the standard error of calibration was 22.42 mg/dL with a MARD value of 14.85%. When the assay was contained within the hydrogel membrane's central cavity and similarly analyzed, the standard error increased but the assay maintained its reversibility.

  10. A new amperometric method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli density using a self-assembled monolayer-based bienzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui; Zhang Wen; Geng Ping; Wang Qingjiang; Jin Litong; Wu Zirong; Lou Min

    2006-01-01

    A new amperometric method was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) density using a bienzyme biosensor. The bienzyme biosensor was fabricated based on the covalent immobilization of laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The bienzyme biosensor showed a high sensitivity in determination of the polyphenolic compounds, which was microbially generated from the salicylic acid (SA) added into the culture medium during the course of E. coli metabolism. Since the amount of polyphenolic compounds depends on E. coli density, the bienzyme biosensor was applied for the rapid and high sensitive detection of E. coli density after the E. coli solution was incubated in culture medium with salicylic acid for 2.5 h at 37 deg. C. By chronoamperometry, the amplified response current was obtained at the bienzyme biosensor, due to the substrate recycling of the polyphenolic compounds driven by bienzyme-catalyzed oxidation and electrochemical reduction. The amplified response current at the biosensor was linear with the E. coli density ranging from 1.6 x 10 3 to 1.0 x 10 7 cells/mL. The bienzyme biosensor could detect the E. coli density with a detection limit of 9.7 x 10 2 cells/mL within 3 h

  11. Detection of triglyceride using an iridium nano-particle catalyst based amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triglyceride (TG) using an iridium nano-particle modified carbon based biosensor was successfully carried out in this study. The detection procedures were based on the electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced NADH. TG was hydrolyzed by lipase and the glycerol produced was catalytically oxidized by NAD-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase producing NADH in a solution containing NAD(+). Glyceryl tributyrate, a short chain triglyceride, was chosen as the substrate for the evaluation of this TG biosensor in bovine serum and human serum. A linear response to glyceryl tributyrate in the concentration range of 0 to 10 mM and a sensitivity of 7.5 nA mM(-1) in bovine serum and 7.0 nA mM(-1) in human serum were observed experimentally. The potential interference of species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was assessed. The incorporation of a selected surfactant and an increase in the incubation temperature appeared to enhance the performance of this biosensor. The conditions for the determination of TG levels in bovine serum using this biosensor were optimized, with sunflower seed oil being used as an analyte to simulate the detection of TG in blood. The experimental results demonstrated that this iridium nano-particle modified working electrode based biosensor provided a relatively simple means for the accurate determination of TG in serum.

  12. Smartphone based non-invasive salivary glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time. We used various means for improvements such as the use of slope method instead of differential response; use of a responsive pH indicator and made numerous tweaks in the smartphone app. Calibration with spiked saliva samples with slopes for (R + G + B) pixels revealed an exponentially increasing calibration curve with a linear detection range of 50-540 mg/dL, sensitivity of 0.0012 pixels sec -1 /mg dL -1 and LOD of 24.6 mg/dL. The biosensor was clinically validated on both healthy and diabetic subjects divided into several categories based on sex, age, diabetic status etc. and correlation between blood and salivary glucose has been established for better standardization of the sensor. Correlation of 0.44 was obtained between blood and salivary glucose in healthy individuals whereas it was 0.64 and 0.94 in case of prediabetic and diabetic patients respectively. The developed biosensor has the potential to be used for mass diagnosis of diabetes especially in such areas where people remain prohibited from routine analysis due to high healthcare cost. Apart from that, a smartphone would be the only device the user needs for this measurement, along with a disposable low cost test strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: mano@crpp-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  14. Sensitive amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds based on graphene-silk peptide/tyrosinase composite nanointerface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ying; Ma, Ming; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Buhai; Wang, Xian; Fang, Huaifang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Chunya

    2013-06-15

    New graphene-silk peptide (Gr-SP) nanosheets were prepared and successfully fabricated with tyrosinase (Tyr) as a novel biosensor for the determination of phenolic compounds. The Gr-SP nanosheets were fully characterized with transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV/Vis and FTIR spectra. The developed biosensors were also characterized with scanning electronic microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Using bisphenol A (BPA) as a model substrate in the sensing system, a number of key factors including the volume of Gr-SP-Tyr solution, the applied potential, pH values, temperature, and the Tyr/Gr-SP ratio that influence the analytical performance of the biosensor were investigated. The biosensor gave a linear response on the concentration ranges of 0.001-16.91 μM for catechol with the sensitivity of 7634 mA M(-1)cm(-2), 0.0015-21.12 μM for phenol with the sensitivity of 4082 mA M(-1)cm(-2), and 0.002-5.48 μM for BPA with the sensitivity of 2511 mA M(-1)cm(-2). The low detection limits were estimated to be 0.23, 0.35 and 0.72 nM (S/N=3) for catechol, phenol and BPA, respectively. The biosensors also exhibit good repeatability and long-term stability. The practical application of the biosensor was also demonstrated by the determination of BPA leaching from commercial plastic drinking bottles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Song, Wenhui; Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 μm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 μM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  16. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 µm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 °C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 µM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  17. An Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Bacterial Sepsis Biomarker, Secretory Phospholipase Group 2-IIA Using a Tri-Enzyme System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nurhanan Nik Mansor

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A tri-enzyme system consisting of choline kinase/choline oxidase/horseradish peroxidase was used in the rapid and specific determination of the biomarker for bacterial sepsis infection, secretory phospholipase Group 2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA. These enzymes were individually immobilized onto the acrylic microspheres via succinimide groups for the preparation of an electrochemical biosensor. The reaction of sPLA2-IIA with its substrate initiated a cascading enzymatic reaction in the tri-enzyme system that led to the final production of hydrogen peroxide, which presence was indicated by the redox characteristics of potassium ferricyanide, K3Fe(CN6. An amperometric biosensor based on enzyme conjugated acrylic microspheres and gold nanoparticles composite coated onto a carbon-paste screen printed electrode (SPE was fabricated and the current measurement was performed at a low potential of 0.20 V. This enzymatic biosensor gave a linear range 0.01–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.98304 with a detection limit recorded at 5 × 10−3 ng/mL towards sPLA2-IIA. Moreover, the biosensor showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD of 3.04% (n = 5. The biosensor response was reliable up to 25 days of storage at 4 °C. Analysis of human serum samples for sPLA2-IIA indicated that the biosensor has potential for rapid bacterial sepsis diagnosis in hospital emergency department.

  18. NIR FRET Fluorophores for Use as an Implantable Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  20. Electrochemical co-reduction synthesis of graphene/nano-gold composites and its application to electrochemical glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene/nano-Au composite was synthesized by electrochemical co-reduction method in one step. • Glucose oxidase achieves direct electrochemistry on the graphene/nano-Au composite film. • The glucose biosensor shows a high sensitivity of 56.93 μA mM −1 cm −2 toward glucose. • Glucose was detected with a wide linear range and low detection limit. - Abstract: A simple, green and controllable approach was employed for electrochemical synthesize of the graphene/nano-Au composites. The process was that graphene oxide and HAuCl 4 was electrochemically co-reduced onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry in one step. The obtained graphene/nano-Au/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 , which resulted in a remarkable decrease in the overpotential of H 2 O 2 electrochemical oxidation compared with bare GCE. Such electrocatalytic behavior of the graphene/nano-Au/GCE permitted effective low-potential amperometric biosensing of glucose via the incorporation of glucose oxidase (GOD) with graphene/nano-Au. An obvious advantage of this enzyme electrode (graphene/nano-Au/GOD/GCE) was that the graphene/nano-Au nanocomposites provided a favorable microenvironment for GOD and facilitated the electron transfer between the active center of GOD and electrode. The immobilized GOD showed a direct, reversible redox reaction. Furthermore, the graphene/nano-Au/GOD/GCE was used as a glucose biosensor, displaying a low detection limit of 17 μM (S/N = 3), a high sensitivity of 56.93 μA mM −1 cm −2 , acceptable reproducibility, very good stability, selectivity and anti-interference ability

  1. A glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on three-dimensional porous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyi; Zhu, Rong; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Man; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2015-08-21

    A novel glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on a three-dimensional (3D) porous kenaf stem-derived carbon (3D-KSC) which was firstly proposed as a novel supporting material to load biomolecules for electrochemical biosensing. Here, an integrated 3D-KSC electrode was prepared by using a whole piece of 3D-KSC to load the GOD molecules for glucose biosensing. The morphologies of integrated 3D-KSC and 3D-KSC/GOD electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM results revealed a 3D honeycomb macroporous structure of the integrated 3D-KSC electrode. The TEM results showed some microporosities and defects in the 3D-KSC electrode. The electrochemical behaviors and electrocatalytic performance of the integrated 3D-KSC/GOD electrode were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effects of pH and scan rates on the electrochemical response of the biosensor have been studied in detail. The glucose biosensor showed a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 14.0 mM with a high sensitivity of 1.73 μA mM(-1) and a low detection limit of 50.75 μM. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor exhibited high selectivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and good stability.

  2. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Lang, Qiaolin; Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-16

    A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP(+)-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP(+) involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current-time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM-1 mM and 2-10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity based on co-immobilization of carbon nanotubes, hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Bi; Ma Ming [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Su Xiaoli, E-mail: xsu@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2010-07-26

    An amperometric penicillin biosensor with enhanced sensitivity was successfully developed by co-immobilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), hematein, and {beta}-lactamase on glassy carbon electrode using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Under catalysis of the immobilized enzyme, penicillin was hydrolyzed, decreasing the local pH. The pH change was monitored amperometrically with hematein as a pH-sensitive redox probe. MWCNTs were used as an electron transfer enhancer as well as an efficient immobilization matrix for the sensitivity enhancement. The effects of immobilization procedure, working potential, enzyme quantity, buffer concentration, and sample matrix were investigated. The biosensor offered a minimum detection limit of 50 nM (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for penicillin V, lower than those of the conventional pH change-based biosensors by more than two orders of magnitude. The electrode-to-electrode variation of the response sensitivity was 7.0% RSD.

  4. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and catalase on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Khodadadian, Mehdi

    2014-03-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and catalase (CAT) were co-immobilized on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GR-IL/GCE) to develop a highly sensitive amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction of ChOx with cholesterol could be reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized CAT to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The direct electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both enzymes showed well-defined redox peaks with quasi-reversible behaviors. An excellent sensitivity of 4.163 mA mM(-1)cm(-2), a response time less than 6s, and a linear range of 0.25-215 μM (R(2)>0.99) have been observed for cholesterol determination using the proposed biosensor. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) was calculated to be 2.32 mM. The bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor showed good reproducibility (RSDsascorbic acid and uric acid. The CAT/ChOx/GR-IL/GCE showed excellent analytical performance for the determination of free cholesterol in human serum samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amperometric biosensor based on prussian blue and nafion modified screen-printed electrode for screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Amine, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive amperometric biosensor was developed for the screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This biosensor was prepared by immobilization of xanthine oxidase on the surface of prussian blue modified screen-printed electrodes using nafion and glutaraldehyde. The developed biosensor showed a linear amperometric response at an applied potential of +0.05 V toward the detection of hypoxanthine from 5 μM to 45 μM with a detection limit of 0.4 μM (S/N=3) and its sensitivity was found to be 600 mA M(-1) cm(-2). In addition, the biosensor exhibited a good storage stability. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol was studied under the optimized conditions. The linear range of allopurinol concentration is obtained up to 2.5 μM with an estimated 50% of inhibitionI50=1.8 μM. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from 13 medicinal plants belonging to different families. Indeed, Moroccan people traditionally use these plants as infusion for the treatment of gout and its related symptoms. For this purpose, water extracts obtained from the infusion of these plants were used for the experiments. In this work, 13 extracts were assayed and several of them demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, with an inhibition greater than 50% compared to spectrophotometry measurements that only few extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of Amperometric Glucose Sensor Using Glucose Oxidase-Cellulose Nanofiber Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuzawa, Mikito; Omura, Yuya; Hiura, Kentaro; Li, Jiang; Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanofiber aqueous solution, which remained virtually transparent for more than one week, was prepared by using the clear upper layer of diluted cellulose nanofiber solution produced by wet jet milling. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was easily dissolved in this solution and GOx-immobilized electrode was easily fabricated by simple repetitious drops of GOx-cellulose solution on the surface of a platinum-iridium electrode. Glucose sensor properties of the obtained electrodes were examined in phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4 at 40°C. The obtained electrode provided a glucose sensor response with significantly high response speed and good linear relationship between glucose concentration and response current. After an initial decrease of response sensitivity for a few days, relatively constant sensitivity was obtained for about 20 days. Nevertheless, the influence of electroactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetoaminophen were not negletable.

  7. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  8. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Juneui; Lim, Sangwoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. ► Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. ► Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis–Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 μA cm −2 mM −1 ) and the lowest Michaelis–Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  9. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Diamine Oxidase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Histamine Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2016-03-24

    This work describes the development and optimization studies of a novel biosensor employed in the detection and quantification of histamine in freshwater fish samples. The proposed biosensor is based on a modified carbon screen-printed electrode with diamineoxidase, graphene and platinum nanoparticles, which detects the hydrogen peroxide formed by the chemical process biocatalysed by the enzyme diamine oxidase and immobilized onto the nanostructurated surface of the receptor element. The amperometric measurements with the biosensor have been implemented in buffer solution of pH 7.4, applying an optimal low potential of +0.4 V. The novel biosensor shows high sensitivity (0.0631 μA·μM), low detection limit (2.54 × 10(-8) M) and a broad linear domain from 0.1 to 300 μM. The applicability in natural complex samples and the analytical parameters of this enzyme sensor have been performed in the quantification of histamine in freshwater fish. An excellent correlation among results achieved with the developed biosensor and results found with the standard method for all freshwater fish samples has been achieved.

  10. Amperometric biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin in poly-allylamine (PAA) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized in poly-allylamine (PAA) film onto the gold electrode by layer by layer (LBL) method. The modified electrode exhibited a pair of well-defined peaks during cyclic voltammetry, which was attributed from the direct electron transfer of heme proteins. The immobilized Hb showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The sensor exhibited a fast response and high sensitivity. Through the use of optimized conditions, the linear range for H 2 O 2 detection was from 2.5 x 10 -6 M to 5 x 10 -4 M with detection limit of 0.2 μM. The proposed biosensor showed long-lasting stability and excellent reproducibility

  11. Zinc oxide nano-rods based glucose biosensor devices fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El Saeid, A. A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Battisha, I. K.

    2018-06-01

    ZnO is distinguished multifunctional material that has wide applications in biochemical sensor devices. For extracellular measurements, Zinc oxide nano-rods will be deposited on conducting plastic substrate with annealing temperature 150 °C (ZNRP150) and silver wire with annealing temperature 250 °C (ZNRW250), for the extracellular glucose concentration determination with functionalized ZNR-coated biosensors. It was performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) over the range from 1 μM to 10 mM and on human blood plasma. The prepared samples crystal structure and surface morphologies were characterized by XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM respectively.

  12. Parsing glucose entry into the brain: novel findings obtained with enzyme-based glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Wakabayashi, Ken T

    2015-01-21

    Extracellular levels of glucose in brain tissue reflect dynamic balance between its gradient-dependent entry from arterial blood and its use for cellular metabolism. In this work, we present several sets of previously published and unpublished data obtained by using enzyme-based glucose biosensors coupled with constant-potential high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats. First, we consider basic methodological issues related to the reliability of electrochemical measurements of extracellular glucose levels in rats under physiologically relevant conditions. Second, we present data on glucose responses induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by salient environmental stimuli and discuss the relationships between local neuronal activation and rapid glucose entry into brain tissue. Third, by presenting data on changes in NAc glucose induced by intravenous and intragastric glucose delivery, we discuss other mechanisms of glucose entry into the extracellular domain following changes in glucose blood concentrations. Lastly, by showing the pattern of NAc glucose fluctuations during glucose-drinking behavior, we discuss the relationships between "active" and "passive" glucose entry to the brain, its connection to behavior-related metabolic activation, and the possible functional significance of these changes in behavioral regulation. These data provide solid experimental support for the "neuronal" hypothesis of neurovascular coupling, which postulates the critical role of neuronal activity in rapid regulation of vascular tone, local blood flow, and entry of glucose and oxygen to brain tissue to maintain active cellular metabolism.

  13. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wen Wei; Xiong Huayu; Zhang Xiuhua; Gu Haoshuang; Wang Shengfu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the assembly process of SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE. Highlights: ► SOD was immobilized in gold nanoparticles-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) film. ► The biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNPs-CS-IL onto GCE. ► The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for O 2 · − real-time analysis. - Abstract: A novel superoxide anion (O 2 · − ) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257 V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O 2 · − , the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response ( 3 nM), low detection limit (1.7 nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O 2 · − . The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O 2 · − in biological systems.

  14. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-12-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 at -0.20 and +0.30 V vs. SCE, respectively, and the results were compared with other similarly modified electrodes existing in the literature. An interference study and recovery measurements in natural samples were successfully performed, indicating these architectures to be good and promising biosensor platforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Amperometric glucose sensor based on enhanced catalytic reduction of oxygen using glucose oxidase adsorbed onto core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Aijun [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Li Yongfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Li Zhonghua [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Feng Jiuju, E-mail: jjfengnju@gmail.com [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Sun Yanli [Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Chen Jianrong [College of Geography and Environmental Science, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Monodisperse Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared under facile solvothermal conditions and successively functionalized with silica and Au to form core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au NPs. Furthermore, the samples were used as matrix to construct a glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilized GOD retained its bioactivity with high protein load of 3.92 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, and exhibited a surface-controlled quasi-reversible redox reaction, with a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 7.98 {+-} 0.6 s{sup -1}. The glucose biosensor showed a broad linear range up to 3.97 mM with high sensitivity of 62.45 {mu}A{center_dot}mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and fast response (less than 5 s). - Graphical abstract: Core-shell structured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au nanoparticles were prepared and used as matrix to construct an amperometric glucose sensor based on glucose oxidase, which showed broad linear range, high sensitivity, and fast response. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-silica-Au nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Construction of a novel glucose sensor with wide linear range, high sensitivity and fast response.

  16. Polypyrrole-based bilayer nitrate amperometric biosensor with an integrated permselective poly-ortho-phenylenediamine layer for exclusion of inorganic interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloju, Samuel B; Sohail, Manzar

    2011-07-15

    A bilayer amperometric nitrate biosensor with an integrated permselective layer has been developed for exclusion of inorganic anion and cation interferences. The inner PPy(polypyrrole)-NaR-NADH layer of the biosensor is formed by galvanostatic polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in presence of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), followed by formation of the outer permselective poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (P-o-PDA) layer by potentiodynamic polymerization of ortho-phenylenediamine (o-PDA). The exclusion efficiency (E(eff)) of the outer layer in rejecting inorganic cation and anion interferences is evaluated by a new proposed relationship. 73-87% and 47-84% of anion and cation interferences, respectively, were efficiently rejected with the permselective layer. Further improvement in the exclusion efficiency for cations was accomplished by combining the use of the outer layer with the addition of 1mM EDTA into the measurement solution. The addition of EDTA improved the E(eff) achieved for cation rejection by 10-40% to give net E(eff) of 89-94%. The inclusion of the outer layer also aided the retention of NaR and NADH in the inner PPy-NaR-NADH layer and, hence, enabled improved amperometric detection of nitrate, achieving a detection limit of 0.20 μM and a linear concentration range of 10-500 μM with a 3.4%rsd (n=10). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunqing; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L

    2016-03-17

    The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5-20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase onto a screen-printed platinum electrode. An electrochemical method was utilized for the quantitative detection of glucose in both buffer solution and saliva samples. A standard spectrophotometric technique was used as a reference method to validate the glucose content of each sample. The disposable glucose sensors have a detection limit of 0.41 mg/dL, a sensitivity of 0.24 μA·s·dL·mg(-1), a linear range of 0.5-20 mg/dL in buffer solution, and a response time of 30 s. A study of 10 healthy subjects was conducted, and SG levels between 1.1 to 10.1 mg/dL were successfully detected. The results revealed that the noninvasive SG monitoring could be an alternative for diabetes self-management at home. This paper is not intended to replace regular BG tests, but to study SG itself as an indicator for the quality of diabetes care. It can potentially help patients control and monitor their health conditions, enabling them to comply with prescribed treatments for diabetes.

  18. An amperometric enzyme electrode and its biofuel cell based on a glucose oxidase-poly(3-anilineboronic acid)-Pd nanoparticles bionanocomposite for glucose biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingen; Ma, Yixuan; Zhang, Pei; Chao, Long; Huang, Ting; Xie, Qingji; Chen, Chao; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-06-01

    A new amperometric enzyme electrode and its biofuel cell were fabricated based on a glucose oxidase (GOx)-poly(3-anilineboronic acid) (PABA)-Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) bionanocomposite for biosensing of glucose. Briefly, Pd was electroplated on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-modified Au electrode, and the GOx-PABA-PdNPs bionanocomposite was prepared on the Pd(plate)/MWCNTs/Au electrode through the chemical oxidation of a GOx-3-anilineboronic acid adduct by Na2PdCl4, followed by electrode-modification with an outer-layer chitosan (CS) film. The thus-prepared CS/GOx-PABA-PdNPs/Pd(plate)/MWCNTs/Au electrode exhibited a linear amperometric response to glucose concentration from 2.0 μM to 4.5 mM with a sensitivity of 160 μA/mM/cm(2), sub-μM detection limit, and excellent operation/storage stability in the first-generation biosensing mode, as well as excellent analytical performance in the second-generation biosensing mode. The good recoveries of glucose obtained from spiked urine samples revealed the application potential of our amperometric enzyme electrode. In addition, a glucose/O2 biofuel cell was constructed using this enzyme electrode as the anode and a Pt/MWCNTs/Au electrode as the cathode, and this biofuel cell as a self-powered biosensing device showed a linear voltage response to glucose concentration from 100 μM to 13.5 mM with a sensitivity of 43.5 mV/mM/cm(2) and excellent operation/storage stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel combined thermometric and amperometric biosensor for lactose determination based on immobilised cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, Maria; Buzas, Orsolya; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Larsson, Per-Olof; Gorton, Lo; Danielsson, Bengt

    2012-01-15

    A novel method for lactose determination in milk is proposed. It is based on oxidation of lactose by cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, immobilised in an enzyme reactor. The reactor was prepared by cross-linking CDH onto aminopropyl-silanised controlled pore glass (CPG) beads using glutaraldehyde. The combined biosensor worked in flow injection analysis (FIA) mode and was developed for simultaneous monitoring of the thermometric signal associated with the enzymatic oxidation of lactose using p-benzoquinone as electron acceptor and the electrochemically generated current associated with the oxidation of the hydroquinone formed. A highly reproducible linear response for lactose was obtained between 0.05 mM and 30 mM. For a set of more than 500 samples an R.S.D. of less than 10% was achieved. The assay time was ca. 2 min per sample. The sensor was applied for the determination of lactose in dairy milk samples (milk with a fat content of 1.5% or 3% and also "lactose free" milk). No sample preparation except dilution with buffer was needed. The proposed method is rapid, suitable for repeated use and allows the possibility to compare results from two different detection methods, thus providing a built-in quality assurance. Some differences in the response observed between the methods indicate that the dual approach can be useful in mechanistic studies of redox enzymes. In addition, a dual system opens up interesting possibilities for studies of enzyme properties and mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitive detection of maltose and glucose based on dual enzyme-displayed bacteria electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Shi, Jianguo

    2017-01-15

    Glucoamylase-displayed bacteria (GA-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase-displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were co-immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor. The biosensor was developed by optimizing the loading amount and the ratio of GA-bacteria to GDH-bacteria. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 0.2-10mM and a low detection limit of 0.1mM maltose (S/N=3). The biosensor also had a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.1-2.0mM and a low detection limit of 0.04mM glucose (S/N=3). Interestingly, at the same concentration, glucose was 3.75-fold sensitive than that of maltose at the proposed biosensor. No interferences were observed for other possible mono- and disaccharides. The biosensor also demonstrated good long-term storage stability and repeatability. Further, using both GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor and GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor, glucose and maltose in real samples can be detected. Therefore, the proposed biosensor is capable of monitoring the food manufacturing and fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods on a glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huiyu; Yang Liuqing; Ren Xiangling; Tang Fangqiong; Ren Jun; Chen Dong

    2010-01-01

    A new glucose biosensor based on the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods (GNRs) is reported here. The biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a platinum (Pt) electrode by a composite film consisting of GNRs, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and glutaraldehyde. GNRs were synthesized by a gold seed-mediated cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant-assisted approach. The fabrication, characterization and analytical performance of the glucose biosensor based on GNRs are described in this paper. Moreover, the modulation of the biosensor by the photothermal effect based on the unique surface plasma resonance (SPR) property of GNRs was investigated for the first time. The results show that the current response of a glucose biosensor can significantly increase, induced by the electrical conductivity and photothermal effect of GNRs.

  2. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yihao; Lu, Siyuan; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Yan; Qu, Zhe; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Xinyan; Feng, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery–powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The ...

  3. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihao; Lu, Siyuan; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Yan; Qu, Zhe; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Xinyan; Feng, Xue

    2017-12-01

    Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery-powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The designed subcutaneous ETCs drive intravascular blood glucose out of the vessel and transport it to the skin surface. The ultrathin (~3 μm) nanostructured biosensor, with high sensitivity (130.4 μA/mM), fully absorbs and measures the glucose, owing to its extreme conformability. We conducted in vivo human clinical trials. The noninvasive measurement results for intravascular blood glucose showed a high correlation (>0.9) with clinically measured blood glucose levels. The system opens up new prospects for clinical-grade noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring.

  4. A highly performing electrochemiluminescent biosensor for glucose based on a polyelectrolyte-chitosan modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hong; Wu Xiaoping; Xu Huifeng; Wang Youmei; Chi Yuwu; Chen Guonan

    2009-01-01

    A highly performing ECL glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) onto a membrane modified glassy carbon electrode, which was prepared by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) doped with chitosan. In order to obtain the optimal performance of the ECL biosensor, the composition of modified membranes and a series of measurement conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, this ECL biosensor was able to detect glucose in the range of 0.5-4.0 x 10 4 nM with a detection limit of 0.1 nM (defined as the concentration that could be detected at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation was 0.99% for 5 x 10 -8 mol/L glucose in repetitive measurements in the primary 12 potential cycles. This ECL biosensor offered the effectively improved stability of the electron transfer mediator and exhibited excellent properties for the ultrasensitive and selective determination of glucose with good reproducibility and stability. The present biosensor has also been used to determine the glucose concentrations in real serum samples. The recovery value for the assay of glucose ranged from 96.2 to 107% in the serum samples. The present biosensor displayed both specificity for glucose and retention of signal response even in a complex environment. Therefore, it provided an approach to the sensitive determination of glucose.

  5. A Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase in Chitosan Matrix Cross-linked with Glyoxal for Amperometric Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Xiang Wang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 was developed viaan easy and effective enzyme immobilization method with the “sandwich” configuration:ferrocene-chitosan: HRP: chitosan-glyoxal using a glassy carbon electrode as the basicelectrode. In order to prevent the loss of immobilized HRP under optimized conditions,the biosensor surface was cross-linked with glyoxal. Ferrocene was selected andimmobilized on the glassy carbon electrode surface as a mediator. The fabricationprocedure was systematically optimized to improve the biosensor performance. Thebiosensor had a fast response of less than 10 s to H2O2, with a linear range of 3.5×10-5 to1.1×10-3 M, and a detection limit of 8.0×10-6 M based on S/N = 3.

  6. Isolation and characterization of mutated alcohol oxidases from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha with decreased affinity toward substrates and their use as selective elements of an amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuhmann Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, rapid, and economic on-line analysis of ethanol is very desirable. However, available biosensors achieve saturation at very low ethanol concentrations and thus demand the time and labour consuming procedure of sample dilution. Results Hansenula polymorpha (Pichia angusta mutant strains resistant to allyl alcohol in methanol medium were selected. Such strains possessed decreased affinity of alcohol oxidase (AOX towards methanol: the KM values for AOX of wild type and mutant strains CA2 and CA4 are shown to be 0.62, 2.48 and 1.10 mM, respectively, whereas Vmax values are increased or remain unaffected. The mutant AOX alleles from H. polymorpha mutants CA2 and CA4 were isolated and sequenced. Several point mutations in the AOX gene, mostly different between the two mutant alleles, have been identified. Mutant AOX forms were isolated and purified, and some of their biochemical properties were studied. An amperometric biosensor based on the mutated form of AOX from the strain CA2 was constructed and revealed an extended linear response to the target analytes, ethanol and formaldehyde, as compared to the sensor based on the native AOX. Conclusion The described selection methodology opens up the possibility of isolating modified forms of AOX with further decreased affinity toward substrates without reduction of the maximal velocity of reaction. It can help in creation of improved ethanol biosensors with a prolonged linear response towards ethanol in real samples of wines, beers or fermentation liquids.

  7. Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Displayed on Yeast Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    The conventional enzyme-based biosensor requires chemical or physical immobilization of purified enzymes on electrode surface, which often results in loss of enzyme activity and/or fractions immobilized over time. It is also costly. A major advantage of yeast surface display is that it enables the direct utilization of whole cell catalysts with eukaryote-produced proteins being displayed on the cell surface, providing an economic alternative to traditional production of purified enzymes. Herein, we describe the details of the display of glucose oxidase (GOx) on yeast cell surface and its application in the development of electrochemical glucose sensor. In order to achieve a direct electrochemistry of GOx, the entire cell catalyst (yeast-GOx) was immobilized together with multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the electrode, which allowed sensitive and selective glucose detection.

  8. Design and development of amperometric biosensor for the detection of lead and mercury ions in water matrix-a permeability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpu, Manju Bhargavi; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2017-07-01

    Intake of water contaminated with lead (Pb 2+ ) and mercury (Hg 2+ ) ions leads to various toxic effects and health issues. In this context, an amperometric urease inhibition-based biosensor was developed to detect Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions in water matrix. The modified Pt/CeO 2 /urease electrode was fabricated by immobilizing CeO 2 nanoparticles and urease using a semi-permeable adsorption layer of nafion. With urea as a substrate, urease catalytic activity was examined through cyclic voltammetry. Further, maximum amperometric inhibitive response of the modified Pt/CeO 2 /urease electrode was observed in the presence of Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions due to the urease inhibition at specific potentials of -0.03 and 0 V, respectively. The developed sensor exhibited a detection limit of 0.019 ± 0.001 μM with a sensitivity of 89.2 × 10 -3  μA μM -1 for Pb 2+ ions. A detection limit of 0.018 ± 0.003 with a sensitivity of 94.1 × 10 -3  μA μM -1 was achieved in detecting Hg 2+ ions. The developed biosensor showed a fast response time (<1 s) with a linear range of 0.5-2.2 and 0.02-0.8 μM for Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions, respectively. The modified electrode offered a good stability for 20 days with a good repeatability and reproducibility. The developed sensor was used to detect Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ ions contaminating Cauvery river water and the observed results were in good co-ordination with atomic absorption spectroscopic data.

  9. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A reagentless enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose based on upconverting glasses, as excitation source, and chemically modified glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barrio, Melisa; Cases, Rafael; Cebolla, Vicente; Hirsch, Thomas; de Marcos, Susana; Wilhelm, Stefan; Galbán, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Upon near-infrared excitation Tm(3+)+Yb(3+) doped fluorohafnate glasses present upconversion properties and emit visible light. This property permits to use these glasses (UCG) as excitation sources for fluorescent optical biosensors. Taking this into account, in this work a fluorescent biosensor for glucose determination is designed and evaluated. The biosensor combines the UCG and the fluorescence of the enzyme glucose oxidase chemically modified with a fluorescein derivative (GOx-FS), whose intensity is modified during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. Optical parameters have been optimized and a mathematical model describing the behavior of the analytical signal is suggested. Working in FIA mode, the biosensor responds to glucose concentrations up to, at least, 15mM with a limit of detection of 1.9mM. The biosensor has a minimum lifetime of 9 days and has been applied to glucose determination in drinks. The applicability of the sensor was tested by glucose determination in two fruit juices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose Sensing Using Capacitive Biosensor Based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambran Hartono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film-based capacitive biosensor was developed for glucose sensing. This device consists of a PVDF film sandwiched between two electrodes. A capacitive biosensor measures the dielectric properties of the dielectric layers at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode. A glucose oxidase (GOx enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode to oxidize glucose. In practice, the biochemical reaction of glucose with the GOx enzyme generates free electron carriers. Consequently, the potential difference between the electrodes is increased, resulting in a measurable voltage output of the biosensor. The device was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 0.013 to 5.85 M, and various GOx enzyme concentrations between 4882.8 and 2.5 million units/L. We found that the sensor output increased with increasing glucose concentration up to 5.85 M. These results indicate that the PVDF film-based capacitive biosensors can be properly applied to glucose sensing and provide opportunities for the low-cost fabrication of glucose-based biosensors based on PVDF materials.

  12. Chitosan coated on the layers' glucose oxidase immobilized on cysteamine/Au electrode for use as glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawen; Li, Yunqiu; Wu, Wenjian; Jiang, Yuren; Hu, Biru

    2014-10-15

    A glucose biosensor was developed via direct immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) by self-assembled cysteamine monolayer on Au electrode surface followed by coating chitosan on the surface of electrode. In this work, chitosan film was coated on the surface of GOD as a protection film to ensure the stability and biocompatibility of the constructed glucose biosensor. The different application ranges of sensors were fabricated by immobilizing varied layers of GOD. The modified surface film was characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the fabrication process of the biosensor was confirmed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of ferrocyanide. The performance of cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the absence and presence of 25 mM glucose and ferrocenemethanol showed a diffusion-controlled electrode process and reflected the different maximum currents between the different GOD layers. With the developed glucose biosensor, the detection limits of the two linear responses are 49.96 μM and 316.8 μM with the sensitivities of 8.91 μA mM(-1)cm(-2) and 2.93 μA mM(-1)cm(-2), respectively. In addition, good stability (up to 30 days) of the developed biosensor was observed. The advantages of this new method for sensors construction was convenient and different width ranges of detection can be obtained by modified varied layers of GOD. The sensor with two layers of enzyme displayed two current linear responses of glucose. The present work provided a simplicity and novelty method for producing biosensors, which may help design enzyme reactors and biosensors in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on core-shell organosilica-chitosan nanospheres and multiwall carbon nanotubes composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shihong; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Yin Bin; Li Wenjun; Min Ligen

    2009-01-01

    The application of the composites of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and core-shell organosilica-chitosan crosslinked nanospheres as an immobilization matrix for the construction of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) biosensor was described. MWNTs and positively charged organosilica-chitosan nanospheres were dispersed in acetic acid solution (0.6 wt%) to achieve organosilica-chitosan/MWNTs composites, which were cast onto a glass carbon electrode (GCE) surface directly. And then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), as a model enzyme, was immobilized onto it through electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged organosilica-chitosan nanospheres and HRP. The direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at HRP/organosilica-chitosan/MWNTs/GCE, which exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 . The catalysis currents increased linearly to H 2 O 2 concentration in a wide range of 7.0 x 10 -7 to 2.8 x 10 -3 M, with a sensitivity of 49.8 μA mM -1 cm -2 and with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10 -7 M at 3σ. A Michaelies-Menten constant K M app value was estimated to be 0.32 mM, indicating a high-catalytic activity of HRP. Moreover, the proposed biosensor displayed a rapid response to H 2 O 2 and possessed good stability and reproducibility. When used to detect H 2 O 2 concentration in disinfector samples and sterilized milks, respectively, it showed satisfactory results

  14. Amperometric biosensor for total monoamines using a glassy carbon paste electrode modified with human monoamine oxidase B and manganese dioxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, Maximilian; Telsnig, Dietlind; Teubl, Christian; Ortner, Astrid; Kalcher, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Wallner, Silvia; Edmondson, Dale

    2015-01-01

    We have prepared a biosensor for the determination of the total monoamine content in complex matrices by immobilizing a human monoamine oxidase B (hMAO B) on a glassy carbon paste electrode and adding manganese dioxide microparticles as the mediator. The enzyme hMAO B (expressed in Pichia pastoris and immobilized by using a dialysis membrane) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of monoamines, and this results in the formation of the corresponding aldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. The latter was detected at pH 7.5 at a working voltage of 400 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) by differential pulse voltammetry and amperometrically by applying flow injection analysis. Analytical parameters were established by using phenylethylamine (PEA) as a standard substrate. Peak height and concentration of PEA are linearly related in the 0.5 to 150 μg mL −1 concentration range, and the limits of detection and of quantification are 0.15 and 0.5 μg mL −1 of PEA, respectively. Substrate specificity was investigated with different monoamines including PEA, serotonin, benzylamine, dopamine, tyramine, and norepinephrine. The applicability of the biosensor was successfully tested in a commercial fish sauce that served as a complex matrix. The total monoamine content was calculated as PEA-equivalents. (author)

  15. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  16. Design of a macroalgae amperometric biosensor; application to the rapid monitoring of organophosphate insecticides in an agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, G S; Lins, J A P; Silva, F G S; Araujo, L C; Silva, F E P S; Mendonça, C D; Badea, M; Hayat, A; Marty, J-L

    2014-09-01

    The immobilization of enzymes onto transducer support is a mature technology and has been successfully implemented to improve biocatalytic processes for diverse applications. However, there exists still need to design more sophisticated and specialized strategies to enhance the functional properties of the biosensors. In this work, a biosensor platform based on innovative fabrication strategy was designed, and employed for the detection of organophosphate (OP) in natural waters. The biosensor was prepared by incorporating acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) to the graphite paste modified with tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) mediator, along with the use of a macroalgae (Cladaphropsis membranous) as a functional immobilization support. The novel immobilization design resulted in a synergic effect, and led to enhanced stability and sensitivity of the biosensor. The designed biosensor was used to analyze methyl parathion OP insecticide in water samples collected from a demonstrably contaminated lake of São Luis Island, Maranhão, Northeast of Brazil. Water analysis revealed that the aquatic ecosystem was polluted by sub-ppm concentrations of the OP insecticide, and a good correlation was found between values obtained through biosensor and GC-MS techniques. Our results demonstrated that macroalgae-biosensor could be used as a low-cost and sensitive screening method to detect target analyte. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Capability of parasulfonato calix[6]arene, as an anion dopant, and organic solvents in enhancing the sensitivity and loading of glucose oxidase (GOx) on polypyrrole film in a biosensor: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnavadeh, Vahideh; Zare, Karim; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effects of two solvents (acetonitrile and water) and an anion dopant (para sulfonato calix[6]arene ((C[6]S)(-6))), on the manufacturing and properties of a polypyrrole (Ppy)-based, glucose oxidase amperometric biosensor were studied. Pyrrole was polymerized using galvanostatic mode in two different solvents, and the effect of (C[6]S)(-6) was studied in aqueous solution. The morphology of the obtained polypyrrole films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Glucose oxidase (GOx) was adsorbed on the Ppy films via cross-linking method. Then the amperometric responses of the Pt/Ppy/GOx electrodes were measured using the amperometric method at the potential of 0.7 V in steps of adding a glucose solution to a potassium phosphate buffer. We found that acetonitrile and (C[6]S)(-6) increase the sensitivity of the enzyme electrode up to 79.30 µA M(-1)cm(-2) in comparison with 31.60 μA M(-1)cm(-2) for the electrode synthesized in calixarene free aqueous solvent. Also (C[6]S)(-6) has the main role in preventing leaching the enzyme from the electrode. This fact increases loading of the enzyme and stability of the biosensor. So that the steady state current density of the aforementioned electrode increases linearly with increasing glucose concentration up to 190 mM. Whereas the linearity was observed up to 61 mM and 80 mM for the electrodes made using calixarene free acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  19. Optical biosensor optimized for continuous in-line glucose monitoring in animal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tric, Mircea; Lederle, Mario; Neuner, Lisa; Dolgowjasow, Igor; Wiedemann, Philipp; Wölfl, Stefan; Werner, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Biosensors for continuous glucose monitoring in bioreactors could provide a valuable tool for optimizing culture conditions in biotechnological applications. We have developed an optical biosensor for long-term continuous glucose monitoring and demonstrated a tight glucose level control during cell culture in disposable bioreactors. The in-line sensor is based on a commercially available oxygen sensor that is coated with cross-linked glucose oxidase (GOD). The dynamic range of the sensor was tuned by a hydrophilic perforated diffusion membrane with an optimized permeability for glucose and oxygen. The biosensor was thoroughly characterized by experimental data and numerical simulations, which enabled insights into the internal concentration profile of the deactivating by-product hydrogen peroxide. The simulations were carried out with a one-dimensional biosensor model and revealed that, in addition to the internal hydrogen peroxide concentration, the turnover rate of the enzyme GOD plays a crucial role for biosensor stability. In the light of this finding, the glucose sensor was optimized to reach a long functional stability (>52 days) under continuous glucose monitoring conditions with a dynamic range of 0-20 mM and a response time of t 90  ≤ 10 min. In addition, we demonstrated that the sensor was sterilizable with beta and UV irradiation and only subjected to minor cross sensitivity to oxygen, when an oxygen reference sensor was applied. Graphical abstract Measuring setup of a glucose biosensor in a shake flask for continuous glucose monitoring in mammalian cell culture.

  20. Direct electrodeposition of highly ordered gold nanotube arrays for use in non-enzymatic amperometric sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Taolei; Dong, Junping; Xu, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe vertically aligned gold nanotube arrays (Au-NTAs) and gold nanowire arrays (Au-NWAs) that were directly grown in alumina oxide templates by galvanostatic deposition. The morphology of the gold arrays can be controlled by adjusting the pH value of the plating bath. Scanning electron microscopy shows the nanoarrays to be highly ordered (with an average length of around 2 μm), and the opening width of the gold nanotube arrays to be uniform (with diameters of around 50 nm). The electrocatalytic activities of the Au-NTAs and Au-NWAs deposited on a glassy carbon electrode toward glucose oxidation were compared by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry at pH 7.2. The Au-NTAs yield higher amperometric currents. The respective glucose sensor, when operated at a working potential of 0.25 V (vs. SCE), exhibits a linear range that extends from 5 μM to 16.4 mM concentrations of glucose, a sensitivity of 44.2 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2, and a detection limit of 2.1 μM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The excellent sensing performance is attributed to the large surface area and the fast electron transfer rate for the one-dimensional gold nanoarrays (author)

  1. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  2. Electro chemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped Cd Se QDs for Sensing Glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, E. Y.; Ye, J. H.; Choi, S. H.; Jung, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electro chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se quantum dots (QDs) was fabricated by the immobilization of Cd Se QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with 4-amino thiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized onto the fabricated Cd Se QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a fluorescence spectrometer (PL), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  3. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdSe QDs for Sensing Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by the immobilization of CdSe QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE with 4-aminothiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized onto the fabricated CdSe QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, a fluorescence spectrometer (PL, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  4. Novel glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles and glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Ying, S.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor is presented as that based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) and glucose oxidase. The sensor exhibits a better differential pulse voltammetric response towards glucose than the one based on conventional gold nanoparticles of the same size. This is attributed to the good biological conductivity and biocompatibility of HGNs. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor displays a linear range from 2.0 x 10 -6 to 4.6 x 10 -5 M of glucose, with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -6 M (S/N = 3). Good reproducibility, stability and no interference make this biosensor applicable to the determination of glucose in samples such as sports drinks. (author)

  5. Single-Step Incubation Determination of miRNAs in Cancer Cells Using an Amperometric Biosensor Based on Competitive Hybridization onto Magnetic Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vargas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an amperometric biosensor for the determination of miRNA-21, a relevant oncogene. The methodology involves a competitive DNA-target miRNA hybridization assay performed on the surface of magnetic microbeads (MBs and amperometric transduction at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs. The target miRNA competes with a synthetic fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-modified miRNA with an identical sequence for hybridization with a biotinylated and complementary DNA probe (b-Cp immobilized on the surface of streptavidin-modified MBs (b-Cp-MBs. Upon labeling, the FITC-modified miRNA attached to the MBs with horseradish peroxidase (HRP-conjugated anti-FITC Fab fragments and magnetic capturing of the MBs onto the working electrode surface of SPCEs. The cathodic current measured at −0.20 V (versus the Ag pseudo-reference electrode was demonstrated to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the target miRNA. This convenient biosensing method provided a linear range between 0.7 and 10.0 nM and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.2 nM (5 fmol in 25 μL of sample for the synthetic target miRNA without any amplification step. An acceptable selectivity towards single-base mismatched oligonucleotides, a high storage stability of the b-Cp-MBs, and usefulness for the accurate determination of miRNA-21 in raw total RNA (RNAt extracted from breast cancer cells (MCF-7 were demonstrated.

  6. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K M app ) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay

  7. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Long, Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China); Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu, Yifeng [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China)

    2015-04-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K{sub M}{sup app}) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay.

  8. Titanium dioxide–cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its glucose biosensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Jang, Sang-Dong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was fabricated by blending TiO 2 nanoparticles and cellulose solution. ► The hybrid nanocomposite has advantages of biodegradability and bio-compatibility of cellulose and physical properties of TiO 2 . ► Enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into the hybrid nanocomposite and covalent bonding between TiO 2 and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. ► Linear response of the glucose biosensor was obtained in the range of 1–10 mM. - Abstract: This paper investigates the fabrication of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )–cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its possibility for a conductometric glucose biosensor. TiO 2 nanoparticles were blended with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp with lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent to fabricate TiO 2 –cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. The enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into this hybrid nanocomposite by physical adsorption method. The successful immobilization of glucose oxidase into TiO 2 –cellulose hybrid nanocomposite via covalent bonding between TiO 2 and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. The linear response of the glucose biosensor is obtained in the range of 1–10 mM. This study demonstrates that TiO 2 –cellulose hybrid nanocomposite can be a potential candidate for an inexpensive, flexible and disposable glucose biosensor.

  9. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jin; Jaroch, David; Rickus, Jenna L; Marshall Porterfield, D [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University (United States); Claussen, Jonathan C; Ul Haque, Aeraj; Diggs, Alfred R [Physiological Sensing Facility, Bindley Bioscience Center and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University (United States); McLamore, Eric S [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida (United States); Calvo-Marzal, Percy, E-mail: porterf@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University (United States)

    2011-09-02

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 {+-} 0.5 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 {mu}M), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  10. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jin; Jaroch, David; Rickus, Jenna L; Marshall Porterfield, D; Claussen, Jonathan C; Ul Haque, Aeraj; Diggs, Alfred R; McLamore, Eric S; Calvo-Marzal, Percy

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 μA mM -1 cm -2 ), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 μM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H 2 O 2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  11. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Claussen, Jonathan C.; McLamore, Eric S.; Haque, Aeraj ul; Jaroch, David; Diggs, Alfred R.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Rickus, Jenna L.; Porterfield, D. Marshall

    2011-09-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 µA mM - 1 cm - 2), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 µM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H2O2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  12. Development of Silicalite/Glucose Oxidase-Based Biosensor and Its Application for Glucose Determination in Juices and Nectars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudchenko, Oleksandr Ye; Pyeshkova, Viktoriya M.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Akata, Burcu; Kasap, Berna O.; Soldatkin, Alexey P.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2016-02-01

    The application of silicalite for improvement of enzyme adsorption on new stainless steel electrodes is reported. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized by two methods: cross-linking by glutaraldehyde (GOx-GA) and cross-linking by glutaraldehyde along with GOx adsorption on silicalite-modified electrode (SME) (GOx-SME-GA). The GOx-SME-GA biosensors were characterized by a four- to fivefold higher sensitivity than GOx-GA biosensor. It was concluded that silicalite together with GA sufficiently enhances enzyme adhesion on stainless steel electrodes. The developed GOx-SME-GA biosensors were characterized by good reproducibility of biosensor preparation (relative standard deviation (RSD)—18 %), improved signal reproducibility (RSD of glucose determination was 7 %), and good storage stability (29 % loss of activity after 18-day storage). A series of fruit juices and nectars was analyzed using GOx-SME-GA biosensor for determination of glucose concentration. The obtained results showed good correlation with the data of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ( R = 0.99).

  13. A novel amperometric biosensor based on banana peel (Musa cavendish) tissue homogenate for determination of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2010-08-01

    In this study the biosensor was constructed by immobilizing tissue homogenate of banana peel onto a glassy carbon electrode surface. Effects of immobilization materials amounts, effects of pH, buffer concentration and temperature on biosensor response were studied. In addition, the detection ranges of 13 phenolic compounds were obtained with the help of the calibration graphs. Storage stability, repeatability of the biosensor, inhibitory effect and sample applications were also investigated. A typical calibration curve for the sensor revealed a linear range of 10-80 microM catechol. In reproducibility studies, variation coefficient and standard deviation were calculated as 2.69%, 1.44 x 10(-3) microM, respectively.

  14. Development of electrochemical biosensors with various types of zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, O. V.; Kucherenko, I. S.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Dudchenko, O. Y.; Akata Kurç, B.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    In the work, different types of zeolites were used for the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors. Zeolites were added to the biorecognition elements of the biosensors and served as additional components of the biomembranes or adsorbents for enzymes. Three types of biosensors (conductometric, amperometric and potentiometric) were studied. The developed biosensors were compared with the similar biosensors without zeolites. The biosensors contained the following enzymes: urease, glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase and were intended for the detection of urea, glucose, glutamate, and acetylcholine, respectively. Construction of the biosensors using the adsorption of enzymes on zeolites has several advantages: simplicity, good reproducibility, quickness, absence of toxic compounds. These benefits are particularly important for the standardization and further mass production of the biosensors. Furthermore, a biosensor for the sucrose determination contained a three-enzyme system (invertase/mutatorase/glucose oxidase), immobilized by a combination of adsorption on silicalite and cross-linking via glutaraldehyde; such combined immobilization demonstrated better results as compared with adsorption or cross-linking separately. The analysis of urea and sucrose concentrations in the real samples was carried out. The results, obtained with biosensors, had high correlation with the results of traditional analytical methods, thus the developed biosensors are promising for practical applications.

  15. Novel, reagentless, amperometric biosensor for uric acid based on a chemically modified screen-printed carbon electrode coated with cellulose acetate and uricase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, M A; Hart, J P

    1994-05-01

    Amperometry in stirred solution has been used for the systematic evaluation of modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) with a view to developing a reagentless biosensor for uric acid. The developed system consists of a base cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) electrode tailored to the electrocatalytic oxidation of H2O2 by means of a cellulose acetate (CA)-uricase bilayer. Uricase was immobilized by drop-coating the enzyme onto the CA membrane covering the CoPC-SPCE. The device exploits the near-universal H2O2-generating propensity of oxidases, the permselectivity of the CA film towards H2O2 and the electrocatalytic oxidation of this product at the CoPC-SPCE. The electrochemical oxidation of the resulting Co+ species was used as the analytical signal, facilitating the application of a greatly reduced operating potential when compared with that required for direct oxidation of H2O2 at unmodified electrodes. The time required to achieve 95% of the steady-state current (t95i(ss)) was 44 s [relative standard deviation = 7.5% (n = 10)]. Amperometric calibrations were linear over the range from 13 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-3) mol dm-3, with the former representing the limit of detection. The CA membrane extended the linear range of the biosensor by over two orders of magnitude, when apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (Km') of immobilized and free enzymes are compared. This suggests that the process is diffusion-controlled and not governed by the kinetics of the enzyme. The precision of electrode fabrication was determined by cyclic voltammetry to be 4.9% (n = 6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Glucose biosensor based on a platinum electrode modified with rhodium nanoparticles and with glucose oxidase immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xishan; Jian, Jinming; Liang, Bo; Ye, Xuesong; Zhang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an enzymatic glucose biosensor that is based on a flat platinum electrode which was covered with electrophoretically deposited rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles and then sintered to form a large surface area. The biosensor was obtained by depositing glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the Rh electrode. The electrical potential and the fractions of Nafion and GOx were optimized. The resulting biosensor has a very high sensitivity (68.1 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 15 mM (r = 0.989). The limit of detection is as low as 0.03 mM (at an SNR of 3). The glucose biosensor also is quite selective and is not interfered by electroactive substances including ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. The lifespan is up to 90 days. It was applied to the determination of glucose in blood serum, and the results compare very well with those obtained with a clinical analyzer. (author)

  17. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang

    2008-11-01

    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (<6 s) and a linearity in the range from 6.7x10(-6) to 1.9x10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 6.28 microA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 6x10(-7) M (S/N=3) for the detection of glucose. The apparent activation energy of enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant are 23.9 kJ mol(-1) and 1.9 mM respectively, which suggests a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. This easy and controllable construction method of glucose biosensor combines the characteristics of the components of the hybrid composites, which favors the fast and sensitive detection of glucose with improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  18. Quantitative detection of glucose level based on radiofrequency patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Tian; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2017-12-15

    A concept for characterizing a radiofrequency (RF) patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures is presented for timely monitoring of an individual's glucose levels based on frequency variation. Two types of patch biosensors-separately integrated with a backside slot (0.53μL) and a front-side tank (0.70μL) structure-were developed to achieve precise and efficient detection while excluding the effects of interference due to the liquidity, shape, and thickness of the tested glucose sample. A glucose test analyte at different concentrations (50-600mg/dL) was dropped into the volume-fixed structures. It fully interacted with the RF patch electromagnetic field, effectively and sensitively changing the resonance frequency and magnitude of the reflection coefficient. Measurement results based on the resonance frequency showed high sensitivity up to 1.13MHz and 1.97MHz per mg/dL, and low detection limits of 26.54mg/dL and 15.22mg/dL, for the two types of patch biosensors, respectively, as well as a short response time of less than 1s. Excellent reusability of the proposed biosensors was verified through three sets of measurements for each individual glucose sample. Regression analysis revealed a good linear correlation between glucose concentrations and the resonance frequency shift. Moreover, to facilitate a multi-parameter-sensitive detection of glucose, the magnitude of the reflection coefficient was also tested, and it showed a good linear correlation with the glucose concentration. Thus, the proposed approach can be adopted for distinguishing glucose solution levels, and it is a potential candidate for early-stage detection of glucose levels in diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and modification of carbon nanotubes electrodes by cold plasmas processes toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luais, E. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Thobie-Gautier, C. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Tailleur, A.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Granier, A.; Tessier, P.Y. [IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Debarnot, D.; Poncin-Epaillard, F. [PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Boujtita, M., E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.f [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2010-11-30

    An electrochemical transducer based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) was prepared as a platform for biosensor development. Prior to enzyme immobilization, the CNT were treated using a microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) in order to functionalize the CNT surface with oxygenated and aminated groups. The morphological aspect of the electrode surface was examined by SEM and its chemical structure was also elucidated by XPS analysis. It was found out that microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) not only functionalizes the CNT but also permits to avoid the collapse phenomena retaining thus the alignment structure of the electrode surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting new material based on CNT were carried out by cyclic voltammetry and were found suitable to develop high sensitive enzyme (HRP) biosensors operating on direct electron transfer process.

  20. Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate-induced nanofibrillarity of polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate electropolymer and application in an amperometric enzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndangili, Peter M.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Muchindu, Munkombwe; Baker, Priscilla G.L.; Ngila, Catherine J.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of nanofibrillar polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate (Pani-PVS) composite by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ferrocenium hexafluorophophate (FcPF 6 ) and its application in mediated-enzyme biosensor using the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H 2 O 2 ) enzyme-substrate system is reported. The electropolymerization was carried out at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) and screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in a strongly acidic medium (HCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that 100 nm diameter nanofibrils were formed on the SPCE in contrast to the 800-1000 nm cauliflower-shaped clusters which were formed in the absence of FcPF 6 . A model biosensor (GCE//Pani-PVS/BSA/HRP/Glu), consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized by drop coating atop the GCE//Pani-PVS in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (glu) in the enzyme layer casting solution, exhibited voltammetric responses characteristic of a mediated-enzyme system. The biosensor response to H 2 O 2 was very fast (5 s) and it exhibited a detection limit of 30 μM (3σ) and a linearity of up to 2 mM (R 2 = 0.998). The relatively high apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value (K M app =1.7mM) of the sensor indicated that the immobilized enzyme was in a biocompatible microenvironment. The freshly prepared biosensor was successfully applied in the determination of the H 2 O 2 content of a commercial tooth whitening gel with a very good recovery rate (97%).

  1. Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate-induced nanofibrillarity of polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate electropolymer and application in an amperometric enzyme biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndangili, Peter M. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Waryo, Tesfaye T., E-mail: twaryo@uwc.ac.z [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Muchindu, Munkombwe; Baker, Priscilla G.L. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Ngila, Catherine J. [School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X541001 Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel I. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2010-05-30

    The formation of nanofibrillar polyaniline-polyvinyl sulfonate (Pani-PVS) composite by electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of ferrocenium hexafluorophophate (FcPF{sub 6}) and its application in mediated-enzyme biosensor using the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (HRP/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) enzyme-substrate system is reported. The electropolymerization was carried out at glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) and screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) in a strongly acidic medium (HCl). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that 100 nm diameter nanofibrils were formed on the SPCE in contrast to the 800-1000 nm cauliflower-shaped clusters which were formed in the absence of FcPF{sub 6}. A model biosensor (GCE//Pani-PVS/BSA/HRP/Glu), consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized by drop coating atop the GCE//Pani-PVS in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutaraldehyde (glu) in the enzyme layer casting solution, exhibited voltammetric responses characteristic of a mediated-enzyme system. The biosensor response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was very fast (5 s) and it exhibited a detection limit of 30 muM (3sigma) and a linearity of up to 2 mM (R{sup 2} = 0.998). The relatively high apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value (K{sub M}{sup app}=1.7mM) of the sensor indicated that the immobilized enzyme was in a biocompatible microenvironment. The freshly prepared biosensor was successfully applied in the determination of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content of a commercial tooth whitening gel with a very good recovery rate (97%).

  2. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gonzalez-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C, pH (4.5, injection flow rate (200 µL min−1, and applied potential (0.4 V. Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1 for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity.

  3. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md Rakibul

    2016-06-29

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075-10 µM and 10-55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  4. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shitanda, Isao [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: shitanda@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2009-08-30

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC{sup '}{sub 50}) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}, respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.

  5. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Monica Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE. Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and Cyclic voltamogram (CV. The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  6. Amperometric screen-printed algal biosensor with flow injection analysis system for detection of environmental toxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Isao; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A screen-printed algal biosensor was fabricated for evaluation of toxicity of chemicals. An algal ink was prepared by mixing unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris cells, carbon nanotubes and sodium alginate solution. The algal ink was immobilized directly on a screen-printed carbon electrode surface using screen-printing technique. Photosynthetically generated oxygen of the immobilized algae was monitored amperometically. Responses of the algal biosensor to four toxic compounds, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-diethylurea (DCMU) were evaluated as inhibition ratios of the reduction current. The concentrations that gave 50% inhibition of the oxygen reduction current (IC ' 50 ) for atrazine and DCMU were 12 and 1 μmol dm -3 , respectively. In comparison with the conventional algal biosensors, in which the algal cells were entrapped in an alginate gel and immobilized on the surface of a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the present sensor is much smaller and less expensive, with the shorter assay time.

  7. Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  8. Fabrication and characterization of spiral interdigitated electrodes based biosensor for salivary glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelyn, P. Y. P.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Kahar, S. M.; Huda, A. R. N.; Lee, H. Cheun

    2017-03-01

    This work introduces the non-invasive glucose monitoring technique by using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technologically fabricated spiral Interdigitated Electrodes (IDE) based biosensor. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image explores the morphology of spiral IDE while Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) determines the elements induced in spiral IDE. Oral saliva of two patients are collected and tested on the spiral IDE sensor with electrical characterization as glucose detection results. However, both patients exhibit their glucose level characteristics inconsistently. Therefore, this work could be extended and enhanced by adding Glutaraldehyde in between 3-Aminoproply)triethoxysilane (APTES) modified and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme immobilized layer with FTIR validation for bonding attachment.

  9. A technology roadmap of smart biosensors from conventional glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Pravin; Sahu, Pratiksha; Gaud, Ram

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this review article is to focus on technology roadmap of smart biosensors from a conventional glucose monitoring system. The estimation of glucose with commercially available devices involves analysis of blood samples that are obtained by pricking finger or extracting blood from the forearm. Since pain and discomfort are associated with invasive methods, the non-invasive measurement techniques have been investigated. The non-invasive methods show advantages like non-exposure to sharp objects such as needles and syringes, due to which there is an increase in testing frequency, improved control of glucose concentration and absence of pain and biohazard materials. This review study is aimed to describe recent invasive techniques and major noninvasive techniques, viz. biosensors, optical techniques and sensor-embedded contact lenses for glucose estimation.

  10. Investigation of a Photoelectrochemical Passivated ZnO-Based Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jung Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A vapor cooling condensation system was used to deposit high quality intrinsic ZnO thin films and intrinsic ZnO nanorods as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET glucose biosensors. The sensing sensitivity of the resulting glucose biosensors operated in the linear range was 13.4 μA mM−1 cm−2. To improve the sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors, the photoelectrochemical method was utilized to passivate the sidewall surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors with passivated ZnO nanorods was significantly improved to 20.33 μA mM−1 cm−2 under the same measurement conditions. The experimental results verified that the sensing sensitivity improvement was the result of the mitigation of the Fermi level pinning effect caused by the dangling bonds and the surface states induced on the sidewall surface of the ZnO nanorods.

  11. Poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole)/polypyrrole composite nanowires for glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hairong; Zhang Aifeng; Sun Yanan; Ru Xiaoning; Ge Dongtao; Shi Wei

    2012-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor based on poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole) (PPyCOOH)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite nanowires was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the nanowires via covalent linkages. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical synthesis route. First, PPy nanowires were synthesized in phosphate buffer solution using organic sulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonate acid, as soft-template. Then, PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were obtained by polymerizing 1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole onto PPy nanowires via electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscopic, FT-IR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms were used to characterize the structural and electrical behaviors of the composite nanowires. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires exhibited uniform diameter, high reactive site (-COOH), large specific surface, excellent electroactivity and good adhesion to electrode. The glucose biosensor was constructed by covalently coupling GOD to the composite nanowires. The biosensor response was rapid (5 s), highly sensitive (33.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) with a wide linear range (up to 10.0 mM) and low detection limit (0.63 μM); it also exhibited high stability and specificity to glucose. The attractive electrochemical and structural properties of PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires suggested potential application for electrocatalysis and biosensor.

  12. Rapid, Sensitive, and Reusable Detection of Glucose by a Robust Radiofrequency Integrated Passive Device Biosensor Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Young; Adhikari, Kishor Kumar; Dhakal, Rajendra; Chuluunbaatar, Zorigt; Wang, Cong; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous demands for sensitive and reliable label-free biosensors have stimulated intensive research into developing miniaturized radiofrequency resonators for a wide range of biomedical applications. Here, we report the development of a robust, reusable radiofrequency resonator based integrated passive device biosensor chip fabricated on a gallium arsenide substrate for the detection of glucose in water-glucose solutions and sera. As a result of the highly concentrated electromagnetic energy between the two divisions of an intertwined spiral inductor coupled with an interdigital capacitor, the proposed glucose biosensor chip exhibits linear detection ranges with high sensitivity at center frequency. This biosensor, which has a sensitivity of up to 199 MHz/mgmL−1 and a short response time of less than 2 sec, exhibited an ultralow detection limit of 0.033 μM and a reproducibility of 0.61% relative standard deviation. In addition, the quantities derived from the measured S-parameters, such as the propagation constant (γ), impedance (Z), resistance (R), inductance (L), conductance (G) and capacitance (C), enabled the effective multi-dimensional detection of glucose. PMID:25588958

  13. Titanium dioxide-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its glucose biosensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Jang, Sang-Dong [Center for EAPap Actuator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehwan, E-mail: jaehwan@inha.ac.kr [Center for EAPap Actuator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was fabricated by blending TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and cellulose solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid nanocomposite has advantages of biodegradability and bio-compatibility of cellulose and physical properties of TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into the hybrid nanocomposite and covalent bonding between TiO{sub 2} and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear response of the glucose biosensor was obtained in the range of 1-10 mM. - Abstract: This paper investigates the fabrication of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its possibility for a conductometric glucose biosensor. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were blended with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp with lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent to fabricate TiO{sub 2}-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. The enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into this hybrid nanocomposite by physical adsorption method. The successful immobilization of glucose oxidase into TiO{sub 2}-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite via covalent bonding between TiO{sub 2} and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. The linear response of the glucose biosensor is obtained in the range of 1-10 mM. This study demonstrates that TiO{sub 2}-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite can be a potential candidate for an inexpensive, flexible and disposable glucose biosensor.

  14. Development of glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles film and glucose oxidase-immobilized eggshell membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari Noor Aini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate; [EMIM][Otf], ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs and eggshell membrane (ESM on a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE for determination of glucose. Glucose oxidase (GOx was covalently immobilized on eggshell membrane with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator to enhance the electron transfer capacity and to ensure stability of both the oxidized and reduced forms in the reaction of enzyme and substrate. The morphological characteristics of microstructures eggshell membranes, chitosan, GOx/ESM, GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM and GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effects of scan rate, time and pH on the response of glucose biosensors were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.5, 50 s, cyclic voltammetry showed different glucose concentrations on the range of 1 × 10−12 to 0.6 M, with a detection limit of 1 × 10−13 M. The GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM was found to be more sensitive as compared to GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT. This developed glucose biosensor detection approach has several advantages such as fast, simple and convenient method, sensitivity, low cost, eco-friendly, low concentrations and remarkable catalytic activities of current signals during glucose reaction.

  15. Optical Fibre Biosensors Using Enzymatic Transducers to Monitor Glucose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scully, P. J.; Betancor, L.; Bolyó, Juraj; Dzyadevych, S.; Guisan, J.M.; Fernández-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Matějec, Vlastimil; O´Kennedy, B.; Podrazký, Ondřej; Rose, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 10 (2007), s. 3177-3186 ISSN 0957-0233 Grant - others:MATINOES(XE) GRD1/2001/40477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : optical fibre biosensor * quenching Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2007

  16. Graphene–gold nanoparticle composite: Application as a good scaffold for construction of glucose oxidase biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabury, Sina [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Sayed Habib, E-mail: habibkazemi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharif, Farhad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we report a facile method for fabrication of glucose oxidase immobilized on the partially reduced graphene–gold nanocomposite (PRGO–AuNPs/GOx) as a novel biosensor for determination of glucose concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the morphology of PRGO and PRGO–AuNPs. Also, fast Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–Vis spectroscopy were used to confirm formation of graphene and graphene–gold composite. Then, the electrochemical behavior of PRGO–AuNPs/GOx modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Our electrochemical studies, especially chronoamperometry (CA), showed that the PRGO–AuNPs/GOx modified electrode has excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the glucose. The limit of detection and sensitivity towards glucose were estimated as 0.06 μM and 15.04 mA mM{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • PGRO–AuNPs modified electrode employed as a reliable scaffold for GODx immobilization. • AuNPs prevent stacking PRGO layers, thus improve the electrochemical behavior of biosensor. • GODx electron transfer was improved because of good interaction with PRGO–AuNP scaffold. • PRGO–AuNP/GODx modified biosensor showed excellent sensitivity towards glucose.

  17. Multifunctional glucose biosensors from Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified chitosan/graphene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Xiaojian; Zou, Ruitao; Wu, Huizi; Shi, Haiyan; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Novel water-dispersible and biocompatible chitosan-functionalized graphene (CG) has been prepared by a one-step ball milling of carboxylic chitosan and graphite. Presence of nitrogen (from chitosan) at the surface of graphene enables the CG to be an outstanding catalyst for the electrochemical biosensors. The resulting CG shows lower ID/IG ratio in the Raman spectrum than other nitrogen-containing graphene prepared using different techniques. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP) are further introduced into the as-synthesized CG for multifunctional applications beyond biosensors such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Carboxyl groups from CG is used to directly immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx) via covalent linkage while incorporation of MNP further facilitated enzyme loading and other unique properties. The resulting biosensor exhibits a good glucose detection response with a detection limit of 16 μM, a sensitivity of 5.658 mA/cm2/M, and a linear detection range up to 26 mM glucose. Formation of the multifunctional MNP/CG nanocomposites provides additional advantages for applications in more clinical areas such as in vivo biosensors and MRI agents. PMID:26052919

  18. Wearable Contact Lens Biosensors for Continuous Glucose Monitoring Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherif, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed Umair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-05-17

    Low-cost, robust, and reusable continuous glucose monitoring systems that can provide quantitative measurements at point-of-care settings is an unmet medical need. Optical glucose sensors require complex and time-consuming fabrication processes, and their readouts are not practical for quantitative analyses. Here, a wearable contact lens optical sensor was created for the continuous quantification of glucose at physiological conditions, simplifying the fabrication process and facilitating smartphone readouts. A photonic microstructure having a periodicity of 1.6 μm was printed on a glucose-selective hydrogel film functionalized with phenylboronic acid. Upon binding with glucose, the microstructure volume swelled, which modulated the periodicity constant. The resulting change in the Bragg diffraction modulated the space between zero- and first-order spots. A correlation was established between the periodicity constant and glucose concentration within 0-50 mM. The sensitivity of the sensor was 12 nm mM -1 , and the saturation response time was less than 30 min. The sensor was integrated with commercial contact lenses and utilized for continuous glucose monitoring using smartphone camera readouts. The reflected power of the first-order diffraction was measured via a smartphone application and correlated to the glucose concentrations. A short response time of 3 s and a saturation time of 4 min was achieved in the continuous monitoring mode. Glucose-sensitive photonic microstructures may have applications in point-of-care continuous monitoring devices and diagnostics at home settings.

  19. A novel amperometric biosensor based on artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) tissue homogenate immobilized in gelatin for hydrogen peroxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, G; Ertaş, F N; Akyilmaz, E; Dinçkaya, E; Tural, H

    2004-01-01

    A biosensor for specific determination of hydrogen peroxide was developed by using homogenized artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) tissue in combination with a dissolved oxygen probe and applied in determination of hydrogen peroxide in milk samples. Artichoke tissue, which has catalase activity, was immobilized with gelatine by means of glutaraldehyde and fixed on a pretreated teflon membrane. The electrode response was maximum when 0.05 M phosphate buffer was used at pH 7.0 and at 30 degrees C. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide, the electrode gives a linear response in a concentration range of 5.0-50 x 10(-5) M with a response time of 3 min. The method was also applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in milk samples.

  20. A Glucose Biosensor Using CMOS Potentiostat and Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A; Islam, Syed K; Hensley, Dale K; McFarlane, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a linear, low power, and compact CMOS based potentiostat for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) based amperometric glucose sensors. The CMOS based potentiostat consists of a single-ended potential control unit, a low noise common gate difference-differential pair transimpedance amplifier and a low power VCO. The potentiostat current measuring unit can detect electrochemical current ranging from 500 nA to 7 [Formula: see text] from the VACNF working electrodes with high degree of linearity. This current corresponds to a range of glucose, which depends on the fiber forest density. The potentiostat consumes 71.7 [Formula: see text] of power from a 1.8 V supply and occupies 0.017 [Formula: see text] of chip area realized in a 0.18 [Formula: see text] standard CMOS process.

  1. Electrocatalytic Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide on Palladium-Gold Codeposits on Glassy Carbon: Applications to the Design of Interference-Free Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Horozova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following our previous studies on the catalytic activity electrochemically codeposited on graphite Pd-Pt electrocatalysts for hydrogen peroxide electroreduction, a series of glassy carbon electrodes were modified with Pd or (Pd+Au deposits aiming at the development of even more efficient electrocatalysts for the same process. The resulting electrodes were found to be very effective at low applied potentials (−100 and −50 mV versus Ag/AgCl, 1 M KCl. The surface topography of the electrode modified with Pd+Au mixed in proportions 90% : 10%, exhibiting optimal combination of sensitivity and linear dynamic range towards hydrogen peroxide electrochemical reduction, was studied with SEM and AFM. The applicability of the same electrode as transducer in an amperometric biosensor for glucose assay was demonstrated. At an applied potential of −50 mV, the following were determined: detection limit (S/N=3 of 6×10−6 M glucose, electrode sensitivity of 0.15 μA μM−1, and strict linearity up to concentration of 3×10−4 M.

  2. Development and surface characterization of a glucose biosensor based on a nanocolumnar ZnO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A., E-mail: adriana.rodrigues@partner.kit.edu [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Castegnaro, M.V. [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Arguello, J.; Alves, M.C.M. [Instituto de Química − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Morais, J., E-mail: jonder@if.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física − UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Glucose biosensor based on self-assembled nanocolumnar ZnO deposited on stainless steel. • XPS applied to investigate the GOx immobilization on the ZnO nanocolumns surface. • Observable chemical shifts on O1s and Zn2p corroborates enzime immobilization. - Abstract: Highly oriented nanostructured ZnO films were grown on the surface of stainless steel plates (ZnO/SS) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films consisted of vertically aligned ZnO nanocolumns, ∼1 μm long and ∼80 nm wide, as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FIB (focused ion beam). XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO columns, which were functionalized with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme into a biosensor of glucose. The electrochemical response studied by CV (cyclic voltammetry) proved that the biosensor was capable of detecting glucose from 1.5 up to 16 mM concentration range. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, excited with synchrotron radiation, probed the atom specific chemical environment at the electrode’s surface and shed some light on the nature of the ZnO-GOx interaction.

  3. Self-Assembled Films of Dendrimers and Metallophthalocyanines as FET-Based Glucose Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Figueiredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Separative extended gate field effect transistor (SEGFET type devices have been used as an ion sensor or biosensor as an alternative to traditional ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs due to their robustness, ease of fabrication, low cost and possibility of FET isolation from the chemical environment. The layer-by-layer technique allows the combination of different materials with suitable properties for enzyme immobilization on simple platforms such as the extended gate of SEGFET devices enabling the fabrication of biosensors. Here, glucose biosensors based on dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs in the form of layer-by-layer (LbL films, assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO as separative extended gate material, has been produced. NH3+ groups in the dendrimer allow electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds with the enzyme (glucose oxidase. Relevant parameters such as optimum pH, buffer concentration and presence of serum bovine albumin (BSA in the immobilization process were analyzed. The relationship between the output voltage and glucose concentration shows that upon detection of a specific analyte, the sub-products of the enzymatic reaction change the pH locally, affecting the output signal of the FET transducer. In addition, dendritic layers offer a nanoporous environment, which may be permeable to H+ ions, improving the sensibility as modified electrodes for glucose biosensing.

  4. Enzyme biosensor systems based on porous silicon photoluminescence for detection of glucose, urea and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syshchyk, Olga; Skryshevsky, Valeriy A; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Soldatkin, Alexey P

    2015-04-15

    A phenomenon of changes in photoluminescence of porous silicon at variations in medium pH is proposed to be used as a basis for the biosensor system development. The method of conversion of a biochemical signal into an optical one is applied for direct determination of glucose and urea as well as for inhibitory analysis of heavy metal ions. Changes in the quantum yield of porous silicon photoluminescence occur at varying pH of the tested solution due to the enzyme-substrate reaction. When creating the biosensor systems, the enzymes urease and glucose oxidase (GOD) were used as a bioselective material; their optimal concentrations were experimentally determined. It was shown that the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon increased by 1.7 times when increasing glucose concentration in the GOD-containing reaction medium from 0 to 3.0mM, and decreased by 1.45 times at the same increase in the urea concentration in the urease-containing reaction medium. The calibration curves of dependence of the biosensor system responses on the substrate concentrations are presented. It is shown that the presence of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+)) in the tested solution causes an inhibition of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by glucose oxidase and urease, which results in a restoration of the photoluminescence quantum yield of porous silicon. It is proposed to use this effect for the inhibitory analysis of heavy metal ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Tang

    Full Text Available A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1 cm(-2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3, with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  6. A novel H(2)O(2) amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Chen, Zixuan; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Chenbin; Yan, Wei; Yao, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    A new kind of gold nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline nanofibers (Au/SPAN) with grooves has been prepared for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The ratio of gold in the composite nanofibers was up to 64%, which could promote the conductivity and biocompatibility of SPAN and increase the immobilized amount of HRP molecules greatly. The electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity in the reduction of H(2)O(2) in the presence of the mediator hydroquinone (HQ). The effects of concentration of HQ, solution pH and the working potential on the current response of the modified electrode toward H(2)O(2) were optimized to obtain the maximal sensitivity. The proposed biosensor exhibited a good linear response in the range from 10 to 2000 μM with a detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N=3) under the optimum conditions. The response showed Michaelis-Menten behavior at larger H(2)O(2) concentrations, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) was estimated to be 2.21 mM. The detection of H(2)O(2) concentration in real sample showed acceptable accuracy with the traditional potassium permanganate titration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanoporous cerium oxide thin film for glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Arya, Sunil K; Singh, S P; Sreenivas, K; Malhotra, B D; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-03-15

    Nanoporous cerium oxide (CeO(2)) thin film deposited onto platinum (Pt) coated glass plate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been utilized for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO(2) thin film. Response studies carried out using differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO(2)/Pt bio-electrode shows linearity in the range of 25-300 mg/dl of glucose concentration. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose. The observed results show promising application of the nanoporous CeO(2) thin film for glucose sensing application without any surface functionalization or mediator.

  8. "Smart tattoo" glucose biosensors and effect of coencapsulated anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rohit; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Chaudhary, Ayesha; McShane, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive glucose biosensors with increased functional longevity form one of the most promising techniques for continuous glucose monitoring. In the present study, we developed a novel nanoengineered microsphere formulation comprising alginate microsphere glucose sensors and anti-inflammatory-drug-loaded alginate microspheres. The formulation was prepared and characterized for size, shape, in vitro drug release, biocompatibility, and in vivo acceptability. Glucose oxidase (GOx)- and Apo-GOx-based glucose sensors were prepared and characterized. Sensing was performed both in distilled water and simulated interstitial body fluid. Layer-by-layer self-assembly techniques were used for preventing drug and sensing chemistry release. Finally, in vivo studies, involving histopathologic examination of subcutaneous tissue surrounding the implanted sensors using Sprague-Dawley rats, were performed to test the suppression of inflammation and fibrosis associated with glucose sensor implantation. The drug formulation showed 100% drug release with in 30 days with zero-order release kinetics. The GOx-based sensors showed good enzyme retention and enzyme activity over a period of 1 month. Apo-GOx-based visible and near-infrared sensors showed good sensitivity and analytical response range of 0-50 mM glucose, with linear range up to 12 mM glucose concentration. In vitro cell line studies proved biocompatibility of the material used. Finally, both anti-inflammatory drugs were successful in controlling the implant-tissue interface by suppressing inflammation at the implant site. The incorporation of anti-inflammatory drug with glucose biosensors shows promise in improving sensor biocompatibility, thereby suggesting potential application of alginate microspheres as "smart tattoo" glucose sensors with increased functional longevity. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. The study of a fluorescent biosensor based on polyelectrolyte microcapsules with encapsulated glucose oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, L. I.; Sirota, N. P.; Sirota, T. V.; Shabarchina, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    A fluorescent biosensor is synthesized and described. The biosensor consists of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in the cavities and an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent indicator Ru(dpp) immobilized in shells, where Ru(dpp) is tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride. The theoretical activity of the encapsulated GOx and the effect storage time and medium composition have on the stability of sensor microcapsules are determined from polarographic measurements. No change in the activity of the encapsulated enzyme and or its loss to the storage medium are detected over the test period. The dispersion medium (water or a phosphate buffer) are shown to have no effect on the activity of microcapsules with immobilized GOx. The described optical sensor could be used as an alternative to electrochemical sensors for in vitro determination of glucose in the clinically important range of concentrations (up to 10 mmol/L).

  10. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol–gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. - Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on ITO surface. ► The direct electron transfer of GOD immobilized on ZnS surface was obtained. ► The enzyme electrode was used to the determination of glucose in the presence of oxygen. ► The response of photoelectrochemical biosensor towards glucose was more sensitive

  11. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol–gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. - Highlights: ► ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on ITO surface. ► The direct electron transfer of GOD immobilized on ZnS surface was obtained. ► The enzyme electrode was used to the determination of glucose in the presence of oxygen. ► The response of photoelectrochemical biosensor towards glucose was more sensitive.

  12. A proof of concept of a BioMEMS glucose biosensor using microfabricated SU-8 films

    OpenAIRE

    Psoma, Sotiria D.

    2009-01-01

    The present project investigated and proved the concept of developing a novel BioMEMS glucose micro-biosensor using a simple one-step microfabrication process of the widely used SU-8 polymer. More specifically, the study focused on the investigation of the suitability of the SU-8 polymer as a matrix for enzyme immobilisation that is carried out during the microfabrication process. A comparative study between commercially available SU-8 and “customised” SU-8 solutions showed tha...

  13. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Dietmar; Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V.; Muñoz Hernandez, G.; Garcia Arrelano, H.; Alfonta, Lital; Kiv, Arik

    2017-05-01

    For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  14. Preparing cuprous oxide nanomaterials by electrochemical method for non-enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Huy, Bui The; Hwang, Seo-Young; Vuong, Nguyen Minh; Pham, Quoc-Thai; Nghia, Nguyen Ngoc; Kirtland, Aaron; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2018-05-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanostructure has been synthesized using an electrochemical method with a two-electrode system. Cu foils were used as electrodes and NH2(OH) was utilized as the reducing agent. The effects of pH and applied voltages on the morphology of the product were investigated. The morphology and optical properties of Cu2O particles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and diffuse reflectance spectra. The synthesized Cu2O nanostructures that formed in the vicinity of the anode at 2 V and pH = 11 showed high uniform distribution, small size, and good electrochemical sensing. These Cu2O nanoparticles were coated on an Indium tin oxide substrate and applied to detect non-enzyme glucose as excellent biosensors. The non-enzyme glucose biosensors exhibited good performance with high response, good selectivity, wide linear detection range, and a low detection limit at 0.4 μM. Synthesized Cu2O nanostructures are potential materials for a non-enzyme glucose biosensor.

  15. A self-powered glucose biosensor based on pyrolloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase and bilirubin oxidase operating under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tanmay; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-07-01

    A novel biosensing system capable of simultaneously sensing glucose and powering portable electronic devices such as a digital glucometer is described. The biosensing system consists of enzymatic glucose biofuel cell bioelectrodes functionalized with pyrolloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) at the bioanode and biocathode, respectively. A dual-stage power amplification circuit is integrated with the single biofuel cell to amplify the electrical power generated. In addition, a capacitor circuit was incorporated to serve as the transducer for sensing glucose. The open circuit voltage of the optimized biofuel cell reached 0.55 V, and the maximum power density achieved was 0.23 mW/ cm 2 at 0.29 V. The biofuel cell exhibited a sensitivity of 0.312 mW/mM.cm 2 with a linear dynamic range of 3 mM - 20 mM glucose. The overall self-powered glucose biosensor is capable of selectively screening against common interfering species, such as ascorbate and urate and exhibited an operational stability of over 53 days, while maintaining 90 % of its activity. These results demonstrate the system's potential to replace the current glucose monitoring devices that rely on external power supply, such as a battery.

  16. Electrochemical biosensor based on glucose oxidase encapsulated within enzymatically synthesized poly(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Hakan; Oztekin, Yasemin; Tamer, Ugur; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-11-01

    This study is focused on the investigation of electrocatalytic effect of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on the graphite rod (GR) electrode. The enzyme modified electrode was prepared by encapsulation of immobilized GOx within enzymatically formed poly(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) (pPD) film. The electrochemical responses of such enzymatic electrode (pPD/GOx/GR) vs. different glucose concentrations were examined chronoamperometrically in acetate-phosphate buffer solution (A-PBS), pH 6.0, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Amperometric signals of the pPD/GOx/GR electrode exhibited well-defined hyperbolic dependence upon glucose concentration. Amperometric signals at 100mM of glucose were 41.17 and 32.27 μA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Amperometric signals of the pPD/GOx/GR electrode decreased by 6% within seven days. The pPD/GOx/GR electrode showed excellent selectivity in the presence of dopamine and uric acid. Furthermore it had a good reproducibility and repeatability with standard deviation of 9.4% and 8.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  18. Graphene-gold nanoparticle composite: application as a good scaffold for construction of glucose oxidase biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabury, Sina; Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Sharif, Farhad

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we report a facile method for fabrication of glucose oxidase immobilized on the partially reduced graphene-gold nanocomposite (PRGO-AuNPs/GOx) as a novel biosensor for determination of glucose concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the morphology of PRGO and PRGO-AuNPs. Also, fast Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to confirm formation of graphene and graphene-gold composite. Then, the electrochemical behavior of PRGO-AuNPs/GOx modified electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Our electrochemical studies, especially chronoamperometry (CA), showed that the PRGO-AuNPs/GOx modified electrode has excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the glucose. The limit of detection and sensitivity towards glucose were estimated as 0.06μM and 15.04mAmM(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of redox polymer nanobeads and nanocomposites for glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Yuan; Chen, Lin-Chi; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-08-28

    Redox polymer nanobeads of branched polyethylenimine binding with ferrocene (BPEI-Fc) were synthesized using a simple chemical process. The functionality and morphology of the redox polymer nanobeads were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This hydrophilic redox nanomaterial could be mixed with glucose oxidase (GOx) for drop-coating on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for glucose sensing application. Electrochemical properties of the BPEI-Fc/GOx/SPCE prepared under different conditions were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). On the basis of these CV results, the synthetic condition of the BPEI-Fc/GOx/SPCE could be optimized. By incorporating conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), the performance of a redox polymer nanobead–based enzyme electrode could be further improved. The influence of PEDOT:PSS on the nanocomposite enzyme electrode was discussed from the aspects of the apparent electron diffusion coefficient (D(app)) and the charge transfer resistance (R(ct)). The glucose-sensing sensitivity of the BPEI-Fc/PEDOT:PSS/GOx/SPCE is calculated to be 66 μA mM(–1) cm(–2), which is 2.5 times higher than that without PEDOT:PSS. The apparent Michaelis constant (K(M)(app)) of the BPEI-Fc/PEDOT:PSS/GOx/SPCE estimated by the Lineweaver–Burk plot is 2.4 mM, which is much lower than that of BPEI-Fc/GOx/SPCE (11.2 mM). This implies that the BPEI-Fc/PEDOT:PSS/GOx/SPCE can catalytically oxidize glucose in a more efficient way. The interference test was carried out by injection of glucose and three common interferences: ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) at physiological levels. The interferences of DA (4.2%) and AA (7.8%) are acceptable and the current response to UA (1.6%) is negligible, compared to the current response to glucose.

  20. Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Emily R; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Yu, Roy; Corona, Sydney L; Li, Jinyang; Vaddiraju, Sagar; Legassey, Allen; Loye, Ayomiposi; Balestrini, Jenna; Solly, Dawson A; Schroers, Jan; Taylor, André D; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Herzog, Raimund I; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-12-22

    Nanopatterning as a surface area enhancement method has the potential to increase signal and sensitivity of biosensors. Platinum-based bulk metallic glass (Pt-BMG) is a biocompatible material with electrical properties conducive for biosensor electrode applications, which can be processed in air at comparably low temperatures to produce nonrandom topography at the nanoscale. Work presented here employs nanopatterned Pt-BMG electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase enzyme to explore the impact of nonrandom and highly reproducible nanoscale surface area enhancement on glucose biosensor performance. Electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric voltammetry (AV) were completed to compare the performance of 200 nm Pt-BMG electrodes vs Flat Pt-BMG control electrodes. Glucose dosing response was studied in a range of 2 mM to 10 mM. Effective current density dynamic range for the 200 nm Pt-BMG was 10-12 times greater than that of the Flat BMG control. Nanopatterned electrode sensitivity was measured to be 3.28 μA/cm 2 /mM, which was also an order of magnitude greater than the flat electrode. These results suggest that nonrandom nanotopography is a scalable and customizable engineering tool which can be integrated with Pt-BMGs to produce biocompatible biosensors with enhanced signal and sensitivity.

  1. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChEt/ChOx)-FG/Gr electrode showed linear range from 50 to 300 μM (R=-0.9982) with a detection limit of 15 μM. Some common interferents like glucose, ascorbic acid and uric acid did not cause any interference, due to the use of a low operating potential. The FG/Gr electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.5 to 7 mM (R=-0.9967) with a sensitivity of 443.25 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) has been obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernandez, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Garcia Arrelano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México CP 52005 (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kiv, Arik [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Application of swift heavy ion tracks in biosensing. • Obtaining yet unknown diffusion coefficients of organic matter across etched ion tracks. • Obtaining diffusion coefficients of organics in etched ion tracks of biosensors. • Comparison with Renkin’s equation to predict the effective etched track diameter in the given experiments. - Abstract: For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  4. Glucose biosensors based on a gold nanodendrite modified screen-printed electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Chien; Tsai, Chung-Che; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional gold nanodendrite (GND) modified screen-printed electrode was developed. The GNDs were electrochemically synthesized on the working electrode component of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using a solution acquired by dissolving bulk gold in aqua regia as the precursor. The 3D GND electrode greatly enhanced the effective sensing area of the biosensor, which improved the sensitivity of glucose detection. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the fabricated devices could perform at a sensitivity of 46.76 μA mM −1 cm −2 with a linear detection range from 28 μM–8.4 mM and detection limit of 7 μM. A fast response time (∼3 s) was also observed. Moreover, only a 20 μl glucose oxidase is required for detection owing to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode. (paper)

  5. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  6. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Khalilian, Alireza; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt's dye (R-dye). These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE) by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance.

  7. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt’s dye (R-dye. These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance.

  8. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic activity of Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger IPBCC.08.610 On Modified Carbon Paste Electrode as Glucose Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmayanti, T.; Ambarsari, L.; Maddu, A.

    2017-03-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) has been developed as glucose sensor for measuring blood glucose level because of its specificity to glucose oxidation. This research aimed to determine kinetic parameters of GOx activity voltametrically and further test its potential as a glucose biosensor. GOx, in this research, was produced by local fungi Aspergillus niger IPBCC.08.610 which was isolated from local vine in Tarakan, East Borneo, Indonesia. GOx was immobilized with glutaraldehyde, which cross-linked onto modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) nanofiber polyaniline. Intracellular GOx activity was higher than extracellular ones. Immobilized GOx used glutaraldehyde 2.5% and dripped on the surface of MCPE nanofiber polyaniline. MCPE have a high conductance in copper with the diameter of 3 mm. The concentration of glucose in the lowest concentration of 0.2 mM generated a current value of 0.413 mA while 2 mM of glucose induced a current of 3,869 mA value. Km and Imax of GOx in MCPE activities polyaniline nanofiber were 2.88 mM and 3.869 mA,respectively, with turnover (Kcat) of 13 s-1. Sensitivity was 1.09 mA/mM and response time to produce a maximum peak current was 25 seconds. Km value was then converted into units of mg/dL and obtained 56.4 mg/dL. GOximmo-IPB|MCPE electrode is potential to be able to detect blood glucose level in a normal condition and hypoglycemia conditions

  10. A glucose biosensor based on direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase immobilized onto glassy carbon electrode modified with nitrophenyl diazonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, Zahra; Shams, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: This study reports a novel, simple and fast approach for construction of a highly stable glucose biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) electrografted with 4-aminophenyl (AP) by diazonium chemistry. Aminophenyl was used as cross-linker for covalent attachment of glucose oxidase to the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammograms of the GOx-modified GCE in phosphate buffer solution exhibited a pair of well-defined redox peaks, attesting the direct electron transfer (DET) of GOx with the underlying electrode. The proposed biosensor could be used to detect glucose based on the consumption of O 2 with the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GOx and exhibited a wide linear range of glucose from 0.05 mM to 4.5 mM and low detection limit of 10 μM. The surface coverage of active GOx, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and Michaelis–Menten constant (K M ) of immobilized GOx were 1.23 × 10 −12 mol cm −2 , 4.25 s −1 and 2.95 mM, respectively. The great stability of this biosensor, technically simple and possibility of preparation at short period of time make this method suitable for fabrication of low-cost glucose biosensors

  11. Mechanistic models for the evaluation of biocatalytic reaction conditions and biosensor design optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Daria

    . In the first case study a mechanistic model was developed to describe the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase and glucose in the presence of catalase inside a commercial microfluidic platform with integrated oxygen sensor spots. The simplicity of the proposed model allowed an easy calibration of the reaction...... the microfluidic device. In the second case study the flexible microfluidic platform with integrated amperometric glucose biosensors was developed for continuous monitoring of glucose consumption rates. The integration of the mixing chamber inside the platform allowed performing sample dilutions which subsequently......BRs. In the third case study the mechanistic model of the cyclic voltammetry response of the first generation glucose biosensors was developed and applied for the biosensor design optimization. Furthermore the obtained qualitative and quantitative dependencies between the model output and experimental results were...

  12. Stabilization of glucose-oxidase in the graphene paste for screen-printed glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Various methods and materials for enzyme stabilization within screen-printed graphene sensor were analyzed. Main goal was to develop technology allowing immediate printing of the biosensors in single printing process. Factors being considered were: toxicity of the materials used, ability of the material to be screen-printed (squeezed through the printing mesh) and temperatures required in the fabrication process. Performance of the examined sensors was measured using chemical amperometry method, then appropriate analysis of the measurements was conducted. The analysis results were then compared with the medical requirements. Parameters calculated were: correlation coefficient between concentration of the analyte and the measured electrical current (0.986) and variation coefficient for the particular concentrations of the analyte used as the calibration points. Variation of the measured values was significant only in ranges close to 0, decreasing for the concentrations of clinical importance. These outcomes justify further development of the graphene-based biosensors fabricated through printing techniques.

  13. Glucose biosensor based on disposable electrochemical paper-based transducers fully fabricated by screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas-Ardisana, P J; Martínez-Paredes, G; Añorga, L; Grande, H J

    2018-06-30

    This paper describes a new approach for the massive production of electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). These devices are fully fabricated by screen-printing technology and consist of a lineal microfluidic channel delimited by hydrophobic walls (patterned with diluted ultraviolet screen-printing ink in chromatographic paper grade 4) and a three-electrode system (printed with carbon and/or Ag/AgCl conductive inks). The printing process was characterised and optimized for pattern each layer with only one squeeze sweep. These ePADs were used as transducers to develop a glucose biosensor. Ionic strength/pH buffering salts, electrochemical mediator (ferricyanide) and enzyme (glucose dehydrogenase FAD-dependent) were separately stored along the microfluidic channel in order to be successively dissolved and mixed after the sample dropping at the entrance. The analyses required only 10 µl and the biosensors showed good reproducibility (RSD = 6.2%, n = 10) and sensitivity (0.426 C/M cm 2 ), wide linear range (0.5-50 mM; r 2 = 0.999) and low limit of detection (0.33 mM). Furthermore, the new biosensor was applied for glucose determination in five commercial soft-drinks without any sample treatment before the analysis. These samples were also analysed with a commercial enzymatic-kit assay. The results indicated that both methods provide accurate results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with cylinder-shaped titanium dioxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhanjun; Xu, Youbao; Li, Juan; Jian, Zhiqin; Yu, Suhua; Zhang, Yongcai; Hu, Xiaoya; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive electrochemical enzymatic glucose biosensor. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with cylinder-shaped titanium dioxide nanorods (TiO 2 -NRs) for the immobilization of glucose oxidase. The modified nanorods and the enzyme biosensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The glucose oxidase on the TiO 2 -NRs displays a high activity and undergoes fast surface-controlled electron transfer. A pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks was observed at −0.394 and −0.450 V. The TiO 2 -NRs provide a good microenvironment to facilitate the direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. The biosensor has two linear response ranges, viz. from 2.0 to 52 μM, and 0.052 to 2.3 mM. The lower detection limit is 0.5 μM, and the sensitivity is 68.58 mA M −1 cm −2 . The glucose biosensor is selective, well reproducible, and stable. In our perception, the cylindrically shaped TiO 2 -NRs provide a promising support for the immobilization of proteins and pave the way to the development of high-performance biosensors. (author)

  15. A Highly Sensitive Nonenzymatic Glucose Biosensor Based on the Regulatory Effect of Glucose on Electrochemical Behaviors of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles on MoS₂†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kash; Poulter, Benjamin; Dudgeon, John; Li, Shu-En; Ma, Xiang

    2017-08-05

    A novel and highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose biosensor was developed by nucleating colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on MoS₂. The facile fabrication method, high reproducibility (97.5%) and stability indicates a promising capability for large-scale manufacturing. Additionally, the excellent sensitivity (9044.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 ), low detection limit (0.03 μM), appropriate linear range of 0.1-1000 μM, and high selectivity suggests that this biosensor has a great potential to be applied for noninvasive glucose detection in human body fluids, such as sweat and saliva.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanosheet from barley and its use as non-enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, carbon nanosheet (CNS based electrode was designed for electrochemical biosensing of glucose. CNS has been obtained by the pyrolysis of barley at 600–750 °C in a muffle furnace; it was then purified and functionalized. The CNS has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The electrochemical activity of CNS-based electrode was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV and square wave voltammetry (SWV, for the oxidation of glucose in 0.001 M H2SO4 (pH 6.0. The linear range of the sensor was found to be 10−4–10−6 M (1–100 µM within the response time of 4 s. Interestingly, its sensitivity reached as high as ~26.002±0.01 μA/μM cm2. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the proposed electrode offered an excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of glucose and could be applied for the construction of non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. Keywords: Carbon nanosheet, β-d glucose, Linear sweep voltammetry, Square wave voltammetry, Pharmaceutical analysis

  17. Synthesis and characterization of microparticles based on poly-methacrylic acid with glucose oxidase for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás Pérez, J P; López-Ruiz, B; López-Cabarcos, E

    2016-01-01

    In the line of the applicability of biocompatible monomers pH and temperature dependent, we assayed poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles as immobilization system in the design of enzymatic biosensors. Glucose oxidase was used as enzyme model for the study of microparticles as immobilization matrices and as biological material in the performance of glucose biosensors. The enzyme immobilization method was optimized by investigating the influence of monomer concentration and cross-linker content (N',N'-methylenebisacrylamide), used in the preparation of the microparticles in the response of the biosensors. The kinetics of the polymerization and the effects of the temperature were studied, also the conversion of the polymerization was determinates by a weight method. The structure of the obtained p-MAA microparticles were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning microscopy (DSC). The particle size measurements were performed with a Galai-Cis 1 particle analyzer system. Furthermore, the influence of the swelling behavior of hydrogel matrix as a function of pH and temperature were studied. Analytical properties such as sensitivity, linear range, response time and detection limit were studied for the glucose biosensors. The sensitivity for glucose detection obtained with poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles was 11.98mAM(-1)cm(-2) and 10μM of detection limit. A Nafion® layer was used to eliminate common interferents of the human serum such as uric and ascorbic acids. The biosensors were used to determine glucose in human serum samples with satisfactory results. When stored in a frozen phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) at -4°C, the useful lifetime of all biosensors was at least 550 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...

  19. An In-Line Photonic Biosensor for Monitoring of Glucose Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two PDMS photonic biosensor designs that can be used for continuous monitoring of glucose concentrations. The first design, the internally immobilized sensor, consists of a reactor chamber, micro-lenses and self-alignment structures for fiber optics positioning. This sensor design allows optical detection of glucose concentrations under continuous glucose flow conditions of 33 µL/h based on internal co-immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the internal PDMS surface of the reactor chamber. For this design, two co-immobilization methods, the simple adsorption and the covalent binding (PEG methods were tested. Experiments showed successful results when using the covalent binding (PEG method, where glucose concentrations up to 5 mM with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.99 and a limit of detection of 0.26 mM are detectable. The second design is a modified version of the internally immobilized sensor, where a microbead chamber and a beads filling channel are integrated into the sensor. This modification enabled external co-immobilization of enzymes covalently onto functionalized silica microbeads and allows binding a huge amount of HRP and GOX enzymes on the microbeads surfaces which increases the interaction area between immobilized enzymes and the analyte. This has a positive effect on the amount and rate of chemical reactions taking place inside the chamber. The sensor was tested under continuous glucose flow conditions and was found to be able to detect glucose concentrations up to 10 mM with R2 of 0.98 and a limit of detection of 0.7 mM. Such results are very promising for the application in photonic LOC systems used for online analysis.

  20. Zinc oxide inverse opal electrodes modified by glucose oxidase for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei

    2014-09-15

    The ZnO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method using the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a template. For glucose detection, glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized on the inwall and surface of the IOPCs. The biosensing properties toward glucose of the Nafion/GOD/ZnO IOPCs modified FTO electrodes were carefully studied and the results indicated that the sensitivity of ZnO IOPCs modified electrode was 18 times than reference electrode due to the large surface area and uniform porous structure of ZnO IOPCs. Moreover, photoelectrochemical detection for glucose using the electrode was realized and the sensitivity approached to 52.4 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), which was about four times to electrochemical detection (14.1 µA mM(-1) cm(-2)). It indicated that photoelectrochemical detection can highly improve the sensor performance than conventional electrochemical method. It also exhibited an excellent anti-interference property and a good stability at the same time. This work provides a promising approach for realizing excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor of similar semiconductor photoelectric material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase on a carbon paste electrode modified with microsphere-attached l-glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Sarı, Nurşen; Hasanoğlu Özkan, Elvan; Arslan, Halit

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a novel biosensor that is sensitive to glucose was prepared using the microspheres modified with (4-formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl)polystyrene (FMPS) with l-glycine. Polymeric microspheres having Schiff bases were prepared from FMPS using the glycine condensation method. Glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized onto modified carbon paste electrode by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Oxidation of enzymatically produced H 2 O 2 (+0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl) was used for determination of glucose. Optimal temperature and pH were found as 50 °C and 8.0, respectively. The glucose biosensor showed a linear working range from 5.0 × 10 -4 to 1.0 × 10 -2 M, R 2 = 0.999. Storage and operational stability of the biosensor were also investigated. The biosensor gave perfect reproducible results after 20 measurements with 3.3% relative standard deviation. It also had good storage stability. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and a biosensor for glucose based on a glass carbon electrode modified with MoS2 nanosheets decorated with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shao; Sun, Haofan; Xu, Fei; Yuwen, Lihui; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a glass carbon electrode that was modified with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanosheets that were decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and it is found that use of the AuNPs-decorated MoS 2 nanocomposite accelerates the electron transfer from electrode to the immobilized enzyme. This enables the direct electrochemistry of GOx without any electron mediator. The synergistic effect the MoS 2 nanosheets and the AuNPs result in excellent electrocatalytic activity. Glucose can be detected in the concentration range from 10 to 300 μM, and down to levels as low as 2.8 μM. The biosensor also displays good reproducibility and long-term stability, suggesting that it represents a promising tool for biological assays. (author)

  3. ENHANCING DIRECT ELECTRON TRANSFER OF GLUCOSE OXIDASE USING A GOLD NANOPARTICLE |TITANATE NANOTUBE NANOCOMPOSITE ON A BIOSENSOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ruoxia; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Jiamei; Zhu, Jie; Wong, Danny K.Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we have developed a gold nanoparticle (GNP) decorated titanate nanotubes (TNT) nanocomposite that aids in the direct electron transfer of a large enzyme, such as glucose oxidase (GOD), in which the electroactive site of flavin adenine dinucleotide is deeply buried within the enzyme. The ionic liquid, brominated 1-decyl-3-methyl imidazole, was used to immobilise the nanocomposite and the enzyme on a glassy carbon electrode to further aid in the electron transfer between GOD and the electrode surface. Nafion was also added to anchor the biosensor scaffold. Initially, the tubiform geometry of titanate nanomaterials and the GNP-TNT nanocomposite was confirmed by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques before glucose oxidase was entrapped in the nanocomposite. Based on voltammetric results, this biosensor showed a strong electrocatalytic capability towards glucose (with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 7.1 s −1 at 180 mV s −1 ) and the calibration for glucose exhibited a high sensitivity (5.1 μA mM −1 ) and a wide linear range (0.01–1.2 mM). These results demonstrated superior analytical performance of our biosensor over others fabricated using bulkier TiO 2 nanoparticles or nanobundles, which could be attributed to a high degree of biocompatibility to glucose oxidase and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite

  4. A novel functionalisation process for glucose oxidase immobilisation in poly(methyl methacrylate) microchannels in a flow system for amperometric determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marcos Rodrigues Facchini; Grasseschi, Daniel; Matos, Renato Camargo; Angnes, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    Different materials like glass, silicon and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are being used to immobilise enzymes in microchannels. PMMA shows advantages such as its low price, biocompatibility and attractive mechanical and chemical properties. Despite this, the introduction of reactive functional groups on PMMA is still problematic, either because of the complex chemistry or extended reaction time involved. In this paper, a new methodology was developed to immobilise glucose oxidase (GOx) in PMMA microchannels, with the benefit of a rapid immobilisation process and a very simple route. The new procedure involves only two steps, based on the reaction of 5.0% (w/w) polyethyleneimine (PEI) with PMMA in a dimethyl sulphoxide medium, followed by the immobilisation of glucose oxidase using a solution containing 100U enzymes and 1.0% (v/v) glutaraldehyde. The reactors prepared in this way were evaluated by a flowing system with amperometric detection (+0.60V) based on the oxidation of the H2O2 produced by the reactor. The microreactor proposed here was able to work with high bioconversion and a frequency of 60 samples h(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 0.50 and 1.66µmol L(-1), respectively. Michaelis-Menten parameters (Vmax and KM) were calculated as 449±47.7nmol min(-1) and 7.79±0.98mmol. Statistical evaluations were done to validate the proposed methodology. The content of glucose in natural and commercial coconut water samples was evaluated using the developed method. Comparison with spectrophotometric measurements showed that both methodologies have a very good correlation (tcalculated, 0.05, 4=1.35

  5. High-performance glucose biosensor based on chitosan-glucose oxidase immobilized polypyrrole/Nafion/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes bio-nanohybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Mousa, Hamouda M; Kim, In-Gi; Kim, Jeong In; Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-11-15

    A highly electroactive bio-nanohybrid film of polypyrrole (PPy)-Nafion (Nf)-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs) nanocomposite was prepared on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a facile one-step electrochemical polymerization technique followed by chitosan-glucose oxidase (CH-GOx) immobilization on its surface to achieve a high-performance glucose biosensor. The as-fabricated nanohybrid composite provides high surface area for GOx immobilization and thus enhances the enzyme-loading efficiency. The structural characterization revealed that the PPy-Nf-fMWCNTs nanocomposite films were uniformly formed on GCE and after GOx immobilization, the surface porosities of the film were decreased due to enzyme encapsulation inside the bio-nanohybrid composite materials. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated biosensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry measurements. The results indicated an excellent catalytic property of bio-nanohybrid film for glucose detection with improved sensitivity of 2860.3μAmM(-1)cm(-2), the linear range up to 4.7mM (R(2)=0.9992), and a low detection limit of 5μM under a signal/noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Furthermore, the resulting biosensor presented reliable selectivity, better long-term stability, good repeatability, reproducibility, and acceptable measurement of glucose concentration in real serum samples. Thus, this fabricated biosensor provides an efficient and highly sensitive platform for glucose sensing and can open up new avenues for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  7. Fabrication of microband glucose biosensors using a screen-printing water-based carbon ink and their application in serum analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Pittson, R; Biddle, N; Hart, J P

    2009-01-01

    Microband glucose biosensors were fabricated by screen-printing a water-based carbon ink formulation containing cobalt phthalocyanine redox mediator and glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme, then insulating and sectioning through the thick (20mum) film to expose a 3mm-long working electrode edge. The performance of these biosensors for glucose analysis was investigated at 25 degrees C. Voltammetry in glucose-containing buffer solutions established that an operating potential of +0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl was suitable for analysis under both stirring and quiescent conditions. The influence of pH on biosensor performance was established and an operational pH of 8.0 was selected. Steady-state responses were obtained under quiescent conditions, suggesting a mixed mechanism predominated by radial diffusion, indicative of microelectrode behaviour. Calibration studies obtained with these biosensors showed steady-state currents that were linearly dependent on glucose concentration from the limit of detection (0.27mM) up to 2.0mM, with a precision for replicate biosensors of 6.2-10.7%. When applied to the determination of glucose in human serum, the concentration compared favourably to that determined by a spectroscopic method. These results have demonstrated a simple means of fabricating biosensors for glucose measurement and determination in situations where low-current real-time monitoring under quiescent conditions would be desirable.

  8. Amperometric biosensor for bisphenol A based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite made from polylysine, single walled carbon nanotubes and tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Miao; Qu, Ying; Chen, Shiqin; Wang, Yali; Zhang, Zhi; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Chunya; Ma, Ming; Wang, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared a nanocomposite consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes and polylysine. It was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by UV/vis and FTIR spectroscopy. Tyrosinase was covalently immobilized on the nanocomposite, and the resulting bioconjugate deposited on a glassy carbon electrode to form a biosensor for bisphenol A. The biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimized experimental conditions, the biosensor gives a linear response to bisphenol A in the 4.00 nM to 11.5 μM concentration range. Its sensitivity is 788 mA M −1 cm −2 , and the lower detection limit is 0.97 nM (at an S/N of 3). The biosensor shows good repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. In a preliminary practical application, it was successfully applied to the determination of bisphenol A in leachates of plastic spoons. (author)

  9. Cytosine-assisted synthesis of gold nanochains and gold nanoflowers for the construction of a microperoxidase-11 based amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qian-Li; Zhou, Dan-Ling; Wang, Ai-Jun; Qin, Su-Fang; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Li, Yong-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A simple method was developed for synthesis of network-like gold nanochains and gold nanoflowers in the presence of cytosine by reduction of tetrachloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and ascorbic acid, respectively. The resulting gold nanocrystals were coated with microperoxidase-11 via electrostatic interactions. Electrodes modified with protein-coated gold nanochains or nanoflowers display well-defined and quasi reversible redox peaks and enhanced high electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 that is due to direct electron transfer to the protein. The effects were exploited for the amperometric detection of H 2 O 2 with a linear response from 0.5 μM to 0.13 mM (for the gold nanochains) and from 1.0 μM to 0.11 mM (for the gold nanoflowers), respectively. The sensor shows lower detection limit and faster response time than sensors based on the use of spherical gold nanoparticles. (author)

  10. Modeling microelectrode biosensors: free-flow calibration can substantially underestimate tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adam J H; Wall, Mark J; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2017-03-01

    Microelectrode amperometric biosensors are widely used to measure concentrations of analytes in solution and tissue including acetylcholine, adenosine, glucose, and glutamate. A great deal of experimental and modeling effort has been directed at quantifying the response of the biosensors themselves; however, the influence that the macroscopic tissue environment has on biosensor response has not been subjected to the same level of scrutiny. Here we identify an important issue in the way microelectrode biosensors are calibrated that is likely to have led to underestimations of analyte tissue concentrations. Concentration in tissue is typically determined by comparing the biosensor signal to that measured in free-flow calibration conditions. In a free-flow environment the concentration of the analyte at the outer surface of the biosensor can be considered constant. However, in tissue the analyte reaches the biosensor surface by diffusion through the extracellular space. Because the enzymes in the biosensor break down the analyte, a density gradient is set up resulting in a significantly lower concentration of analyte near the biosensor surface. This effect is compounded by the diminished volume fraction (porosity) and reduction in the diffusion coefficient due to obstructions (tortuosity) in tissue. We demonstrate this effect through modeling and experimentally verify our predictions in diffusive environments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Microelectrode biosensors are typically calibrated in a free-flow environment where the concentrations at the biosensor surface are constant. However, when in tissue, the analyte reaches the biosensor via diffusion and so analyte breakdown by the biosensor results in a concentration gradient and consequently a lower concentration around the biosensor. This effect means that naive free-flow calibration will underestimate tissue concentration. We develop mathematical models to better quantify the discrepancy between the calibration and tissue

  11. Indirect Determination of Mercury Ion by Inhibition of a Glucose Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS. The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10−6 mM to 0.5 × 10−4 mM, and from 0.5 × 10−4 mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10−3 mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users.

  12. Indirect determination of mercury ion by inhibition of a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-11-06

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10(-6) mM to 0.5 × 10(-4) mM, and from 0.5 × 10(-4) mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10(-3) mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users.

  13. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaldeen Younes Jomma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability.

  14. The Development of Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensors Based on Electrochemically Prepared Polypyrrole–Chitosan–Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. A. Abdul Amir AL-Mokaram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a modified electrode of nanocomposite films consisting of polypyrrole–chitosan–titanium dioxide (Ppy-CS-TiO2 has been explored for the developing a non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. The synergy effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs and conducting polymer on the current responses of the electrode resulted in greater sensitivity. The incorporation of TiO2 NPs in the nanocomposite films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectra. FE-SEM and HR-TEM provided more evidence for the presence of TiO2 in the Ppy-CS structure. Glucose biosensing properties were determined by amperommetry and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The interfacial properties of nanocomposite electrodes were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The developed biosensors showed good sensitivity over a linear range of 1–14 mM with a detection limit of 614 μM for glucose. The modified electrode with Ppy-CS nanocomposite also exhibited good selectivity and long-term stability with no interference effect. The Ppy-CS-TiO2 nanocomposites films presented high electron transfer kinetics. This work shows the role of nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors and describes the process of their homogeneous distribution in composite films by a one-step electrochemical process, where all components are taken in a single solution in the electrochemical cell.

  15. Monitoring of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, ethanol and glycerol during wort fermentation by biosensors, HPLC and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monošík, Rastislav; Magdolen, Peter; Stredanský, Miroslav; Šturdík, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze sugar levels (namely maltose, maltotriose, glucose and fructose) and alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) during the fermentation process in wort samples by amperometric enzymatic biosensors developed by our research group for industrial application, HPLC and spectrophotometry, and to compare the suitability of the presented methods for determination of individual analytes. We can conclude that for the specific monitoring of maltose or maltotriose only the HPLC method was suitable. On the other hand, biosensors and spectrophotometry reflected a decrease in total sugar concentration better and were able to detect both glucose and fructose in the later stages of fermentation, while HPLC was not. This can be attributed to the low detection limits and good sensitivity of the proposed methods. For the ethanol and glycerol analysis all methods proved to be suitable. However, concerning the cost expenses and time analysis, biosensors represented the best option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Facile direct electron transfer in glucose oxidase modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan; Chen Liwei

    2009-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is widely used in the glucose biosensor industry. However, mediatorless direct electron transfer (DET) from GOx to electrode surfaces is very slow. Recently, mediatorless DET has been reported via the incorporation of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in the modification of electrodes. Here we report GOx electrodes showing DET without the need for any nanomaterials. The enzyme after immobilization with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and Nafion retains the biocatalytic activities and oxidizes glucose efficiently. The amperometric response of Nafion-PLL-GOx modified electrode is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose up to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 μA/mM at a low detection potential (-0.460 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The methodology developed in this study will have impact on glucose biosensors and biofuel cells and may potentially simplify enzyme immobilization in other biosensing systems.

  17. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on a nanofilm composed of mesoporous hydroxyapatite, titanium dioxide, and modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Kuang, D.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Liu, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive glucose biosensor that was fabricated from a composite made from mesoporous hydroxyapatite and mesoporous titanium dioxide which then were ultrasonically mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form a rough nanocomposite film. This film served as a platform to immobilize glucose oxidase onto a glassy carbon electrode. The morphological and electrochemical properties of the film were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the electrochemical performances of the biosensor which exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of glucose. At an operating potential of 0. 3 V and pH 6. 8, the sensor displays a sensitivity of 57. 0 μA mM -1 cm -2 , a response time of <5 s, a linear dynamic range from 0. 01 to 15. 2 mM, a correlation coefficient of 0. 9985, and a detection limit of 2 μM at an SNR of 3. No interferences are found for uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and most carbohydrates. The sensor is stable and was successfully applied to the determination of glucose in real samples. (author)

  18. A nanoporous ruthenium oxide framework for amperometric sensing of glucose and potentiometric sensing of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, J.H.; Kang, M.; Lee, Y.; Lee, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous ruthenium oxide frameworks (L 2 -eRuO) were electrodeposited on gold substrates by repetitive potential cycling in solutions of ruthenium(III) ions in the presence of reverse neutral micelles. The L 2 -eRuO was characterized in terms of direct oxidation of glucose and potentiometric response to pH values. The surface structures and morphologies of the L 2 -eRuO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their surface area was estimated via underpotential deposition of copper. L 2-eRuO-modified electrodes showed a 17-fold higher sensitivity (40 μA mM -1 cm -2 towards glucose in 0-4 mM concentration in solution of pH 7.4) than a RuO electrode prepared in the absence of reverse micelles. Potential interferents such as ascorbic acid, 4-acetamidophenol, uric acid and dopamine displayed no effect. The new electrode also revealed improved potentiometric response to pH changes compared to a platinum electrode of the same type. (author)

  19. A novel amperometric biosensor based on covalently attached multilayer assemblies of gold nanoparticles, diazo-resins and acetylcholinesterase for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Dong, Pei; Zheng, Jianbin

    2018-06-01

    Using an ionic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique, colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and diazo-resins (DAR) were immobilised on the surface of a p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid-modified glassy carbon electrode to form a matrix composite membrane for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilisation. Photo-sensitive DAR was used as the assembly interlayer to convert the ionic bond into a covalent bond to improve the biosensor stability. These fabrication processes were followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to verify the membrane formation. Because of the introduction of AuNPs/DAR/AChE biofilms, the modified electrode exhibited excellent electron transfer mediation and electrical conductivity. In addition, it exhibited high sensitivity in the range of linear concentration from 1.0 × 10 -8 to 1.0 × 10 -12 g L -1 with the detection limit of 5.12 × 10 -13 and 5.85 × 10 -13 g L -1 for malathion and methyl parathion, respectively. More importantly, the presented biosensor considerably improved stability because the electrostatic interaction was converted into covalent bonds by UV irradiation. It is a simple, cheap and stable method for quantitative detection of organophosphorus pesticides, and this method may pave a way for the sensitive, simple detection of different analytes without the need of expensive instrumentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simple method for preparing glucose biosensor based on in-situ polypyrrole cross-linked chitosan/glucose oxidase/gold bionanocomposite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenel, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    A film of chitosan-polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles was fabricated by in-situ chemical synthesis method and its application in glucose biosensor was investigated. The obtained biosensor exhibited a high and reproducible sensitivity of 0.58μA/mM, response time ~4s, linear dynamic range from 1 to 20mM, correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.9981, and limit of detection (LOD), based on S/N ratio (S/N=3) of 0.068mM. A value of 1.83mM for the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was obtained. The resulting bio-nanocomposite provided a suitable environment for the enzyme to retain its bioactivity at considerably extreme conditions, and the decorated gold nanoparticles in the bio-nanocomposite offer good affinity to enzyme. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Direct and mediated electrochemistry of peroxidase and its electrocatalysis on a variety of screen-printed carbon electrodes: amperometric hydrogen peroxide and phenols biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Gorton, Lo; Tapsobea, Issa

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the behaviour of direct and mediated electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilised on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs), screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxyl-functionalised multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-SPCEs) and screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carboxyl-functionalised single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-SPCEs). The techniques of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in the flow mode were used to characterise the properties of the HRP immobilised on screen-printed electrodes. From measurements of the mediated and mediatorless currents of hydrogen peroxide reduction at the HRP-modified electrodes, it was concluded that the fraction of enzyme molecules in direct electron transfer (DET) contact with the electrode varies substantially for the different electrodes. It was observed that the screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-SPCEs and SWCNT-SPCEs) demonstrated a substantially higher percentage (≈100 %) of HRP molecules in DET contact than the screen-printed carbon electrodes (≈60 %). The HRP-modified electrodes were used for determination of hydrogen peroxide in mediatorless mode. The SWCNT-SPCE gave the lowest detection limit (0.40 ± 0.09 μM) followed by MWCNT-SPCE (0.48 ± 0.07 μM) and SPCE (0.98 ± 0.2 μM). These modified electrodes were additionally developed for amperometric determination of phenolic compounds. It was found that the SWCNT-SPCE gave a detection limit for catechol of 110.2 ± 3.6 nM, dopamine of 640.2 ± 9.2 nM, octopamine of 3341 ± 15 nM, pyrogallol of 50.10 ± 2.9 nM and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine of 980.7 ± 8.7 nM using 50 μM H2O2 in the flow carrier.

  2. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Zhongchuan [Department of Anorectal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Wen, E-mail: wzhang@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 {mu}M. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provided useful experimental

  3. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji; Wang Zhongchuan; Zhang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: ► A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. ► The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. ► We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. ► The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. ► It provided useful experimental evidences for diabetes-accelerate atherosclerosis. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for

  4. A Stimuli-Responsive Biosensor of Glucose on Layer-by-Layer Films Assembled through Specific Lectin-Glycoenzyme Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research on intelligent bioelectrocatalysis based on stimuli-responsive materials or interfaces is of great significance for biosensors and other bioelectronic devices. In the present work, lectin protein concanavalin A (Con A and glycoenzyme glucose oxidase (GOD were assembled into {Con A/GOD}n layer-by-layer (LbL films by taking advantage of the biospecific lectin-glycoenzyme affinity between them. These film electrodes possess stimuli-responsive properties toward electroactive probes such as ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH2 by modulating the surrounding pH. The CV peak currents of Fc(COOH2 were quite large at pH 4.0 but significantly suppressed at pH 8.0, demonstrating reversible stimuli-responsive on-off behavior. The mechanism of stimuli-responsive property of the films was explored by comparative experiments and attributed to the different electrostatic interaction between the films and the probes at different pH. This stimuli-responsive films could be used to realize active/inactive electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose by GOD in the films and mediated by Fc(COOH2 in solution, which may establish a foundation for fabricating novel stimuli-responsive electrochemical biosensors based on bioelectrocatalysis with immobilized enzymes.

  5. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Hernandez, G. M.; Arrelano, H. G.; Alfonta, L.; Kiv, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 398, MAY (2017), s. 21-26 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : etched ion tracks * track radius * polymer * enzyme * diffusion * biosensors Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Bioremediation, diagnostic biotechnologies (DNA chips and biosensing devices) in environmental management Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  6. A new self-assembled layer-by-layer glucose biosensor based on chitosan biopolymer entrapped enzyme with nitrogen doped graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; David, Melinda; Florescu, Monica; Ţugulea, Laura; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-10-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique has been used for the construction of a new enzyme biosensor. Multilayer films containing glucose oxidase, GOx, and nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) dispersed in the biocompatible positively-charged polymer chitosan (chit(+)(NG+GOx)), together with the negatively charged polymer poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS(-), were assembled by alternately immersing a gold electrode substrate in chit(+)(NG+GOx) and PSS(-) solutions. Gravimetric monitoring during LbL assembly by an electrochemical quartz microbalance enabled investigation of the adsorption mechanism and deposited mass for each monolayer. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the LbL modified electrodes, in order to establish the contribution of each monolayer to the overall electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The importance of NG in the biosensor architecture was evaluated by undertaking a comparative study without NG in the chit layer. The GOx biosensor's analytical properties were evaluated by fixed potential chronoamperometry and compared with similar reported biosensors. The biosensor operates at a low potential of -0.2V vs., Ag/AgCl, exhibiting a high sensitivity of 10.5 μA cm(-2) mM(-1), and a detection limit of 64 μM. This study shows a simple approach in developing new biosensor architectures, combining the advantages of nitrogen-doped graphene with the LbL technique for enzyme immobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediation of glycosylated and partially-deglycosylated glucose oxidase of Aspergillus niger by a ferrocene-derivatised detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D M; Zakeeruddin, S M; Grätzel, M

    1992-01-30

    A ferrocene-derivatised detergent, (11-ferrocenylundecyl) trimethylammonium bromide (FTMAB), when oxidised to the corresponding ferricinium ion, was found by electrochemical studies to be an effective electron acceptor for reduced glucose oxidase of Aspergillus niger (EC 1.13.4) and thus acts as a electron-transfer mediator between glucose oxidase and a working electrode held at a potential sufficiently positive to reoxidise reduced FTMAB. An increase in mediating activity was produced when FTMAB was present in concentrations above its critical micelle concentration. An 'enzyme electrode' was formed by adsorption of glucose oxidase and FTMAB surfactant on a graphite rod. The electrode functioned as an amperometric biosensor for glucose in phosphate-buffered saline solution. A mixed micelle of glucose oxidase and FTMAB, probably adsorbed on the electrode surface, appears to be advantageous for the amperometric determination of glucose. Additionally, glucose oxidase was treated with alpha-mannosidase. When this partially-deglycosylated glucose oxidase was incorporated in an enzyme electrode, a 100-fold increase in the second-order rate constant (k) for electron transfer between the enzyme and FTMAB was observed, together with increased current densities, with respect to the equivalent values for FTMAB and commercial glucose oxidase. The use of deglycosylated enzymes in biosensors is suggested.

  8. Future of biosensors: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Frieder W; Yarman, Aysu; Bachmann, Till; Hirsch, Thomas; Kubick, Stefan; Renneberg, Reinhard; Schumacher, Soeren; Wollenberger, Ulla; Teller, Carsten; Bier, Frank F

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors representing the technological counterpart of living senses have found routine application in amperometric enzyme electrodes for decentralized blood glucose measurement, interaction analysis by surface plasmon resonance in drug development, and to some extent DNA chips for expression analysis and enzyme polymorphisms. These technologies have already reached a highly advanced level and need minor improvement at most. The dream of the "100-dollar" personal genome may come true in the next few years provided that the technological hurdles of nanopore technology or of polymerase-based single molecule sequencing can be overcome. Tailor-made recognition elements for biosensors including membrane-bound enzymes and receptors will be prepared by cell-free protein synthesis. As alternatives for biological recognition elements, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been created. They have the potential to substitute antibodies in biosensors and biochips for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances, proteins, viruses, and living cells. They are more stable than proteins and can be produced in large amounts by chemical synthesis. Integration of nanomaterials, especially of graphene, could lead to new miniaturized biosensors with high sensitivity and ultrafast response. In the future individual therapy will include genetic profiling of isoenzymes and polymorphic forms of drug-metabolizing enzymes especially of the cytochrome P450 family. For defining the pharmacokinetics including the clearance of a given genotype enzyme electrodes will be a useful tool. For decentralized online patient control or the integration into everyday "consumables" such as drinking water, foods, hygienic articles, clothing, or for control of air conditioners in buildings and cars and swimming pools, a new generation of "autonomous" biosensors will emerge.

  9. Amperometric glucose sensor based on the Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrode obtained from a thin Ni{sub 3}Al foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, Magdalena, E-mail: jarosz@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30060 Krakow (Poland); Socha, Robert P. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Krakow (Poland); Jóźwik, Paweł [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00908 Warsaw (Poland); Sulka, Grzegorz D. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30060 Krakow (Poland)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Chemical etching of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy in an acidic mixture was performed. • Electrochemical activity of samples was achieved by their oxidation in NaOH. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrode showed electrochemical activity towards glucose. • Synthesized material is characterized by high sensitivity and short response time. - Abstract: In this report, we present a facile and relatively fast method to roughen the surface of Ni{sub 3}Al–based intermetallic foil, and test it as an amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The alloy samples underwent chemical etching in a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:CH{sub 3}COOH (HAc):HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O (24:1:1:7 in volume) solution in order to achieve a high surface area with more electroactive sites. The Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrode was fabricated using potential cycling technique in a highly concentrated alkaline solution. The electrodes were tested electrochemically for oxidation of glucose. We have demonstrated that Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al(OH){sub 4}{sup −} electrodes exhibit high sensitivity towards glucose detection (796 μAmM{sup -1}cm{sup -2}) and short response time (3 s) upon successive addition of glucose. Moreover, as for a non-nanometric material, prepared electrodes show a relatively good linear correlation between current density and glucose concentration (0.025–0.45 mM) and limit of detection (47.6 μM). For more in-depth characterization of presented material, electrodes were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  10. Integrated electrochemical gluconic acid biosensor based on self-assembled monolayer-modified gold electrodes. Application to the analysis of gluconic acid in musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, S; Gamella, M; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2007-03-21

    An integrated amperometric gluconic acid biosensor constructed using a gold electrode (AuE) modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on which gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH, 0.84 U) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, 1.5 micromol) were coimmobilized by covering the electrode surface with a dialysis membrane is reported. The working conditions selected were Eapp=+0.15 V and 25+/-1 degrees C. The useful lifetime of one single TTF-GADH-MPA-AuE was surprisingly long. After 53 days of continuous use, the biosensor exhibited 86% of the original sensitivity. A linear calibration plot was obtained for gluconic acid over the 6.0x10(-7) to 2.0x10(-5) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 1.9x10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (glucose, fructose, galactose, arabinose, and tartaric, citric, malic, ascorbic, gallic, and caffeic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. The behavior of the biosensor in a flow-injection system in connection with amperometric detection was tested. The analytical usefulness of the biosensor was evaluated by determining gluconic acid in wine and must samples, and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit.

  11. Functional design of electrolytic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage Preethichandra, D. M.; Mala Ekanayake, E. M. I.; Onoda, M.

    2017-11-01

    A novel amperometric biosensbased on conjugated polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on a Pt modified ITO (indium tin oxide) conductive glass substrate and their performances are described. We have presented a method of developing a highly sensitive and low-cost nano-biosensor for blood glucose measurements. The fabrication method proposed decreases the cost of production significantly as the amount of noble metals used is minimized. A nano-corrugated PPy substrate was developed through pulsed electrochemical deposition. The sensitivity achieved was 325 mA/(Mcm2) and the linear range of the developed sensor was 50-60 mmol/l. Then the application of the electrophoresis helps the glucose oxidase (GOx) on the PPy substrate. The main reason behind this high enzyme loading is the high electric field applied across the sensor surface (working electrode) and the counter electrode where that pushes the nano-scale enzyme particles floating in the phosphate buffer solution towards the substrate. The novel technique used has provided an extremely high sensitivities and very high linear ranges for enzyme (GOx) and therefore can be concluded that this is a very good technique to load enzyme onto the conducting polymer substrates.

  12. Improvement in glucose biosensing response of electrochemically grown polypyrrole nanotubes by incorporating crosslinked glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palod, Pragya Agar; Singh, Vipul

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel enzymatic glucose biosensor has been reported in which platinum coated alumina membranes (Anodisc™s) have been employed as templates for the growth of polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays using electrochemical polymerization. The PPy nanotube arrays were grown on Anodisc™s of pore diameter 100 nm using potentiostatic electropolymerization. In order to optimize the polymerization time, immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) was first performed using physical adsorption followed by measuring its biosensing response which was examined amperometrically for increasing concentrations of glucose. In order to further improve the sensing performance of the biosensor fabricated for optimum polymerization duration, enzyme immobilization was carried out using cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Approximately six fold enhancement in the sensitivity was observed in the fabricated electrodes. The biosensors also showed a wide range of linear operation (0.2-13 mM), limit of detection of 50 μM glucose concentration, excellent selectivity for glucose, notable reliability for real sample detection and substantially improved shelf life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low potential stable glucose detection at dendrimers modified polyaniline nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nogueira Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructured materials for development of biosensors is a growing field in medical diagnostics. In this work a glucose biosensor based on bioactive polyglycerol (PGLD and chitosan dendrimers (CHD was developed. PGLD and CHD were bioconjugated with the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx to obtain dendrimers with glucose sensing properties. Polyaniline nanotubes (PANINT´s were used as electron mediator due to their high ability to promote electron-transfer reactions involving GOx. The PGLD-GOx and CHD-GOx were entrapped in PANINT´s during template electrochemical polymerization of aniline. The prepared PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s and CHD-GOx/PANINT´s biosensors exhibit a strong and stable amperometric response to glucose even at a low potential of +100 mV. The based PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s and CHD-GOx/PANINT´s biosensors showed a good performance in glucose concentrations range in human blood. A comparison of the sensitivities to glucose showed that both biosensors have a linearity range between 0.02 and 10 mM, though PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s is more sensitive (10.41 vs. 7.04 nA.mM-1. The difference in the biosensor behavior and the high sensitivity of the PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s may be due to the specific organization of GOx layer at surface of the modifier macromolecule PGLD and their distribution in PANINT´s. The enzyme affinity for the substrate, K Mapp remains quite good after GOx immobilization on PGLD and CHD dendrimers and entrapment of the bioconjugates in PANINT´s.

  14. Design strategy of a graphene based bio-sensor for glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantatore, Valentina; Pandit, Santosh; Mokkapati, V.R.S.S.

    2018-01-01

    A novel graphene-based glucose sensor-design is formulated and explored in silico. An ad hoc host molecule is tailored to bind to glucose by multiple hydrogen bonds. A pyridinic core is chosen for this receptor in order to allow for “socket-plug” dative bonding to boron sites of boron doped...

  15. Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Anderson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1962, Clark and Lyons proposed incorporating the enzyme glucose oxidase in the construction of an electrochemical sensor for glucose in blood plasma. In their application, Clark and Lyons describe an electrode in which a membrane permeable to glucose traps a small volume of solution containing the enzyme adjacent to a pH electrode, and the presence of glucose is detected by the change in the electrode potential that occurs when glucose reacts with the enzyme in this volume of solution. Although described nearly 50 years ago, this seminal development provides the general structure for constructing electrochemical glucose sensors that is still used today. Despite the maturity of the field, new developments that explore solutions to the fundamental limitations of electrochemical glucose sensors continue to emerge. Here we discuss two developments of the last 15 years; confining the enzyme and a redox mediator to a very thin molecular films at electrode surfaces by electrostatic assembly, and the use of electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs to leverage the electrocatalytic effect of the CNTs to reduce the oxidation overpotential of the electrode reaction or for the direct electron transport to the enzyme.

  16. A disposable tear glucose biosensor-part 2: system integration and model validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Bishop, Daniel K; Vossler, Stephen R; Patel, Dharmendra R; Cook, Curtiss B

    2010-03-01

    We presented a concept for a tear glucose sensor system in an article by Bishop and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. A unique solution to collect tear fluid and measure glucose was developed. Individual components were selected, tested, and optimized, and system error modeling was performed. Further data on prototype testing are now provided. An integrated fluidics portion of the prototype was designed, cast, and tested. A sensor was created using screen-printed sensors integrated with a silicone rubber fluidics system and absorbent polyurethane foam. A simulated eye surface was prepared using fluid-saturated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) sheets, and the disposable prototype was tested for both reproducibility at 0, 200, and 400 microM glucose (n = 7) and dynamic range of glucose detection from 0 to 1000 microM glucose. From the replicated runs, an established relative standard deviation of 15.8% was calculated at 200 microM and a lower limit of detection was calculated at 43.4 microM. A linear dynamic range was demonstrated from 0 to 1000 microM with an R(2) of 99.56%. The previously developed model predicted a 14.9% variation. This compares to the observed variance of 15.8% measured at 200 microM glucose. With the newly designed fluidics component, an integrated tear glucose prototype was assembled and tested. Testing of this integrated prototype demonstrated a satisfactory lower limit of detection for measuring glucose concentration in tears and was reproducible across a physiological sampling range. The next step in the device design process will be initial animal studies to evaluate the current prototype for factors such as eye irritation, ease of use, and correlation with blood glucose. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Ferrocene-Functionalized 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-1-ylaniline: A Novel Design in Conducting Polymer-Based Electrochemical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Ayranci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a novel ferrocenyldithiophosphonate functional conducting polymer and its use as an immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensor applications. Initially, 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-1-ylamidoferrocenyldithiophosphonate was synthesized and copolymerized with 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-1-ylbenzenamine at graphite electrodes. The amino groups on the polymer were utilized for covalent attachment of the enzyme glucose oxidase. Besides, ferrocene on the backbone was used as a redox mediator during the electrochemical measurements. Prior to the analytical characterization, optimization studies were carried out. The changes in current signals at +0.45 V were proportional to glucose concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mM. Finally, the resulting biosensor was applied for glucose analysis in real samples and the data were compared with the spectrophotometric Trinder method.

  18. Characterization of different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for possible use in glucose-based biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Beden, Najat; Gorton, Lo [Lund University, Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund (Sweden); Leech, Donal [National University of Ireland Galway, School of Chemistry, Galway (Ireland); Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland [BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Wien (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    In this study, different flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) were characterized electrochemically after ''wiring'' them with an osmium redox polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine){sub 2}(PVI){sub 10}Cl]{sup +} on graphite electrodes. One tested FADGDH was that recently discovered in Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH), another was the recombinant form expressed in Pichia pastoris (rGcGDH), and the third was a commercially available glycosylated enzyme from Aspergillus sp. (AspGDH). The performance of the Os-polymer ''wired'' GDHs on graphite electrodes was tested with glucose as the substrate. Optimal operational conditions and analytical characteristics like sensitivity, linear ranges and current density of the different FADGDHs were determined. The performance of all three types of FADGDHs was studied at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The current densities measured at a 20 mM glucose concentration were 494 {+-} 17, 370 {+-} 24, and 389 {+-} 19 {mu}A cm{sup -2} for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. The sensitivities towards glucose were 2.16, 1.90, and 1.42 {mu}A mM{sup -1} for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. Additionally, deglycosylated rGcGDH (dgrGcGDH) was investigated to see whether the reduced glycosylation would have an effect, e.g., a higher current density, which was indeed found. GcGDH/Os-polymer modified electrodes were also used and investigated for their selectivity for a number of different sugars. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for possible use in glucose-based biosensors and biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Beden, Najat; Leech, Dónal; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo

    2012-02-01

    In this study, different flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) were characterized electrochemically after "wiring" them with an osmium redox polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(PVI)(10)Cl](+) on graphite electrodes. One tested FADGDH was that recently discovered in Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH), another was the recombinant form expressed in Pichia pastoris (rGcGDH), and the third was a commercially available glycosylated enzyme from Aspergillus sp. (AspGDH). The performance of the Os-polymer "wired" GDHs on graphite electrodes was tested with glucose as the substrate. Optimal operational conditions and analytical characteristics like sensitivity, linear ranges and current density of the different FADGDHs were determined. The performance of all three types of FADGDHs was studied at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The current densities measured at a 20 mM glucose concentration were 494 ± 17, 370 ± 24, and 389 ± 19 μA cm(-2) for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. The sensitivities towards glucose were 2.16, 1.90, and 1.42 μA mM(-1) for GcGDH, rGcGDH, and AspGDH, respectively. Additionally, deglycosylated rGcGDH (dgrGcGDH) was investigated to see whether the reduced glycosylation would have an effect, e.g., a higher current density, which was indeed found. GcGDH/Os-polymer modified electrodes were also used and investigated for their selectivity for a number of different sugars.

  20. Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on a Carbon Nanotubes/Dendrimer-Ferrocene Modified Electrode for Reagentless Glucose Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Li, Huan; Yang, Huasong; Cheng, Hui; Lai, Guosong

    2017-01-01

    Ferrocene-grafted dendrimer was covalently linked to the surface of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-chitosan (CS) nanocomposite modified electrode for immobilizing high-content glucose oxidase (GOx), which resulted in the successful development a novel reagentless glucose biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and amperometry were used to characterize the preparation process and the enzymatically catalytic response of this biosensor. Due to the excellent electron transfer acceleration of the CNTs and the high-content loading of the GOx biomolecule and ferrocene mediator on the electrode matrix, this biosensor showed excellent analytical performance such as fast response time less than 10 s, wide linear range from 0.02 to 2.91 mM and low detection limit down to 7.5 μM as well as satisfactory stability and reproducibility toward the amperometric glucose determination. In addition, satisfactory result was obtained when it was used for the glucose measurements in human blood samples. Thus this biosensor provides great potentials for practical applications.

  1. A mediator-free glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate ternary biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Min; Wen, Jiwu; Liu, Lijun; He, Deyong; Kuang, Ren-yun; Shi, Taqing

    2014-01-15

    A novel glucose oxidase/chitosan/α-zirconium phosphate (GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP) ternary biocomposite was prepared by co-intercalating glucose oxidase (GOD) and chitosan into the interlayers of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) via a delamination-reassembly procedure. The results of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and ultraviolet spectrum characterizations indicated not only the layered and hybrid structure of the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP ternary biocomposite but also the recovered activity of the intercalated GOD improved by the co-intercalated chitosan. By depositing the GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite film onto a glassy carbon electrode, the direct electrochemistry of the intercalated GOD was achieved with a fast electron transfer rate constant, k(s), of 7.48±3.52 s(-1). Moreover, this GOD/chitosan/α-ZrP biocomposite modified electrode exhibited a sensitive response to glucose in the linear range of 0.25-8.0 mM (R=0.9994, n=14), with a determination limit of 0.076 mM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced electrochemical sensitivity of enzyme precipitate coating (EPC)-based glucose oxidase biosensors with increased free CNT loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Jun, Sun-Ae; Kwon, Yongchai; Ha, Su; Sang, Byong-In; Kim, Jungbae

    2015-02-01

    Enzymatic electrodes were fabricated by using three different immobilizations of glucose oxidase (GOx): covalent enzyme attachment (CA), enzyme coating (EC), and enzyme precipitate coating (EPC), here referred to as CA-E, EC-E, and EPC-E, respectively. When additional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were introduced from 0 to 75wt% for the EPC-E design, its initial biosensor sensitivity was improved from 2.40×10(-3) to 16.26×10(-3) A∙M(-1)∙cm(-2), while its electron charge transfer rate constant was increased from 0.33 to 1.47s(-1). When a fixed ratio of CNTs was added for three different electrode systems, EPC-E showed the best glucose sensitivity and long-term thermal stability. For example, when 75wt% of additional CNTs was added, the initial sensitivity of EPC-E was 16.26×10(-3) A∙M(-1)∙cm(-2), while those of EC-E and CA-E were only 6.42×10(-3) and 1.18×10(-3) A∙M(-1)∙cm(-2), respectively. Furthermore, EPC-E retained 63% of its initial sensitivity after thermal treatment at 40°C over 41days, while EC-E and CA-E showed only 12% and 1% of initial sensitivities, respectively. Consequently, the EPC approach with additional CNTs achieved both high sensitivity and long-term stability, which are required for continuous and accurate glucose monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of Nickel/nanodiamond/boron-doped diamond electrode for non-enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wei; Li, Mingji; Gao, Sumei; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanodiamonds (NDs) were electrophoretically deposited on the BDD film. • The NDs significantly extended the potential window. • Ni/NDs/BDD electrode was prepared by electrodeposition. • The electrode shows good catalytic activity for glucose oxidation. - Abstract: A stable and sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was prepared by modifying a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode with nickel (Ni) nanosheets and nanodiamonds (NDs). The NDs were electrophoretically deposited on the BDD surface, and acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent electrodeposition of Ni. The morphology and composition of the modified BDD electrodes were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The Ni nanosheet-ND modified BDD electrode exhibited good current response towards the non-enzymatic oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The NDs significantly extended the potential window. The response to glucose was linear over the 0.2–1055.4-μM range. The limit of detection was 0.05 μM, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The Ni nanosheet-ND/BDD electrode exhibited good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Its electrochemical performance, low cost and simple preparation make it a promising non-enzymatic glucose sensor.

  4. Simultaneous Monitoring of Glucose and Lactate by Self-powered Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dual self-powered biosensing system integrated with energy amplification circuit is described, for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. The self-powered biosensing system is based on the conventional enzymatic biofuel cell equipped with three 4 mm x 4 mm massively dense mesh network of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs bioelectrodes in parallel configuration. The bioelectrodes employed pyroquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH as the biocatalyst for the glucose oxidation and D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH as the biocatalyst for lactate oxidation. A common laccase modified-MWCNTs bioelectrode served as the cathode for the reduction of molecular oxygen. Two charge pump circuits were coupled with 0.1 mF capacitors functioning as transducers. The advantages of employing capacitors were coupled with the efficient energy amplification of the charge pump circuit to amplify the power output from each of the biofuel and charge/discharge the corresponding capacitor. Under operating conditions, the open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities for 180 mg/dL glucose and 25 mM lactate were 339.2 mV and 228.75 µA/cm2 and 370 mV and 66.17 µA/cm2, respectively. The responses for glucose and lactate were linear up to 630 mg/dL and 30 mM with sensitivities of 20.11 Hz/ mM cm-2 and 9.869 Hz/ mM cm-2, respectively. The potential of the described system was demonstrated to provide stable voltage and current output that was capable of driving the charge pump circuit integrated with the capacitor for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. These results were in good agreement with those previously reported.

  5. An electrospun nanofiber matrix based on organo-clay for biosensors: PVA/PAMAM-Montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Betul; Yalcinkaya, Esra Evrim; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Timur, Suna

    2018-06-01

    Diagnostic techniques based on biomolecules have huge a potential to be applied in the application in various areas such as food/beverage industries, diseases diagnostics, monitoring of bio-processes and environmental pollutants. Immobilization of biomolecules on a transducer is the key parameter to being able to prepare a highly stable diagnostic tests. Electrospun nanofibers are a good alternative to immobilize biomolecules. Here, electrospun nanofibers based on an organoclay were used to design the first generation amperometric enzyme biosensor. PAMAM G2 dendrimers were used to intercalate montmorillonite clay (Mt) and then the modification of Mt by PAMAM was characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and zeta potential measurements. After that nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning Mt and PAMAM-Mt using poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as an auxiliary polymer and the formed PVA/PAMAM-Mt electrospun nanofibers were proved by SEM, TEM and AFM techniques. Finally, pyranose oxidases (PyOx) were immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface, which was modified using the PVA/PAMAM-Mt electrospun nanofibers. Amperometric measurements were carried out using buffer solution at -0.7 V under stirring conditions. The linear response for glucose was from 0.005 mM to 0.25 mM using PVA/Mt/PyOx and PVA/PAMAM-Mt/PyOx biosensors. The limit of detection was 0.7 μM glucose with PVA/PAMAM-Mt/PyOx biosensor. To detect glucose in real sample, measurements were carried out using soft drink cola as a substrate instead of glucose.

  6. Near-Infrared Resonance Energy Transfer Glucose Biosensors in Hybrid Microcapsule Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike McShane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence-based sensing systems offer potential for noninvasive monitoring with implantable devices, but require carrier technologies that provide suitable immobilization, accessibility, and biocompatibility. Recent developments towards this goal include a competitive binding assay for glucose that has been encapsulated in semipermeable microcapsule carriers. This paper describes an extension of this work to increase the applicability to in vivo monitoring, wherein two significant developments are described: (1 a near-infrared resonance energy transfer system for transducing glucose concentration, and (2 novel hybrid organic-inorganic crosslinked microcapsules as carriers. The quenching-based assay is a competitive binding (CB system based on apo-glucose oxidase (AG as the receptor and dextran as the competitive ligand. The encapsulated quencher-labeled dextran and near infrared donor-labeled glucose receptor showed a stable and reversible response with tunable sensitivity of 1–5%/mM over the physiological range, making these transducers attractive for continuous monitoring for biomedical applications.

  7. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  8. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eSpampinato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP.The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules.Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  9. Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor Based on CuO-Decorated CeO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO-decorated cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and used to detect glucose non-enzymatically. The morphological characteristics and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor responses of electrodes to glucose were investigated via an electrochemical method. The CuO/CeO2 nanocomposite exhibited a reasonably good sensitivity of 2.77 μA mM−1cm−2, an estimated detection limit of 10 μA, and a good anti-interference ability. The sensor was also fairly stable under ambient conditions.

  10. Fabrication of glucose biosensor for whole blood based on Au/hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles multilayers by antibiofouling and self-assembly technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Xiaohan; Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, Chun, E-mail: maochun127@yahoo.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Qinshu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Jian, E-mail: jshen@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-05-07

    Highlight: •A novel method for detection of glucose in whole blood has been developed. •The method based on antibiofouling and self-assembly technology was investigated. •The antibiofouling technique utilized for sensor is significant for diagnostics. -- Abstract: Acknowledging the benefits of hyperbranched polymers and their nanoparticles, herein we report the design and synthesis of sulfonic acid group functionalized hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester (H30-SO{sub 3}H) nanoparticles and their biomedical application. The H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). The good hemocompatibility of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles was also investigated by coagulation tests, complement activation and platelet activation. The novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the positively charged Au nanoparticles, H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It can be applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the good hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a wide linear range (0.2–20 mM), a low detection limit 1.2 × 10{sup −5} M in whole blood and good anti-interference property. The development of materials science will offer a novel platform for application to substance detection in whole blood.

  11. Fabrication of glucose biosensor for whole blood based on Au/hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles multilayers by antibiofouling and self-assembly technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chong; Chen, Xiaohan; Han, Qiaorong; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Zhu, Qinshu; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Highlight: •A novel method for detection of glucose in whole blood has been developed. •The method based on antibiofouling and self-assembly technology was investigated. •The antibiofouling technique utilized for sensor is significant for diagnostics. -- Abstract: Acknowledging the benefits of hyperbranched polymers and their nanoparticles, herein we report the design and synthesis of sulfonic acid group functionalized hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester (H30-SO 3 H) nanoparticles and their biomedical application. The H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR). The good hemocompatibility of H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles was also investigated by coagulation tests, complement activation and platelet activation. The novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the positively charged Au nanoparticles, H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It can be applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the good hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property of H30-SO 3 H nanoparticles. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a wide linear range (0.2–20 mM), a low detection limit 1.2 × 10 −5 M in whole blood and good anti-interference property. The development of materials science will offer a novel platform for application to substance detection in whole blood

  12. Ferrocene-functionalized 4-(2,5-Di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline: a novel design in conducting polymer-based electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Rukiye; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Ak, Metin; Timur, Suna

    2015-01-13

    Herein, we report a novel ferrocenyldithiophosphonate functional conducting polymer and its use as an immobilization matrix in amperometric biosensor applications. Initially, 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)amidoferrocenyldithiophosphonate was synthesized and copolymerized with 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzenamine at graphite electrodes. The amino groups on the polymer were utilized for covalent attachment of the enzyme glucose oxidase. Besides, ferrocene on the backbone was used as a redox mediator during the electrochemical measurements. Prior to the analytical characterization, optimization studies were carried out. The changes in current signals at +0.45 V were proportional to glucose concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mM. Finally, the resulting biosensor was applied for glucose analysis in real samples and the data were compared with the spectrophotometric Trinder method.

  13. REMOTE BIOSENSOR FOR IN SITU MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote electrochemical biosensor for field monitoring of organophosphate nerve agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a submersible amperometric probe design. This combination resu...

  14. Study of the biosensor based on platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes and sugar-lectin biospecific interactions for the determination of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjuan; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Zhong Huaan; Wang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This work described the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. → The Pt nano -CNTs were used to construct biosensor for the determination of glucose. → GOD can be assembled into multilayer thin films via sugar-lectin affinity. → The protocol can avoid the chemical denaturation of the enzyme. → It improve the stability and sensitivity of the enzyme biosensor. - Abstract: Highly sensitive electrochemical platform based on Pt nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes (Pt nano -CNTs) and sugar-lectin biospecific interactions is developed for the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD). Firstly, Pt nano -CNTs nanocomposites were prepared in the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and then the mixture was cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using chitosan as a binder. Thereafter, concanavalin A (Con A) was adsorbed onto the precursor film by the electrostatic force between positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged Con A. Finally, the multilayers of Con A/GOD films were prepared based on biospecific affinity of Con A and GOD via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. The electrochemical behavior of the sensor was studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical parameters of GOD in the film were calculated with the results of the electron transfer coefficient (α) and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) as 0.5 and 5.093 s -1 , respectively. Experimental results show that the biosensor responded linearly to glucose in the range from 1.2 x 10 -6 to 2.0 x 10 -3 M, with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10 -7 M under optimized conditions.

  15. A Multi-Technique Reconfigurable Electrochemical Biosensor: Enabling Personal Health Monitoring in Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a reconfigurable, multi-technique electrochemical biosensor designed for direct integration into smartphone and wearable technologies to enable remote and accurate personal health monitoring. By repurposing components from one mode to the next, the biosensor's potentiostat is able reconfigure itself into three different measurements modes to perform amperometric, potentiometric, and impedance spectroscopic tests all with minimal redundant devices. A [Formula: see text] PCB prototype of the module was developed with discrete components and tested using Google's Project Ara modular smartphone. The amperometric mode has a ±1 nA to [Formula: see text] measurement range. When used to detect pH, the potentiometric mode achieves a resolution of < 0.08 pH units. In impedance measurement mode, the device can measure 50 Ω-10 [Formula: see text] and has been shown to have of phase error. This prototype was used to perform several point-of-care health tracking assays suitable for use with mobile devices: 1) Blood glucose tests were conducted and shown to cover the diagnostic range for Diabetic patients (  ∼  200 mg/dL). 2) Lactoferrin, a biomarker for urinary tract infections, was detected with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ng/mL. 3) pH tests of sweat were conducted to track dehydration during exercise. 4) EIS was used to determine the concentration of NeutrAvidin via a label-free assay.

  16. Direct electrodeposition of a biocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide, chitosan and glucose oxidase on a glassy carbon electrode for direct sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.; Lu, Z.; Luo, S.; Liu, C.; Tang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have electrodeposited a composite film consisting of graphene oxide, chitosan and glucose oxidase directly on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through electrochemical reduction of a solution of the 3 components under controlled direct electrical potential. The procedure takes only several minutes, and the thickness of the resulting film is uniform and controllable. The GOx has uncompromised bioactivity and exhibits reversible 2-proton and 2-electron transfer in presence of glucose. It therefore can be used amperometric sensing of glucose. The biosensor has a fast response (<3 s), a detection limit of 0.4 μM (which is 50-fold lower compared to the biosensor prepared by drop-casting solutions of the same materials onto an GCE), and a linear response in the 0.4 μM to 2 mM concentration range (which again is much better than that of the biosensor prepared by the drop-casting method). Other features include high reproducibility, long-time storage stability, and satisfactory selectivity. We presume that the direct single-step electrodeposition of this nanocomposite offers a promising approach towards novel types of highly sensitive and stable electrochemical biosensors. (author)

  17. Electrodeposition of enzymes-integrated mesoporous composite films by interfacial templating: A paradigm for electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongming; Tan, Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanostructured electrodes for electrochemical biosensors is of significant interest for modern detection, portable devices, and enhanced performance. However, development of such sensors still remains challenging due to the time-consuming, detriment-to-nature, and costly modifications of both electrodes and enzymes. In this work, we report a simple one-step approach to fabricating high-performance, direct electron transfer (DET) based nanoporous enzyme-embedded electrodes by electrodeposition coupled with recent progress in potential-controlled interfacial surfactant assemblies. In contrast to those previously electrodeposited mesoporous materials that are not bioactive, we imparted the biofunctionality to electrodeposited mesoporous thin films by means of the amphiphilic phospholipid templates strongly interacting with enzymes. Thus, phospholipid-templated mesoporous ZnO films covalently inlaid with the pristine enzymes were prepared by simple one-step electrodeposition. We further demonstrate two examples of such hybrid film electrodes embedded with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glucose oxidase (GOx), which are effectively employed as electrochemical biosensors for amperometric sensing of ethanol and glucose without using any electron relays. The favorable mass transport and large contact surface area provided by nanopores play an important role in improving the performance of these two biosensors, such as excellent sensitivities, low detection limits, and fast response. The matrix mesoporous films acting as effective electronic bridges are responsible for DET between enzyme molecules and metal electrode

  18. An ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping; Li Zaijun; Sun Xiulan; Wang Guangli; Fang Yinjun; Liu Junkang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards glucose was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM -1 cm -2 ), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10 -12 M) and fast response time (0.045 s). - Abstract: The paper reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose which was based on CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since efficient electron transfer between glucose oxidase and the electrode was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM -1 cm -2 ), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10 -12 M), fast response time (0.045 s), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10 -11 M to 1 x 10 -8 M) and good long-term stability (26 weeks). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the glucose oxidase on the medium, 5.24 x 10 -6 mM, indicates excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme towards glucose oxidation. Moreover, the effects of omitting graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle were also investigated. The result showed sensitivity of the biosensor is 7.67-fold better if graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets due to introduction of gold nanoparticles, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot to graphene nanosheets and gold nanoparticle due to unique electrochemical properties of the CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle for glucose oxidase. The biosensor is of best sensitivity in all glucose biosensors based on graphene nanomaterials up to

  19. An ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Zhiguo; Yang Shuping [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li Zaijun, E-mail: zaijunli@263.net [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Sun Xiulan [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Guangli [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fang Yinjun [Zhejiang Zanyu Technology Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310009 (China); Liu Junkang [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Graphical abstract: We first reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose using CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since promising their electrocatalytic synergy towards glucose was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10{sup -12} M) and fast response time (0.045 s). - Abstract: The paper reported an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor for glucose which was based on CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot as ultrafast electron transfer relay between graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticle. Since efficient electron transfer between glucose oxidase and the electrode was achieved, the biosensor showed high sensitivity (5762.8 nA nM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), low detection limit (S/N = 3) (3 x 10{sup -12} M), fast response time (0.045 s), wide calibration range (from 1 x 10{sup -11} M to 1 x 10{sup -8} M) and good long-term stability (26 weeks). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the glucose oxidase on the medium, 5.24 x 10{sup -6} mM, indicates excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme towards glucose oxidation. Moreover, the effects of omitting graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle were also investigated. The result showed sensitivity of the biosensor is 7.67-fold better if graphene-gold nanocomposite, CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and gold nanoparticle are used. This could be ascribed to improvement of the conductivity between graphene nanosheets due to introduction of gold nanoparticles, ultrafast charge transfer from CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot to graphene nanosheets and gold nanoparticle due to unique electrochemical properties of the CdTe-CdS core-shell quantum dot and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle for glucose oxidase. The biosensor is of best sensitivity in all glucose

  20. Biosensor Detection of Neuropathy Target Esterase in Whole Blood as a Biomarker of Exposure to Neuropathic Organophosphorus Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makhaeva, Galina F; Sigolaeva, Larisa V; Zhuravleva, Lyudmila Z; Eremenko, Arkady V; Kurochkin, Ilya N; Malygin, Vladimir V; Richardson, Rudy J

    2002-01-01

    .... Lymphocyte NTE has also found use as a biomarker of human exposure to neuropathic OPs. Recently, a sensitive NTE biosensor was developed using a tyrosinase carbon-paste electrode for amperometric (Amp...

  1. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine: Based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Wathoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI and poly (allylamine (PAA respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm. The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H 2 O 2 -selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV and coefficient of correlation (r analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor.

  2. A Stable Glutamate Biosensor Based on MnO2 Bulk-modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An amperometric glutamate biosensor was developed using screen-printed carbon electrodes bulk-modified with MnO2 (5%, m:m) onto which glutamate oxidase was immobilized via Nafion(R) film entrapment. The analytical performance of the biosensor was assessed in a flow injection mode and peak heights of the ...

  3. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  4. AMPEROMETRIC THICK-FILM STRIP ELECTRODES FOR MONITORING ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS BASED ON IMMOBILIZED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase(OPH) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-costdetection of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra...

  5. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui; Huang, Jingyun

    2013-11-01

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm-2 mM-1 and a wide linear range of 0.2-5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  6. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Ye, Zhizhen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University (China); Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Huang, Jingyun, E-mail: huangjy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and a wide linear range of 0.2–5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  7. Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Spanu, Angela; Babudieri, Sergio; Latte, Gavinella; Madeddu, Giordano; Galleri, Grazia; Nuvoli, Susanna; Bagella, Paola; Demartis, Maria Ilaria; Fiore, Vito; Manetti, Roberto; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. PMID:27249001

  8. Functional materials in amperometric sensing polymeric, inorganic, and nanocomposite materials for modified electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Seeber, Renato; Zanardi, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Amperometric sensors, biosensors included, particularly rely on suitable electrode materials. Progress in material science has led to a wide variety of options that are available today. For the first time, these novel functional electrode coating materials are reviewed in this monograph, written by and for electroanalytical chemists. This includes intrinsically conducting, redox and ion-exchange polymers, metal and carbon nanostructures, silica based materials. Monolayers and relatively thick films are considered. The authors critically discuss preparation methods, in addition to chemical and

  9. Time-lapse 3-D measurements of a glucose biosensor in multicellular spheroids by light sheet fluorescence microscopy in commercial 96-well plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Vincent; Chennell, George; Sparks, Hugh; Lana, Tobia; Kumar, Sunil; Carling, David; Sardini, Alessandro; Dunsby, Chris

    2016-11-25

    Light sheet fluorescence microscopy has previously been demonstrated on a commercially available inverted fluorescence microscope frame using the method of oblique plane microscopy (OPM). In this paper, OPM is adapted to allow time-lapse 3-D imaging of 3-D biological cultures in commercially available glass-bottomed 96-well plates using a stage-scanning OPM approach (ssOPM). Time-lapse 3-D imaging of multicellular spheroids expressing a glucose Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor is demonstrated in 16 fields of view with image acquisition at 10 minute intervals. As a proof-of-principle, the ssOPM system is also used to acquire a dose response curve with the concentration of glucose in the culture medium being varied across 42 wells of a 96-well plate with the whole acquisition taking 9 min. The 3-D image data enable the FRET ratio to be measured as a function of distance from the surface of the spheroid. Overall, the results demonstrate the capability of the OPM system to measure spatio-temporal changes in FRET ratio in 3-D in multicellular spheroids over time in a multi-well plate format.

  10. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite consisting of reduced graphene oxide, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles in a chitosan matrix for studying the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and for enzymatic sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Sheng, Liying; Xie, Cuicui; Meng, Alan; Zhao, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe the fabrication of a nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles by microwave-assisted synthesis. The composite was further reduced in-situ with hydrazine hydrate and then placed, along with the enzyme glucose oxidase, on a glassy carbon electrode. The synergistic effect of the materials employed in the nanocomposite result in excellent electrocatalytic activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant of the adsorbed GOx is 0.25 mM, implying a remarkable affinity of the GOx for glucose. The amperometric response of the modified GCE is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose in 0.1 to 12.0 mM concentration range, and the detection limit is 10.6 µM. The biosensor is highly selective, well reproducible and stable. (author)

  11. Nanomaterial-based Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Glucose and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalinezhad, Asieh

    Electrochemical detection methods are highly attractive for the monitoring of glucose, cholesterol, cancer, infectious diseases, and biological warfare agents due to their low cost, high sensitivity, functionality despite sample turbidity, easy miniaturization via microfabrication, low power requirements, and a relatively simple control infrastructure. The development of implantable biosensors is laden with great challenges, which include longevity and inherent biocompatibility, coupled with the continuous monitoring of analytes. Deficiencies in any of these areas will necessitate their surgical replacement. In addition, random signals arising from non-specific adsorption events can cause problems in diagnostic assays. Hence, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the specific control of surface structures. Nanotechnology involves the creation and design of structures with at least one dimension that is below 100 nm. The optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of nanostructures may be manipulated by altering their size, shape, and composition. These attributes may facilitate improvements in biocompatibility, sensitivity and the specific attachment of biomaterials. Thus, the central theme of this dissertation pertains to highlighting the critical roles that are played by the morphology and intrinsic properties of nanomaterials when they are applied in the development of electrochemical biosensors. For this PhD project, we initially designed and fabricated a novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) on a Prussian blue modified nanoporous gold surface, which exhibited a rapid response and a low detection limit of 2.5 microM glucose. The sensitivity of the biosensor was found to be very high (177 microA/mM) and the apparent Michaelis--Menten constant was calculated to be 2.1 mM. Our study has demonstrated that nanoporous gold provides an excellent matrix for enzyme immobilization. To adopt these advanced

  12. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H2O2 in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H.; Finnerty, Niall J.

    2017-01-01

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H2O2 biosensor consisting of H2O2 detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H2O2 sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H2O2 biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H2O2 and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H2O2 current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H2O2 and tentatively supports measurement of H2O2 dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice. PMID:28698470

  13. A Disposable Tear Glucose Biosensor-Part 4: Preliminary Animal Model Study Assessing Efficacy, Safety, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Engelschall, Erica; Lan, Kenneth; Shah, Pankti; Saez, Neil; Maxwell, Stephanie; Adamson, Teagan; Abou-Eid, Michelle; McAferty, Kenyon; Patel, Dharmendra R; Cook, Curtiss B

    2014-01-01

    A prototype tear glucose (TG) sensor was tested in New Zealand white rabbits to assess eye irritation, blood glucose (BG) and TG lag time, and correlation with BG. A total of 4 animals were used. Eye irritation was monitored by Lissamine green dye and analyzed using image analysis software. Lag time was correlated with an oral glucose load while recording TG and BG readings. Correlation between TG and BG were plotted against one another to form a correlation diagram, using a Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) and self-monitoring of blood glucose as the reference measurements. Finally, TG levels were calculated using analytically derived expressions. From repeated testing carried over the course of 12 months, little to no eye irritation was detected. TG fluctuations over time visually appeared to trace the same pattern as BG with an average lag times of 13 minutes. TG levels calculated from the device current measurements ranged from 4 to 20 mg/dL and correlated linearly with BG levels of 75-160 mg/dL (TG = 0.1723 BG = 7.9448 mg/dL; R 2 = .7544). The first steps were taken toward preliminary development of a sensor for self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG). No conjunctival irritation in any of the animals was noted. Lag time between TG and BG was found to be noticeable, but a quantitative modeling to correlate lag time in this study is unnecessary. Measured currents from the sensors and the calculated TG showed promising correlation to BG levels. Previous analytical bench marking showed BG and TG levels consistent with other literature. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for hydrogen peroxide based on a biocomposite made from chitosan, hemoglobin, and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, L.; Feng, Y.; Qi, Y.; Wang, B.; Chen, Y.; Fu, X.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a novel non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (HP) that is based on a biocomposite made up from chitosan (CS), hemoglobin (Hb), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were prepared in the presence of CS and glucose in an ultrasonic bath, and CS is found to act as a stabilizing agent. They were then combined with Hb and CS to construct a carbon paste biosensor. The resulting electrode gave a well-defined redox couple for Hb, with a formal potential of about -0.17 V (vs. SCE) at pH 6. 86 and exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of HP. The sensor was used to detect HP by flow injection analysis, and a linear response is obtained in the 0. 08 to 250 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 0.05 μM (at S/N = 3). These characteristics, along with its long-term stability make the sensor highly promising for the amperometric determination of HP. (author)

  16. Graphene oxide-mediated electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2016-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) as a model system for the interaction between GO and biological molecules. Lyotropic properties of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) were used to stabilize the enzymatic layer on the electrode surface resulting in a markedly improved electrochemical response of the immobilized GOD. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GO with DDAB confirmed the distribution of the GO in a two-dimensional manner as a foil-like material. Although it is known that glassy carbon surfaces are not ideal for hydrogen peroxide detection, successful chronoamperometric titrations of the GOD in the presence of GO with β-d-glucose were performed on glassy carbon electrodes, whereas no current response was detected upon β-d-glucose addition in the absence of GO. The GOD-DDAB-GO system displayed a high turnover efficiency and substrate affinity as a glucose biosensor. The simplicity and ease of the electrode preparation procedure of this GO/DDAB system make it a good candidate for immobilizing other biomolecules for fabrication of amperometric biosensors. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Layer-by-layer assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide for direct electrochemistry and glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares; Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; de Moraes, Marli Leite; Riul, Antonio; Ferreira, Marystela

    2016-11-01

    We report an electrochemical glucose biosensor made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The LbL assembly using positively and negatively charged rGO multilayers represents a simple approach to develop enzymatic biosensors. The electron transport properties of graphene were combined with the specificity provided by the enzyme. rGO was obtained and functionalized using chemical methods, being positively charged with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to form GPDDA, and negatively charged with poly(styrene sulfonate) to form GPSS. Stable aqueous dispersions of GPDDA and GPSS are easily obtained, enabling the growth of LbL films on various solid supports. The use of graphene in the immobilization of GOx promoted Direct Electron Transfer, which was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry. Amperometric measurements indicated a detection limit of 13.4μmol·L(-1) and sensitivity of 2.47μA·cm(-2)·mmol(-1)·L for glucose with the (GPDDA/GPSS)1/(GPDDA/GOx)2 architecture, whose thickness was 19.80±0.28nm, as determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The sensor may be useful for clinical analysis since glucose could be detected even in the presence of typical interfering agents and in real samples of a lactose-free milk and an electrolyte solution to prevent dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immobilization of glucose oxidase on graphene and cobalt phthalocyanine composite and its application for the determination of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Veerappan; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Vasantha, V S

    2014-11-01

    We described a simple and facile chemical reduction strategy for the preparation of graphene (GR)-cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) composite and explored it for the enzymatic determination of glucose. CoPc is an active mediator and electrocatalysts for the immobilization of GOx and determination of glucose. However, it is not stable on the electrode surface and also suffers from lack of conductivity. Here, we have employed GR as the suitable support to stabilize CoPc through simple chemical reduction method and the resulting composite has been used for the glucose biosensor application. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of composite. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) was observed with well defined redox peaks at the formal potential of -0.44 V. The amount of electroactive GOx (Г) and electron transfer rate constant (ks) were calculated to be 3.77×10(-10) mol cm(-2) and 3.57 s(-1), respectively. The fabricated amperometric biosensor detects glucose in wide linear concentration range from 10 μM to 14.8 mM with high sensitivity of 5.0 9μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The sensor offered very low detection limit (LOD) of 1.6 μM. In addition, practical feasibility of the sensor has been explored in screen printing carbon electrode with accurate determination of glucose present in human blood serum and urine samples. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited appreciable stability, repeatability and reproducibility results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct electron transfer: an approach for electrochemical biosensors with higher selectivity and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Renato S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The most promising approach for the development of electrochemical biosensors is to establish a direct electrical communication between the biomolecules and the electrode surface. This review focuses on advances, directions and strategies in the development of third generation electrochemical biosensors. Subjects covered include a brief description of the fundamentals of the electron transfer phenomenon and amperometric biosensor development (different types and new oriented enzyme immobilization techniques. Special attention is given to different redox enzymes and proteins capable of electrocatalyzing reactions via direct electron transfer. The analytical applications and future trends for third generation biosensors are also presented and discussed.

  20. Amperometric and impedance monitoring systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Punter-Villagrasa, Jaime; del Campo, Francisco J; Miribel, Pere

    2017-01-01

    The book presents the conception and realization of a pervasive electronic architecture for electrochemical applications, focusing on electronic instrumentation design and device development, particularly in electrochemical Point-of-Care and Lab-on-a-Chip devices, covering examples based on amperometric (DC) and impedance detection (AC) techniques. The presented electronics combine tailored front-end instrumentation and back-end data post-processing, enabling applications in different areas, and across a variety of techniques, analytes, transducers and environments. It addresses how the electronics are designed and implemented with special interest in the flow process: starting from electronic circuits and electrochemical biosensor design to a final validation and implementation for specific applications. Similarly, other important aspects are discussed throughout the book, such as electrochemical techniques, different analytes, targets, electronics reliability and robustness. The book also describes the use ...

  1. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Becker, Annie L; Weigel, Kris M; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low-cost detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected by electric current. According to the numerical study, the current signal on the microtip surface is linearly changed with increasing immersion depth. Using a reference microtip, the immersion depth is compensated for a sensing microtip. On the microtip surface, target bacteria are concentrated and organized by a coffee-ring effect, which amplifies the electric current. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, both the sample processing and rinsing steps are presented with the use of deionized water as a medium for the amperometric measurement. When applied to cultured MTB cells spiked into human sputum, the detection limit was 100 CFU mL −1 , comparable to a more labor-intensive fluorescence detection method reported previously. (paper)

  2. Amperometric immunosensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Inoue, Shinnosuke; Becker, Annie L.; Weigel, Kris M.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major public health problem, which can be better controlled by using accurate and rapid diagnosis in low-resource settings. A simple, portable, and sensitive detection method is required for point-of-care (POC) settings. This paper studies an amperometric biosensor using a microtip immunoassay for a rapid and low-cost detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. MTB in sputum is specifically captured on the functionalized microtip surface and detected by electric current. According to the numerical study, the current signal on the microtip surface is linearly changed with increasing immersion depth. Using a reference microtip, the immersion depth is compensated for a sensing microtip. On the microtip surface, target bacteria are concentrated and organized by a coffee-ring effect, which amplifies the electric current. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, both the sample processing and rinsing steps are presented with the use of deionized water as a medium for the amperometric measurement. When applied to cultured MTB cells spiked into human sputum, the detection limit was 100 CFU mL-1, comparable to a more labor-intensive fluorescence detection method reported previously.

  3. Functionalization and Characterization of Nanomaterial Gated Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensors and the Design of a Multi-Analyte Implantable Biosensing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Robert A., Jr.

    Advances in semiconductor research and complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication allow for the design and implementation of miniaturized metabolic monitoring systems, as well as advanced biosensor design. The first part of this dissertation will focus on the design and fabrication of nanomaterial (single-walled carbon nanotube and quantum dot) gated field-effect transistors configured as protein sensors. These novel device structures have been functionalized with single-stranded DNA aptamers, and have shown sensor operation towards the protein Thrombin. Such advanced transistor-based sensing schemes present considerable advantages over traditional sensing methodologies in view of its miniaturization, low cost, and facile fabrication, paving the way for the ultimate realization of a multi-analyte lab-on-chip. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the design and fabrication of a needle-implantable glucose sensing platform which is based solely on photovoltaic powering and optical communication. By employing these powering and communication schemes, this design negates the need for bulky on-chip RF-based transmitters and batteries in an effort to attain extreme miniaturization required for needle-implantable/extractable applications. A complete single-sensor system coupled with a miniaturized amperometric glucose sensor has been demonstrated to exhibit reality of this technology. Furthermore, an optical selection scheme of multiple potentiostats for four different analytes (glucose, lactate, O 2 and CO2) as well as the optical transmission of sensor data has been designed for multi-analyte applications. The last part of this dissertation will focus on the development of a computational model for the amperometric glucose sensors employed in the aforementioned implantable platform. This model has been applied to single-layer single-enzyme systems, as well as multi-layer (single enzyme) systems utilizing glucose flux limiting layer-by-layer assembled

  4. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  5. Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Cortelezzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice.

  6. Bioethanol in Biofuels Checked by an Amperometric Organic Phase Enzyme Electrode (OPEE Working in “Substrate Antagonism” Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomassetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol content of two samples of biofuels was determined directly, after simple dilution in decane, by means of an amperometric catalase enzyme biosensor working in the organic phase, based on substrate antagonisms format. The results were good from the point of view of accuracy, and satisfactory for what concerns the recovery test by the standard addition method. Limit of detection (LOD was on the order of 2.5 × 10−5 M.

  7. Modification of alumina matrices through chemical etching and electroless deposition of nano-Au array for amperometric sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valinčius Gintaras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSimple nanoporous alumina matrix modification procedure, in which the electrically highly insulating alumina barrier layer at the bottom of the pores is replaced with the conductive layer of the gold beds, was described. This modification makes possible the direct electron exchange between the underlying aluminum support and the redox species encapsulated in the alumina pores, thus, providing the generic platform for the nanoporous alumina sensors (biosensors with the direct amperometric signal readout fabrication.

  8. Plain to point network reduced graphene oxide - activated carbon composites decorated with platinum nanoparticles for urine glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Faruk; Park, Jae Y.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a hydrothermal technique was applied to synthesize glucose-treated reduced graphene oxide-activated carbon (GRGO/AC) composites. Platinum nanoparticles (PtNP) were electrochemically deposited on the modified GRGO/AC surface, and chitosan-glucose oxidase (Chit-GOx) composites and nafion were integrated onto the modified surface of the working electrode to prepare a highly sensitive glucose sensor. The fabricated biosensor exhibited a good amperometric response to glucose in the detection range from 0.002 mM to 10 mM, with a sensitivity of 61.06 μA/mMcm2, a short response time (4 s) and a low detection limit of 2 μM (signal to noise ratio is 3). The glucose sensor exhibited a negligible response to interference and good stability. In addition, the glucose levels in human urine were tested in order to conduct a practical assessment of the proposed sensor, and the results indicate that the sensor had superior urine glucose recognition. These results thus demonstrate that the noble nano-structured electrode with a high surface area and electrocatalytic activity offers great promise for use in urine glucose sensing applications.

  9. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MoS2 nanosheet functionalized with Cu nanoparticles and its application for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jingwei; Dong, Zhengping; Li, Yanrong; Li, Jing; Tang, Weijie; Yang, Haidong; Wang, Jia; Bao, Yun; Jin, Jun; Li, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First report on decorating MoS 2 nanosheet with Cu nanoparticles by chemical reduction. • Cu nanoparticles were uniformly decorated on MoS 2 nanosheet. • Glucose biosensor based on copper nanoparticles-MoS 2 nanosheet hybrid is fabricated. • The biosensor exhibits high sensitivity. - Abstract: For the first time, Cu nanoparticles were evenly decorated on MoS 2 nanosheet by chemical reduction. The as-prepared Cu-MoS 2 hybrid was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and then used to fabricate a non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The performance of our sensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric measurement in alkaline media. Electrochemical tests showed that Cu-MoS 2 hybrid exhibited synergistic electrocatalytic activity on the oxidation of glucose with a high sensitivity of 1055 μA mM −1 cm −2 and a linear range up to 4 mM

  11. Development of amperometric L-tyrosine sensor based on Fe-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanchana, P.; Lavanya, N.; Sekar, C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel biosensor based on Fe-doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) nanoparticles and tyrosinase has been developed for the detection of L-tyrosine. Nanostructured Fe-HA was synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method, and its phase formation, morphology and magnetic property were examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Electrochemical performance of the nano Fe-HA/tyrosinase modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for detection of L-tyrosine was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric methods. The fabricated biosensor exhibited a linear response to L-tyrosine over a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10 −7 to 1.0 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 245 nM at pH 7.0. In addition, the fabricated sensor showed an excellent selectivity, good reproducibility, long-term stability and anti-interference towards the determination of L-tyrosine. - Highlights: • A novel amperometric L-tyrosine biosensor has been fabricated using nanostructured Fe-HA. • The fabricated sensor exhibits a wide linear range, good stability and high reproducibility. • Fe-HA assists microenvironment and direct electron transfer between enzyme and electrode surface. • The nano Fe-HA and electrode fabrication procedure are simple and less expensive

  12. A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for catechol using conducting polymer reduced graphene oxide-metal oxide enzyme modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, V; Muthuraja, P; Anandha Raj, J; Manisankar, P

    2016-10-15

    The fabrication, characterization and analytical performances were investigated for a catechol biosensor, based on the PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The graphene oxide (GO) doped conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was prepared through electrochemical polymerization by potential cycling. Reduction of PEDOT-GO was carried out by amperometric method. Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol by hydrothermal method. The mixture of Fe2O3, PPO and glutaraldehyde was casted on the PEDOT-rGO electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrodes was studied by FE-SEM and AFM. Cyclic voltammetric studies of catechol on the enzyme modified electrode revealed higher reduction peak current. Determination of catechol was carried out successfully by Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) technique. The fabricated biosensor investigated shows a maximum current response at pH 6.5. The catechol biosensor exhibited wide sensing linear range from 4×10(-8) to 6.20×10(-5)M, lower detection limit of 7×10(-9)M, current maxima (Imax) of 92.55µA and Michaelis-Menten (Km) constant of 30.48µM. The activation energy (Ea) of enzyme electrode is 35.93KJmol(-1) at 50°C. There is no interference from d-glucose and l-glutamic acid, ascorbic acid and o-nitrophenol. The PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO biosensor was stable for at least 75 days when stored in a buffer at about 4°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tattoo-based noninvasive glucose monitoring: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Jia, Wenzhao; Yardımcı, Ceren; Wang, Xuan; Ramirez, Julian; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-06

    We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an all-printed temporary tattoo-based glucose sensor for noninvasive glycemic monitoring. The sensor represents the first example of an easy-to-wear flexible tattoo-based epidermal diagnostic device combining reverse iontophoretic extraction of interstitial glucose and an enzyme-based amperometric biosensor. In-vitro studies reveal the tattoo sensor's linear response toward physiologically relevant glucose levels with negligible interferences from common coexisting electroactive species. The iontophoretic-biosensing tattoo platform is reduced to practice by applying the device on human subjects and monitoring variations in glycemic levels due to food consumption. Correlation of the sensor response with that of a commercial glucose meter underscores the promise of the tattoo sensor to detect glucose levels in a noninvasive fashion. Control on-body experiments demonstrate the importance of the reverse iontophoresis operation and validate the sensor specificity. This preliminary investigation indicates that the tattoo-based iontophoresis-sensor platform holds considerable promise for efficient diabetes management and can be extended toward noninvasive monitoring of other physiologically relevant analytes present in the interstitial fluid.

  14. Layer-by-layer assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide for direct electrochemistry and glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares [São Paulo State University - UNESP, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Miyazaki, Celina Massumi [Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cruz, Nilson Cristino da [São Paulo State University - UNESP, Sorocaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Leite de Moraes, Marli [Federal University of São Paulo, Unifesp, Campus São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Riul, Antonio [University of Campinas - Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Marystela, E-mail: marystela@ufscar.br [Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    We report an electrochemical glucose biosensor made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The LbL assembly using positively and negatively charged rGO multilayers represents a simple approach to develop enzymatic biosensors. The electron transport properties of graphene were combined with the specificity provided by the enzyme. rGO was obtained and functionalized using chemical methods, being positively charged with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to form GPDDA, and negatively charged with poly(styrene sulfonate) to form GPSS. Stable aqueous dispersions of GPDDA and GPSS are easily obtained, enabling the growth of LbL films on various solid supports. The use of graphene in the immobilization of GOx promoted Direct Electron Transfer, which was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry. Amperometric measurements indicated a detection limit of 13.4 μmol·L{sup ‐1} and sensitivity of 2.47 μA·cm{sup −2}·mmol{sup −1}·L for glucose with the (GPDDA/GPSS){sub 1}/(GPDDA/GOx){sub 2} architecture, whose thickness was 19.80 ± 0.28 nm, as determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The sensor may be useful for clinical analysis since glucose could be detected even in the presence of typical interfering agents and in real samples of a lactose-free milk and an electrolyte solution to prevent dehydration. - Highlights: • Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • Thickness (layer-by-layer) LbL film determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). • Selective determination of glucose in the presence of several interferents. • Real sample test: commercial oral electrolyte solution and lactose-free milk.

  15. Layer-by-layer assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide for direct electrochemistry and glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascagni, Daniela Branco Tavares; Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Leite de Moraes, Marli; Riul, Antonio; Ferreira, Marystela

    2016-01-01

    We report an electrochemical glucose biosensor made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The LbL assembly using positively and negatively charged rGO multilayers represents a simple approach to develop enzymatic biosensors. The electron transport properties of graphene were combined with the specificity provided by the enzyme. rGO was obtained and functionalized using chemical methods, being positively charged with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to form GPDDA, and negatively charged with poly(styrene sulfonate) to form GPSS. Stable aqueous dispersions of GPDDA and GPSS are easily obtained, enabling the growth of LbL films on various solid supports. The use of graphene in the immobilization of GOx promoted Direct Electron Transfer, which was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry. Amperometric measurements indicated a detection limit of 13.4 μmol·L ‐1 and sensitivity of 2.47 μA·cm −2 ·mmol −1 ·L for glucose with the (GPDDA/GPSS) 1 /(GPDDA/GOx) 2 architecture, whose thickness was 19.80 ± 0.28 nm, as determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The sensor may be useful for clinical analysis since glucose could be detected even in the presence of typical interfering agents and in real samples of a lactose-free milk and an electrolyte solution to prevent dehydration. - Highlights: • Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • Thickness (layer-by-layer) LbL film determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). • Selective determination of glucose in the presence of several interferents. • Real sample test: commercial oral electrolyte solution and lactose-free milk.

  16. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  17. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  18. Carbon Nanotube Modified Screen Printed Electrodes: Pyranose Oxidase Immobilization Platform for Amperometric Enzyme Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ODACI DEMIRKOL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, a novel enzymatic biosensor was developed using multiwalled carbon nanotube including screen printed electrodes (MWCNT-SPE. Pyranose oxidase (PyOx was immobilized on the electrode surface by way of gelatin membrane and then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde. Glucose was detected at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl by watching consumed oxygen in enzymatic reaction after addition substrate. After optimization of pH and enzyme loading, the linearity was found in the range of 0.1–1.0 mM of glucose. After that, the effect of MCNT on the current was tested. Also the enzymatic biosensor including glucose oxidase instead of pyranose oxidase was prepared and the biosensor response followed for glucose. Furthermore, this system was tested for glucose analysis in soft drinks.

  19. Oxidative polymerization of 5-hydroxytryptamine to physically and chemically immobilize glucose oxidase for electrochemical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting; Liu, Zaichun; Li, Yunlong; Li, Yanqiu; Chao, Long; Chen, Chao; Tan, Yueming; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo; Wu, Yuping

    2018-07-12

    Poly(5-hydroxytryptamine) (poly(5-HT)) is exploited as a new and efficient enzyme-immobilization matrix for amperometric and biofuel cell (BFC)-based biosensing. A GOx-poly(5-HT)-Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) bionanocomposite is prepared by Na 2 PdCl 4 -initiated oxidized polymerization of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in a neutral aqueous solution containing glucose oxidase (GOx), and this bionanocomposite and then chitosan (CS) are cast-coated on a Pd-plated Au electrode to yield a CS/GOx-poly(5-HT)-PdNPs/Pd plate /Au enzyme electrode. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance are employed for material characterization and/or process monitoring. Under optimized conditions, the amperometric response of the enzyme electrode is linear with glucose concentration from 2.0 μM to 6.66 mM with a sensitivity of 110 μA mM -1  cm -2 , a limit of detection of 0.2 μM, and excellent operation/storage stability in the first-generation biosensing mode. The sensitivity is larger than those of some conventional electrodes under identical conditions. The enzyme electrode also works well in the second-generation biosensing mode. By using the enzyme electrode as the anode for glucose oxidation and a Pd plate /Au electrode as the cathode for KMnO 4 reduction, a monopolar BFC is constructed as a self-powered biosensor, the current response of which is linear with glucose concentration from 50 μM to 34.5 mM. Experiments also show that poly(5-HT) is a physical and chemical dual-immobilization matrix of enzyme, since the abundant amino groups in poly(5-HT) can be used for chemical bonding of GOx. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Label-Free Electrical Detection Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Maehashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Label-free detections of biomolecules have attracted great attention in a lot of life science fields such as genomics, clinical diagnosis and practical pharmacy. In this article, we reviewed amperometric and potentiometric biosensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. In amperometric detections, CNT-modified electrodes were used as working electrodes to significantly enhance electroactive surface area. In contrast, the potentiometric biosensors were based on aptamer-modified CNT field-effect transistors (CNTFETs. Since aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides and thus are smaller than the Debye length, proteins can be detected with high sensitivity. In this review, we discussed on the technology, characteristics and developments for commercialization in label-free CNT-based biosensors.

  1. Direct electrochemical sensing of glucose using glucose oxidase immobilized on functionalized carbon nanotubes via a novel metal chelate-based affinity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Feng, L.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a novel amperometric glassy carbon biosensing electrode for glucose. It is based on the immobilization of a highly sensitive glucose oxidase (GOx) by affinity interaction on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with iminodiacetic acid and metal chelates. The new technique for immobilization is exploiting the affinity of Co(II) ions to the histidine and cysteine moieties on the surface of GOx. The direct electrochemistry of immobilized GOx revealed that the functionalized CNTs greatly improve the direct electron transfer between GOx and the surface of the electrode to give a pair of well-defined and almost reversible redox peaks and undergoes fast heterogeneous electron transfer with a rate constant (k s) of 0. 59 s -1 . The GOx immobilized in this way fully retained its activity for the oxidation of glucose. The resulting biosensor is capable of detecting glucose at levels as low as 0.01 mM, and has excellent operational stability (with no decrease in the activity of enzyme over a 10 days period). The method of immobilizing GOx is easy and also provides a model technique for potential use with other redox enzymes and proteins. (author)

  2. pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

    2014-02-18

    A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor.

  3. Fabrication of Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polyaniline (NSPANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha SAINI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 biosensors based on nanostructured conducting polyaniline (NSPANI (synthesized using sodiumdodecyl sulphate (SDS as structure directing agent were developed. Because of the large specific surface area, excellent conductivity of NSPANI, horseradish peroxidase (HRP and glucose oxidase (GOx could be easily immobilized with high loading and activity. In addition the small dimensions and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the NSCP allow the rapid transmission of electron and enhance current response. The linear dynamic range of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is 5–40 mM for glucose and 1–50 mM for H2O2, respectively where as the bulk PANI exhibits linearity between 5-20 mM/l. The miniature optical glucose biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility. The storage stability of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is two weeks for glucose and five days for H2O2. The high response value of NSPANI based biosensors as compared to bulk PANI based biosensor reflects higher enzymatic affinity of GOx/NSPANI and HRP/NSPANI with glucose and H2O2 due to biocompatibility, active surface area and high electron communication capability of nanobiopolymer film. In conclusion, the NSPANI based biosensors proposed herein have many advantages such as a low response time, high reproducibility, high sensitivity, stable and wide dynamic range.

  4. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanostructured gold thin films and its application to bioelectrochemical glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Cuicui; Wang Xia; Liu Xueying; Hou Shifeng; Ma Houyi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au thin films are formed by electrodeposition and galvanic replacement technology. ► Glucose oxidase is stably immobilized via a simple physical adsorption method. ► The direct electrochemical behavior is obtained on the immobilized glucose oxidase. ► An amperometric sensor of glucose with an excellent sensing capability is achieved. - Abstract: Glucose oxidase (GOx) was stably immobilized via a simple physical adsorption method onto the nanostructured Au thin films fabricated by using electrodeposition and galvanic replacement technology, which provides a facile method to prepare morphology-controllable Au films and also facilitates the preparation and application of enzyme modified electrodes. An obvious advantage of the as-prepared enzyme electrode (denoted as GOx/Au/GCE) is that the nano-Au films provide a favorable microenvironment for GOx and facilitate the electron transfer between the active center of GOx and electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicate that the immobilized GOx displayed a direct, reversible and surface-confined redox reaction in the phosphate buffer solution. Furthermore, the enzyme modified electrode was used as a glucose bioelectrochemical sensor, exhibiting a linear relationship in the concentration ranges of 2.5–32.5 μmol L −1 and 60–130 μmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.32 μmol L −1 (S/N = 3) at an applied potential of −0.55 V. Due to the excellent stability, sensitivity and anti-interference ability, the Au thin films are hopeful in the construction of glucose biosensors.

  5. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S., E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2013-09-15

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 Degree-Sign C.

  6. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5–700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 °C

  7. Plasmonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and popularity of film-based SPR sensing. This review surveys the current plasmonic biosensor landscape with emphasis on the basic operating principles of each plasmonic sensing technique and the practical considerations when developing a sensing platform with the various techniques. The 'gold standard' film SPR technique is reviewed briefly, but special emphasis is devoted to the up-and-coming localized surface plasmon resonance and plasmonically coupled sensor technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Electrochemical biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cosnier, Serge

    2015-01-01

    "This is an excellent book on modern electrochemical biosensors, edited by Professor Cosnier and written by leading international experts. It covers state-of-the-art topics of this important field in a clear and timely manner."-Prof. Joseph Wang, UC San Diego, USA  "This book covers, in 13 well-illustrated chapters, the potential of electrochemical methods intimately combined with a biological component for the assay of various analytes of biological and environmental interest. Particular attention is devoted to the description of electrochemical microtools in close contact with a biological cell for exocytosis monitoring and to the use of nanomaterials in the electrochemical biosensor architecture for signal improvement. Interestingly, one chapter describes the concept and design of self-powered biosensors derived from biofuel cells. Each topic is reviewed by experts very active in the field. This timely book is well suited for providing a good overview of current research trends devoted to electrochemical...

  9. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  10. A novel ECL biosensor for the detection of concanavalin A based on glucose functionalized NiCo2S4 nanoparticles-grown on carboxylic graphene as quenching probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Wang, Yaoguang; Shi, Li; Ma, Hongmin; Zhang, Yong; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was developed for detection of Concanavalin A (Con A). Chitosan/Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /silica/Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials (CRuSi-Fe 3 O 4 ) were synthesized through W/O microemulsion route. The added Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles can simplify the prepared process and enhance the conductivity of nanomaterials which can increase the ECL intensity of luminophor CRuSi-Fe 3 O 4 . In addition, the layered structure of CRuSi-Fe 3 O 4 can immobilize lots of Con A using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent which can improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. Then the quenching probe glucose functionalized NiCo 2 S 4 nanoparticles-grown on carboxylic graphene (NiCo 2 S 4 -COOH-rGO@Glu) was anchored on the modified-electrode via the specific carbohydrate-Con A interaction. Here, NiCo 2 S 4 was used to quench the ECL of CRuSi-Fe 3 O 4 , graphene was used to grow NiCo 2 S 4 nanoparticles as carrier materials and glucose was served as the recognition element for bounding Con A. Therefore, a desirable quenching ECL signal was measured with S 2 O 8 2- as the coreactant of CRuSi-Fe 3 O 4 . Under the optimization of determination conditions, a linear response range for Con A from 0.5pgmL -1 to 100ngmL -1 was obtained, and the detection limit was calculated to be 0.18pgmL -1 (S/N=3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immobilization of glucose oxidase into a nanoporous TiO₂ film layered on metallophthalocyanine modified vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes for efficient direct electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Sun, Yu-Long; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Wei-De; Luong, John H T

    2013-08-15

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was adsorbed into a nanoporous TiO₂ film layered on the surface of an iron phthalocyanine (FePc) vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) modified electrode. A Nafion film was then dropcast on the electrode's surface to improve operational and storage stabilities of the GOD-based electrode. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed the formation of FePc and nanoporous TiO₂ nanoparticles along the sidewall and the tip of CNTs. Cyclic voltammograms of the GOD electrode in neutral PBS exhibited a pair of well-defined redox peaks, attesting the direct electron transfer of GOD (FAD/FADH₂) with the underlying electrode. The potential of glucose electro-oxidation under nitrogen was ∼+0.12 V with an oxidation current density of 65.3 μA cm(-2) at +0.77 V. Voltammetric and amperometric responses were virtually unaffected by oxygen, illustrating an efficient and fast direct electron transfer. The modification of the CNT surface with FePc resulted in a biosensor with remarkable detection sensitivity with an oxygen-independent bioelectrocatalysis. In deaerated PBS, the biosensor displayed average response time of 12 s, linearity from 50 μM to 4 mM, and a detection limit of 30 μM (S/N=3) for glucose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  13. Improvement of amperometric transducer selectivity using nanosized phenylenediamine films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, O. V.; Kucherenko, I. S.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Alekseev, S. A.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we studied the conditions of deposition of a semipermeable polyphenylenediamine (PPD)-based membrane on amperometric disk platinum electrodes. Restricting an access of interfering substances to the electrode surface, the membrane prevents their impact on the sensor operation. Two methods of membrane deposition by electropolymerization were compared—at varying potential (cyclic voltammetry) and at constant potential. The cyclic voltammetry was shown to be easier in performing and providing better properties of the membrane. The dependence of PPD membrane effectiveness on the number of cyclic voltammograms and phenylenediamine concentration was analyzed. It was shown that the impact of interfering substances (ascorbic acid, dopamine, cysteine, uric acid) on sensor operation could be completely avoided using three cyclic voltammograms in 30 mM phenylenediamine. On the other hand, when working with diluted samples, i.e., at lower concentrations of electroactive substances, it is reasonable to decrease the phenylenediamine concentration to 5 mM, which would result in a higher sensitivity of transducers to hydrogen peroxide due to a thinner PPD layer. The PPD membrane was tested during continuous operation and at 8-day storage and turned out to be efficient in sensor and biosensors.

  14. Redox-flexible NADH oxidase biosensor: A platform for various dehydrogenase bioassays and biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, Simona; El Murr, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    A generic amperometric bioassay based on the enzymatic oxidation catalysed by the stable NADH oxidase (NAox) from Thermus thermophilus has been developed for NADH measurements. The NAox uses O 2 as its natural electron acceptor and produces H 2 O 2 in a two-electron process. Electrochemical and spectrophotometric experiments showed that the NAox used in this work, presents a very good activity towards its substrate and, in contrary to previously mentioned NADH oxidases, does not require the addition of any exogenous flavin cofactor neither to promote nor to maintain its activity. In addition, the NAox used also works with artificial electron acceptors like ferrocene derivatives. O 2 was successfully replaced by redox mediators such as hydroxymethyl ferrocene (FcCH 2 OH) for the regeneration of the active enzyme. Combining the NAox with the mediator and the horseradish peroxidase we developed an original, high sensitive 'redox-flexible' NADH amperometric bioassay working in a large window of applied potentials in both oxidation and reduction modes. The biosensor has a continuous and complementary linearity range permitting to measure NADH concentrations starting from 5 x 10 -6 M in reduction until 2 x 10 3 M in oxidation. This redox-flexibility allows choosing the applied potential in order to avoid electrochemical interferences. The association of the 'redox-flexible' concept with NADH dependent enzymes opens a novel strategy for dehydrogenases based bioassays and biosensors. The great number of dehydrogenases available makes the concept applicable for numerous substrates to analyse. Moreover it allows the development of a wide range of biosensors on the basis of a generic platform. This gives several advantages over the previous manufacturing techniques and offers a general and flexible scheme for the fabrication of biosensors presenting high sensitivities, wide calibration ranges and less affected by electrochemical interferences

  15. Monitoring arterio-venous differences of glucose and lactate in the anesthetized rat with or without brain damage with ultrafiltration and biosensor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Postema, F; Korf, J

    2001-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of arterio-venous glucose and lactate differences may serve as a diagnostic tool to assess normal brain function and brain pathology. We describe a method and some results obtained with arterio-venous measurements of glucose and lactate in the blood of the

  16. Electrospun doping of carbon nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles into the β-phase polyvinylidene difluoride nanofibrous membrane for biosensor and catalysis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Zhao, Xinne; Zhang, Xuan; Lai, Yue; Wang, Xinting; Li, Jingfeng; Wei, Gang; Su, Zhiqiang

    2014-05-28

    A novel β-phase polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) nanofibrous membrane decorated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was fabricated by an improved electrospinning technique. The morphology of the fabricated PVDF-MWCNT-PtNP nanofibrous membrane was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the formation of high β-phase in the hybrid nanofibrous membrane was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The uniform dispersion of MWCNTs and PtNPs in the PVDF hybrid nanofibrous membrane and their interaction were explored by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For the first time, we utilized this created PVDF-MWCNT-PtNP nanofibrous membrane for biosensor and catalysis applications. The nonenzymatic amperometric biosensor with highly stable and sensitive, and selective detection of both H2O2 and glucose was successfully fabricated based on the electrospun PVDF-MWCNT-PtNP nanofibrous membrane. In addition, the catalysis of the hybrid nanofibrous membrane for oxygen reduction reaction was tested, and a good catalysis performance was found. We anticipate that the strategies utilized in this work will not only guide the further design of functional nanofiber-based biomaterials and biodevices but also extend the potential applications in energy storage, cytology, and tissue engineering.

  17. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Mazlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R2 = 0.979 and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  18. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Lee, Yook Heng; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2017-12-09

    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM ( R ² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  19. Long-term Biosensors for Metabolite Monitoring by using Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOERO

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The key-point for the development of an amperometric sensor is the immobilization of the enzyme. In the present work we use biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD onto electrodes nanostructured with carbon nanotubes (CNT, to be employed in cell culture monitoring. The goal is to determine the best immobilization strategy from the point-of-view of sensor lifetime. We compared three types of immobilization: the spontaneous adsorption of the enzyme on nanotubes, the entrapment in a Nafion matrix (optimizing also the quantity, and the cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The cross-linking gives the best sensitivity, 17.38 µA mM-1 cm-2, and the lowest detection limit, 25 µM. On the other hand, Nafion matrix allows to extend the linear range up to 7.5 mM. Finally, electrodes are tested over 35 days to analyze the lifetime. GOD cross-linking results to have 100% of retained activity after 35 days, while the adsorption and the entrapment retain only the 20 % of the original response.

  20. Nucleic Acids and Enzymes at Electrodes: Electrochemical Nanomedical Biosensors and Biofuel Cell Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena

    Starting from the development of the first electrochemical biosensor for glucose, as far as in 1962, the electrochemical biosensor research area underwent a dramatic evolution both in scientific and commercial directions. At present, electrochemical biosensors are widely used in medical practice,...... perspectives of the biosensor research and such biotechnological applications as enzyme electrodes for sustainable energy production (6) will be discussed.......Starting from the development of the first electrochemical biosensor for glucose, as far as in 1962, the electrochemical biosensor research area underwent a dramatic evolution both in scientific and commercial directions. At present, electrochemical biosensors are widely used in medical practice......, by offering extremely sensitive and accurate yet simple, rapid, and inexpensive biosensing platforms (1). In this talk, I will discuss the developed at iNANO reagentless enzymatic biosensors, in which the enzyme is directly electronically coupled to the electrode (1-3), and advanced genosensor platforms...

  1. L-arginine biosensors: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Verma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO and tumor growth. A number of methods are being used for arginine detection, but biosensors technique holds prime position due to rapid response, high sensitivity and high specificity. However, there are many problems still to be addressed, including selectivity, real time analysis and interference of urea presence in the sample. In the present review we aim to emphasize the significant role of arginine in human physiology and foods. A small attempt has been made to discuss the various techniques used for development of arginine biosensor and how these techniques affect their performance. The choice of transducers for arginine biosensor ranges from optical, pH sensing, ammonia gas sensing, ammonium ion-selective, conductometric and amperometric electrodes because ammonia is formed as a final product.

  2. A regenerated electrochemical biosensor for label-free detection of glucose and urea based on conformational switch of i-motif oligonucleotide probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhong Feng; Chen, Dong Mei [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lei, Jing Lei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Hong Qun, E-mail: luohq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Nian Bing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Improving the reproducibility of electrochemical signal remains a great challenge over the past decades. In this work, i-motif oligonucleotide probe-based electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor is introduced for the first time as a regenerated sensing platform, which enhances the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, for label-free detection of glucose and urea. The addition of glucose or urea is able to activate glucose oxidase-catalyzed or urease-catalyzed reaction, inducing or destroying the formation of i-motif oligonucleotide probe. The conformational switch of oligonucleotide probe can be recorded by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thus, the difference of electron transfer resistance is utilized for the quantitative determination of glucose and urea. We further demonstrate that the E-DNA sensor exhibits high selectivity, excellent stability, and remarkable regenerated ability. The human serum analysis indicates that this simple and regenerated strategy holds promising potential in future biosensing applications. - Highlights: • Conformational switch of i-motif is used for the detection of glucose and urea. • The sensor can be regenerated. • The proposed method is successfully applied in real sample assay. • Our method is label-free and inexpensive.

  3. Highly sensitive voltammetric biosensor for nitric oxide based on its high affinity with hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chunhai; Liu Xinjian; Pang Jiantao; Li Genxi; Scheer, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Although heme protein-based, amperometric nitric oxide (NO) biosensors have been well documented in previous studies, most have been conducted in anaerobic conditions. Herein we report a novel hemoglobin-based NO biosensor that is not only very sensitive but also usable in air. The heme protein was entrapped in a sodium montmorillonite film, which was immobilized at a pyrolytic graphite electrode surface. Film-entrapped hemoglobin can directly exchange electrons with the electrode, and this process has proven to favor the catalytic reduction of oxygen. In addition, NO induced a cathodic potential shift of the catalytic reduction peak of oxygen. This potential shift was proportional to the logarithm of NO concentration ranging from 4.0 x 10 -11 to 5.0 x 10 -6 mol/L. The detection limit has been estimated to be 20 pM, approximately four orders lower than previously reported amperometric detectors

  4. Application of Ionic Liquids in Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębicki, Jacek; Kloskowski, Adam; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Stepnowski, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of available literature data on metrological parameters of the amperometric gas sensors containing ionic liquids as an electrolyte. Four mechanism types of signal generation in amperometric sensors with ionic liquid are described. Moreover, this article describes the influence of selected physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquids on the metrological parameters of these sensors. Some metrological parameters are also compared for amperometric sensors with GDE and SPE electrodes and with ionic liquids for selected analytes.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes on clay minerals and its application to a hydrogen peroxide biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-L.; Jehng, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on clay minerals, and the development of biosensors based on Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au and Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-Glucose oxidase (GOD) composite films for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and glucose, respectively. The CNTs are synthesized on nickel cation exchanged clay mineral platelets. From field-emission scanning electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infrared and thermogravimetric analysis results, the clay layers are exfoliated and delaminated after the growth of CNTs on them. The mixed hybrid film of Nafion, CNT/Clay, Au particles and GOD is coated on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode to detect H 2 O 2 or glucose. This film exhibits a detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -5 M for H 2 O 2 with a sensitivity of 280 nA mM -1 . In addition, the amperometric response for glucose containing 2.0 mg mL -1 GOD in the Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-GOD modified GC electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 620 nA mM -1 with a linear range up to 1850 μM. A higher sensitivity and shorter response time are observed with increasing GOD content in the composite matrix film. Besides, the highest sensitivity of 2032 nA mM -1 is obtained with the addition of the 10.0 mg mL -1 GOD in the composite film. Consequently, the CNT/Clay/Nafion medium can probably be a useful electrode for the development of sensors due to its high sensitivity and applicability

  6. Electrochemical Quantification of the Antioxidant Capacity of Medicinal Plants Using Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Rodríguez-Sevilla; María-Teresa Ramírez-Silva; Mario Romero-Romo; Pedro Ibarra-Escutia; Manuel Palomar-Pardavé

    2014-01-01

    The working area of a screen-printed electrode, SPE, was modified with the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr) using different immobilization methods, namely entrapment with water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cross-linking using glutaraldehyde (GA), and cross-linking using GA and human serum albumin (HSA); the resulting electrodes were termed SPE/Tyr/PVA, SPE/Tyr/GA and SPE/Tyr/HSA/GA, respectively. These biosensors were characterized by means of amperometry and EIS techniques. From amperometric eval...

  7. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    , environmental monitoring and food safety. The detected element varies from a single molecule (such as glucose), a biopolymer (such as DNA or a protein) to a whole organism (such as bacteria). Due to their easy use and possible miniaturization, biosensors have a high potential to come out of the lab...... and be available for use by everybody. To fulfil these purposes, polymers represent very appropriate materials. Many nano- and microfabrication methods for polymers are available, allowing a fast and cheap production of devices. This chapter will present the general concept of a biosensor in a first part......The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  8. Glutamate monitoring in vitro and in vivo: recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieben, Nathalie Ines; Rose, Nadia Cherouati; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2009-01-01

    is currently the most common method for in vivo glutamate sampling. However, the recent development and improvement of enzyme-based amperometric glutamate biosensors makes them a promising alternative to microdialysis for in vivo applications, as well as valuable devices for in vitro applications in basic......, and different techniques have been developed to this end. This review presents and discusses these techniques, especially the recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors, as well as the great potential of nanotechnology in glutamate sensing. Microdialysis coupled to analytical detection techniques...... neurobiological research. Another interesting group of biosensors for glutamate are fluorescence-based glutamate biosensors, which have unsurpassed spatio-temporal resolution and are therefore important tools for investigating glutamate dynamics during signaling. Adding to this list are biosensors based on nano...

  9. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  10. Determination of uranium by an amperometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Mary; Venkataramana, P.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An amperometric method has been standardised for the determination of uranium. Uranium is reduced to its quadrivalent state in concentrated phosphoric acid medium with ferrous iron. The excess iron is destroyed with nitric acid in presence of Mo(VI). The medium is diluted and U(IV) is titrated with standard potassium dichromate to an amperometric end point using a pair of identical plantinum wires as electrodes. The reagent volumes and uranium quantities have been scaled down to 30 ml. and 2-5 mg of uranium in the present work with a view to minimising the problems associated with recovery of plutonium. The results are quantitative with an R.S.D. of 0.2% in the present version of weight based titrations. (author)

  11. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paper-based maskless enzymatic sensor for glucose determination combining ink and wire electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-Gutiérrez, O; Costa Rama, E; Costa-García, A; Fernández-Abedul, M T

    2017-07-15

    In this work we have developed an amperometric enzymatic biosensor in a paper-based platform with a mixed electrode configuration: carbon ink for the working electrode (WE) and metal wires (from a low-cost standard electronic connection) for reference (RE) and auxiliary electrodes (AE). A hydrophobic wax-defined paper area was impregnated with diluted carbon ink. Three gold-plated pins of the standard connection are employed, one for connecting the WE and the other two acting as RE and AE. The standard connection works as a clip in order to support the paper in between. As a proof-of-concept, glucose sensing was evaluated. The enzyme cocktail (glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase and potassium ferrocyanide as mediator of the electron transfer) was adsorbed on the surface. After drying, glucose solution was added to the paper, on the opposite side of the carbon ink. It wets RE and AE, and flows by capillarity through the paper contacting the carbon WE surface. The reduction current of ferricyanide, product of the enzymatic reaction, is measured chronoamperometrically and correlates to the concentration of glucose. Different parameters related to the bioassay were optimized, adhering the piece of paper onto a conventional screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). In this way, the RE and the AE of the commercial card were employed for optimizing the paper-WE. After evaluating the assay system in the hybrid paper-SPCE cell, the three-electrode system consisting of paper-WE, wire-RE and wire-AE, was employed for glucose determination, achieving a linear range between 0.3 and 15mM with good analytical features and being able of quantifying glucose in real food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Lančinskas, Algirdas; Žilinskas, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis. PMID:24608006

  14. Electrochemical H2O2 biosensor composed of myoglobin on MoS2 nanoparticle-graphene oxide hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinho; Lee, Taek; Bapurao G, Bharate; Jo, Jinhee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-07-15

    In this research, the electrochemical biosensor composed of myoglobin (Mb) on molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles (MoS 2 NP) encapsulated with graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hybrid structure composed of MoS 2 NP and GO (GO@MoS 2 ) was fabricated for the first time to enhance the electrochemical signal of the biosensor. As a sensing material, Mb was introduced to fabricate the biosensor for H 2 O 2 detection. Formation and immobilization of GO@MoS 2 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Immobilization of Mb, and electrochemical property of biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t measurements. Fabricated biosensor showed the electrochemical signal enhanced redox current as -1.86μA at an oxidation potential and 1.95μA at a reduction potential that were enhanced relative to those of electrode prepared without GO@MoS 2 . Also, this biosensor showed the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, and retained the property until 9 days from fabrication. Upon addition of H 2 O 2 , the biosensor showed enhanced amperometric response current with selectivity relative to that of the biosensor prepared without GO@MoS 2 . This novel hybrid material-based biosensor can suggest a milestone in the development of a highly sensitive detecting platform for biosensor fabrication with highly sensitive detection of target molecules other than H 2 O 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosensor. Recent research progress; Baiosensa. Saikin no kenkyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsue, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, H. [National Defence Academy, Yokosuka (Japan)

    1995-11-20

    Chemical sensor is made of up transducer that transfers the part and signal recognizing the measurement objects. Biosensor that normally transfers the amount of chemicals into electrical signal is a sensor in which living materials like enzyme, microorganism or antigen, antibody and so forth are used in the recognition part. Recently, the structure or the function of the living materials is clarified gradually with the significant progress in biofeedback, however, the synthesis of artificial material having same function as that of living materials is extremely difficult. Accordingly, it is very practical to develop high degree sensor function by using living materials with developed function in material recognition part, an important element of the sensor. In this report, solid state biosensor using electrode as a transducer is focused, and specially, recent research progress regarding the amperometric measurement which measures oxidation/reduction current is discussed. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco, E-mail: ozahiga@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-07-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  17. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de

    2013-01-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar + ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  18. Electrochemical estimation of the polyphenol index in wines using a laccase biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2006-10-18

    The use of a laccase biosensor, under both batch and flow injection (FI) conditions, for a rapid and reliable amperometric estimation of the total content of polyphenolic compounds in wines is reported. The enzyme was immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde onto a glassy carbon electrode. Caffeic acid and gallic acid were selected as standard compounds to carry out such estimation. Experimental variables such as the enzyme loading, the applied potential, and the pH value were optimized, and different aspects regarding the operational stability of the laccase biosensor were evaluated. Using batch amperometry at -200 mV, the detection limits obtained were 2.6 x 10(-3) and 7.2 x 10(-4) mg L(-1) gallic acid and caffeic acid, respectively, which compares advantageously with previous biosensor designs. An extremely simple sample treatment consisting only of an appropriate dilution of wine sample with the supporting electrolyte solution (0.1 mol L(-1) citrate buffer of pH 5.0) was needed for the amperometric analysis of red, rosé, and white wines. Good correlations were found when the polyphenol indices obtained with the biosensor (in both the batch and FI modes) for different wine samples were plotted versus the results achieved with the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method. Application of the calibration transfer chemometric model (multiplicative fitting) allowed that the confidence intervals (for a significance level of 0.05) for the slope and intercept values of the amperometric index versus Folin-Ciocalteu index plots (r = 0.997) included the unit and zero values, respectively. This indicates that the laccase biosensor can be successfully used for the estimation of the polyphenol index in wines when compared with the Folin-Ciocalteu reference method.

  19. Combined atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilised onto self-assembled monolayer on the gold film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losic, D.; Shapter, J.; Gooding, J.; Erokin, P.; Short, K.

    1999-01-01

    In fabrication of biosensors, self-assembled monolayers (SAM) are an attractive method of immobilising enzymes at electrode surface since it allows precise control over the amount and spatial distribution of the immobilized enzyme. The covalent attachment of glucose oxidase (GOx) to a carboxylic terminated SAM chemisorbed onto gold films was achieved via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acids to a reactive intermediate susceptible to nucleophilic attack by amines on free lysine chains of the enzyme. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were used for characterisation of GOx modified gold surfaces. Tapping mode AFM studies have revealed that GOx molecules form slightly disordered arrays of pentagonal or hexagonal clusters. Observed features of immobilised GOx are distributed as a submonolayer on the SAM surface which has allowed visualisation of native and unfolded enzyme structure. The presence of the SAM and enzyme on the gold surface was detected by XPS spectroscopy. Spectra show typical peaks for the C 1s, O 1s and N 1s regions. A kinetic study of the adsorption of GOx onto activated SAM using in-situ QCM allowed determination the amount of immobilised GOx on the layer and consequently the optimal immobilisation conditions. Performance parameters of the biosensor such as sensitivity to glucose concentration as a function of enzyme loading were evaluated amperometrically using the redox mediator p-benzoquinone

  20. Biosensors and preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A low-temp. prepn. method for a biosensor device with a layer of reagent on the sensor surface is disclosed. During manufg. biol. interaction between the biosensor substrate and the reagent layer material is reduced, e.g. by cooling the biosensor substrate and depositing the reagent layer on the

  1. Cholinesterase-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cholinesterase-based biosensors are widely used for assaying anticholinergic compounds. Primarily biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening of inhibitors, such as organophosphates and carbamates. The present review is aimed at compilation of the most important facts about cholinesterase based biosensors, types of physico-chemical transduction, immobilization strategies and practical applications.

  2. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A green synthetic strategy of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticals supported on the graphene substrate and its non-enzymatic amperometric sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    xue, Zhonghua; He, Nan; Rao, Honghong; Hu, Chenxian; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiuhui; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-02-01

    Rapid glucose detection is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A facile and green strategy to achieve spherical-shaped nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanoparticals supported on electrochemical reduction graphene oxide by using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry is explored. As a sensing substrate, electrochemical reduction graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode surface exhibited obvious positive effect on the electrodeposition of NiHCF nanoparticals with spherical structure and thus effectively improved the electrical conductivity and electrochemical sensing of the proposed amperometric sensor. Proof-concept experiments demonstrated that the proposed nanocomposites modified electrode exhibited excellent sensitivity toward glucose oxidation as well as with a satisfying detection limit of 0.11 μM. More importantly, we also explore that as a simple, green and facile method, electrochemical technology can be employed and provide a new strategy for developing GO and metal hexacyanoferrate based amperometric sensing platform toward glucose and other biomolecules.

  4. A glucose oxidase-coupled DNAzyme sensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Sheng, Yongjie; Sun, Yanhong; Feng, Junkui; Wang, Shijin; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Jiacui; Jiang, Dazhi

    2015-08-15

    Biosensors have been widely investigated and utilized in a variety of fields ranging from environmental monitoring to clinical diagnostics. Glucose biosensors have triggered great interest and have been widely exploited since glucose determination is essential for diabetes diagnosis. In here, we designed a novel dual-enzyme biosensor composed of glucose oxidase (GOx) and pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz) to detect glucose levels in tears and saliva. First, GOx, as a molecular recognition element, catalyzes the oxidation of glucose forming H2O2; then PLDz recognizes the produced H2O2 as a secondary signal and performs a self-cleavage reaction promoted by Mn(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+). Thus, detection of glucose could be realized by monitoring the cleavage rate of PLDz. The slope of the cleavage rate of PLDz versus glucose concentration curve was fitted with a Double Boltzmann equation, with a range of glucose from 100 nM to 10mM and a detection limit of 5 μM. We further applied the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva, glucose levels in which are 720±81 μM and 405±56 μM respectively. Therefore, the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor is able to determine glucose levels in tears and saliva as a noninvasive glucose biosensor, which is important for diabetic patients with frequent/continuous glucose monitoring requirements. In addition, induction of DNAzyme provides a new approach in the development of glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Kee-Shyuan; Lee, Yook Heng; Musa, Ahmad; Salmah, Abdul Aziz; Zamri, Ishak

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together wit...

  6. Biosensors of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlage, Robert S; Tillmann, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Biosensors are devices which utilize both an electrical component (transducer) and a biological component to study an environment. They are typically used to examine biological structures, organisms and processes. The field of biosensors has now become so large and varied that the technology can often seem impenetrable. Yet the principles which underlie the technology are uncomplicated, even if the details of the mechanisms are elusive. In this review we confine our analysis to relatively current advancements in biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells. This includes biosensors which rely on an added labeled component and biosensors which do not have a labeled component and instead detect the binding event or bound structure on the transducer. Methods to concentrate the bacteria prior to biosensor analysis are also described. The variety of biosensor types and their actual and potential uses are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction to biosensors from electric circuits to immunosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    This book equips students with a thorough understanding of various types of sensors and biosensors that can be used for chemical, biological, and biomedical applications, including but not limited to temperature sensors, strain sensor, light sensors, spectrophotometric sensors, pulse oximeter, optical fiber probes, fluorescence sensors, pH sensor, ion-selective electrodes, piezoelectric sensors, glucose sensors, DNA and immunosensors, lab-on-a-chip biosensors, paper-based lab-on-a-chip biosensors, and microcontroller-based sensors. The author treats the study of biosensors with an applications-based approach, including over 15 extensive, hands-on labs given at the end of each chapter. The material is presented using a building-block approach, beginning with the fundamentals of sensor design and temperature sensors, and ending with more complicated biosensors. New to this second edition are sections on op-amp filters, pulse oximetry, meat quality monitoring, advanced fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence, various...

  8. Mechanistic modeling of cyclic voltammetry: A helpful tool for understanding biosensor principles and supporting design optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Daria; Zubov, Alexandr; Silina, Yuliya E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Design, optimization and integration of biosensors hold a great potential for the development of cost-effective screening and point-of-care technologies. However, significant progress in this field can still be obtained on condition that sufficiently accurate mathematical models......, oxidized/reduced forms of the mediator - Prussian Blue/Prussian White). Furthermore, the developed model was applied under various operating conditions as a crucial tool for biosensor design optimization. The obtained qualitative and quantitative dependencies towards amperometric biosensors design...... optimization were independently supported by results of cyclic voltammetry and multi-analytical studies, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Remarkably, a linear...

  9. Utilization of Diamine Oxidase Enzyme from Mung Bean Sprouts (Vigna radiata L) for Histamine biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Abdul; Wahab, A. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to utilize the diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO) which isolated from mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L) to develop histamine biosensors based on electode enzyme with the amperometric method (cyclic voltammetry).The DAO enzyme is trapped inside the membrane of chitin-cellulose acetate 2:1 and glutaraldehyde which super imposed on a Pt electrode. Histamine will be oxidized by DAO enzyme to produce aldehydes and H2O2 that acting as electron transfer mediators.The performance of biosensors will be measured at various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, temperature changes and different range of pH. Recently, it has been found that the optimal conditions obtained from the paramaters as follows; at 25% of glutaraldehyde, temperature of 37°C and pH of 7.4. Eventually, the results provided an expectation for applying histamine biosensors in determining the freshness and safety of fish specifically skombroidae families.

  10. Development of a microscale NOx- biosensor for the study of nitrogen cycling in marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzocchi, Ugo

    application of this microscale biosensor is constrained mainly because of a short lifetime caused by the fragility of some of its components. Moreover a detailed study characterizing the ESC efficiency under different condition is still missing. The aims of this thesis are: (i) to contribute......-) microscale biosensor matches these requirements. In fact, it can be constructed with a tip diameter ranging between 25 and 100 µm. Its functioning is based on the reduction of NOx- to N2O by denitrifying bacteria and the subsequent detection of N2O by means of an amperometric microsensor. The sensitivity...... of the biosensor can be amplified by the electrophoretic sensitivity control system (ESC) which positively polarizes the inner side of the sensor against an external reference inserted into the analyzed medium, inducing the migration of NOx- anions into the bacterial chamber. However, nowadays the widespread...

  11. A novel bi-enzyme electrochemical biosensor for selective and sensitive determination of methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2016-07-15

    An amperometric sensor based on a bi-enzyme modified electrode was fabricated to detect methyl salicylate, a volatile organic compound released by pathogen-infected plants via systemic response. The detection is based on cascadic conversion reactions that result in an amperometric electrochemical signal. The bi-enzyme electrode is made of alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase enzymes immobilized on to a carbon nanotube matrix through a molecular tethering method. Methyl salicylate undergoes hydrolysis to form methanol, which is consumed by alcohol oxidase to form formaldehyde while simultaneously reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide will be further reduced to water by horseradish peroxidase, which results in an amperometric signal via direct electron transfer. The bi-enzyme biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry using hydrolyzed methyl salicylate as the analyte. The sensitivity of the bi-enzyme biosensor as determined by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry were 112.37 and 282.82μAcm(-2)mM(-1) respectively, and the corresponding limits of detection were 22.95 and 0.98μM respectively. Constant potential amperometry was also used to evaluate durability, repeatability and interference from other compounds. Wintergreen oil was used for real sample study to establish the application of the bi-enzyme sensor for selective determination of plant pathogen infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gold nanoparticles on the structure and electron-transfer characteristics of glucose oxidase redox polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, M Lorena; Marmisollé, Waldemar; Pallarola, Diego; Pietrasanta, Lía I; Murgida, Daniel H; Ceolín, Marcelo; Azzaroni, Omar; Battaglini, Fernando

    2014-10-06

    Efficient electrical communication between redox proteins and electrodes is a critical issue in the operation and development of amperometric biosensors. The present study explores the advantages of a nanostructured redox-active polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex containing [Os(bpy)2Clpy](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, py= pyridine) as the redox centers and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as nanodomains for boosting the electron-transfer propagation throughout the assembled film in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOx). Film structure was characterized by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), GOx incorporation was followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), whereas Raman spectroelectrochemistry and electrochemical studies confirmed the ability of the entrapped gold nanoparticles to enhance the electron-transfer processes between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Our results show that nanocomposite films exhibit five-fold increase in current response to glucose compared with analogous supramolecular AuNP-free films. The introduction of colloidal gold promotes drastic mesostructural changes in the film, which in turn leads to a rigid, amorphous interfacial architecture where nanoparticles, redox centers, and GOx remain in close proximity, thus improving the electron-transfer process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Physiological Fluctuations in Brain Temperature as a Factor Affecting Electrochemical Evaluations of Extracellular Glutamate and Glucose in Behavioral Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rate of any chemical reaction or process occurring in the brain depends on temperature. While it is commonly believed that brain temperature is a stable, tightly regulated homeostatic parameter, it fluctuates within 1–4 °C following exposure to salient arousing stimuli and neuroactive drugs, and during different behaviors. These temperature fluctuations should affect neural activity and neural functions, but the extent of this influence on neurochemical measurements in brain tissue of freely moving animals remains unclear. In this Review, we present the results of amperometric evaluations of extracellular glutamate and glucose in awake, behaving rats and discuss how naturally occurring fluctuations in brain temperature affect these measurements. While this temperature contribution appears to be insignificant for glucose because its extracellular concentrations are large, it is a serious factor for electrochemical evaluations of glutamate, which is present in brain tissue at much lower levels, showing smaller phasic fluctuations. We further discuss experimental strategies for controlling the nonspecific chemical and physical contributions to electrochemical currents detected by enzyme-based biosensors to provide greater selectivity and reliability of neurochemical measurements in behaving animals. PMID:23448428

  14. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Band-type microelectrodes for amperometric immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ga-Yeon; Chang, Young Wook; Ko, Hyuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Jung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul, E-mail: jcpyun@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-20

    A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. A circular-type, mm-scale electrode with the same diameter as the band-type microelectrode was also made with an electrode area that was 5000 times larger than the band-type microelectrode. By comparing the amperometric signals of 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) samples at different optical density (OD) values, the band-type microelectrode was determined to be 9 times more sensitive than the circular-type electrode. The properties of the circular-type and the band-type electrodes (e.g., the shape of their cyclic voltammograms, the type of diffusion layer used, and the diffusion layer thickness per unit electrode area) were characterized according to their electrode area using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. From these simulations, the band-type electrode was estimated to have the conventional microelectrode properties, even when the electrode area was 100 times larger than a conventional circular-type electrode. These results show that both the geometry and the area of an electrode can influence the properties of the electrode. Finally, amperometric analysis based on a band-type electrode was applied to commercial ELISA kits to analyze human hepatitis B surface antigen (hHBsAg) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. - Highlights: • A band-type microelectrode was made using a parylene-N film as a passivation layer. • The band-type microelectrode was 14-times more sensitive than circular-type electrode. • The influence of geometry on microelectrode properties was simulated using COMSOL. • The band-type electrode was applied to ELISA kits for hHBsAg and hHIV-antibodies.

  16. Potential application of hemoglobin as an alternative to peroxidase in a phenol biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a new amperometric biosensor for detecting phenolic compounds. The sensor was designed by immobilizing Hemoglobin (Hb) in a sol-gel matrix onto a carbon electrode. Using the peroxidase activity of Hb, the phenolic compound can be reduced in the presence of H 2 O 2 . The biosensor's performance in phenolic compound detection was based on mediated electron transfer by Hb. The direct electron transfer of Hb can be avoided by use of the sol-gel matrix. The proposed biosensor presents a very sensitive response for phenolic compounds at an applied potential of 0.0 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The parameters of the fabrication process for the electrode were optimized. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance, such as pH and potential, were investigated and assessed. Various types of phenolic compounds were detected. Among them, using the optimized conditions, a linearity for the detection of the phenol was observed from 5 μM to 50 μM. Biosensor response levels after 30 days were at more than 80% of their initial response readings level. The response time of the biosensor was about 10 s

  17. Integrated multienzyme electrochemical biosensors for the determination of glycerol in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2008-02-25

    The construction and performance of integrated amperometric biosensors for the determination of glycerol are reported. Two different biosensor configurations have been evaluated: one based on the glycerol dehydrogenase/diaphorase (GDH/DP) bienzyme system, and another using glycerol kinase/glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase/peroxidase (GK/GPOx/HRP). Both enzyme systems were immobilized together with the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) on a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrode by using a dialysis membrane. The electrochemical oxidation of TTF at +150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl), and the reduction of TTF(+) at 0mV were used for the monitoring of the enzyme reactions for the bienzyme and trienzyme configurations, respectively. Experimental variables concerning both the biosensors composition and the working conditions were optimized for each configuration. A good repeatability of the measurements with no need of cleaning or pretreatment of the biosensors was obtained in both cases. After 51 days of use, the GDH/DP biosensor still exhibited 87% of the original sensitivity, while the GK/GPOx/HRP biosensor yielded a 46% of the original response after 8 days. Calibration graphs for glycerol with linear ranges of 1.0x10(-6) to 2.0x10(-5) or 1.0x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-5)M glycerol and sensitivities of 1214+/-21 or 1460+/-34microAM(-1) were obtained with GDH/DP and GK/GPOx/HRP biosensors, respectively. The calculated detection limits were 4.0x10(-7) and 3.1x10(-7)M, respectively. The biosensors exhibited a great sensitivity with no significant interferences in the analysis of wines. The biosensors were applied to the determination of glycerol in 12 different wines and the results advantageously compared with those provided by a commercial enzyme kit.

  18. Biosensors and bioelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Karunakaran, Chandran; Benjamin, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors and Bioelectronics presents the rapidly evolving methodologies that are relevant to biosensors and bioelectronics fabrication and characterization. The book provides a comprehensive understanding of biosensor functionality, and is an interdisciplinary reference that includes a range of interwoven contributing subjects, including electrochemistry, nanoparticles, and conducting polymers. Authored by a team of bioinstrumentation experts, this book serves as a blueprint for performing advanced fabrication and characterization of sensor systems-arming readers with an application-based re

  19. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition-based biosensor for aluminum(III) chronoamperometric determination in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Quirós, Miriam; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, Maria Asunción; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-05-07

    A novel amperometric biosensor for the determination of Al(III) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase has been developed. The immobilization of the enzyme was performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles. The oxidation signal of acetylthiocholine iodide enzyme substrate was affected by the presence of Al(III) ions leading to a decrease in the amperometric current. The developed system has a detection limit of 2.1 ± 0.1 μM for Al(III). The reproducibility of the method is 8.1% (n = 4). Main interferences include Mo(VI), W(VI) and Hg(II) ions. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in spiked tap water . The analysis of a certified standard reference material was also carried out. Both results agree with the certified values considering the respective associated uncertainties.

  20. Covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with neutral red for the fabrication of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscale dimensions, graphitic surface chemistry and electronic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) make them an ideal candidate for chemical and biochemical sensing. In this paper we explore a covalent chemical strategy for functionalization of MWNTs with neutral red through carbodiimide coupling between the primary amine of neutral red and carboxyl groups of the carbon nanotubes. The construction of an amperometric sensor was achieved by abrasive immobilization of the functionalized MWNTs on a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode followed by a coating of a thin film of nafion. The neutral red functionalized MWNTs were characterized by spectroscopic and electroanalytical methods. From the voltammetric studies, MWNTs were found to exhibit a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions. The modified electrode exhibited stable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction in a wide potential range. A significant decrease in overvoltage for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, as well as a dramatic increase in the peak currents in comparison with a bare graphite electrode were observed. Such an ability of neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes to promote the hydrogen peroxide electron transfer reaction with a short response time (<4 s) and long-term stability, a low detection limit, an extended linear concentration range and a high sensitivity suggest great promise for dehydrogenase and oxidase based amperometric biosensors

  1. Covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with neutral red for the fabrication of an amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman [Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India)

    2007-03-28

    The nanoscale dimensions, graphitic surface chemistry and electronic properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) make them an ideal candidate for chemical and biochemical sensing. In this paper we explore a covalent chemical strategy for functionalization of MWNTs with neutral red through carbodiimide coupling between the primary amine of neutral red and carboxyl groups of the carbon nanotubes. The construction of an amperometric sensor was achieved by abrasive immobilization of the functionalized MWNTs on a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode followed by a coating of a thin film of nafion. The neutral red functionalized MWNTs were characterized by spectroscopic and electroanalytical methods. From the voltammetric studies, MWNTs were found to exhibit a higher accessible surface area in electrochemical reactions. The modified electrode exhibited stable electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction in a wide potential range. A significant decrease in overvoltage for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, as well as a dramatic increase in the peak currents in comparison with a bare graphite electrode were observed. Such an ability of neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes to promote the hydrogen peroxide electron transfer reaction with a short response time (<4 s) and long-term stability, a low detection limit, an extended linear concentration range and a high sensitivity suggest great promise for dehydrogenase and oxidase based amperometric biosensors.

  2. Laccase-based biosensor for the determination of polyphenol index in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Tortolini, Cristina; Deriu, Daniela; Mazzei, Franco

    2010-04-15

    In this work we have developed and characterized the use of Laccases from Trametes versicolor (TvL) and Trametes hirsuta (ThL) as biocatalytic components of electrochemical biosensors for the determination of polyphenol index in wines. Polyazetidine prepolimer (PAP) was used as immobilizing agent, multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes screen-printed electrodes as sensors (MWCNTs-SPE and SWCNTs-SPE) and gallic acid as standard substrate. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of -100 mV vs. silver/silver chloride electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 5. The results were compared with those obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteau reference method. The results obtained in the analysis of twelve Italian wines put in evidence the better suitability of ThL-MWCNTs-based biosensor in the determination of the polyphenol index in wines. This biosensor shows fast and reliable amperometric responses to gallic acid with a linear range 0.1-18.0 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.999). The influence of the interferences on both spectrophotometric and electrochemical measurements have been carefully evaluated. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  4. Determination of carbohydrates by high performance anion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qingjiu; Luo, Xi; Xue, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Feng, Na

    2012-01-01

    A method of detecting carbohydrates (fucose, trehalose, mannitol, arabitol, mannose, glucose, galactose, fructose, and ribose) by high-performance anion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HAPEC-PAD) was established. The conditions are: CarboPac MA1 column, NaOH as the eluent, temperature 30°C, Au working electrode, Ag/AgCl reference electrode, and flow rate 0.4 mL/min. These nine analytes, which yielded high resolution by this method, could be detected in 40 minutes. Mushrooms were tested and good precision, stability, and reproducibility were achieved. This method is suitable for mushroom samples and could support research and development on sugar and sugar alcohol, which contains special effects.

  5. An Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensor for 3-Hydroxybutyrate Detection Using Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified by Reduced Graphene Oxide and Thionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martínez-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase onto a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide (GO and thionine (THI is reported here. After addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate or the sample in the presence of NAD+ cofactor, the generated NADH could be detected amperometrically at 0.0 V vs. Ag pseudo reference electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a calibration plot for 3-HB was constructed showing a wide linear range between 0.010 and 0.400 mM 3-HB which covers the clinically relevant levels for diluted serum samples. In addition, a limit of detection of 1.0 µM, much lower than that reported using other biosensors, was achieved. The analytical usefulness of the developed biosensor was demonstrated via application to spiked serum samples.

  6. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid-containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA A. KRATASYUK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reshetilov AN, Kitova AE, Arkhipova AV, Kratasyuk VA, Rai MK. 2012. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 97-100. A biosensor based on Gluconobacter oxydans VKM B-1280 bacteria was used for detection of ethanol in the presence of acetic acid. It was assumed that this assay could be useful for controlling acetic acid production from ethanol and determining the final stage of the fermentation process. Measurements were made using a Clark electrode-based amperometric biosensor. The effect of pH of the medium on the sensor signal and the analytical parameters of the sensor (detection range, sensitivity were investigated. The residual content of ethanol in acetic acid samples was analyzed. The results of the study are important for monitoring the acetic acid production process, as they represent a method of tracking its stages

  7. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  8. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, Marta; Tian Faming; Smehilova, Maria; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Napier, Richard; Dale, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. · Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. · CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. · Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. · The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N 6 -side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  9. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano; Buonasera, Katia; Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. ► The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. ► Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. ► The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 μM and 4.5 μM, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 μM and 35 μM respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  10. Amperometric and coulometric methods of platinum metal determination. (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezerskaya, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Reviewed are works published in the period from 1957-1979, on amperometric and coulometric (potentiostatistic and amperostatistic variant) determination of platinum metals, Ru in particular. During amperometric titration of Ru the following titrantes are used: hydroquinone, thioxne thiourea, Na 2 S 2 O 3 . It is proposed to titrate Ru in the form of ruthenate-ion with hydrazine sulphate in alkal: medium according to the current of reagent oxidation. During coulometric determination of Ru the electrogenerating titrant TiCl 3 or Ti 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (for initial form of Ru [RuCl 6 ] 2- ) is used [ru

  11. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review, with 19 references, is given on challenges and possible opportunities for the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring applications. The high cost and slow turnaround times typically associated with the measurement of regulated pollutants clearly indicates...

  12. Nanochannels Photoelectrochemical Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-02-06

    Nanochannels have brought new opportunities for biosensor development. Herein, we present the novel concept of a nanochannels photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the integration of a unique Cu x O-nanopyramid-islands (NPIs) photocathode, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalytic chemistry. The Cu x O-NPIs photocathode possesses good performance, and further assembly with AAO yields a designed architecture composed of vertically aligned, highly ordered nanoarrays on top of the Cu x O-NPIs film. After biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) was stimulated within the channels, the biosensor was used for the successful detection of ALP activity. This study has not only provided a novel paradigm for an unconventional nanochannels PEC biosensor, which can be used for general bioanalytical purposes, but also indicated that the new concept of nanochannel-semiconductor heterostructures is a step toward innovative biomedical applications.

  13. Triggered optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuedong; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-10-02

    An optical biosensor is provided for the detection of a multivalent target biomolecule, the biosensor including a substrate having a bilayer membrane thereon, a recognition molecule situated at the surface, the recognition molecule capable of binding with the multivalent target biomolecule, the recognition molecule further characterized as including a fluorescence label thereon and as being movable at the surface and a device for measuring a fluorescence change in response to binding between the recognition molecule and the multivalent target biomolecule.

  14. Horseradish peroxidase and toluidine blue covalently immobilized leak-free sol-gel composite biosensor for hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenmozhi, K; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme horseradish peroxidase and the water-soluble mediator toluidine blue were covalently immobilized to 3-aminopropyl trimethoxy silane precursor through glutaraldehyde crosslinker. A rigid ceramic composite electrode was fabricated from this modified silane along with graphite powder, which resulted in an amperometric biosensor for H 2 O 2 . The electrochemical behaviour of the modified biosensor was monitored using cyclic voltammetry in the potential range of 0.2V to -0.4V vs SCE. The biosensor exhibited a stable voltammogram with cathodic peak at -0.234V and anodic peak at -0.172V, with a formal potential of -0.203V. Various factors influencing the performance of the biosensor such as buffer solution, pH, temperature and potential were examined for optimizing the working conditions. The modified biosensor exhibited a good catalytic behaviour for the reduction of H 2 O 2 at a lower potential of -0.25V without any barrier from possible interferents. The analytical working range was found to be 0.429μM to 0.455mM of H 2 O 2 with a detection limit of 0.171μM. The fabricated biosensor is robust for long-term usage in addition to the high sensitivity, rapid response and having an advantage of surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) leakage from microbial biosensors provides useful information for the evaluation of the scale-down effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delvigne, Frank; Brognaux, Alison; Francis, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Mixing deficiencies can be potentially detected by the use of a dedicated whole cell microbial biosensor. In this work, a csiE promoter induced under carbon-limited conditions was involved in the elaboration of such biosensor. The cisE biosensor exhibited interesting response after up and down......-shift of the dilution rate in chemostat mode. Glucose limitation was accompanied by green fluorescent protein (GFP) leakage to the extracellular medium. In order to test the responsiveness of microbial biosensors to substrate fluctuations in large-scale, a scale-down reactor (SDR) experiment was performed. The glucose...... fluctuations were characterized at the single cell level and tend to decrease the induction of GFP. Simulations run on the basis of a stochastic hydrodynamic model have shown the variability and the frequencies at which biosensors are exposed to glucose gradient in the SDR. GFP leakage was observed to a great...

  16. Mass Transfer in Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanocomposite Thin Films of Redox Polymers and Oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Simonian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer in nanocomposite hydrogel thin films consisting of alternating layers of an organometallic redox polymer (RP and oxidoreductase enzymes was investigated. Multilayer nanostructures were fabricated on gold surfaces by the deposition of an anionic self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, followed by the electrostatic binding of a cationic redox polymer, poly[vinylpyridine Os(bis-bipyridine2Clco-allylamine], and an anionic oxidoreductase. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared external reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS, ellipsometry and electrochemistry were employed to characterize the assembly of these nanocomposite films. Simultaneous SPR/electrochemistry enabled real time observation of the assembly of sensing components, changes in film structure with electrode potential, and the immediate, in situ electrochemical verification of substrate-dependent current upon the addition of enzyme to the multilayer structure. SPR and FTIR-ERS studies also showed no desorption of polymer or enzyme from the nanocomposite structure when stored in aqueous environment occurred over the period of three weeks, suggesting that decreasing in substrate sensitivity were due to loss of enzymatic activity rather than loss of film compounds from the nanostructure.

  17. A Conductive Porous Structured Chitosan-grafted Polyaniline Cryogel for use as a Sialic Acid Biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Numnuam, Apon; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel chitosan grafted polyaniline cryogel was used as support for a highly stable and sensitive biosensor. • The use of two enzymes mediated with ferrocene showed a high selectivity for sialic acid. • The biosensor provided a rapid sialic acid detection in blood. - Abstract: A porous conductive supporting material base on chitosan grafted polyaniline (CPANI) cryogel was developed for the fabrication of a sialic acid biosensor. Two enzymes, N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase (NAL) and pyruvate oxidase (PYO), were employed together with an electrochemical detector. The electron transfer was further enhanced by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and mediated by ferrocene (Fc) entrapped in the cryogel pores wall. A sialic acid derived electroactive product was detected amperometrically in a flow injection system. The fabricated sialic acid biosensor provided excellent analytical performances with a wide linear range of 0.025 to 15.0 mM and a limit of detection of 18 μM. Under the low applied potential of 0.20 V versus a Ag/AgCl, common electroactive interfering compounds such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and pyruvic acid were not detected and they have no effect on the analysis of sialic acid. The fabricated sialic acid biosensor also demonstrated a high stability after up to 100 injections. The reliability of the biosensor to detect sialic acid in blood plasma was in good agreement (P > 0.05) with a standard periodic-resorcinol spectrophotometric method. This easy to prepare conductive and biocompatible porous structure should be a prospective supporting material for biosensor development

  18. Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor for Detection of Biogenic Amines in Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Vanegas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the development of laser scribed graphene electrodes, with locally sourced materials, for reagent-free food safety biosensing. To fabricate the biosensors, the graphene surface was functionalized with copper microparticles and diamine oxidase, purchased from a local supermarket; and then compared to biosensors fabricated with analytical grade materials. The amperometric biosensor exhibits good electrochemical performance, with an average histamine sensitivity of 23.3 µA/mM, a lower detection limit of 11.6 µM, and a response time of 7.3 s, showing similar performance to biosensors constructed from analytical grade materials. We demonstrated the application of the biosensor by testing total BA concentration in fish paste samples subjected to fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Biogenic amines concentrations prior to lactic acid fermentation were below the detection limit of the biosensor, while concentration after fermentation was 19.24 ± 8.21 mg histamine/kg, confirming that the sensor was selective in a complex food matrix. The low-cost, rapid, and accurate device is a promising tool for biogenic amine estimation in food samples, particularly in situations where standard laboratory techniques are unavailable, or are cost prohibitive. This biosensor can be used for screening food samples, potentially limiting food waste, while reducing chances of foodborne outbreaks.

  19. Amperometric Carbon Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    A highly selective needle type solid state amperometric nitrite microsensor based on direct nitrite oxidation on carbon fiber was developed using a simplified fabrication method. The microsensor’s tip diameter was approximately 7 µm, providing a high spatial resolution of at lea...

  20. Immobilization of malate dehydrogenase on carbon nanotubes for development of malate biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, A; Rana, J S; Kumar, S; Kumar, A

    2012-12-22

    An amperometric malic acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing malate dehydrogenase on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) coated on screen printed carbon electrode. The screen printed carbon electrode is made up of three electrodes viz., carbon as working, platinum as counter and silver as reference electrode. Detection of L-malic acid concentration provides important information about the ripening and shelf life of the fruits. The NADP specific malate dehydrogenase was immobilized on carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using cross linker EDC [1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] on screen printed carbon electrode. An amperometric current was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) which increases with increasing concentrations of malic acid at fixed concentration of NADP. Enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The detection limit of malic acid by the sensor was 60 - 120 μM and sensitivity of the sensor was 60 μM with a response time of 60s. The usual detection methods of malic acid are nonspecific, time consuming and less sensitive. However, an amperometric malic acid nanosensor is quick, specific and more sensitive for detection of malic acid in test samples.

  1. Wireless implantable electronic platform for chronic fluorescent-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Förster, Thilo; Strohhöfer, Christof; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    The development of a long-term wireless implantable biosensor based on fluorescence intensity measurement poses a number of technical challenges, ranging from biocompatibility to sensor stability over time. One of these challenges is the design of a power efficient and miniaturized electronics, enabling the biosensor to move from bench testing to long term validation, up to its final application in human beings. In this spirit, we present a wireless programmable electronic platform for implantable chronic monitoring of fluorescent-based autonomous biosensors. This system is able to achieve extremely low power operation with bidirectional telemetry, based on the IEEE802.15.4-2003 protocol, thus enabling over three-year battery lifetime and wireless networking of multiple sensors. During the performance of single fluorescent-based sensor measurements, the circuit drives a laser diode, for sensor excitation, and acquires the amplified signals from four different photodetectors. In vitro functionality was preliminarily tested for both glucose and calcium monitoring, simply by changing the analyte-binding protein of the biosensor. Electronics performance was assessed in terms of timing, power consumption, tissue exposure to electromagnetic fields, and in vivo wireless connectivity. The final goal of the presented platform is to be integrated in a complete system for blood glucose level monitoring that may be implanted for at least one year under the skin of diabetic patients. Results reported in this paper may be applied to a wide variety of biosensors based on fluorescence intensity measurement.

  2. Molecular Approaches to Optical Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fierke, Carol

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was to develop methodologies for the optimization of field-deployable optical biosensors, in general, and, in particular, to optimize a carbonic anhydrase-based fiber optic zinc biosensor...

  3. Photoelectrochemical enzymatic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-06-15

    Enzymatic biosensors have been valuable bioanalytical devices for analysis of diverse targets in disease diagnosis, biological and biomedical research, etc. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis is a recently emerged method that promptly becoming a subject of new research interests due to its attractive potential for future bioanalysis with high sensitivity and specificity. PEC enzymatic biosensors integrate the inherent sensitivities of PEC bioanalysis and the selectivity of enzymes and thus share their both advantages. Currently, PEC enzymatic biosensors have become a hot topic of significant research and the recent impetus has grown rapidly as demonstrated by increased research papers. Given the pace of advances in this area, this review will make a thorough discussion and survey on the fundamentals, sensing strategies, applications and the state of the art in PEC enzymatic biosensors, followed by future prospects based on our own opinions. We hope this work could provide an accessible introduction to PEC enzymatic biosensors for any scientist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gothwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC can be used to develop reaction beaker which acts as electrochemical cell for the measurement of OP pesticides. Being chemically inert, corrosion resistant, and easy in molding to various shapes and size, PVC can be used for the immobilization of enzyme. Organophosphorus hydrolase was immobilized covalently onto the chemically activated inner surface of PVC beaker by using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. The carbon nanotubes paste working electrode was constructed for amperometric measurement at a potential of +0.8 V. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 8.0 with incubation temperature of 40°C. Km and Imax for substrate (methyl parathion were 322.58 µM and 1.1 µA, respectively. Evaluation study showed a correlation of 0.985, which was in agreement with the standard method. The OPH biosensor lost 50% of its initial activity after its regular use for 25 times over a period of 50 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 at 4°C. No interference was observed by interfering species.

  5. Optimization of Hydrogen Peroxide Detection for a Methyl Mercaptan Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Gang Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several kinds of modified carbon screen printed electrodes (CSPEs for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 are presented in order to propose a methyl mercaptan (MM biosensor. Unmodified, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC, Prussian blue (PB, and Os-wired HRP modified CSPE sensors were fabricated and tested to detect H2O2, applying a potential of +0.6 V, +0.6 V, +0.4 V, −0.2 V and −0.1 V (versus Ag/AgCl, respectively. The limits of detection of these electrodes for H2O2 were 3.1 μM, 1.3 μM, 71 nM, 1.3 μM, 13.7 nM, respectively. The results demonstrated that the Os-wired HRP modified CSPEs gives the lowest limit of detection (LOD for H2O2 at a working potential as low as −0.1 V. Os-wired HRP is the optimum choice for establishment of a MM biosensor and gives a detection limit of 0.5 μM.

  6. The potential of biosensor technology in clinical monitoring and experimental research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Rhemrev-Boom, MM; Tiessen, RG; Venema, K; Korf, J

    2004-01-01

    Glucose or lactate biosensors are very useful for monitoring metabolism. Continuous monitoring of glucose is for example very important in diabetic patients. The measurement of lactate, a marker for oxygen deficiency, is used in the intensive care unit to monitor the patients' condition. In our

  7. A green synthetic strategy of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticals supported on the graphene substrate and its non-enzymatic amperometric sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zhonghua, E-mail: xzh@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); He, Nan [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Rao, Honghong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Hu, Chenxian; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiuhui [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lu, Xiaoquan, E-mail: luxq@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry & Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was explored by using a facile and green strategy. • Well dispersed and uniform NiHCF nanoparticles can be effectively produced by the introduction of electrochemical reduction graphene oxide films. • Metal hexacyanoferrate as a potential electron mediator was proposed and applied into non-enzymatic sensing. - Abstract: Rapid glucose detection is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A facile and green strategy to achieve spherical-shaped nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanoparticals supported on electrochemical reduction graphene oxide by using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry is explored. As a sensing substrate, electrochemical reduction graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode surface exhibited obvious positive effect on the electrodeposition of NiHCF nanoparticals with spherical structure and thus effectively improved the electrical conductivity and electrochemical sensing of the proposed amperometric sensor. Proof-concept experiments demonstrated that the proposed nanocomposites modified electrode exhibited excellent sensitivity toward glucose oxidation as well as with a satisfying detection limit of 0.11 μM. More importantly, we also explore that as a simple, green and facile method, electrochemical technology can be employed and provide a new strategy for developing GO and metal hexacyanoferrate based amperometric sensing platform toward glucose and other biomolecules.

  8. A green synthetic strategy of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticals supported on the graphene substrate and its non-enzymatic amperometric sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Zhonghua; He, Nan; Rao, Honghong; Hu, Chenxian; Wang, Xiaofen; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiuhui; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was explored by using a facile and green strategy. • Well dispersed and uniform NiHCF nanoparticles can be effectively produced by the introduction of electrochemical reduction graphene oxide films. • Metal hexacyanoferrate as a potential electron mediator was proposed and applied into non-enzymatic sensing. - Abstract: Rapid glucose detection is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. A facile and green strategy to achieve spherical-shaped nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanoparticals supported on electrochemical reduction graphene oxide by using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry is explored. As a sensing substrate, electrochemical reduction graphene oxide deposited on a glassy carbon electrode surface exhibited obvious positive effect on the electrodeposition of NiHCF nanoparticals with spherical structure and thus effectively improved the electrical conductivity and electrochemical sensing of the proposed amperometric sensor. Proof-concept experiments demonstrated that the proposed nanocomposites modified electrode exhibited excellent sensitivity toward glucose oxidation as well as with a satisfying detection limit of 0.11 μM. More importantly, we also explore that as a simple, green and facile method, electrochemical technology can be employed and provide a new strategy for developing GO and metal hexacyanoferrate based amperometric sensing platform toward glucose and other biomolecules.

  9. Poly(neutral red) based hydrogen peroxide biosensor for chromium determination by inhibition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Emilia Ghica, M; Amine, Aziz; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-08-30

    Amperometric hydrogen peroxide enzyme inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilised on electropolymerised neutral red (NR) or directly on the surface of carbon film electrodes (CFE) have been successfully applied to the determination of toxic Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Parameters influencing the performance of the biosensor including the enzyme immobilisation method, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, applied potential and electrolyte pH were optimised. The inhibition of horseradish peroxidase by the chromium species was studied under the optimised conditions. Results from the quantitative analysis of chromium ions are discussed in terms of detection limit, linear range and sensitivity. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal mixed binding of Cr(III) with I50=3.8μM and inhibition binding constant Ki=11.3μM at HRP/PNR/CFE biosensors and uncompetitive binding of Cr(VI) with I50=3.9μM and Ki=0.78μM at HRP/CFE biosensors in the presence of H2O2 substrate. Interferences from other heavy metal ions were studied and the inhibition show very good selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A lactate electrochemical biosensor with a titanate nanotube as direct electron transfer promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingli; Wang Jin; Li Huaqing; Wu Nianqiang Nick; Zheng Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen titanate (H 2 Ti 3 O 7 ) nanotubes (TNTs) have been synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal processing. Lactate oxidase (LOx) enzyme has been immobilized on the three-dimensional porous TNT network to make an electrochemical biosensor for lactate detection. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry tests reveal that the LOx enzyme, which is supported on TNTs, maintains their substrate-specific catalytic activity. The nanotubes offer the pathway for direct electron transfer between the electrode surface and the active redox centers of LOx, which enables the biosensor to operate at a low working potential and to avoid the influence of the presence of O 2 on the amperometric current response. The biosensor exhibits a sensitivity of 0.24 μA cm -2 mM -1 , a 90% response time of 5 s, and a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 14 mM and the redox center of enzyme obviates the need of redox mediators for electrochemical enzymatic sensors, which is attractive for the development of reagentless biosensors

  11. A lactate electrochemical biosensor with a titanate nanotube as direct electron transfer promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingli; Wang, Jin; Li, Huaqing; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Wu, Nianqiang Nick

    2008-02-01

    Hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanotubes (TNTs) have been synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal processing. Lactate oxidase (LOx) enzyme has been immobilized on the three-dimensional porous TNT network to make an electrochemical biosensor for lactate detection. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry tests reveal that the LOx enzyme, which is supported on TNTs, maintains their substrate-specific catalytic activity. The nanotubes offer the pathway for direct electron transfer between the electrode surface and the active redox centers of LOx, which enables the biosensor to operate at a low working potential and to avoid the influence of the presence of O2 on the amperometric current response. The biosensor exhibits a sensitivity of 0.24 µA cm-2 mM-1, a 90% response time of 5 s, and a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 14 mM and the redox center of enzyme obviates the need of redox mediators for electrochemical enzymatic sensors, which is attractive for the development of reagentless biosensors.

  12. Introduction to biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  14. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kee-Shyuan; Lee, Yook Heng; Musa, Ahmad; Salmah, Abdul Aziz; Zamri, Ishak

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method. PMID:27873839

  15. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Zamri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P. The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.

  16. Biosensors: Future Analytical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors offer considerable promises for attaining the analytic information in a faster, simpler and cheaper manner compared to conventional assays. Biosensing approach is rapidly advancing and applications ranging from metabolite, biological/ chemical warfare agent, food pathogens and adulterant detection to genetic screening and programmed drug delivery have been demonstrated. Innovative efforts, coupling micromachining and nanofabrication may lead to even more powerful devices that would accelerate the realization of large-scale and routine screening. With gradual increase in commercialization a wide range of new biosensors are thus expected to reach the market in the coming years.

  17. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solution of non-steady-state substrate concentration in the action of biosensor response at mixed enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai, R.; Jana Ranjani, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics and diffusion limitation in the case of substrate inhibition has been developed. The model is based on time dependent reaction diffusion equation containing a non -linear term related to non -Michaelis - Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. Solution for the concentration of the substrate has been derived for all values of parameters using the homotopy perturbation method. All the approximate analytic expressions of substrate concentration are compared with simulation results using Scilab/Matlab program. Finally, we have given a satisfactory agreement between them.

  19. Amperometric sensor for carbon dioxide: design, characteristics, and perforance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Pletcher, D.; Warburton, P.R.G.; Gibbs, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    A new sensor for atmospheric carbon dioxide is described. It is an amperometric device based on a porous electrode in a three-electrode cell and the electrolyte is a copper diamine complex in aqueous potassium chloride. The platinum cathode, held at constant potential, is used to detect the formation of Cu 2+ following the change in the pH of the solution when the sensor is exposed to an atmosphere containing carbon dioxide. The sensor described is designed to monitor carbon dioxide concentrations in the range 0-5%, although with some modifications, other ranges would be possible. The response to a change in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is rapid (about 10s) while the monitored current is strongly (but nonlinearly) dependent on carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike other amperometric devices for carbon dioxide, there is no interference from oxygen although other acid gases would lead to an interfering response

  20. Electrochemical behavior of antioxidants: Part 3. Electrochemical studies of caffeic Acid–DNA interaction and DNA/carbon nanotube biosensor for DNA damage and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode biosensor was used for electrochemical studies of caffeic acid–dsDNA interaction in phosphate buffer solution at pH 2.12. Caffeic acid, CAF, shows a well-defined cyclic voltammetric wave. Its anodic peak current decreases and the peak potential shifts positively on the addition of dsDNA. This behavior was ascribed to an interaction of CAF with dsDNA giving CAF–dsDNA complex by intercalative binding mode. The apparent binding constant of CAF–dsDNA complex was determined using amperometric titrations. The oxidative damage caused to DNA was detected using the biosensor. The damage caused by the reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radical (·−OH generated by the Fenton system on the DNA-biosensor was detected. It was found that CAF has the capability of scavenging the hydroxide radical and protecting the DNA immobilized on the GCE surface.

  1. Amperometric titration of indium with edta solution in propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Khadeev, V.A.; Kostylev, V.S.; Khadeeva, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum conditions have been chosen for titration of indium with EDTA solution in anhydrous propanol and its mixtures with some aprotic solvents using amperometric and point detection. A procedure is suggested of determining indium microcontents in the presence of large amounts of other elements. The procedure is based on its extraction preseparation followed by direct titration in the extract with a standard EDTA solution [ru

  2. Development of a Telemetric, Miniaturized Electrochemical Amperometric Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehyo Jung; Jihoon Lee; Siho Shin; Youn Tae Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we developed a portable, three-electrode electrochemical amperometric analyzer that can transmit data to a PC or a tablet via Bluetooth communication. We performed experiments using an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrode to confirm the performance and reliability of the analyzer. The proposed analyzer uses a current-to-voltage (I/V) converter to convert the current generated by the reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction of the buffer solution to a voltage signal. This signa...

  3. Interaction of molybdenum (6) with potassium benzyldithiocarbaminate during amperometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushko, S.V.; Usatenko, Yu.I.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is an amperometric study of the mechanism of interaction between molybdenum (VI) and potassium benzyl dithiocarbamate [BDTC] which was based on the use of voltamperometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, potentiometry and elemental analysis. In amperometric titration Mo(VI) with BDTC (pH 4-2) forms a red compound of low solubility. In more acidic media the intensity of coloration is increased and a violet hue develops. On the basis of the data obtained it is concluded that in the amperometric titration of Mo(VI) with potassium BDTC there is first formation of a Mo(VI) compound, which subsequently acquires a red colour as a result of the reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V). It was also established that the degree of reduction is small where titration is carried out in the range pH 4.8-0.1. Quantitative determination of Mo is performed most effectively in slightly acidic media. Mo reacts with potassium BDTC in a ratio of 1:2. (E.P.)

  4. Magnetic Beads-Based Sensor with Tailored Sensitivity for Rapid and Single-Step Amperometric Determination of miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vargas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a sensitive amperometric magneto-biosensor for single-step and rapid determination of microRNAs (miRNAs. The developed strategy involves the use of direct hybridization of the target miRNA (miRNA-21 with a specific biotinylated DNA probe immobilized on streptavidin-modified magnetic beads (MBs, and labeling of the resulting heteroduplexes with a specific DNA–RNA antibody and the bacterial protein A (ProtA conjugated with an horseradish peroxidase (HRP homopolymer (Poly-HRP40 as an enzymatic label for signal amplification. Amperometric detection is performed upon magnetic capture of the modified MBs onto the working electrode surface of disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ system. The magnitude of the cathodic signal obtained at −0.20 V (vs. the Ag pseudo-reference electrode demonstrated linear dependence with the concentration of the synthetic target miRNA over the 1.0 to 100 pM range. The method provided a detection limit (LOD of 10 attomoles (in a 25 μL sample without any target miRNA amplification in just 30 min (once the DNA capture probe-MBs were prepared. This approach shows improved sensitivity compared with that of biosensors constructed with the same anti-DNA–RNA Ab as capture instead of a detector antibody and further labeling with a Strep-HRP conjugate instead of the Poly-HRP40 homopolymer. The developed strategy involves a single step working protocol, as well as the possibility to tailor the sensitivity by enlarging the length of the DNA/miRNA heteroduplexes using additional probes and/or performing the labelling with ProtA conjugated with homopolymers prepared with different numbers of HRP molecules. The practical usefulness was demonstrated by determination of the endogenous levels of the mature target miRNA in 250 ng raw total RNA (RNAt extracted from human mammary epithelial normal (MCF-10A and cancer (MCF-7 cells and tumor tissues.

  5. A Glucose Sensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Immobilized by Electrospinning Nanofibrous Polymer Membranes Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized by electrospinning nanofibrous membranes has been developed. Nanofibrous membranes were electrospun from the solution of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid containing carbon nanotubes suspension and directly deposited on Pt electrodes for immobilizing glucose oxidase. The morphologies and structure of the nanofibrous membranes with or without carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The fabrication parameters of nanofibers were optimized such as thickness of the nanofibrous membranes and mass ration of carbon nanotubes. The biosensor showed the relationship with a concentration range of 0.1–10 mM and response time was 60 s. The sensitivity of carbon nanotubes modified biosensors was two times larger than which of no carbon nanotubes modified ones. The pH effect, interference and lifetime of biosensors were discussed.

  6. Diabetes mellitus: biosensors for research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A P; Pickup, J C

    1985-01-01

    The condition of diabetes mellitus is described with particular reference to the parameters that it would be desirable to monitor in order to improve management and understanding of the disease. Previous attention has largely focused on analysis of glucose, but many other intermediates of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism are deranged in diabetes and may be alternative measures of control. The need for laboratory analysers, self-monitoring, closed-loop devices and alarms are detailed and the problems associated with implantable sensors discussed. Progress in the development of biosensors is reviewed using glucose sensors as the main example. Electrochemical, optoelectronic and calorimetric approaches to sensing are considered and it is concluded that configurations based either on hydrogen peroxide detection or on mediated electron transfer are most likely to provide a raid route to in vivo monitoring. The extension of biosensor technology to tackle other important substrates is discussed, the principal hurdle to success being seen as the lack of long-term stability of the biological component.

  7. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arghya; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  8. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwarul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry