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Sample records for gluconic acid

  1. Gluconic Acid: Properties, Applications and Microbial Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid derived from glucose by a simple oxidation reaction. The reaction is facilitated by the enzyme glucose oxidase (fungi and glucose dehydrogenase (bacteria such as Gluconobacter. Microbial production of gluconic acid is the preferred method and it dates back to several decades. The most studied and widely used fermentation process involves the fungus Aspergillus niger. Gluconic acid and its derivatives, the principal being sodium gluconate, have wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. This article gives a review of microbial gluconic acid production, its properties and applications.

  2. Inert Reassessment Document for Gluconic Acid and Sodium Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluconic acid and D-gluconic acid are classified as List 3 inert ingredients, sodium gluconate is classified as a List 4B inert ingredient, and D-gluconic acid, sodium salt has not been categorized as to inert ingredient list classification status.

  3. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  4. Production of gluconic acid using Micrococcus sp.: optimisation of carbon and nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V D; Sreekantiah, K R; Manjrekar, S P

    1996-01-01

    A process for production of gluconic acid from glucose by a Micrococcus sp. is described. More than 400 bacterial cultures isolated from local soil were tested for gluconic acid production. Three isolates, were selected on basis of their ability to produce gluconic acid and high titrable acidity. These were identified as Micrococcus sp. and were named M 27, M 54 and M 81. Nutritional and other parameters for maximum production of gluconic acid by the selected isolates were optimised. It was found that Micrococcus sp. isolate M 27 gave highest yield of 8.19 g gluconic acid from 9 g glucose utilised giving 91% conversion effeciency.

  5. Mathematical model of gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger

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    Takamatsu, T.; Shioya, S.; Furuya, T.

    1981-11-01

    A mathematical model for the study of gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been developed. The model has been deduced from the basic biological concept of multicellular filamentous microorganisms, i.e. cell population balance. It can be used to explain the behaviour of both batch and continuous cultures, even when in a lag phase. A new characteristic, involving the existence of dual equilibrium stages during fermentation, has been predicted using this mathematical model. (Refs. 6).

  6. Production of gluconic acid by using some irradiated microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate the potential fungal isolates have the ability for gluconic acid production by using some agro industrial byproducts as sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the most potent isolates and the fermentation conditions as pH, incubation temperature and incubation period was also investigated. Results showed that the most potential fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium puberulum and Penicillium frequentans whereas their gluconic acid production was 62.17, 56.25 and 39.69 g/L, respectively on Czapek's Dox media at 28 ± 1 °C, pH 6 for 7 days fermentation period. Irradiation of the three most potential isolates at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy doses of gamma ray showed that 0.1 kGy dose caused an increase in gluconic acid production whereas it was 69.35, 60.17 and 40.31 g/L by the three potential isolates respectively. Data showed that utilization of sugarcane molasses, banana-must and grape-must as a sole carbon source in gluconic acid production by the three potential (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates at pH 6, 30 °C for a 7 days incubation period caused increasing in gluconic acid production whereas the productivity of the three (0.1 kGy irradiated isolates (A. niger, P. puberulum and P. frequentans was 69.87, 63.14 and 51.28 g/L by utilizing sugarcane molasses, 61.28, 56.37, 47.15 g/L by utilizing banana-must and 54.25, 52.75 and 44.75 g/L by utilizing grape-must.

  7. Yields of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic, D-gluconic and other sugar acids in gamma-irradiated aqueous solutions of D-glucose. [Gamma rays

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    Esterbauer, H; Schubert, J; Sanders, E B; Sweeley, C C [Pittsburgh Univ., Pa. (USA); Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1977-03-01

    The yields of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic, D-gluconic and other sugar acids from /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiated (dose-rate = 4 Krads/min) D-glucose solutions are reported. The acids produced upon radiolysis were separated from glucose and neutral products by anion exchange, assayed by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives, and definitive identification made by mass spectrometry. In He degassed, irradiated 0.055 M glucose G(2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid) = 0.62 and G(D-gluconic acid) = 0.20. The approximate G values for the other identified acids are: glyceric acid 0.03, 2-deoxy-tetronic acid 0.04, tetronic acid 0.03, 4-deoxypentonic acid 0.02, deoxyketogluconic acid 0.17. In N/sub 2/O saturated glucose solutions D-gluconic acid yields increased by a factor of approximately 1.9 while that of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid increased by a factor of only approximately 1.1.

  8. The effects of agitation and aeration on the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger

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    Dronawat, S.N.; Svihla, C.K.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The effects of agitation and aeration in the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger from a glucose medium were investigated. Experiments were conducted at aeration rates of 5.0 and 10.0 L/min. Four different agitation speeds were investigated for each aeration rate. Gluconic acid concentration and biomass concentration were analyzed, and the rate of consumption of substrate by A. niger was noted. The main purpose of this work was to find the optimal conditions of agitation and aeration for the growth of A. niger and production of gluconic acid in submerged culture in a batch fermentor at a bench-top scale. The oxygen-transfer rates at different agitation and aeration rates were calculated. The gluconic acid concentration and rate of growth of A. niger increased with increase in the agitation and aeration rates.

  9. Integrated electrochemical gluconic acid biosensor based on self-assembled monolayer-modified gold electrodes. Application to the analysis of gluconic acid in musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, S; Gamella, M; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2007-03-21

    An integrated amperometric gluconic acid biosensor constructed using a gold electrode (AuE) modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on which gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH, 0.84 U) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, 1.5 micromol) were coimmobilized by covering the electrode surface with a dialysis membrane is reported. The working conditions selected were Eapp=+0.15 V and 25+/-1 degrees C. The useful lifetime of one single TTF-GADH-MPA-AuE was surprisingly long. After 53 days of continuous use, the biosensor exhibited 86% of the original sensitivity. A linear calibration plot was obtained for gluconic acid over the 6.0x10(-7) to 2.0x10(-5) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 1.9x10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (glucose, fructose, galactose, arabinose, and tartaric, citric, malic, ascorbic, gallic, and caffeic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. The behavior of the biosensor in a flow-injection system in connection with amperometric detection was tested. The analytical usefulness of the biosensor was evaluated by determining gluconic acid in wine and must samples, and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit.

  10. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  11. Solubilities of magnesium-L-ascorbate, calcium-L-ascorbate, magnesium-L-glutamate, magnesium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-heptagluconate, L-aspartic acid, and 3-nitrobenzoic acid in water

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    Mishelevich, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il

    2008-05-15

    The solubility in water of magnesium-L-ascorbate, calcium-L-ascorbate, magnesium-L-glutamate, magnesium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-heptagluconate, L-aspartic acid, and 3-nitrobenzoic acid was determined in the 278.15 K to 343.15 K temperature range. The solubility of these compounds served to permit the evaluation of the apparent molar enthalpies of solution.

  12. Solubilities of magnesium-L-ascorbate, calcium-L-ascorbate, magnesium-L-glutamate, magnesium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-heptagluconate, L-aspartic acid, and 3-nitrobenzoic acid in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishelevich, Alexander; Apelblat, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The solubility in water of magnesium-L-ascorbate, calcium-L-ascorbate, magnesium-L-glutamate, magnesium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-gluconate, calcium-D-heptagluconate, L-aspartic acid, and 3-nitrobenzoic acid was determined in the 278.15 K to 343.15 K temperature range. The solubility of these compounds served to permit the evaluation of the apparent molar enthalpies of solution

  13. Modeling and simulation of enzymatic gluconic acid production using immobilized enzyme and CSTR-PFTR circulation reaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Lin, Jianqun; Gao, Ling; Lin, Huibin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2018-04-01

    Production of gluconic acid by using immobilized enzyme and continuous stirred tank reactor-plug flow tubular reactor (CSTR-PFTR) circulation reaction system. A production system is constructed for gluconic acid production, which consists of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for pH control and liquid storage and a plug flow tubular reactor (PFTR) filled with immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) for gluconic acid production. Mathematical model is developed for this production system and simulation is made for the enzymatic reaction process. The pH inhibition effect on GOD is modeled by using a bell-type curve. Gluconic acid can be efficiently produced by using the reaction system and the mathematical model developed for this system can simulate and predict the process well.

  14. Simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch using commercial glucoamylase and the subsequent bioconversion to high titer sorbitol and gluconic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kehong; Hu, Fengxian; Bao, Jie

    2013-12-01

    A new bioprocess for production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from two low-cost feedstocks, inulin and cassava starch, using a commercially available enzyme was proposed in this study. The commercial glucoamylase GA-L NEW from Genencor was found to demonstrate a high inulinase activity for hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose. The glucoamylase was used to replace the expensive and not commercially available inulinase enzyme for simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch into high titer glucose and fructose hydrolysate. The glucose and fructose in the hydrolysate were converted into sorbitol and gluconic acid using immobilized whole cells of the recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain. The high gluconic acid concentration of 193 g/L and sorbitol concentration of 180 g/L with the overall yield of 97.3 % were obtained in the batch operations. The present study provided a practical production method of sorbitol and gluconic acid from low cost feedstocks and enzymes.

  15. Genipin Cross-Linked Glucose Oxidase and Catalase Multi-enzyme for Gluconic Acid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Caixia; Chen, Haibin; Chen, Biqiang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-02-01

    In this work, glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were used simultaneously to produce gluconic acid from glucose. In order to reduce the distance between the two enzymes, and therefore improve efficiency, GOD and CAT were cross-linked together using genipin. Improvements in gluconic acid production were due to quick removal of harmful intermediate hydrogen peroxide by CAT. GOD activity was significantly affected by the proportion of CAT in the system, with GOD activity in the cross-linked multi-enzyme (CLME) being 10 times higher than that in an un-cross-linked GOD/CAT mixture. The glucose conversion rate after 15 h using 15 % glucose was also 10 % higher using the CLME than was measured using a GOD/CAT mixture.

  16. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  17. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-05-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

  18. [Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on 5-keto-gluconic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2014-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium gluconate contained poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shekh M. [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Mahoney, Christopher [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Marra, Kacey G. [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Bhattarai, Narayan, E-mail: nbhattar@ncat.edu [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnesium gluconate contained PLGA/chitosan microspheres were fabricated. • In vitro release of magnesium ions was performed using Xylidyl Blue assay. • Chitosan coated PLGA can significantly control the release of magnesium ions. • Cellular compatibility was tested using adipose-derived stem cells and PC12 cells. • The cells encounter acceptably low levels of damage in contact with microspheres. - Abstract: The goal of this study was to fabricate and investigate the chitosan coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the development of controlled release magnesium delivery system. PLGA based microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled release drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a naturally occurring biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide, which can coat the surface of PLGA to alter the release of drugs. Magnesium gluconate (MgG) was encapsulated in the PLGA and PLGA/chitosan microspheres by utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for controlled release study. The microspheres were tested with respect to several physicochemical and biological properties, including morphology, chemical structure, chitosan adsorption efficiency, magnesium encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release of magnesium ions, and cellular compatibility using both human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and PC12 cells. Chitosan coated PLGA microspheres can significantly control the release of magnesium ions compared to uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both coated and uncoated microspheres showed good cellular compatibility.

  20. Synthesis of the Galactosyl Derivative of Gluconic Acid With the Transglycosylation Activity of β-Galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wojciechowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic acids are bioactive compounds demonstrating numerous interesting properties. They are widely produced by chemical or enzymatic oxidation of disaccharides. This paper focuses on the galactosyl derivative of gluconic acid as a result of a new method of bionic acid synthesis which utilises the transglycosylation properties of β-galactosidase and introduces lactose as a substrate. Products obtained in such a process are characterised by different structures (and, potentially, properties than those resulting from traditional oxidation of disaccharides. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of selected parameters (concentration and ratio of substrates, dose of the enzyme, time, pH, presence of salts on the course of the reaction carried out with the enzymatic preparation Lactozym, containing β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis. Research has shown that increased dry matter content in the baseline solution (up to 50 %, by mass per volume and an addition of NaCl contribute to higher yield. On the other hand, reduced content of the derivative is a result of increased pH from 7.0 to 9.0 and an addition of magnesium and manganese salts. Moreover, exceeding the β-galactosidase dose over approx. 35 000 U per 100 g of lactose also leads to reduced yield of the process. The most favourable molar ratio of sodium gluconate to lactose is 2.225:0.675. Depending on the conditions of the synthesis, the product concentration ranged between 17.3 and 118.3 g/L of the reaction mixture, which corresponded to the mass fraction of 6.64–23.7 % of dry matter. The data obtained as a result of the present study may be useful for designing an industrial process.

  1. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protonation of D-gluconate and its complexation with Np(V) in acidic to nearly neutral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Clark, S.B.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Zanonato, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the protonation of D-gluconic acid (HGH 4 (aq)) and its complexation with Np(V) have been studied in acidic to nearly neutral solutions at t = 25 C and I = 1 M NaClO 4 by potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry. The protonation constant (log K H ) and enthalpy (ΔH H ) of the carboxylate group are determined to be (3.30 ± 0.10) and -(4.03 ± 0.07) kJ mol -1 , respectively. Gluconate forms two Np(V) complexes in nearly neutral solutions. The formation constants and enthalpies of complexation are: log β 1 = (1.48 ± 0.03) and ΔH 1 = -(7.42 ± 0.13) kJ mol -1 for NpO 2 (GH 4 )(aq), log β = (2.14 ± 0.09) and ΔH 2 = -(12.08 ± 0.45) kJ mol -1 for NpO 2 (GH 4 ) 2 - . The thermodynamic parameters indicate that gluconic acid, like isosaccharinic acid and other α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, is a slightly stronger acid and forms stronger complexes with Np(V) than simple monocarboxylic acids. (orig.)

  3. Comparative analysis of different whole cell immobilized Aspergillus niger catalysts for gluconic acid fermentation using pretreated cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subba Rao, D. (Div. of Biochemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)); Panda, T. (Div. of Biochemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India))

    1994-10-01

    To compare the efficiency of various whole cell immobilization techniques for the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger were investigated using potassium ferrocyanide-treated cane molasses as the substrate. The techniques followed were: (1) Calcium alginate entrapment, (2) cross-linking with glutaraldehyde after cell permeabilization with (a) acetone, (b) toluene and (c) isopropanol and (3) development of granular catalyst. A comparative analysis of yield has revealed that calcium alginate entrapment was the most suitable technique as it had given the maximum product yield (0.40 g gluconic acid/g total reducing sugar supplied). The properties of immobilized A. niger in sodium alginate gel have been thoroughly investigated and compared with those of free cells under most suitable conditions of fermentation. (orig.)

  4. Magnesium Gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  5. Prediction and measurement of complexation of radionuclide mixtures by α-isosaccharinic, gluconic and picolinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick Evans; Peter Warwick; Monica Felipe-Sotelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of competition between cobalt, europium and strontium for isosaccharinate, gluconate and picolinate. Systems where results indicated that competitive effects were significant have been identified. Thermodynamic calculations were performed for each system for comparison with the experimental results. Some exceptions may be due to precipitation of some species, or presence of species not in databases, or formation of mixed-metal complexes, or sorption to the solid phase(s). In some of the experiments, the complexity of the systems studied caused difficulty in identifying consistent trends. By concentrating on the results for simpler systems (i.e. for solubilities in the presence and absence of organic complexants and with just one competing metal ion), the evidence for competition effects has been investigated. Evidence for solubility enhancement due to organic ligands was apparent in the data for the systems Co with gluconate and Eu with isosaccharinate and gluconate. Of these above cases, the systems in which the effects of the competing ion are consistent with competition were limited to the cases of Eu with isosaccharinate and Sr as the competing ion, and Eu with gluconate and either Co or Sr as the competing ion. (author)

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of industrial Gluconobacter oxydans DSM2343 for boosting 5-keto-D-gluconic acid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianfeng; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2016-05-17

    L-(+)-tartaric acid (L-TA) is an important organic acid, which is produced from the cream of tartar or stereospecific hydrolysis of the cis-epoxysuccinate. The former method is limited by the availability of raw material and the latter is dependent on the petrochemical material. Thus, new processes for the economical preparation of L-TA from carbohydrate or renewable resource would be much more attractive. Production of 5-keto-D-gluconate (5-KGA) from glucose by Gluconobacter oxydans is the first step to produce L-TA. The aim of this work is to enhance 5-KGA accumulation using combinatorial metabolic engineering strategies in G. oxydans. The sldAB gene, encoding sorbitol dehydrogenase, was overexpressed in an industrial strain G. oxydans ZJU2 under a carefully selected promoter, P0169. To enhance the efficiency of the oxidation by sldAB, the coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and respiratory chain were engineered. Besides, the role in sldAB overexpression, coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering and their subsequent effects on 5-KGA production were investigated. An efficient, stable recombinant strain was constructed, whereas the 5-KGA production could be enhanced. By self-overexpressing the sldAB gene in G. oxydans ZJU2 under the constitutive promoter P0169, the resulting strain, G. oxydans ZJU3, produced 122.48 ± 0.41 g/L of 5-KGA. Furthermore, through the coenzyme and respiratory chain engineering, the titer and productivity of 5-KGA reached 144.52 ± 2.94 g/L and 2.26 g/(L · h), respectively, in a 15 L fermenter. It could be further improved the 5-KGA titer by 12.10 % through the fed-batch fermentation under the pH shift and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) control condition, obtained 162 ± 2.12 g/L with the productivity of 2.53 g/(L · h) within 64 h. The 5-KGA production could be significantly enhanced with the combinatorial metabolic engineering strategy in Gluconobacter strain, including sldAB overexpression, coenzyme

  8. Structural and thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solution of trivalent lanthanides complexation by hydrophobic compounds of tartaric acid, by gluconic acid and related molecules. Outlook for liquid-liquid extraction of these cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, Sebastien

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the complexation of lanthanide(III) ions by different molecules and with the synthesis of hydrophobic molecules able to extract them of an aqueous solution. Its aim is to describe the systems obtained by the determination of the formation constants of the species and by the description of their structure. The aim of this work is also to obtain a selective complexation of lanthanides(III) towards actinides(III), because this aim presents a great interest in the reprocessing of radioactive wastes. The complexation studies have been followed by potentiometry, NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The first mixtures studied are the couples: lanthanide(III)-gluconic acid (LH). The complexes system they formed has been described and the structures have been specified; a strong complexation has been revealed. The MLH -2 specie induces a selectivity between the lanthanides(III) equivalent to those obtained with EDTA and its uncharged character allows to consider the use of gluconic acid as extractant. The use of ligands as glucosaminic acid or glucamine slows the beginning of the complexation until pH= 6-7. The neutral specie MLH -2 is formed too. In order to use the complexing properties of gluconic acid and its selective character towards lanthanides(III), the synthesis of molecules derived containing a long alkyl chain with a hydrophobic character has been carried out for using them as extracting agents. An original method of the preparation of tartramides is presented. This preparation consists of an amidation of one of the carboxylic functions of the tartaric acid by a fatty amine. These molecules, surface-active, complex the lanthanides(III) and extract them in an organic phase using the tri-n-butyl phosphate as co-extractant. (O.M.)

  9. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  11. Engineering Escherichia coli for improved ethanol production from gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Schlacta, Theresa; Warmack, Rebeccah; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2013-10-10

    We report on engineering Escherichia coli to produce ethanol at high yield from gluconic acid (gluconate). Knocking out genes encoding for the competing pathways (l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase A) in E. coli KO11 eliminated lactate production, lowered the carbon flow toward acetate production, and improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 97.5% of the theoretical maximum, while the growth rate of the mutant strain was about 70% of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modifications led to a small improvement of ethanol yield from 101.5% to 106.0% on glucose. Deletion of the pyruvate dehydrogenase gene (pdh) alone improved the ethanol yield from 87.5% to 90.4% when gluconate was a substrate. The growth rate of the mutant strain was identical to that of the wild type. The corresponding genetic modification led to no improvements on ethanol yield on glucose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gluconate heart scan in angina pectoris patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Kvasnicka, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubicek, J.; Kafka, P.; Palicka, V.; Hlava, A.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphic examination using 99m Tc-gluconate was carried out of the condition of the myocardium in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of angina pectoris of diverse severity. In all six cases the scan was negative. The results confirmed the previous experimental findings. 99m Tc-gluconate is thereby not suitable for the scintigraphic diagnosis of angina pectoris. (author) 13 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  13. Efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment (Oronine H® for experimentally-induced comedones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Takako Yamakoshi,1 Teruhiko Makino,1 Kenji Matsunaga,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Taisuke Seki,2 Yoshito Hayashi,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 2Seki Dermatological Clinic, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 3Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc, Naruto-shi, Tokushima, JapanBackground: Oronine H® ointment, which contains chlorhexidine gluconate as its active component, is a well known disinfectant, and has been widely used for treatment of acne in Japan. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of this ointment on the formation of comedones induced by application of 50% oleic acid on the orifices of the external auditory canals of rabbits.Methods: The application sites were observed with a dermatoscope, and the area of the hair pores was measured using an Image analysis software program.Results: The chlorhexidine gluconate ointment inhibited comedone formation significantly more effectively than the liquid paraffin used as a control (P < 0.001. We also investigated the therapeutic effect of this ointment on comedones. After starting application of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment or liquid paraffin on the comedone area, the hair pore size was gradually decreased in the group treated with chlorhexidine gluconate ointment compared with the hair pore size at baseline.Conclusion: These results suggest that chlorhexidine gluconate ointment is effective for inhibiting comedone formation as well as for treating already formed comedones. Chlorhexidine gluconate ointment is a useful topical medicine for the treatment of early-stage acne and for preventing acne.Keywords: chlorhexidine gluconate ointment, comedones, dermatoscope, oleic acid

  14. Corrosion Inhibition by Sodium Gluconate-Zn2+-DTPMP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manjula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of a phosphonic acid, Diethylene Triamine Pentamethylene Phosphonic acid (DTPMP in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Cl- has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn2+. The formulation consisting of DTPMP and Zn2+ has excellent inhibition efficiency (IE. A synergistic effect is noticed between Zn2+ and DTPMP. Addition of sodium gluconate (SG enhances the IE of Zn2+ and DTPMP system. The DTPMP-Zn2+-SG system function as a mixed inhibitor as revealed by polarization study. AC impedance spectrum, optical and atomic force micrographs reveal the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-DTPMP complex, Fe2+-SG complex and Zn(OH2.

  15. New Pathway for Nonphosphorylated Degradation of Gluconate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzainy, T. A.; Hassan, M. M.; Allam, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    A new nonphosphorylative pathway for gluconate degradation was found in extracts of a strain of Aspergillus niger. The findings indicate that gluconate is dehydrated into 2-keto-3-deoxy-gluconate (KDG), which then is cleaved into glyceraldehyde and pyruvate. 6-Phosphogluconate was not degraded under the same conditions. In addition, KDG was formed from glyceraldehyde and pyruvate. Very weak activity was obtained when glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate replaced glyceraldehyde in this reaction. PMID:4698214

  16. Calcium Chloride and Calcium Gluconate in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions without Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Light Obscuration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Huston

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP. The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium chloride and calcium gluconate without cysteine. Solutions of TrophAmine and Premasol (2.5% amino acids, containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate were compounded without cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using light obscuration. Maximum concentrations tested were 15 mmol/L of calcium and 12.5 mmol/L of phosphate. If the average particle count of three replicates exceeded USP guidelines, the solution was determined to be incompatible. This study found that 12.5 and 10 mmol/L of calcium and phosphate, respectively, are compatible in neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions compounded with 2.5% amino acids of either TrophAmine or Premasol. There did not appear to be significant differences in compatibility for solutions containing TrophAmine or Premasol when solutions were compounded with either CaCl2 or CaGlu-Pl. This study presents data in order to evaluate options for adding calcium and phosphate to neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions during shortages of calcium and cysteine.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of 5-keto-d-gluconate reductase from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO12528 complexed with 5-keto-d-gluconate and NADPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Keiko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Nagata, Koji; Toyama, Hirohide; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    NADPH-dependent 5-keto-d-gluconate reductase from G. suboxydans IFO12528 (5KGR) was expressed, purified and crystallized with 5-keto-d-gluconate and NADPH using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the 5KGR–NADPH complex and of the 5KGR–NADPH–5-keto-d-gluconate complex diffracted X-rays to 1.75 and 2.26 Å resolution, respectively. NADPH-dependent 5-keto-d-gluconate reductase from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO12528 (5KGR) catalyzes oxidoreduction between 5-keto-d-gluconate and d-gluconate with high specificity. 5KGR was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized with 5-keto-d-gluconate and NADPH using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 288 K. A crystal of the 5KGR–NADPH complex was obtained using reservoir solution containing PEG 4000 as a precipitant and diffracted X-rays to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal of the complex belonged to space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 128.6, c = 62.9 Å. A crystal of the 5KGR–NADPH–5-keto-d-gluconate complex was prepared by soaking the 5KGR–NADPH complex crystal in reservoir solution supplemented with 100 mM 5-keto-d-gluconate and 10 mM NADPH for 20 min and diffracted X-rays to 2.26 Å resolution. The crystal of the ternary complex belonged to space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 128.7, c = 62.5 Å. Both crystals contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  19. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. PMID:25987609

  20. Oxygen-enriched fermentation of sodium gluconate by Aspergillus niger and its impact on intracellular metabolic flux distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuting; Tian, Xiwei; Zhao, Wei; Hang, Haifeng; Chu, Ju

    2018-01-01

    Different concentrations of oxygen-enriched air were utilized for sodium gluconate (SG) fermentation by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation time shortened from 20 to 15.5 h due to the increase of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) and the formation of more dispersed mycelia when inlet oxygen concentration ascended from 21 to 32%. According to metabolic flux analysis, during the growth phase, extracellular glucose for SG synthesis accounted for 79.0 and 85.3% with air and oxygen-enriched air (25%), respectively, whereas the proportions were 89.4 and 93.0% in the stationary phase. Intracellular glucose consumption decreased in oxygen-enriched fermentation, as cell respiration was more high-efficiently performed. Metabolic profiling indicated that most intermediates in TCA cycle and EMP pathway had smaller pool sizes in oxygen-enriched fermentations. Moreover, the main by-product of citric acid dramatically decreased from 1.36 to 0.34 g L -1 in oxygen-enriched fermentation. And the sodium gluconate yield increased from 0.856 to 0.903 mol mol -1 .

  1. Inhibitive Action of Ferrous Gluconate on Aluminum Alloy in Saline Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Abimbola Idowu Popoola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of aluminum in saline environment in the presence of ferrous gluconate was studied using weight loss and linear polarization methods. The corrosion rates were studied in different concentrations of ferrous gluconate 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/mL at 28°C. Experimental results revealed that ferrous gluconate in saline environment reduced the corrosion rate of aluminum alloy at the different concentrations studied. The minimum inhibition efficiency was obtained at 1.5 g/mL concentration of inhibitor while the optimum inhibition efficiency was achieved with 1.0 g/mL inhibitor concentration. The results showed that adsorption of ferrous gluconate on the aluminium alloy surface fits Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization results showed that ferrous gluconate is a mixed type inhibitor. Ferrous gluconate acted as an effective inhibitor for aluminium alloy within the temperature and concentration range studied. The data obtained from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods were in good agreement.

  2. Evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse-induced staining using a digital colorimeter: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, Bora; Baltacioglu, Esra; Özcan, Mutlu; Ustaomer, Seda

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the persistence of staining after the use of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse. Twenty-four subjects (nine women and 15 men) who underwent periodontal therapy and were prescribed the use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse participated in this study. Color values of maxillary central incisors, canines, and first molars were recorded at baseline; 3 days; and 1, 2, and 3 weeks of twice-daily chlorhexidine gluconate use with a digital intraoral colorimeter according to the CIE L*a*b* coordinates. While color-change (Delta E) values showed significant differences (P=.020) at different time points (10.1, 8.9, 8.9, 9.4, after 3 days and 1, 2, and 3 weeks, respectively), the duration of chlorhexidine gluconate use did not significantly affect the results (P=.873) (two-way ANOVA, Tukey test). No significant difference was found among Delta L* (P=.070), Delta a* (P=.169), and Delta b* (P=.691) values at any time point (one-way ANOVA). Measurements of baseline to day 3 differences showed significantly higher Delta E values than those at other time points (P.05) (Tukey test). The highest visible staining occurred on the first molars at all time points (83%, 79%, 79%, and 96% after 3 days and 1, 2, and 3 weeks, respectively) compared to the other teeth evaluated. The staining effect of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse on natural dentition should be expected to be the highest in the first few days of use.

  3. Aluminum and Phthalates in Calcium Gluconate: Contribution From Glass and Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Unrine, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum contamination of parenteral nutrition solutions has been documented for 3 decades. It can result in elevated blood, bone, and whole body aluminum levels associated with neurotoxicity, reduced bone mass and mineral content, and perhaps hepatotoxicity. The primary aluminum source among parenteral nutrition components is glass-packaged calcium gluconate, in which aluminum concentration in the past 3 decades has averaged approximately 4000 μg/L, compared with nutrition solutions; 2 packaged in glass (from France and the United States) and 1 in plastic (from Germany); in a recently released plastic-packaged solution (from the United States); and in the 2 glass containers. Phthalate concentration was determined in selected samples of each product and leachate of the plastic containers. The initial aluminum concentration was approximately 5000 μg/L in the 2 glass-packaged products and approximately 20 μg/L in the plastic-packaged product, and increased approximately 30%, 50%, and 100% in 2 years, respectively. The aluminum concentration in a recently released Calcium Gluconate Injection USP was approximately 320 μg/L. Phthalates were not detected in any calcium gluconate solutions or leachates. Plastic packaging greatly reduces the contribution of aluminum to parenteral nutrition solutions from calcium gluconate compared with the glass-packaged product.

  4. Comparison of pyrophosphate and gluconate scan of dog hearts with experimental cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Kafka, P.; Kubicek, J.; Vizda, J.; Mazurova, Y.; Veverkova, O.

    1983-01-01

    High intravenous doses of theophylline with adrenalin were used to produce experimental cardiomyopathy in dogs. This damage was visualized scintigraphically using either sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (10 dogs) or sup(99m)Tc-gluconate (another 10 dogs). Scintigraphic examinations using sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate were carried out 48 hours after the damage had developed: in two dogs the examination was negative, in two cases boundary, in 6 cases the scintigraphic finding was clearly positive. sup(99m)Tc-gluconate was used in the examination of 5 animals four hours after the damage had developed. In this case the scan was significantly positive in all cases. The gluconate scan was made 24 hours after damage, again in 5 dogs. Here the positive change was less explicit, in one case the finding was negative. Histological examination of the affected myocardium showed in all cases a very light damage, in many instances on the limit of resolution by light microscopy. The findings were always degenerative (dystrophic) changes and microcirculation disorders without any necrosis. The work showed that both studied radiopharmaceutical preparations are a very sensitive but nonspecific indicator of non-ischemic disorders of the myocardium. For sup(99m)Tc-gluconate this is an original finding. (author)

  5. The gntP Gene of Escherichia coli Involved in Gluconate Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Tong, S.; Nielsen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The gntP gene, located between the fim and uxu loci in Escherichia coli K-12, has been cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequencing of a region encompassing the gntP gene revealed an open reading frame of 447 codons with significant homology to the Bacillus subtilis gluconate permease. Northern...

  6. Metabolism of 2-deoxyglyconic acid in plants and bakers yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakhokidze, R.A.; Beriashvili, L.T.; Chigvinadze, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    During photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris haricot bean and Zea mays leaves, assimilated carbon 14 CO 2 is rapidly incorporated into aldonic acids including 2-deoxygluconic acid whose radioactivity was relatively high. In these plants, radioactive carbon of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid prepared from 1-6 14 C-D-glucose is actively involved in the formation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. In baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rate of respiration-dependent oxidation of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid differs versus the rate of D-glucose oxidation [ru

  7. Role of GntR Family Regulatory Gene SCO1678 in Gluconate Metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor M145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tsypik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report functional characterization of the Streptomyces coelicolor M145 gene SCO1678, which encodes a GntR-like regulator of the FadR subfamily. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that SCO1678 is part of putative operon (gnt involved in gluconate metabolism. Combining the results of SCO1678 knockout, transcriptional analysis of gnt operon, and Sco1678 protein-DNA electromobility shift assays, we established that Sco1678 protein controls the gluconate operon. It does so via repression of its transcription from a single promoter located between genes SCO1678 and SCO1679. The knockout also influenced, in a medium-dependent manner, the production of secondary metabolites by S. coelicolor. In comparison to the wild type, on gluconate-containing minimal medium, the SCO1678 mutant produced much less actinorhodin and accumulated a yellow-colored pigment, likely to be the cryptic polyketide coelimycin. Possible links between gluconate metabolism and antibiotic production are discussed.

  8. In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like PXRD, PSA, FT-IR, UV–Vis spectroscopy, TGA/DTG, and DSC. Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1=6.552 µm, d(0.5=38.299 µm, d(0.9=173.712 µm and D(4,3=67.122 µm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 °C from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 °C. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 °C along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  9. In vitro post-antifungal effect (PAFE) elicited by chlorhexidine gluconate on oral isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Ellepola, Arjuna N.B.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2011-01-01

    The post-antifungal effect (PAFE) is defined as the suppression of growth that persists following brief exposure of yeasts and other fungi to antimycotics and subsequent removal of the drug. There is no data available on the PAFE of chlorhexidine gluconate on oral isolates of Candida albicans. As chlorhexidine gluconate is by far the commonest antiseptic mouth wash prescribed in dentistry, the main aim of this investigation was to measure the PAFE of 10 oral isolates of C. albicans following ...

  10. #%In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II) gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    #

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis ( PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1)=6.552 μm, d(0.5)=38.299 μm, d(0.9)=173.712 μm and D(4,3)=67.122 μm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 ℃ from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 ℃. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 ℃ along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  11. 77 FR 65824 - Calcium Gluconate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ..., rabbit and hamster with LD 50 values ranging from >2,000 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg) to 7,850 mg/kg... gluconate was not mutagenic in an in vitro chromosome aberration test, bacterial gene mutation test. In...- ....... Sequestrant. 28-5). * * * * * * * * * * [FR Doc. 2012-26523 Filed 10-30-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6560-50-P ...

  12. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro susceptibility of gram-negative bacterial isolates to chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Y; Erge, W; Bellete, B

    1999-05-01

    To investigate the susceptibility of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria to chlorhexidine gluconate. Prospective laboratory study. Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Clinical specimens from 443 hospital patients. Significant number of gram negative bacteria were not inhibited by chlorhexidine gluconate (0.02-0.05%) used for antisepsis. Four hundred and forty three strains of gram-negative bacteria were isolated from Tikur Anbessa Hospital patients. Escherichia coli (31.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (23%) were the most frequently isolated bacteria followed by Proteus species (13.3%), Pseudomonas species (9.2%), and Citrobacter species (6.1%). Each organism was tested to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.0001% to 1%w/v. All Salmonella species and E. coli were inhibited by CHG, MIC or = 0.1%). Our results showed that a significant number of the gram-negative bacterial isolates were not inhibited by CHG at the concentration used for disinfection of wounds or instruments (MIC 0.02-0.05% w/v). It is therefore important to select appropriate concentration of this disinfectant and rationally use it for disinfection and hospital hygiene. Continuing follow up and surveillance is also needed to detect resistant bacteria to chlorhexidine or other disinfectants in time.

  14. The role of gluconate production by Pseudomonas spp. in the mineralization and bioavailability of calcium-phytate to Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Hsu, Pei-Chun Lisa; Richardson, Alan E; Hurst, Mark R H; Hill, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Organic phosphorus (P) is abundant in most soils but is largely unavailable to plants. Pseudomonas spp. can improve the availability of P to plants through the production of phytases and organic anions. Gluconate is a major component of Pseudomonas organic anion production and may therefore play an important role in the mineralization of insoluble organic P forms such as calcium-phytate (CaIHP). Organic anion and phytase production was characterized in 2 Pseudomonas spp. soil isolates (CCAR59, Ha200) and an isogenic mutant of strain Ha200, which lacked a functional glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) gene (strain Ha200 gcd::Tn5B8). Wild-type and mutant strains of Pseudomonas spp. were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and hydrolyze CaIHP and to promote the growth and assimilation of P by tobacco plants. Gluconate, 2-keto-gluconate, pyruvate, ascorbate, acetate, and formate were detected in Pseudomonas spp. supernatants. Wild-type pseudomonads containing a functional gcd could produce gluconate and mineralize CaIHP, whereas the isogenic mutant could not. Inoculation with Pseudomonas improved the bioavailability of CaIHP to tobacco plants, but there was no difference in plant growth response due to Gcd function. Gcd function is required for the mineralization of CaIHP in vitro; however, further studies will be needed to quantify the relative contribution of specific organic anions such as gluconate to plant growth promotion by soil pseudomonads.

  15. Comparing the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% Camellia sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambire, Chaitali U; Jawade, Rashmi; Patil, Amol; Wani, Vaibhav R; Kulkarni, Ankur A; Nehete, Parag B

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production. The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children. A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9-14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B - 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C - 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2(nd) week. The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%. Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 2-week trial period in the experimental groups. Antiplaque effectiveness was

  16. Protective effect of magnesium lactate gluconate and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract in experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashishkumar Kyada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antiurolithiatic acitivity of magnesium lactate gluconate (MLG and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia (GC fruit was studied. Methods: Study was performed during December 2016 to April 2017. Urolithiasis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 0.75 % v/v ethylene glycol for 21 days. From 8th day onwards, intervention with MLG (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. and GC (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. was started. At the end of treatment period, biochemical parameters affecting renal stone formation were estimated in serum, urine, kidney homogenate and histopathology of harvested kidneys was performed. Results: From in vivo evaluation, it was observed that MLG 400 mg/kg b.w., GC 100 mg/kg b.w. and GC 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced nitrogenous waste products in serum (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid as well as calculogenic promoters in urine (phosphate, oxalate and kidney homogenate (calcium, phosphate, oxalate when compared to disease control animals. The MLG 200 and MLG 400 were ineffective in restoring superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzyme activity whereas GC 100, GC 200 and Cystone® 400 mg/kg b.w. significantly elevated SOD and CAT enzymes in urolithiatic rat kidney. Conclusions: MLG and GC extract are capable of preventing calcium oxalate (CaOx crystal formation and subsequent deposition in renal tubules. The principle mechanism underlying nephroprotective effect of test drugs might be attributed to their calcium ion cheating ability and CaOx crystallization inhibitory activity. It is further asserted that GC was more potent than MLG in overall kidney protection by virtue of its antioxidant potential. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 378-384

  17. Sequential Tc-99m gluconate scintigraphy following renal transplantation: clinical study in twenty-five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucsko, M.; Akerman, M.; Tovar, G. de; Aubert, P.; Chaignon, M.; Le Duc, A.; Guedon, J.; Beaufils, H.

    1981-01-01

    The value of sequential Tc-99m gluconate scintigraphy investigations following renal transplantation is illustrated with reference to 25 cases. Scintigraphy images are recorded on instantaneous photographic paper and radiological film (early vascular images, early and late static images). Results in various clinical situations are analysed: functioning renal transplants, acute postoperative tubulopathy, reversible acute reject hyperacute reject, chronic reject, lower pole arterial thrombosis, renal artery stenosis, ruptured excretory pathway. Isotopic exploration of this type is simple to conduct, and can be repeated without provoking excessive irradiation of the organism. Comparative analysis of several scintigraphic recordings from the same patient is of diagnostic value in cases of acute rejection, renal artery thrombosis, and ruptured excretory pathways. Renal artery stenosis is poorly demonstrated by this type of investigation [fr

  18. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  19. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine gluconate as antiseptic agent on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Alami, Bahare; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on human blood lymphocytes as a useful ex vivo model for accelerated human toxicity studies. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of CHG at 1 μM concentration to human blood lymphocytes induced cytotoxicity following 6 h. The CHG-induced cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, CHG triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in lymphocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally our findings suggest that using of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with CHG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  1. The influence of Methanol and Acetonitrile in the Borate-Gluconate eluent the separation of Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulfate Anions by IC A column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokowidodo; Bambang-Edi HB; Budi-Setiawan

    1996-01-01

    The modified of Borate-Gluconate solution has been used for the separation of nitrate, phosphate, sulfate anions with methanol and acetonitrile additions. The addition of acetonitrile increased the resolution of nitrate-phosphate, meanwhile the resolution of phosphate-sulfate decreased. The addition of methanol increased the resolutions of nitrate-phosphate, and phosphate-sulfate. The best separation of nitrate, phosphate and sulfate anions with IC. A column were done at the mixture of eluent Natrium Borate Gluconate:Butanol:Acetonitril:water = 1: 1: 10: 38. The best resolution of nitrate-phosphate was 2.4 with the eluent mixture at the ratio of 1 part of borate-gluconate, 1 part of butanol, and 10 part of acetonitrile, and the best resolution of the phosphate-sulfate, was done by the eluent mixture at the with of 1 part of borate-gluconate, 1 part of butanol, and 10 parts of methanol

  2. Comparison of the effect of caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on auditory and visual reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Shanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the consumption of energy drinks in the last decade which raises a concern regarding its safety. Glucose improves information processing and cognition. But research on only glucose containing drink is lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Red Bull,a caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on visual and auditory reaction time in medical students. A total of 30 students,15 boys and 15 girls, in the age group 18 to 22 yrs were recruited for the study after taking approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. At the beginning, a baseline record of pulse, blood pressure, ART and VRT were taken for all students. The students were given Red Bull and readings were taken after 30 minutes. After an interval of five days the same procedure was repeated with Glucon D. All readings were taken between 10-12 a.m. On comparing the effect of Red Bull on either sex, there was no significant difference. On comparing the effect of the two energy drinks, the p value between the effect of Red Bull and Glucon D on ART was 0.457 and on VRT was 0.314.Both were not statistically significant. There was a significant increase in pulse rate with Red Bull (P=0.036. The mean DBP increased marginally with Red Bull which was not significant (P=0.496.

  3. A case report on a systemic toxicity following ingestion of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiahi-e-Kazerani J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is bonded well to the oral mucosa and dental pellicle and is poorly absorbed from the astrointestinal tract, but in high concentration it is absorbed enough to produce liver necrosis. In this case a dentistry student accidentally ingested a shot of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. Treatments included washing the oral cavity with lots of tooth paste, drinking of 5% alginate syrup and ingestion of 5g small pieces of cork .The following adverse effects were experienced: headache, giddiness, mild mist, euphoria, stomachache, diarrhea and complete loss of taste sensation for 8h, which recurred gradually during the last 48 hours. According to the poor absorption, low toxicity and low concentration of conventional mouthwashes, systemic toxicity following drinking of some shots of this solution is rare. Ultimately if may cause gastritis. Other treatments which are helpful in the same cases are: drinking of hard water, kaolin and tragacant syrup, bicarbonates such as baking soda, carbonates such as beverage , citrates such as lemon-juice and chlorides such as brine and so on.

  4. Evidence of incompatibility for topical anionic agents used in conjunction with chlorhexidine gluconate: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a widely used antiseptic agent for skin and wound disinfection. The cationic properties of CHG may allow its inactivation and precipitation by anionic agents in commonly used topical agents. We conducted a systematic review by searching through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases and selected original research articles reporting on CHG incompatibility, defined as inactivation or precipitation. The search yielded 22 publications that demonstrated CHG incompatibility via: 1 reduced antibacterial activity (carbomer, acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer, dentin, bovine serum albumin, copolymer M239144, sodium lauryl sulfate, heat-killed microbes, triethanolamine, and bark cork; and 2 visible precipitate formation (sodium hypochlorite, EDTA, saline, ethanol, andnystatin. Only three publications reported on CHG incompatibility in dermatology, specifically for carbomer, triethanolamine, and acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Although limited evidence linking CHG incompatibility and anionic agents exists, clinicians should carefully consider the nature of topical agents used if CHG is concurrently applied. Increased awareness of CHG incompatibility may result in better antibacterial activity thus ensuring optimal patient management.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of chlorhexidine gluconate 0.02% in the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuguang, Sun; Yanchuang, Liang; Feng, Zhang; Shiyun, Luo; Xiaotang, Yin

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in the rabbit cornea. Each eye of 16 New Zealand white rabbits were topically instilled with 50 microL of CHG 0.02% eye drops twice with a 5-min interval. Four (4) corneas of 2 rabbits were harvested at each time point. The concentration of CHG in the cornea was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 387 software to simulate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The concentration of CHG in the cornea displayed an open two-compartment model. Tmax was 13.75 min, Cmax 0.713 microg.g1, clearance rate 1.64 microg.g-1.min-1, and t1/2alpha, t1/2beta, and t1/2ka was 2.65, 48.72, and 2.67 min, respectively. The concentration of CHG in the rabbit cornea could be determined by means of HPLC. The maximum concentration of CHG in the corneal tissue was much higher than the trophozoite minimum amoebicidal concentration (TMAC) in vitro.

  6. Economic impact of Tegaderm chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressing in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Praveen; Arrowsmith, Martin; Poku, Edith; Martyn-St James, Marissa; Anderson, Jeff; Foster, Steve; Elliott, Tom; Whitehouse, Tony

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the economic impact of a Tegaderm TM chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) gel dressing compared with a standard intravenous (i.v.) dressing (defined as non-antimicrobial transparent film dressing), used for insertion site care of short-term central venous and arterial catheters (intravascular catheters) in adult critical care patients using a cost-consequence model populated with data from published sources. A decision analytical cost-consequence model was developed which assigned each patient with an indwelling intravascular catheter and a standard dressing, a baseline risk of associated dermatitis, local infection at the catheter insertion site and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), estimated from published secondary sources. The risks of these events for patients with a Tegaderm CHG were estimated by applying the effectiveness parameters from the clinical review to the baseline risks. Costs were accrued through costs of intervention (i.e. Tegaderm CHG or standard intravenous dressing) and hospital treatment costs depended on whether the patients had local dermatitis, local infection or CRBSI. Total costs were estimated as mean values of 10,000 probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) runs. Tegaderm CHG resulted in an average cost-saving of £77 per patient in an intensive care unit. Tegaderm CHG also has a 98.5% probability of being cost-saving compared to standard i.v. dressings. The analyses suggest that Tegaderm CHG is a cost-saving strategy to reduce CRBSI and the results were robust to sensitivity analyses.

  7. Mn bioavailability by polarized Caco-2 cells: comparison between Mn gluconate and Mn oxyprolinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgenzi Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient inadequate intake is responsible of pathological deficiencies and there is a need of assessing the effectiveness of metal supplementation, frequently proposed to rebalance poor diets. Manganese (Mn is present in many enzymatic intracellular systems crucial for the regulation of cell metabolism, and is contained in commercially available metal supplements. Methods We compared the effects of two different commercial Mn forms, gluconate (MnGluc and oxyprolinate (MnOxP. For this purpose we used the polarized Caco-2 cells cultured on transwell filters, an established in vitro model of intestinal epithelium. Since micronutrient deficiency may accelerate mitochondrial efficiency, the mitochondrial response of these cells, in the presence of MnGluc and MnOxP, by microscopy methods and by ATP luminescence assay was used. Results In the presence of both MnOxP and MnGluc a sustained mitochondrial activity was shown by mitoTraker labeling (indicative of mitochondrial respiration, but ATP intracellular content remained comparable to untreated cells only in the presence of MnOxP. In addition MnOxP transiently up-regulated the antioxidant enzyme Mn superoxide dismutase more efficiently than MnGluc. Both metal treatments preserved NADH and βNADPH diaphorase oxidative activity, avoided mitochondrial dysfunction, as assessed by the absence of a sustained phosphoERK activation, and were able to maintain cell viability. Conclusions Collectively, our data indicate that MnOxP and MnGluc, and primarily the former, produce a moderate and safe modification of Caco-2 cell metabolism, by activating positive enzymatic mechanisms, thus could contribute to long-term maintenance of cell homeostasis.

  8. Effects of single intratracheal exposure to chlorhexidine gluconate on the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, Kensuke; Hashida, Masaru; Hirata, Kiyotaka; Kurokawa, Akira; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Akahori, Fumiaki

    2006-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) is an antiseptic that has been widely used for disinfection of cutaneous wound and gingivae. Recently, a patient who inhaled CHX solution died from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although it is highly possible that direct pulmonary damage might be the cause of ARDS, there is no preclinical information about the pulmonary toxicity of CHX. In the current study, the acute direct action of CHX to the lung was evaluated in rats. We successfully exposed the left but not the right lung either to CHX at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01% or to saline using a curved-tip administration tube. At the higher concentrations of CHX (0.1% and 1%), severe congestion to the alveoli and capillaries and perivascular and intra-alveolar hemorrhages were observed 1 day after exposure. Aniline blue-stained collagen fibers with an infiltration of inflammatory cells were present 7 days after exposure. The fibrotic changes and intra-alveolar inflammatory cells had decreased but were still observed sporadically 28 and 84 days after exposure. These detrimental effects were more severe at 1% than at 0.1% CHX. No remarkable effect was observed after exposures to 0.01% CHX and saline. We were able to evaluate the time-course changes in the pulmonary toxicity of CHX by exposures limited to the left lung. It is highly possible that CHX at a concentration of more than 0.1% might directly induce ARDS when aspirated and reaching to the alveoli.

  9. Evidence for a Standardized Preadmission Showering Regimen to Achieve Maximal Antiseptic Skin Surface Concentrations of Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 4%, in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Lee, Cheong J; Krepel, Candace J; Spencer, Maureen; Leaper, David; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael J; Seabrook, Gary R

    2015-11-01

    To reduce the amount of skin surface bacteria for patients undergoing elective surgery, selective health care facilities have instituted a preadmission antiseptic skin cleansing protocol using chlorhexidine gluconate. A Cochrane Collaborative review suggests that existing data do not justify preoperative skin cleansing as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. To develop and evaluate the efficacy of a standardized preadmission showering protocol that optimizes skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate and to compare the findings with the design and methods of published studies on preoperative skin preparation. A randomized prospective analysis in 120 healthy volunteers was conducted at an academic tertiary care medical center from June 1, 2014, to September, 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from October 13, 2014, to October 27, 2014. A standardized process of dose, duration, and timing was used to maximize antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate applied during preoperative showering. The volunteers were randomized to 2 chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, showering groups (2 vs 3 showers), containing 60 participants each, and 3 subgroups (no pause, 1-minute pause, or 2-minute pause before rinsing), containing 20 participants each. Volunteers used 118 mL of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, for each shower. Skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate were analyzed using colorimetric assay at 5 separate anatomic sites. Individual groups were analyzed using paired t test and analysis of variance. Preadmission showers using chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%. The primary outcome was to develop a standardized approach for administering the preadmission shower with chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, resulting in maximal, persistent skin antisepsis by delineating a precise dose (volume) of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%; duration (number of showers); and timing (pause) before rinsing. The mean (SD) composite chlorhexidine gluconate

  10. Potentiating the antibacterial effect of silver nanospheres by surface-capping with chlorhexidine gluconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyadarshini, Balasankar Meera; Fawzy, Amr S., E-mail: denasfmf@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, Discipline of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry (Singapore)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the commercial polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-capped silver nanospheres (Ag-NSP) were surface decorated with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHXg) for potentiating the antibacterial properties of Ag-NSP. Different formulations of CHXg-loaded Ag-NSP (Ag-NSP/CHXg) were prepared by varying the incubation times (0.5, 1.5, and 3 h). A thorough characterization of Ag-NSP/CHXg nanospheres has been carried out by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive surface elemental composition spectral analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), percentage (%) CHXg loading efficiency (LE), in vitro CHXg and Ag{sup +} ion release, antibacterial/biofilm inhibition assay, and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cytotoxicity evaluation. DLS measured nanospheres to be <160 nm and indicated that CHXg treatment drastically shifted the surface charge from negative to high positive values, with homogenous distribution. TEM revealed spherical Ag-NSP/CHXg nanospheres with a clearly visible surface coating of CHXg. FTIR confirmed association of CHXg with Ag-NSP nanospheres, whereas SEM/EDX data verified presence of spectral peaks specific to silver (Ag), CHXg, and PVP. The %LE gradually increased with increasing incubation times. In vitro CHXg release exhibited a bi-phasic fashion showing maximum release of ~74.83 ± 20.67% from Ag-NSP/CHXg-3h at 14 days. A slow release of Ag{sup +} ions was detected; however, the surface decoration of Ag-NSP substantially hampered/restricted the liberation of ions. Agar well diffusion, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H–tetrazolium), and crystal violet assay suggested good antibacterial/antibiofilm activity of Ag-NSP/CHXg that correlated with the increasing %LE of nanospheres. hMSCs cytotoxicity study showed low toxicity properties of all nanosphere formulations, except for Ag-NSP/CHXg-3h, affecting the cell viability at all

  11. A randomized controlled trial of 1% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate compared with 10% povidone-iodine for topical antiseptic in neonates: effects on blood culture contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntnarumit, Pracha; Sangsuksawang, Nartsiri

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial in neonates with birth weight greater than or equal to 1,500 g that compared 1% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with 10% povidone-iodine (PI) as a topical antiseptic. We found 1% CHG to be more effective than 1% PI in reducing blood culture contamination rates, and no contact dermatitis was observed.

  12. Identification of a Transcription Factor Controlling pH-Dependent Organic Acid Response in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    exhibiting an oxalate overproducing phenotype were identified. The yield of oxalate was increased up to 158% compared to the wild type and the corresponding transcription factor was therefore entitled Oxalic Acid repression Factor, OafA. Detailed physiological characterization of one of the ΔoafA mutants......, compared to the wild type, showed that both strains produced substantial amounts of gluconic acid, but the mutant strain was more efficient in re-uptake of gluconic acid and converting it to oxalic acid, particularly at high pH (pH 5.0). Transcriptional profiles showed that 241 genes were differentially......Acid formation in Aspergillus niger is known to be subjected to tight regulation, and the acid production profiles are fine-tuned to respond to the ambient pH. Based on transcriptome data, putative trans-acting pH responding transcription factors were listed and through knock out studies, mutants...

  13. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetic and Toxicological Evaluation of a Zinc Gluconate-Based Chemical Sterilant Using In Vitro and In Silico Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Araujo-Lima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing agents as zinc gluconate-based chemical sterilants (Infertile® are used for chemical castration. This solution is injected into the animal testis, but there are not enough evidences of its safety profiles for the receivers. The present work aimed to establish the pharmacokinetics and toxicological activity of Infertile, using in vitro and in silico approaches. The evaluation at the endpoint showed effects in a dose-dependent manner. Since necrosis is potentially carcinogenic, the possible cell death mechanism could be apoptosis. Our data suggested that Infertile at 60 mM presented risk for animal health. Even though Infertile is a licensed product by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply, it presented a high mutagenic potential. We suggest that the optimal dose must be less than 6 mM, once, at this concentration, no mutagenicity or genotoxicity was observed.

  15. Application of glucose oxidase for the production of metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chem

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Sulphuric and oxalic acids method were employed for the production of gluconic acid. Derivatives of gluconic acid that is, calcium lactate gluconate, sodium gluconate .... the content was filtered to remove calcium oxalate.

  16. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  17. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  18. Effects of intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Sertich, Patricia L; Rives, William; Knobbe, Marc; Del Piero, Fabio; Stull, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Eight adult American black bears were used to evaluate the effects of chemical castration by intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion. Treatment did not affect testicular dimensions and did not result in decreased resting or GnRH-stimulated testosterone secretion. Multifocal hyperchoic areas in the testicular parenchyma were observed on ultrasound examination, and white foci were observed on gross pathology examination after zinc gluconate treatment. Histologically, there were normal seminiferous tubules containing either round or elongated spermatids, along with abnormal tubules in all bears after treatment. Vacuolation of the seminiferous epithelium, sloughing of germ cells into the tubules' lumen, presence of multinuclear giant cells, and reduced height of the seminiferous epithelium with missing generations of germ cells were commonly observed. The most severe testicular changes were multifocal and included fibrosis, complete degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium with shrinkage of the tubule, and sperm stasis. Epididymal sperm reserve was 982.74 ± 654.16 × 10(6) sperm (mean ± SEM) and motile sperm were observed in the epididymis of all but one of the bears. In conclusion, although intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment in black bears resulted in testicular degenerative changes detected by ultrasound and histology examinations, sperm production was not completely ablated. We inferred that normal fertility might have been compromised, but treatment unlikely resulted in sterility. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Precise Method for Processing Data to Determine the Dissociation Constants of Polyhydroxy Carboxylic Acids via Potentiometric Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaixuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Wen; Yu, Shiyuan

    2017-12-01

    The thermodynamic dissociation constants of xylonic acid and gluconic acid were studied via potentiometric methods, and the results were verified using lactic acid, which has a known pKa value, as a model compound. Solutions of xylonic acid and gluconic acid were titrated with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide. The determined pKa data were processed via the method of derivative plots using computer software, and the accuracy was validated using the Gran method. The dissociation constants associated with the carboxylic acid group of xylonic and gluconic acids were determined to be pKa 1  = 3.56 ± 0.07 and pKa 1  = 3.74 ± 0.06, respectively. Further, the experimental data showed that the second deprotonation constants associated with a hydroxyl group of each of the two acids were pKa 2  = 8.58 ± 0.12 and pKa 2  = 7.06 ± 0.08, respectively. The deprotonation behavior of polyhydroxy carboxylic acids was altered using various ratios with Cu(II) to form complexes in solution, and this led to proposing a hypothesis for further study.

  20. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  1. Comparison of the effect of calcium gluconate and batroxobin on the release of transforming growth factor beta 1 in canine platelet concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Raul F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical use of autologous platelet concentrates (also known as platelet-rich plasma on the field of regenerative therapy, in the last decade has been the subject of several studies especially in equine medicine and surgery. The objectives of this study was: 1 to describe and compare the cellular population in whole blood, lower fraction (A and upper fraction (B of platelet concentrates, 2 to measure and compare the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 concentration in plasma and both platelet concentrates after be activated with calcium gluconate or batroxobin plus calcium gluconate and, 3 to determine correlations between cell counts in platelet concentrates and concentrations of TGF-β1. Blood samples were taken from 16 dogs for complete blood count, plasma collection and platelet concentrates preparation. The platelet concentrates (PC were arbitrarily divided into two fractions, specifically, PC-A (lower fraction and PC-B (upper fraction. The Platelet concentrates were analyzed by hemogram. After activated with calcium gluconate or batroxobin plus calcium gluconate, TGF-β1 concentration was determined in supernatants of platelet concentrates and plasma. Results There were differences statistically significant (P 1 concentration between whole blood, plasma and both platelet concentrates. A significant correlation was found between the number of platelets in both platelet concentrates and TGF-β1 concentration. Platelet collection efficiency was 46.34% and 28.16% for PC-A and PC-B, respectively. TGF-β1 concentration efficiency for PC activated with calcium gluconate was 47.75% and 31.77%, for PC-A and PC-B, respectively. PC activated with batroxobin plus CG showed 46.87% and 32.24% for PC-A and PC-B, respectively. Conclusions The methodology used in this study allows the concentration of a number of platelets and TGF-β1 that might be acceptable for a biological effect for clinical or experimental use as a

  2. A reduction in growth rate of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 counteracts productivity advances in medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production from gluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinn Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substitution of plastics based on fossil raw material by biodegradable plastics produced from renewable resources is of crucial importance in a context of oil scarcity and overflowing plastic landfills. One of the most promising organisms for the manufacturing of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA is Pseudomonas putida KT2440 which can accumulate large amounts of polymer from cheap substrates such as glucose. Current research focuses on enhancing the strain production capacity and synthesizing polymers with novel material properties. Many of the corresponding protocols for strain engineering rely on the rifampicin-resistant variant, P. putida KT2442. However, it remains unclear whether these two strains can be treated as equivalent in terms of mcl-PHA production, as the underlying antibiotic resistance mechanism involves a modification in the RNA polymerase and thus has ample potential for interfering with global transcription. Results To assess PHA production in P. putida KT2440 and KT2442, we characterized the growth and PHA accumulation on three categories of substrate: PHA-related (octanoate, PHA-unrelated (gluconate and poor PHA substrate (citrate. The strains showed clear differences of growth rate on gluconate and citrate (reduction for KT2442 > 3-fold and > 1.5-fold, respectively but not on octanoate. In addition, P. putida KT2442 PHA-free biomass significantly decreased after nitrogen depletion on gluconate. In an attempt to narrow down the range of possible reasons for this different behavior, the uptake of gluconate and extracellular release of the oxidized product 2-ketogluconate were measured. The results suggested that the reason has to be an inefficient transport or metabolization of 2-ketogluconate while an alteration of gluconate uptake and conversion to 2-ketogluconate could be excluded. Conclusions The study illustrates that the recruitment of a pleiotropic mutation, whose effects might

  3. Therapeutic trial of sodium antimony gluconate alone and in combination with ketoconazole in post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drugs used in PKDL include parenteral sodium antimony gluconate (SAG, amphotericin-B, pentamidine, and ketoconazole (KTZ. SAG is the most effective one. Given alone, SAG has to be given for a long duration, leading to poor patient compliance and treatment failure. This study was carried out to compare the effectiness of SAG alone and a combination of SAG and KTZ for sixty days. METHODS: Ten patients of PKDL were included in the study. Five patients (Group A were given SAG intravenously, in the dose of 20 mg/kg per day and five (Group B were given SAG (intravenously 20 mg/kg per day and KTZ (200 mg twice daily orally. Both treatment regimens were given for sixty days. RESULTS: In Group A, the nodules and/or plaques showed approximate 80-85% clinical improvement, and macules showed 25-30% improvement. In group B (SAG + KTZ, there was 90-95% clinical improvement in the nodules and/or plaques and 25-30% in macules. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the therapeutic superiority of the combination treatment regimen in a shorter duration but is not conclusive as the number of patients was low. Further trials are recommended.

  4. Moessbauer and X-ray Diffraction Investigations of Sn-containing Binary and Ternary Electrodeposited Alloys from a Gluconate Bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Stichleutner, S.; Homonnay, Z.; Vertes, A.; Doyle, O.; Chisholm, C.U.; El-Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Constant current technique was applied to electrodeposit tin-containing coatings such as tin-cobalt (Sn-Co), tin-iron (Sn-Fe) and a novel tin-cobalt-iron (Sn-Co-Fe) from a gluconate bath. The effect of plating parameters (current density, deposition time at an electrolyte temperature of 60 deg. C and pH=7.0) on phase composition, crystal structure and magnetic anisotropy of alloy deposits has been investigated mainly by 57Fe CEMS, 119Sn CEMS and transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy as well as XRD. 57Fe and 119Sn CEM spectra and XRD reflect that the dominant phases of the deposits are orthorhombic Co3Sn2, tetragonal FeSn2 or amorphous Fe-Sn and amorphous Sn-Co-Fe in Sn-Co, Sn-Fe and Sn-Co-Fe coatings, respectively. Furthermore, the relative area of the 2nd and 5th lines of the sextets representing the magnetic iron containing phases decreases continuously with increasing current density in all Fe-containing deposits. At the same time, no essential change in the magnetic anisotropy can be found with the plating time. 119Sn spectra reveal the presence of small amount of β-Sn besides the main phases in Sn-Fe and in the Sn-Co coatings. Magnetically split 119Sn spectra reflecting transferred hyperfine field were observed in the case of Co-Sn-Fe coatings

  5. Moessbauer and X-ray Diffraction Investigations of Sn-containing Binary and Ternary Electrodeposited Alloys from a Gluconate Bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, E; Stichleutner, S; Homonnay, Z; Vertes, A [Department of Nulear Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Doyle, O; Chisholm, C U; El-Sharif, M [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-26

    Constant current technique was applied to electrodeposit tin-containing coatings such as tin-cobalt (Sn-Co), tin-iron (Sn-Fe) and a novel tin-cobalt-iron (Sn-Co-Fe) from a gluconate bath. The effect of plating parameters (current density, deposition time at an electrolyte temperature of 60 deg. C and pH=7.0) on phase composition, crystal structure and magnetic anisotropy of alloy deposits has been investigated mainly by 57Fe CEMS, 119Sn CEMS and transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy as well as XRD. 57Fe and 119Sn CEM spectra and XRD reflect that the dominant phases of the deposits are orthorhombic Co3Sn2, tetragonal FeSn2 or amorphous Fe-Sn and amorphous Sn-Co-Fe in Sn-Co, Sn-Fe and Sn-Co-Fe coatings, respectively. Furthermore, the relative area of the 2nd and 5th lines of the sextets representing the magnetic iron containing phases decreases continuously with increasing current density in all Fe-containing deposits. At the same time, no essential change in the magnetic anisotropy can be found with the plating time. 119Sn spectra reveal the presence of small amount of {beta}-Sn besides the main phases in Sn-Fe and in the Sn-Co coatings. Magnetically split 119Sn spectra reflecting transferred hyperfine field were observed in the case of Co-Sn-Fe coatings.

  6. Effectiveness of liquid soap vs. chlorhexidine gluconate for the removal of Clostridium difficile from bare hands and gloved hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, K; Clabots, C; Mathie, P; Willard, K; Gerding, D N

    1994-11-01

    To compare liquid soap versus 4% chlorhexidine gluconate in 4% alcohol for the decontamination of bare or gloved hands inoculated with an epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile. C difficile (6.7 log10 colony-forming units [CFU], 47% spores), was seeded onto bare or latex gloved hands of ten volunteers and allowed to dry. Half the volunteers initially washed with soap and half with chlorhexidine, followed by the other agent 1 week later. Cultures were done with Rodac plates at three sites on the hand: finger/thumbtips, the palmar surfaces of the fingers, and the palm. Statistical comparison was by paired Student's t test. On bare hands, soap and chlorhexidine did not differ in residual bacterial counts on the finger/thumbtips (log10 CFU, 2.0 and 2.1, P = NS) and fingers (log10 CFU, 2.4 and 2.5, P = NS). Counts were too high on bare palms to quantitate. On gloved hands, soap was more effective than chlorhexidine on fingers (log10 CFU 1.3 and 1.7, P soap wash than following chlorhexidine wash. These observations support the use of either soap or chlorhexidine as a handwash for removal of C difficile, but efficacy in the prevention of C difficile transmission must be determined by prospective clinical trials.

  7. Effect of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate predisinfection skin scrub prior to hepatectomy: a double-blinded, randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Shui; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2014-01-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with normal saline (NS) as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to standard presurgical skin preparation. Data was collected at a single transplantation center where patients electing resection of hepatic tumors were recruited between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 100 patients were consecutively enrolled for random assignment to either 4% CHG or NS as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to surgery. Our aim was to assess the comparative antiseptic efficacy of CHG in this setting, focusing on cutaneous microbial colonization (at baseline, preoperatively, and postoperatively) and postsurgical site infections as primary outcome measures. Positivity rates of baseline, preoperative, and postoperative cultures were similar for both groups, showing significant declines (relative to baseline) after skin preparation and no significant postsurgical rebound. Rates of surgical site infection were also similar in both groups (CHG, 6.0%; NS, 4.1%; P = 1.0). For patients with hepatic tumors undergoing hepatectomy, the effect of 4% CHG as a predisinfection scrub solution was similar to that of NS in terms of skin decontamination and surgical site infections.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: Physicochemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate physicochemical equivalence between brand (i.e., Ferrlecit and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG in sucrose injection by conducting a series of comparative in vitro characterizations using advanced analytical techniques. The elemental iron and carbon content, thermal properties, viscosity, particle size, zeta potential, sedimentation coefficient, and molecular weight were determined. There was no noticeable difference between brand and generic SFG in sucrose injection for the above physical parameters evaluated, except for the sedimentation coefficient determined by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC and molecular weight by asymmetric field flow fractionation-multi-angle light scattering (AFFF-MALS. In addition, brand and generic SFG complex products showed comparable molecular weight distributions when determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The observed minor differences between brand and generic SFG, such as sedimentation coefficient, do not impact their biological activities in separate studies of in vitro cellular uptake and rat biodistribution. Coupled with the ongoing clinical study comparing the labile iron level in healthy volunteers, the FDA-funded post-market studies intended to illustrate comprehensive surveillance efforts ensuring safety and efficacy profiles of generic SFG complex in sucrose injection, and also to shed new light on the approval standards on generic parenteral iron colloidal products.

  9. Antibacterial efficacy of lavandula officinalis extract, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate solutions as root canal irrigations: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pouya Mehmandoust

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effect of lavandula -0fficinalis extract, with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX, as root canal irrigants, on Enterococcus faecalis (EF. Materials &Methods: Seventy five extracted single-rooted premolars were selected. Root canals were prepared using rotary ProTaper system and were infected with the culture of E. faecalis. Specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15, Group 1, 2: lavandula extracts (0.26 and 0.52 mg/mL, Group 3: 2.5%NaOCL, Group 4: 2%CHX, Group 5: Normal Saline. Irrigation was performed for each group for 5, 10 and 15 min. The viable bacteria obtained by collecting the canal dentin chips. Data analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney u tests. Results: The mean number of viable bacteria was significantly reduced after 5 min exposure to lavandula solutions (p<0.05. A significant difference also existed between different times in the NaOCL group, being significant between 5 and 15 min (p<0.05, but there was no significant difference between different times in the CHX group. Comparison of the mean number of viable bacteria between different groups at different exposure times revealed that the difference between lavandula and NaOCL solutions with CHX was significant at 5 and 10 min (p<0.05, however, no statistically significant difference was observed between lavandula solutions and NaOCL. Conclusion: lavandula extract was effective in killing of EF.  Further studies are necessary to fully understand its other properties such as tissue solubility, removal of smear layer and impact on dentin structure.

  10. [Disinfection efficacy of hand hygiene based on chlorhexidine gluconate content and usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ippei; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Azuma, Chihiro; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the procedure for surgical hand hygiene has been switching to a two-stage method and hand-rubbing method from the traditional hand-scrubbing method. Both the two-stage and hand-rubbing methods use alcohol-based hand-rubbing after hand washing. The former requires 5 min of antiseptic hand washing, and the latter 1 min of nonantiseptic hand washing. For a prolonged bactericidal effect in terms of surgical hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been noted due to its residual activity. However, no detailed study comparing the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects according to different contents of CHG and the usage of alcohol-based hand-rubbing has been conducted. The glove juice method is able to evaluate disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects of the disinfectants more accurately because it can collect not only transitory bacteria but also normal inhabitants on hands. In the present study, we examined the disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects on alcohol-based hand-rubbing containing CHG by six hand-rubbing methods and three two-stage methods using the glove juice method. In both methods, 3 mL (one pump dispenser push volume) alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG showed the highest disinfection efficacy and prolonged effects, and no significant difference was found between the hand-rubbing and two-stage methods. In the two methods of hand hygiene, the hand-rubbing method was able to save time and cost. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the hand-rubbing method using a one pump dispenser push volume of alcohol-based hand-rubbing solution containing 1% (w/v) CHG is suitable for surgical hand hygiene.

  11. The Effect of Thyroid Hormone, Prostaglandin E2, and Calcium Gluconate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Hamedi, Roya; Khavandegar, Zohre

    2015-03-01

    A major objective of investigators is to clarify the role of metabolites in achievement of maximum tooth movement with minimal root damage during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of administration of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of eight rats each: 1- 20µg/kg thyroxine was injected in traperitoneally after installation of the orthodontic appliance.  2- 0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  3- 10% (200 mg/kg) calcium gluconate was injected.  4- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally and 10% calcium was injected intraperitoneally.  5- Thyroxine was injected intraperitoneally and prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally.  6- 20µg/kg thyroxine with calcium was injected. 7- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally with calcium and thyroxine.  8- Distilled water was used in control group. The orthodontic appliances comprised of a NiTi closed coil were posteriorly connected to the right first molar and anteriorly to the upper right incisor. OTM was measured with a feeler gauge. The mid-mesial root of the first molar and the adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. The highest mean OTM was observed in the thyroxine and prostaglandin E2 group (Mean±SD = 0.7375±0.1359 mm) that was significantly different (proot resorption was observed between the prostaglandin E2 (0.0192±0.0198 mm(2)) and the other groups. It seems that the combination of thyroxine and prostaglandin E2, with a synergistic effect, would decrease the root resorption and increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

  12. Preliminary study on the effect of parenteral naloxone, alone and in association with calcium gluconate, on bone healing in an ovine "drill hole" model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhoff Jens D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several diseases affect bone healing and physiology. Many drugs that are commonly used in orthopaedics as "analgesics" or anti-inflammatory agents impair bone healing. Stressful conditions are associated with decreased serum osteocalcin concentration. High endorphin levels alter calcium metabolism, blocking the membrane channels by which calcium normally enters cells. The consequent decrease of intracellular calcium impairs the activities of calcium-related enzymes. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. Morphine-induced osteocalcin inhibition was abolished when osteoblasts were incubated with naloxone. Naloxone restored the altered cellular and tissue physiology by removing β-endorphins from specific receptors. However, this is only possible if the circulating Ca concentration is adequate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral naloxone administration in inducing fast mineralization and callus remodelling in a group of sheep with a standardised bone lesion. Methods Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. Group A acted as control, group B received a solution of calcium gluconate, group C a solution of naloxone, and group D a solution of calcium gluconate and naloxone. A transverse hole was drilled in the left metacarpus, including both cortices, then parenteral treatment was administered intramuscularly, daily for four weeks. Healing was evaluated by weekly radiographic examination for eight weeks. For quantitative evaluation, the ratio of the radiographic bone density between the drill area and the adjacent cortical bone was calculated. After eight weeks the sheep were slaughtered and a sample of bone was collected for histopathology Results Group D showed a higher radiographic ratio than the other groups. Sheep not treated with naloxone showed a persistently lower ratio in the lateral than the medial cortex (P Conclusion A low-dose parenteral regimen of naloxone enhances

  13. Protein haze formation in wines revisited. The stabilising effect of organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, L.; Monteiro, L.; Loureiro, V.; Teixeira, A.R.; Ferreira, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on the wine protein haze potential of five organic acids commonly encountered in wines (L(+)- tartaric, L( )-malic, citric, succinic and gluconic acids) was assessed. All five acids, tested at 20 mM, reduced dramatically the haze potential of proteins, either in wine or dissolved in water, throughout the range of pH values typical of wines (i.e., from 2.8 through 3.8). Subtle differences among the acid effects did not correlate with the number of their carboxyl groups, ...

  14. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  15. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: In Vitro Cellular Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit® and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG products. We used a colorimetric assay to examine the amount of iron uptake by three human macrophage cell lines. This is the first published study to provide a parallel evaluation of the cellular uptake of a brand and a generic IV iron drug in a mononuclear phagocyte system. The results showed no difference in iron uptake across all cell lines, tested doses, and time points. The matching iron uptake profiles of Ferrlecit® and its generic product support the FDA’s present position detailed in the draft guidance on development of SFG complex products that bioequivalence can be based on qualitative (Q1 and quantitative (Q2 formulation sameness, similar physiochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies.

  16. Pre-Operative Skin Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Povidone-Iodine to Prevent Port-Site Infection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaziani, Erasmo; Di Filippo, Annalisa; Orelli, Simone; Fiorini, Flavia; Spaziani, Martina; Tintisona, Orlando; Torcasio, Angelo; De Cesare, Alessandro; Picchio, Marcello

    2018-04-01

    Skin preparation with antiseptic agents is commonly recommended for incisional site cleansing before surgery. We present the result of a prospective case series submitted to a scheduled pre-operative antiseptic procedure combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine before elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Consecutive patients underwent pre-operative standardized cleansing of the operation site combining chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine. Patients were reviewed one week and four weeks post-operatively. Post-operative infection was observed in seven patients (4.3%). All observed infections were port-site infections, always located at the level of the umbilical incision. In all cases infections involved skin and subcutaneous tissue. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in five patients (71.4%) and miscellaneous aerobic gram-positive bacteria in two subjects (28.6%). Post-operative hospital stay was the only factor significantly associated with the development of port-site infections. Port-site infections are a common complication after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The proposed pre-operative disinfection procedure is effective in reducing port-site infections. Reducing hospital stay may contribute to limiting the occurrence of this complication.

  17. A Double-Blind, Active-Controlled Clinical Trial of Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Gluconate in the Treatment of Bilateral Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Caamaño

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of intra-articular injections of sodium bicarbonate with a single (SBCG1 or double dose (SBCG2 of calcium gluconate administered monthly compared with methylprednisolone (MP for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods: A 3-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trial with patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis (OA. The outcome variables were the Western Ontario-McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and the Lequesne functional index. Results: After 3 months, all treatments significantly improved in overall WOMAC and Lequesne scores. Mean changes (95% confidence interval in WOMAC total score and the Lequesne index, respectively, for SBCG1 (−12.5 [−14.3, −10.7]; −9.0 [−11.4, −6.7] and SBCG2 (−12.3 [−14.3, −10.4]; −8.9 [−10.4, −7.4] were significantly greater than for MP (−5.0 [−7.2, −2.8]; −3.2 [−4.9, −1.5] ( P  < .001. Conclusions: Intra-articular injections of sodium bicarbonate and calcium gluconate are useful for short-term relief of OA symptoms in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis. Both treatments are more effective than MP injections in the reduction of knee OA symptoms. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00977444

  18. Bio- and mineral acid leaching of rare earth elements from synthetic phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Antonick, P.; Fujita, Y.; Reed, D. W.; Riman, R.; Eslamimanesh, A.; Das, G.; Anderko, A.; Wu, L.; Shivaramaiah, R.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to many clean energy technologies. However, the lack of U.S. domestic production and the reliance on imported REE put U.S. energy security at risk. Consequently development of new sources is of strategic interest. Global phosphate deposits contain 27 million tons of REE and 38% of these REE end up in phosphogypsum (PG) waste during phosphate fertilizer production. Recovering REE from PG is a first step toward a trash-to-treasure transformation. We studied the leaching of REE from synthetic PG samples containing Y, Nd, or Eu using a suite of lixiviants including spent medium from the growth of the bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans ("biolixiviant"), gluconic acid, common mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric), and water. Synthetic PG was used to facilitate the comparison of the different lixiviants; real PG waste is extremely heterogeneous. Gluconic acid was the predominant identified organic acid in the biolixiviant. The leaching efficiency of the acidic lixiviants at the same pH (2.1) or molar concentration as gluconic acid in the biolixiviant (220 mM) were compared and rationalized by thermodynamic simulation using the mixed-solvent electrolyte model. Initial results indicate that the biolixiviant was more effective at leaching the REE than the mineral acids at pH 2.1. At 220 mM acid concentrations, sulfuric acid was the most effective, followed by the biolixiviant. Interestingly, for a given lixiviant, the leaching behavior of the REE differed. This study provides insight into the definition of an efficient lixiviant for leaching REE from phosphate fertilizer production waste.

  19. [The use of semi-synthetic polymers in the formulation of sucking and chewable tablets containing sage extract and zinc gluconate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Golenia, Ewa; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Halitosis and gingivitis are most common pathologies (15-60% of population) which, if left untreated, lead to periodontal diseases and tooth loss. The aim of this study was to develop, based on polymers of dry sage extract and zinc gluconate, tablets intended for sucking and chewing that can be applied in the treatment of halitosis and gingivitis. Dried aqueous sage extract, zinc gluconate, Pharmagum M, Prosolv SMCC90 and SMCCHD90, Vivapur 102, sorbitol, mannitol, ludipress. Direct tableting. Testing pharmacopeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability (using basket and rotating disk methods) of tablets intended for sucking and chewing. Approximation of the obtained results. Grey and green color tablets were obtained with smooth and uniform surface, without stains, spalls or mechanical damage. The determined average mass (weight) of a tablet complied with the standard. The friability and crushing strength test revealed that tablets containing Prosolv SMCCHD90, Vivapur 102 and mannitol demonstrated the highest mechanical strength. Tablets containing these substances and intended for sucking had prolonged disintegration and release time. Tablets intended for chewing had a hardness at the level of 124 N.They demonstrated compressibility, low friability and prolonged release. The release profiles of tablets intended for sucking (v2) and those for chewing, obtained by basket and rotating disk methods, were similar. The addition of Prosolv SMCCHD90, Vivapur 102 and mannitol increased significantly the mechanical strength (higher hardness, lower friability), prolonged the disintegration time and slowed the release from the obtained tablets intended for sucking and chewing. The application of Prosolv SMCCHD90 in the formulation of tablets for chewing carries the risk for sorption of active components to the polymer structure. This process takes place in the early stage of the release. Rotating disk method used in pharmaceutical availability testing gives better results

  20. Quantitative Estimation of Yeast on Maxillary Denture in Patients with Denture Stomatitis and the Effect of Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Reduction of Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaykumar R Gade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is a condition associated with wearing of a denture. The predisposing factor leading to denture stomatitis could be poor oral hygiene, ill-fitting denture and relief areas. Around 30 patients with denture stomatitis were advised to rinse with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash for 14 days and were directed to immerse the upper denture in the chlorhexidine solution for 8 hours. The samples were collected by scraping maxillary denture in saline at three intervals, prior to, at the end of 24 hours and after 14 days of treatment, then were inoculated and quantitative estimation of the yeast growth on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar plate was done. It was observed that after a period of 14 days, there was a reduction in the growth of yeast and also improvement in the clinical picture of the oral mucosa

  1. Identification of a transcription factor controlling pH-dependent organic acid response in Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Poulsen

    Full Text Available Acid formation in Aspergillus niger is known to be subjected to tight regulation, and the acid production profiles are fine-tuned to respond to the ambient pH. Based on transcriptome data, putative trans-acting pH responding transcription factors were listed and through knock out studies, mutants exhibiting an oxalate overproducing phenotype were identified. The yield of oxalate was increased up to 158% compared to the wild type and the corresponding transcription factor was therefore entitled Oxalic Acid repression Factor, OafA. Detailed physiological characterization of one of the ΔoafA mutants, compared to the wild type, showed that both strains produced substantial amounts of gluconic acid, but the mutant strain was more efficient in re-uptake of gluconic acid and converting it to oxalic acid, particularly at high pH (pH 5.0. Transcriptional profiles showed that 241 genes were differentially expressed due to the deletion of oafA and this supported the argument of OafA being a trans-acting transcription factor. Furthermore, expression of two phosphoketolases was down-regulated in the ΔoafA mutant, one of which has not previously been described in fungi. It was argued that the observed oxalate overproducing phenotype was a consequence of the efficient re-uptake of gluconic acid and thereby a higher flux through glycolysis. This results in a lower flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, demonstrated by the down-regulation of the phosphoketolases. Finally, the physiological data, in terms of the specific oxygen consumption, indicated a connection between the oxidative phosphorylation and oxalate production and this was further substantiated through transcription analysis.

  2. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  3. Structural and thermodynamic study of rare earth(III) complexation by poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids: synthesis of new extractants and outlook for the extraction of these cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aury, S.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work is: to improve the knowledge on the binding sites of the poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions by comparing them to gluconic acid (previously studied) and to molecules with different configuration and with a variable number of OH functions (threonic acid, glyceric acid, 2-hydroxy-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid). To find the best complexing agent among different acids (aldonic acids, aldaric acids, di-hydroxybenzoic acids) (determination of the set of complexes and their stability constants by potentiometry, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy). To synthesize hydrophobic monoamides from one lactone form of saccharic acid, to study their complexing power and their capacity to extract the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions. (author)

  4. Membrane separation of enzyme-converted biomass compounds: Recovery of xylose and production of gluconic acid as a value-added product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Zeuner, Birgitte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of enzyme-assisted nanofiltration for separation of xylose from glucose present in genuine biorefinery liquors obtained from hydrothermal pretreatment of wheat straw, corn stover and Miscanthus stalks. Glucose oxidase and catalase were...

  5. Method of preparing D-mannose(U-14C) from glucons(U-14C) separated from natural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar, S.; Zemek, J.; Bilik, V.; Kolina, J.

    1981-01-01

    Glucans(U- 14 C) separated from green or blue-green algae are hydrolysed using diluted mineral acids in the presence of small amounts of molybdate ions to D-glucose(U- 14 C) which, at a temperature of 60 to 100 degC epimerizes to D-mannose(U- 14 C). The epimeric aldoses are separated from the reaction mixture by paper chromatography. (H.S.)

  6. Mössbauer and X-ray Diffraction Investigations of Sn-containing Binary and Ternary Electrodeposited Alloys from a Gluconate Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmann, E.; Stichleutner, S.; Doyle, O.; Chisholm, C. U.; El-Sharif, M.; Homonnay, Z.; Vértes, A.

    2005-04-01

    Constant current technique was applied to electrodeposit tin-containing coatings such as tin-cobalt (Sn-Co), tin-iron (Sn-Fe) and a novel tin-cobalt-iron (Sn-Co-Fe) from a gluconate bath. The effect of plating parameters (current density, deposition time at an electrolyte temperature of 60°C and pH=7.0) on phase composition, crystal structure and magnetic anisotropy of alloy deposits has been investigated mainly by 57Fe CEMS, 119Sn CEMS and transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy as well as XRD. 57Fe and 119Sn CEM spectra and XRD reflect that the dominant phases of the deposits are orthorhombic Co3Sn2, tetragonal FeSn2 or amorphous Fe-Sn and amorphous Sn-Co-Fe in Sn-Co, Sn-Fe and Sn-Co-Fe coatings, respectively. Furthermore, the relative area of the 2nd and 5th lines of the sextets representing the magnetic iron containing phases decreases continuously with increasing current density in all Fe-containing deposits. At the same time, no essential change in the magnetic anisotropy can be found with the plating time. 119Sn spectra reveal the presence of small amount of β-Sn besides the main phases in Sn-Fe and in the Sn-Co coatings. Magnetically split 119Sn spectra reflecting transferred hyperfine field were observed in the case of Co-Sn-Fe coatings.

  7. The effect of baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice (Mentadent) and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse (Peridex) in reducing gingival bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taller, S H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice, Mentadent, and a 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse, Peridex, in reducing gingival bleeding. Forty subjects were divided into three groups; the baking soda group, the chlorhexidine group and the control group. All groups received oral hygiene instruction and brushed and flossed three times per day. Bleeding point scores were evaluated at baseline and at five weeks. The baking soda/hydrogen peroxide group used the supplied dentifrice as their sole toothpaste. The 0.12 percent chlorhexidine group used the mouthrinse twice per day. The control group performed oral hygiene as instructed. At five weeks, the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse significantly reduced gingival bleeding. The dentifrice and control groups revealed no statistically significant reductions. The results indicate that the 0.12 percent chlorhexidine mouthrinse is useful in improving oral health, whereas the baking soda/hydrogen peroxide dentifrice offered no advantages to conventional oral hygiene.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine dihydrochloride in elimination of microorganisms within dentinal tubules of primary and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye-Ebru; Bodur, Haluk; Ece, Gülden

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation solutions at different time intervals for the elimination of E. faecalis and C. albicans penetrated into the dentine tubules of primary and permanent teeth in vitro. The 4 mm primary and permanent teeth sections were sterilized and contaminated with a mixture of E. faecalis and C. albicans strains. After the application of different irrigation solutions (Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, saline) to the contaminated tooth sections according to study groups, neutralizers were applied for inactivation of the solutions after 30 sec, 1 min and 5 min. Dentine shavings were placed into TSB and 10 µL from each tube was inoculated on agar plates, followed by an incubation period of 24 h at 37°C. The colonies were counted macroscopically. The results were compared by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests, with a significance level at pteeth, the most effective one was found as 5-minute application of 0.1% Octenidine Dihydrochloride. The antibacterial effects of the tested solutions on the same time periods against C. albicans revealed no significant difference. There were no statistically significant differences between primary and permanent teeth with respect to the antimicrobial activity of the tested solutions. Moreover, Octenidine Dihydrochloride may be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant.

  9. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single oral dose toxicity test of polycalcium, a mixed composition of polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (G/G) in SD rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Wan; Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Ki-Young; Cho, Hyung-rae; Rha, Chae-hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2013-11-01

    The object of this study was to obtain acute oral toxicity information of Polycalcium, a mixed composition of Polycan and Calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (g/g), in Sprague-Dawely (SD) rats. In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, Polycalcium were once orally administered to female and male SD rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (control) mg/kg body weights. The mortality, changes on body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs and treatment sites based on the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009]. As the results of single oral treatment of Polycalcium, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders. In addition, no Polycalcium treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycalcium is non-toxic in rats. The LD50 and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of Polycalcium were considered over 2000 mg/kg in both female and male, respectively.

  11. Structural and thermodynamic study of rare earth(III) complexation by poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids: synthesis of new extractants and outlook for the extraction of these cations; Etude structurale et thermodynamique de la complexation de lanthanides (III) par des acides carboxyliques polyhydroxyles: synthese de nouveaux extractants et perspectives pour l'extraction de ces cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aury, S

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work is: to improve the knowledge on the binding sites of the poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions by comparing them to gluconic acid (previously studied) and to molecules with different configuration and with a variable number of OH functions (threonic acid, glyceric acid, 2-hydroxy-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid). To find the best complexing agent among different acids (aldonic acids, aldaric acids, di-hydroxybenzoic acids) (determination of the set of complexes and their stability constants by potentiometry, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy). To synthesize hydrophobic monoamides from one lactone form of saccharic acid, to study their complexing power and their capacity to extract the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions. (author)

  12. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Vitamin D Can Ameliorate Chlorhexidine Gluconate-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis and Functional Deterioration through the Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Che Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD can induce fibrosis and functional alterations in PD patients’ peritoneal membranes, due to long-term unphysiological dialysate exposure, partially occurring via triggering of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in peritoneal mesothelial cells (MCs. Vitamin D can ameliorate these negative effects; however, the mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated its possible links to MCs EMT inhibition. Methods. Peritoneal fibrosis was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, with and without 1α,25(OH2D3 treatment. Morphological and functional evaluation and western blot analysis of EMT marker were performed upon peritoneum tissue. In vitro study was also performed in a primary human peritoneal MC culture system; MCs were incubated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in the absence or presence of 1α,25(OH2D3. EMT marker expression, migration activities, and cytoskeleton redistribution of MCs were determined. Results. 1α,25(OH2D3 ameliorated CG-induced morphological and functional deterioration in animal model, along with CG-induced upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin expression. Meanwhile, 1α,25(OH2D3 also ameliorated TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-cadherin expression, increase in Snai1 and α-SMA expression, intracellular F-actin redistribution, and migration activity in vitro. Conclusion. 1α,25(OH2D3 can ameliorate CG-induced peritoneal fibrosis and attenuate functional deterioration through inhibiting MC EMT.

  14. The postantifungal effect and phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is the major aetiological agent of oral candidosis and one of its important virulent factors is the production of extracellular phospholipases, which can be modulated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antifungal agents thus decreasing their pathogenicity. Hence, considering that chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) is a common antimicrobial mouthwash used in dentistry and that its concentration in the mouth reaches subtherapeutic levels during dosage intervals due to the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature, the postantifungal effect (PAFE) and the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans following brief exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG was studied. Fifty C. albicans planktonic oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to three subtherapeutic concentrations of CG (0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125%) for 1 h. Isolates unexposed to CG was the control group. Thereafter the antiseptic was removed and the PAFE and phospholipase production was determined by a turbidometric method and a plate assay using an egg yolk agar medium respectively. Mean PAFE (hours) of 50 oral isolates of C. albicans following 1-h exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG was 6.97, 1.85 and 0.62 respectively. The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 21.68, 18.20 and 14.04% following exposure to 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% CG respectively. Brief exposure of C. albicans isolates to subtherapeutic concentrations of CG would wield an antifungal effect by suppressing growth and phospholipase production, thereby quelling its pathogenicity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) in complex with sucrose for IV infusion: bioequivalence of a new generic product with the branded product in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeault, David

    2011-08-01

    Parenteral sodium ferric gluconate in complex (Ferrlecit [branded SFG]) is used to treat patients with iron deficiency anemia undergoing chronic hemodialysis and receiving supplemental epoetin. This comparative pharmacokinetic study (GeneraMedix, Inc., Study 17909) evaluates whether the recently approved generic product Nulecit (generic SFG) and the branded product Ferrlecit (branded SFG) are bioequivalent. In this open-label study, 240 healthy volunteers in a fasting state were assigned randomly to a single 10-min intravenous (IV) infusion of 125 mg of generic or branded SFG. Total and transferrin-bound iron concentrations were determined for the 36-h period after infusion and corrected for pretreatment levels. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve of 0 to 36 h (AUC[0-36]) were compared between the two products. Demonstration of bioequivalence required that the 90% confidence intervals of each parameter evaluated for generic SFG were within 80% to 125% of the corresponding values for branded SFG. Uncorrected and baseline-corrected mean serum concentrations of total serum iron during the 36-h assessment period were similar for generic and branded SFG. For total serum iron, the geometric mean ratios of corrected Cmax and AUC[0-36] were 100%. For transferrin-bound iron, the geometric mean ratios were 87% for corrected Cmax and 92% for corrected AUC[0-36]. All associated 90% confidence intervals were within the range of 80% to 125%. A new generic SFG in complex for IV infusion is bioequivalent to the branded SFG in complex for IV infusion. The generic SFG is AB rated by the FDA and considered therapeutically equivalent to the branded product.

  16. Reduction in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus with daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing for medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher F; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Sidhu, Baljinder; Ritchie, Gordon; Sharma, Azra; Jang, Willson; Wong, Anna; Bilawka, Jennifer; Richards, Danielle; Kind, Thomas; Puddicombe, David; Champagne, Sylvie; Leung, Victor; Romney, Marc G

    2017-03-01

    Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing. Rates of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection were the primary end point. Hospital-associated S. aureus were investigated for CHG resistance with a qacA/B and smr polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar dilution. Compliance with daily CHG bathing was 58%. Hospital-associated MRSA and VRE was decreased by 55% (5.1 vs 11.4 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .04) and 36% (23.2 vs 36.0 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .03), respectively, compared with control cohorts. There was no significant difference in rates of hospital-associated Clostridium difficile. Chlorhexidine resistance testing identified 1 isolate with an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (8 µg/mL), but it was PCR negative. This prospective pragmatic study to assess daily bathing for CHG on inpatient medical units was effective in reducing hospital-associated MRSA and VRE. A critical component of CHG bathing on medical units is sustained and appropriate application, which can be a challenge to accurately assess and needs to be considered before systematic implementation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  18. Daily rhythms of cloacal temperature in broiler chickens of different age groups administered with zinc gluconate and probiotic during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwong, Tagang; Sumanu, Victory O; Ayo, Joseph O; Ocheja, Benjamin O; Zakari, Friday O; Minka, Ndazo S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate effects of zinc gluconate (ZnGlu) and probiotic administration on the daily rhythm of cloacal temperature ( t cloacal ) in broiler chickens of different age groups during the hot-dry season. One-day-old broiler chicks ( n  = 60) were divided into groups I-IV of 15 chicks per group, and treated for 35 days: Group I (control) was given deionized water; Group II, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg); Group III, probiotic (4.125 × 10 6  cfu/100 mL), and Group IV, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10 6  cfu/100 mL). Air dry-bulb temperature ( t db ), relative humidity (RH), and temperature-humidity index (THI) inside the pen, and t cloacal of each broiler chick were obtained bihourly over a 24-h period; on days 21, 28, and 35 of the study. Values of t db (32.10 ± 0.49°C), RH (49.94 ± 1.91%), and THI (38.85 ± 0.42) obtained were outside the thermoneutral zone for broiler chickens, and suggested that the birds were subjected to heat stress. Application of the periodic model showed disruption of daily rhythm of t cloacal in broilers on day 21, which was synchronized by probiotic administration. The administration of probiotics or ZnGlu + probiotics to a greater extent decreased the mesor and amplitude, delayed the acrophases of t cloacal in broilers, especially at day 35, as compared to the controls. Overall, the t cloacal values in broiler chickens administered with probiotic alone (41.25 ± 0.05°C) and ZnGlu + probiotic (41.52 ± 0.05°C) were lower ( P  probiotic alone synchronized t cloacal of the birds at day 21, and, in addition, decreased t cloacal response most, followed by its coadministration with ZnGlu, the antioxidants may be beneficial in modulating daily rhythmicity of t cloacal and alleviating adverse effects of heat stress on broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the

  19. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of sup(99m)Tc/sup(99)Tc-hydroxycarboxylic acid chelates by high voltage electrophoresis without supporting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, I.; Muenze, R.; Dreyer, I.; Dreyer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion mobilities of different sup(99m)Tc- and 99 Tc chelates prepared by reduction of pertechnetate by Sn(II) in the presence of citric, malic, tartaric, gluconic, and α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as ligands have been measured by means of electrophoresis without supporting material. All the chelates investigated proved to be anions in the pH range of 2-7. Both the Tc(V)- and Tc(IV) compounds with the same ligand including the sup(99m)Tc preparation show identical ion mobilities and dissociation characteristics. (author)

  1. Bioleaching of copper, cobalt and zinc from black shale by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... duce organic acid metabolites which include citric, oxalic and gluconic acids during ... acid metabolites like citric, oxalic, malic gluconic acids used for bioleaching of ..... polluted soils using oxalate. J. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.

  2. An OmpA Family Protein, a Target of the GinI/GinR Quorum-Sensing System in Gluconacetobacter intermedius, Controls Acetic Acid Fermentation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Aya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    Via N-acylhomoserine lactones, the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system in Gluconacetobacter intermedius NCI1051, a gram-negative acetic acid bacterium, represses acetic acid and gluconic acid fermentation. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of protein profiles of strain NCI1051 and ginI and ginR mutants identified a protein that was produced in response to the GinI/GinR regulatory system. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding this protein revealed that it encoded an OmpA family protein, named GmpA. gmpA was a member of the gene cluster containing three adjacent homologous genes, gmpA to gmpC, the organization of which appeared to be unique to vinegar producers, including “Gluconacetobacter polyoxogenes.” In addition, GmpA was unique among the OmpA family proteins in that its N-terminal membrane domain forming eight antiparallel transmembrane β-strands contained an extra sequence in one of the surface-exposed loops. Transcriptional analysis showed that only gmpA of the three adjacent gmp genes was activated by the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system. However, gmpA was not controlled directly by GinR but was controlled by an 89-amino-acid protein, GinA, a target of this quorum-sensing system. A gmpA mutant grew more rapidly in the presence of 2% (vol/vol) ethanol and accumulated acetic acid and gluconic acid in greater final yields than strain NCI1051. Thus, GmpA plays a role in repressing oxidative fermentation, including acetic acid fermentation, which is unique to acetic acid bacteria and allows ATP synthesis via ethanol oxidation. Consistent with the involvement of gmpA in oxidative fermentation, its transcription was also enhanced by ethanol and acetic acid. PMID:18487322

  3. An OmpA family protein, a target of the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system in Gluconacetobacter intermedius, controls acetic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Aya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-07-01

    Via N-acylhomoserine lactones, the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system in Gluconacetobacter intermedius NCI1051, a gram-negative acetic acid bacterium, represses acetic acid and gluconic acid fermentation. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of protein profiles of strain NCI1051 and ginI and ginR mutants identified a protein that was produced in response to the GinI/GinR regulatory system. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding this protein revealed that it encoded an OmpA family protein, named GmpA. gmpA was a member of the gene cluster containing three adjacent homologous genes, gmpA to gmpC, the organization of which appeared to be unique to vinegar producers, including "Gluconacetobacter polyoxogenes." In addition, GmpA was unique among the OmpA family proteins in that its N-terminal membrane domain forming eight antiparallel transmembrane beta-strands contained an extra sequence in one of the surface-exposed loops. Transcriptional analysis showed that only gmpA of the three adjacent gmp genes was activated by the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system. However, gmpA was not controlled directly by GinR but was controlled by an 89-amino-acid protein, GinA, a target of this quorum-sensing system. A gmpA mutant grew more rapidly in the presence of 2% (vol/vol) ethanol and accumulated acetic acid and gluconic acid in greater final yields than strain NCI1051. Thus, GmpA plays a role in repressing oxidative fermentation, including acetic acid fermentation, which is unique to acetic acid bacteria and allows ATP synthesis via ethanol oxidation. Consistent with the involvement of gmpA in oxidative fermentation, its transcription was also enhanced by ethanol and acetic acid.

  4. Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine supplementation on muscle function and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerieux, Emilie; Hayot, Maurice; Jaussent, Audrey; Carnac, Gilles; Gouzi, Fares; Pillard, Fabien; Picot, Marie-Christine; Böcker, Koen; Hugon, Gerald; Pincemail, Joel; Defraigne, Jean O; Verrips, Theo; Mercier, Jacques; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila

    2015-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of specific skeletal muscles. As growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to FSHD pathology, antioxidants that might modulate or delay oxidative insults could help in maintaining FSHD muscle function. Our primary objective was to test whether oral administration of vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc gluconate, and selenomethionine could improve the physical performance of patients with FSHD. Adult patients with FSHD (n=53) were enrolled at Montpellier University Hospital (France) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg vitamin C, 400mg vitamin E, 25mg zinc gluconate and 200 μg selenomethionine (n=26), or matching placebo (n=27) once a day for 17 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in the two-minute walking test (2-MWT), maximal voluntary contraction, and endurance limit time of the dominant and nondominant quadriceps (MVCQD, MVCQND, TlimQD, and TlimQND, respectively) after 17 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in the antioxidant status and oxidative stress markers. Although 2-MWT, MVCQ, and TlimQ were all significantly improved in the supplemented group at the end of the treatment compared to baseline, only MVCQ and TlimQ variations were significantly different between groups (MVCQD: P=0.011; MVCQND: P=0.004; TlimQD: P=0.028; TlimQND: P=0.011). Similarly, the vitamin C (P<0.001), vitamin E as α-tocopherol (P<0.001), vitamin C/vitamin E ratio (P=0.017), vitamin E γ/α ratio (P=0.022) and lipid peroxides (P<0.001) variations were significantly different between groups. In conclusion, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and selenium supplementation has no significant effect on the 2-MWT, but improves MVCQ and TlimQ of both quadriceps by enhancing the antioxidant defenses and reducing oxidative stress. This trial was registered at

  5. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51 Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51 Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  6. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  7. Aqueous two-phase systems of polyoxyethylene lauryl ether and potassium gluconate/potassium oxalate/potassium citrate at different temperature-experimental results and modeling of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yang; Hao, Tongfan; Zhou, Yan; Han, Juan; Tan, Zhenjiang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The phase diagrams of POELE10-organic salts ATPSs were determined experimentally. • The experiential equations were used to correlate the binodal data. • The effect of salt on the binodal curve for the studied systems has been discussed. • The LLE data were correlated using the thermodynamic model. -- Abstract: The binodal data for the systems containing the POELE10 and KC 6 H 11 O 7 /K 2 C 2 O 4 /K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 were determined at the T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15) K. The three experiential equations were used to fit the binodal data and they achieved the satisfactory fitting effect. The effect of salt type on the phase-seperation ability of salt was studied. It was found that the phase-seperation ability of the salt with the higher valence anion is stronger than that with lower valence anion, namely, the order of the phase-seperation ability for the investigated salts is potassium citrate > potassium oxalate > potassium gluconate, which is also validated by the effective excluded volume (EEV). The (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the studied systems were determined and correlated by using the Pitzer–Debye–Hückel equation and Chen-NRTL model along with the Flory–Huggins equation, and good agreement was obtained with using these thermodynamic models

  8. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate as a root end filling material: An ex vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreegowri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate when used as a root-end filling material using the dye-penetration technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 8 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 h and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Results : No statistically significant differences were observed in the sealing ability of gray and white MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% CHX. Conclusion : CHX appears to be a good alternative to replace distilled water, as a solution to be mixed with MTA.

  9. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  10. DEVELOPPEMENT DES COMPRIMES AVEC ACIDE ACETYLSALICILIQUE TAMPONNEES (AAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu G. Cazacincu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available On the Romanian market there are several buffered acetylsalycilic acid tablets (BASAT, made by different producers that use the same acetylsalycilic acid quantity (500 mg/tablet but use different agents like calcium gluconate (150 mg/tablet or calcium carbonate (250 mg/tablet. The objective of this work is to obtain an optimal formulation for BASAT. Four different BASAT formulations have been obtained by wet granulation followed by compression. These formulations have been submitted to control tests as indicated by Pharmacopoeias. All the four formulations correspond regarding organoleptic examination, mass uniformity, mechanical strength (mean values between 67.6 – 199.4 N, friability (0.1832 – 0.4612% compared to max. 1%, disintegration (33.6 – 76.66 s. The mechanical strength and disintegration for F3 are greater than for F1, F2, and F4. The neutralizing capacity (0.91 – 2.71 mEq HCl that can neutralize 325 mg acetylsalycilic acid is according to Pharmacopoeia only for F3 and F4 formulations.

  11. Hydrofluoric acid burn resulting from ignition of gas from a compressed air duster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kevin N; Jones, LouAnn; Caruso, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    A young female suffered burns to her hand after the ignition of gas from a compressed air duster. After debridement and dressing, the patient continued to have pain out of proportion to injury that was refractory to intravenous morphine. The material safety data sheet revealed that the chemical used was 1,1-difluoroethane. High temperatures can cause decompensation to form hydrofluoric acid. Calcium gluconate gel was applied topically to the patient's burns, which caused prompt and complete relief of her pain. A review of different compressed air duster products revealed that the main ingredient in each was a halogenated hydrocarbon. Although not considered flammable, all products have warnings regarding the possibility of ignition under various circumstances. Ignition of the gas in compressed air cleaners not only can cause flame burns, it can also cause chemical damage from exposure to hydrogen and fluoride ions. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary to prevent severe injury.

  12. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  13. Effect of Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% Aqueous Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Punica granatum Oral Rinse on the Levels of Salivary Streptococcus mutans in 8 to 12 Years Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aayushi; Marwah, Nikhil; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Goenka, Puneet; Goel, Deepak

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate and Punica granatum oral rinse on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children. A total of 60 children of 8 to 12 years of age were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group A was given 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group B was given 10% A. aspera mouthwash and group C was given 15% P. granatum mouthwash. The day 1 saliva samples were collected from the subjects and inoculated onto mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. The colony counts were obtained by a clinical microbiologist who was blinded to the subject allocation. Plaque scores were then recorded by the investigator with the help of a volunteer. Following this, they received a thorough scaling and polishing. Subjects in each group were then provided with 140 ml of the respective mouthwash, as a daily supervised rinse after breakfast and before sleeping as per instructions. Following mouth rinsing, the children were instructed not to eat or drink for 15 minutes. At the 7th day, unstimulated saliva was again collected from the subjects of all 3 groups, inoculated onto MSB agar and colony count was obtained. Modified Quigley-Hein plaque index was also evaluated for the refreshed score at this stage. Colony counting was done using loop method and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software version 21. All the three mouthwashes showed statistically significant reduction of S. mutans count and plaque index after 7 days, i.e. chlorhexidine (p granatum (p granatum was statistically significant with respect to reduction of S. mutans count with chlorhexidine being marginally better than the other two; All the three mouthwashes were found to be at par when plaque index values from baseline and after interception of 7 days was calculated; Punica granatum has better antimicrobial effect than A. aspera.

  14. The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very

  15. Simultaneous determination of wine sugars, glycerol and organic acids 13C/12C isotopic ratio by ion chromatography-co-IRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyon Francois

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion chromatography (IC isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS coupling is possible using a liquid interface allowing chemical oxidation (co of organic compounds. Synthetic solutions containing a mixture of glycerol, sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose and organic acids (gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, fumaric, citric and isocitric were elaborated to estimate analytical applications of two different IC systems. It appears that the use of carbonated solution in the eluting phase is a perturbation for 13C isotope measurements as it creates a δ13C deviation from the expected values. A sample of authentic sweet wine was analyzed by IC-co-IRMS using KOH gradient. Ratios of isotopic, ratios of organic acids and glycerol was found to be, in average, equal 1.01 ± 0.04 that is in accordance with our previous results.

  16. High-performance electrolyte in the presence of dextrose and its derivatives for aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Liao; Lu, Yi-Fang; Do, Jing-Shan

    Dextrose and its derivatives (e.g. glucose, gluconic acid and gluconic lactone) are added to modify the characteristics of electrolytes used in aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The results show that the conductivity and sparking voltage of the electrolytes are severely affected by the concentration of dextrose gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. In addition, the pH of the electrolyte is only slightly affected by the quantity of gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. The capacitance, dissipation factor, and leakage current of capacitors impregnated with the electrolytes prepared in this work are periodically measured under storage conditions and loading at 105 °C.

  17. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  18. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. The volume injected into each testicle is based on testicular width as...) Indications for use. Intratesticular injection for chemical sterilization of 3- to 10-month-old male dogs. (3...

  19. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    (Au/Cs2HPW12O40) that enabled the selective conversion of cellobiose to gluconic acid with a very high yield of 96.4% (Chapter II); we realized a direct oxidative conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid (yield of 49.3 %) in a water medium for the first time, by using a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst (chapter III); we found that a vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst (H4PVMo11O40) is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity, and under optimized reaction conditions, high yield of formic acid (67.8%) can be obtained from cellulose (chapter IV); we discovered that the vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acids can also selectively oxidize glycerol, a low-cost by-product of biodiesel, to formic acid, and interestingly this conversion can be performed in highly concentration aqueous solution (glycerol: water = 50: 50), giving rise to exceptionally high conversion efficiency (chapter V). These results reveal that HPAs are useful and suitable catalysts for selective oxidation of biomass, and that the reaction pathway is largely determined by the type of addenda atom in the HPA catalyst. The optimization of the reaction conditions and processes in these systems are also discussed in this thesis.

  20. Organic acids production by rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from a Typic Melanudands and its effects on the inorganic phosphates solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Serna Posso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that organic acid secretion by rhizosphere microorganisms is one of the mechanisms to solubilize the phosphorus (P attached to insoluble mineral compounds in soil. This action is an important biotechnological alternative, especially in those soils where high fixation of this nutrient occurs, a very common situation in the tropics. This research evaluated the ability performed by five bacterial and five fungal isolates from Typic Melanudands soil to produce organic acids and generate available phosphorus from insoluble P sources. Given these concerns, the selected microorganisms were replicated for 7 days in liquid medium Pikovskaya (PVK modified sources tricalcium phosphate (P-Ca, aluminum phosphate (P-Al and iron phosphate (P-Fe. The results indicated that phosphorus availability in the media, correlates positively with the organic acids production in each of the sources used (P-Ca (0.63, P-Al (0.67 and P-Fe (0.63. In turn, the chemical processes linked to the phosphates solubilization (e.g., Ca availability affected the development of the microorganisms tested. Both, fungi and bacteria varied in their ability production and type of metabolized organic acids, the most frequent were as follows: citric and gluconic acid.

  1. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  2. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  3. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  4. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  5. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  6. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

  7. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  8. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  9. The influence of stress conditions on the growth of selected lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of certain stress conditions on selected lactic acid bacteria. Where recontamination occurred, lactic acid bacteria was already the dominant bacterial group, with counts of higher than 10 6 /g in vacuum-packaged 'shelf stable' meat products after 1 week storage at 25 and 37 degrees Celsius respectively. Some of the isolates were capable of growing at a pH of 3,9. The minimum pH for growth of a specific culture was dependant on the type of acid that was used to lower the pH. Lactic and acetic acid had the highest inhibitory action. Hydrochloric and citric acid showed similar inhibitory effects, while the effects when using ascorbic acid or gluconic acid for lowering the pH were also fairly similar. Increase in the activity of certain lactic acid bacteria was noticed where the ratio of undissociated to dissociated citric acid in the medium was increased. After exceeding a concentration of 0,048 moles/l undissosiated citric acid in the medium, the activity of the majority of cultures was progressively inhibited. This phenomenon was also found with acetic acid for certain cultures. Selected lactic acid bacteria were resistant to an water activity (a (sub w)) of 0,94 in MRS broth, where NaCl or glycerol was used as a humectant. The minimum a (sub w) for growth was dependent on the type of humectant used. Concentrations of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were necessary to inhibit the majority of strains. The % inhibition by sodium benzoate and methyl paraben did not significantly change with a lowering in the pH of the growth medium. Except in the case of lactic acid, the different acids used to lower the pH of the medium did not have a significant effect on the % inhibition by the chemical preservatives. For the cocci, gamma D 10 values of between 0,82 and 1,29 kGy were recorded, whereas the lactobacilli were less resistant to gamma rays, with D 10 values of between 0,21 and 0,54 kGy

  10. Formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1921-12-03

    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  11. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  12. Effect of medium pH on chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger W78C in submerged batch cultures with sucrose as a carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Ewa; Podgórski, Waldemar; Janczar-Smuga, Małgorzata; Dymarska, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    The pH of the medium is the key environmental parameter of chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger . The activity of the enzyme oxaloacetate hydrolase, which is responsible for decomposition of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate inside the cell of the fungus, is highest at pH 6. In the present study, the influence of pH in the range of 3-7 on oxalic acid secretion by A. niger W78C from sucrose was investigated. The highest oxalic acid concentration, 64.3 g dm -3 , was reached in the medium with pH 6. The chemical selectivity of the process was 58.6% because of the presence of citric and gluconic acids in the cultivation broth in the amount of 15.3 and 30.2 g dm -3 , respectively. Both an increase and a decrease of medium pH caused a decrease of oxalic acid concentration. The obtained results confirm that pH 6 of the carbohydrate medium is appropriate for oxalic acid synthesis by A. niger , but the chemical selectivity of the process described in this paper was high in comparison to values reported previously in the literature.

  13. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  14. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  15. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  16. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  17. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  18. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  19. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  20. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB, diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024. The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087. There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB.

  1. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  2. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  3. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  4. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  5. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  6. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  7. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  8. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  9. Glutamate decarboxylase and. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transaminase activity in brain structures during action of high concentrated sulfide gas on a background of hypo- and hypercalcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyrov, G.K.; Aliyev, A.M.

    Activity of the following enzymes was studied on the background of hypo- and hypercalcemia and exposure to high concentration of sulfide gas: glutamate decarboxylase (GDC) and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T). These enzymes regulate metabolism of GABA. The results showed that a 3.5 hr exposure to sulfide gas at a concentration of 0.3 mg/1 led to significantly increased activity of GDC in cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and in brain stem. Activity of GABA-T dropped correspondingly. On the background of hypercalcemia induced by im. injection of 10% calcium gluconate (0.6 m1/200 g body weight of experimental rats) the negative effect caused by the exposure to sulfide gas was diminished. Under conditions of hypocalcemia (im. injection of 10 mg/200 g body weight of sodium oxalate), exposure to sulfide gas led to a significantly decreased activity of GDC and GABA-T in the hemispheres and in the brain stem, but in the cerebellum the activity of GDC increased sharply while that of GABA-T decreased correspondingly. 8 refs.

  10. Gluconate formation and polyol metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, C.F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of A.niger to accumulate metabolites is remarkable. Under all conditions polyols accumulate in the cell and when mycelium in later developmental stages is considered, depending on the carbon source, aeration and external pH, polyols

  11. Antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate intracanal medication in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Lisane; Legner, Milos; Fillery, Edward D; Friedman, Shimon

    2007-07-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine liquid (CHX) was assessed in teeth with apical periodontitis. Canals in 22 teeth were instrumented at the first session, medicated with CHX, and reaccessed after 7 to 15 days. Bacteriological samples were aspirated at the first and second sessions, before (1A, 2A) and after (1B, 2B) canal instrumentation. Viable bacterial counts were obtained by culture (CFU) and microscopy using vital dyes. Microscopic counts were higher than CFU counts. Consistently high CFU counts in 1A samples (mean, 2 x 10(5) microL(-1) canal volume) decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) in 1B samples, increased significantly (p < 0.04) in 2A samples, and decreased in 2B samples to the level of 1B samples. Proportions of negative cultures followed the pattern of CFU counts. Intracanal medication with CHX did not reduce the bacterial concentration. Bacterial counts expressed per microliter canal volume added information beyond the counts per tooth as expressed in previous studies.

  12. Chlorhexidine gluconate, its properties and applications in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    The major objective in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This requires that the pulpal content be eliminated as sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria from the root canal system, various irrigants have been used during treatment. Chlorhexidine is a cationic solution which can be used during treatment. It has a wide range of antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, because of its cationic structure, chlorhexidine has a unique property named substantivity. The purpose of this paper is to review different aspects of chlorhexidine in endodontics. PMID:24265633

  13. Chlorhexidine gluconate, its properties and applications in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    The major objective in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This requires that the pulpal content be eliminated as sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria from the root can...

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  16. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  18. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  19. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  20. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  2. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  3. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  4. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  5. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  7. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  8. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  9. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  10. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  11. Tetranuclear copper(II) complexes bridged by alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate and incorporation of sugar acids through the Cu4 core structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Merii; Sah, Ajay Kumar; Tanase, Tomoaki; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2006-08-21

    -D-gluconolactone, D-glucuronic acid, or D-glucaric acid in dimethylformamide resulted in the formation of discrete tetracopper complexes with sugar acids, [Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-SA)2(bpy)4](NO3)2 [SA = D-gluconate (6), D-glucuronate (7), D-glucarateH (8a)]. The structures of 6 and 7 were determined by X-ray crystallography to be almost identical with that of 3 with additional chelating coordination of the C-2 hydroxyl group of D-gluconate moieties (6) or the C-5 cyclic O atom of D-glucuronate units (7). Those with D-glucaric acid and D-lactobionic acid afforded chiral one-dimensional polymers, {[Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-D-glucarate)(bpy)4](NO3)2}n (8b) and {[Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-D-lactobionate)(bpy)4(H2O)2](NO3)3}n (9), respectively, in which the D-Glc-1P-bridged tetracopper(II) units are connected by sugar acid moieties through the C-1 and C-6 carboxylate O atoms in 8b and the C-1 carboxylate and C-6 alkoxy O atoms of the gluconate chain in 9. When complex 7 containing d-glucuronate moieties was heated in water, the mononuclear copper(II) complex with 2-dihydroxy malonate, [Cu(mu-O2CC(OH)2CO2)(bpy)] (10), and the dicopper(II) complex with oxalate, [Cu2(mu-C2O4)(bpy)2(H2O)2](NO3)2 (11), were obtained as a result of oxidative degradation of the carbohydrates through C-C bond cleavage reactions.

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  14. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  15. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  16. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  17. Prolonged maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid and adenosine triphosphate in red blood cells during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Dirk; Kleine, Mya; Korsten, Herbert G H; Verhoeven, Arthur J

    2008-06-01

    Current additive solutions (ASs) for red cells (RBCs) do not maintain a constant level of critical metabolites such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid (2,3-DPG) during cold storage. From the literature it is known that the intracellular pH is an important determinant of RBC metabolism. Therefore, a new, alkaline, AS was developed with the aim to allow cold storage of RBCs with stable product characteristics. Whole blood-derived RBCs (leukoreduced) were resuspended in experimental medium phosphate-adenine-guanosine-glucose-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGG-M; pH 8.2) with and without washing in the same medium. During cold storage several in vitro variables, such as intracellular pH, 2,3-DPG, ATP, and hemolysis, were analyzed. During cold storage, RBCs resuspended in PAGGG-M showed a constant ATP level (approx. 6 mumol/g Hb) and a very limited hemolysis (level), followed by a slow decrease, with at Day 35 still 100 percent of the initial level. RBCs washed in PAGGG-M even showed a continuous increase of 2,3-DPG during 35 days, with a maximum level of 200 percent of the initial value. The effect of PAGGG-M appears to be related to long-lasting effects of the initial intracellular pH shortly after production. Resuspension of RBCs in our alkaline medium PAGGG-M resulted in a RBC unit of high quality during storage for up to at least 35 days, with 2,3-DPG levels of higher than 10 mumol per g Hb, hemolysis of less than 0.2 percent, and ATP levels of higher than 5 mumol per g Hb.

  18. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  19. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  20. Clostridium scatologenes strain SL1 isolated as an acetogenic bacterium from acidic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, K; Dorsch, T; Acker, G; Stackebrandt, E; Drake, H L

    2000-03-01

    A strictly anaerobic, H2-utilizing bacterium, strain SL1, was isolated from the sediment of an acidic coal mine pond. Cells of strain SL1 were sporulating, motile, long rods with a multilayer cell wall. Growth was observed at 5-35 degrees C and pH 3.9-7.0. Acetate was the sole end product of H2 utilization and was produced in stoichiometries indicative of an acetyl-CoA-pathway-dependent metabolism. Growth and substrate utilization also occurred with CO/CO2, vanillate, syringate, ferulate, ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, glycerine, cellobiose, glucose, fructose, mannose, xylose, formate, lactate, pyruvate and gluconate. With most substrates, acetate was the main or sole product formed. Growth in the presence of H2/CO2 or CO/CO2 was difficult to maintain in laboratory cultures. Methoxyl, carboxyl and acrylate groups of various aromatic compounds were O-demethylated, decarboxylated and reduced, respectively. Small amounts of butyrate were produced during the fermentation of sugars. The acrylate group of ferulate was reduced. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, dimethylsulfoxide and Fe(III) were not utilized as electron acceptors. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SL1 demonstrated that it is closely related to Clostridium scatologenes (99.6% sequence similarity), an organism characterized as a fermentative anaerobe but not previously shown to be capable of acetogenic growth. Comparative experiments with C. scatologenes DSM 757T demonstrated that it utilized H2/CO2 (negligible growth), CO/CO2 (negligible growth), formate, ethanol and aromatic compounds according to stoichiometries indicative of the acetyl-CoA pathway. CO dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities were present in both strain SL1 and C. scatologenes DSM 757T. These results indicate that (i) sediments of acidic coal mine ponds harbour acetogens and (ii) C. scatologenes is an acetogen that tends to lose its capacity to grow acetogenically under H2/CO2 or CO/CO2 after prolonged

  1. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of D-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acidity of hydroxamic acids and amides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2003), s. 1176-1180 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : hydroxamic acids * DFT calculations * isodesmic reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent on human red blood corpuscles: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of various volumes of 5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine gluconate and mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD by checking for hemolysis of human red blood corpuscles. Materials and Methods: A total volume of 100 μl of diluted red blood corpuscles obtained through centrifugation was added to three irrigating solutions (5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine and MTAD of six test tubes each. Individual irrigants per group were added in increasing volume starting from the second test tube keeping the first one as the control. After incubation for 3 min hemoglobin content was measured using an automated hemoanalyzer data was analyzed using one sample t-test. Results: Sodium hypochlorite is the most cytotoxic solution followed by MTAD and chlorhexidine. Conclusions: This study suggests that the three irrigating solutions do cause detrimental effects on the diluted red blood corpuscles. A great deal of care should therefore be exercised when using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite during endodontic irrigation.

  4. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown goo...

  5. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  6. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  11. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly removed from the body through urine, so excess amounts do not build up in the body. You should not get more than 1000 mcg per day of folic acid. Using higher levels of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  14. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  15. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  16. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)

    1983-01-01

    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  18. Sodium benzyl(monoethanol)ammonium bis(gluconatoborate). Bis(glyukonatoborat) natriya-benzil(monoehtanol)ammoniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tel' zhenskaya, P N; Shvarts, E M; Vitola, I M [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (USSR). Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1990-01-01

    Boron compounds with gluconic acid and monoethanol- and benzylamines are synthesized and investigated by physicochemical methods (IR-spectroscopy, thermal decomposition, conductometry, Fischer titration). Tetracoordinated boron has two free hydroxyl groups, dimer of boron-gluconate anion is held by hydrogen bonds, sodium ions and ammonium protonated salts are cations.

  19. Sodium benzyl(monoethanol)ammonium bis(gluconatoborate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'zhenskaya, P.N.; Shvarts, E.M.; Vitola, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    Boron compounds with gluconic acid and monoethanol- and benzylamines are synthesized and investigated by physicochemical methods (IR-spectroscopy, thermal decomposition, conductometry, Fischer titration). Tetracoordinated boron has two free hydroxyl groups, dimer of boron-gluconate anion is held by hydrogen bonds, sodium ions and ammonium protonated salts are cations

  20. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  1. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  2. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  3. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  4. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  5. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  6. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  7. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.

    1987-01-01

    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  8. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  9. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  10. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  11. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  12. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  13. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  14. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  15. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  16. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  17. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  18. Identification of a 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid Reductase, FlRed, in an Alginolytic Bacterium Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11. The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-l-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH, then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG by a specific reductase, and metabolized through the Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Recently, the NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R that belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR superfamily was identified as the DEH-reductase in Sphingomonas sp. A1. We have subsequently noticed that an SDR-like enzyme gene, flred, occurred in the genome of an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. In the present study, we report on the deduced amino-acid sequence of flred and DEH-reducing activity of recombinant FlRed. The deduced amino-acid sequence of flred comprised 254 residues and showed 34% amino-acid identities to that of A1-R from Sphingomonas sp. A1 and 80%–88% to those of SDR-like enzymes from several alginolytic bacteria. Common sequence motifs of SDR-superfamily enzymes, e.g., the catalytic tetrad Asn-Lys-Tyr-Ser and the cofactor-binding sequence Thr-Gly-x-x-x-Gly-x-Gly in Rossmann fold, were completely conserved in FlRed. On the other hand, an Arg residue that determined the NADPH-specificity of Sphingomonas A1-R was replaced by Glu in FlRed. Thus, we investigated cofactor-preference of FlRed using a recombinant enzyme. As a result, the recombinant FlRed (recFlRed was found to show high specificity to NADH. recFlRed exhibited practically no activity toward variety of aldehyde, ketone, keto ester, keto acid and aldose substrates except for DEH. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlRed is the NADH-dependent DEH-specific SDR of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01.

  19. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  20. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  1. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  2. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  3. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  4. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  5. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  6. Citric acid by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, R M

    1978-11-30

    Citric acid is produced in 2 stages, in the first of which Escherichia coli KG93 F-is cultured on a substrate consisting of whey permeate to which phosphate and nitrate or urea is added. In the second stage, Hansenula wickerhamii CBS 4308 is cultured on the culture solution from the first stage and the citric acid isolated in the usual manner. Thus, a whey permeate comprising fat 0.20, protein 0.05, lactose 5.0, lactic acid 0.1, and salts 0.6% (Ca 0.06, P 0.06, K 0.16, N 0.03, and NaCl 0.3%) was amended with 1.2 g phosphate/L and 1.0 g NO/sub 3/sup -///L. After introducing the whey permeate into a continuous fermentor, it was inoculated with E. coli K693 F- and allowed to incubate at 37/sup 0/ and pH 7 (Maintained with NH/sub 3/ gas) for 12 h with aeration, thereby producing concentration pyruvic acid. After an additional 6 h cultivation without aeration, the broth was transferred to another fermentor and there inoculated with H. wickerhamii CBS 4308. The second cultivation step was carried out at 30/sup 0/ and a pH of 5 for 24 h with the pH stabilized by NH/sub 3/ gas. To the second stage culture, 0.3 g Fe(CN)/sup 4 -//L was added. The yield of pyruvic acid in the first stage was 32 g/L and the final yield of citric acid was 43 g/L.

  7. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  8. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  9. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  10. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  11. Sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 in the kidney medullary thick ascending limb cell line is upregulated under acidic conditions and enhances ammonium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yang, Han Soo; Thornell, Ian M; Bevensee, Mark O; Choi, Inyeong

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of bicarbonate transporters on ammonium/ammonia uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cell line ST-1. Cells were treated with 1 mm ouabain and 0.2 mM bumetanide to minimize carrier-mediated NH(4)(+) transport, and the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-methylammonium/methylammonia ((14)C-MA) was determined. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free solution, cells at normal pH briefly accumulated (14)C-MA over 7 min and reached a plateau. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) solution, however, cells markedly accumulated (14)C-MA over the experimental period of 30 min. This CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-dependent accumulation was reduced by the bicarbonate transporter blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DIDS; 0.5 mM). Replacing Cl(-) with gluconate reduced the accumulation, but the reduction was more substantial in the presence of DIDS. Incubation of cells at pH 6.8 (adjusted with NaHCO(3) in 5% CO(2)) for 24 h lowered the mean steady-state intracellular pH to 6.96, significantly lower than 7.28 for control cells. The presence of DIDS reduced (14)C-MA accumulation in control conditions but had no effect after acidic incubation. Immunoblotting showed that NBCn1 was upregulated after acidic incubation and in NH(4)Cl-containing media. The Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 was present, but its expression remained unaffected by acidic incubation. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NBCn1 increased carrier-mediated (14)C-MA transport, which was abolished by replacing Na(+). Two-electrode voltage clamp of oocytes exhibited negligible current after NH(4)Cl application. These results suggest that DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion normally governs NH(4)(+)/NH(3) uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cells. We propose that, in acidic conditions, DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion is inactivated, while NBCn1 is upregulated to stimulate NH(4)(+) transport.

  12. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  13. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  14. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  15. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  16. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  17. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  18. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  19. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  20. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  1. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  2. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  3. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  4. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  6. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  7. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  8. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use all of the vitamin, the extra vitamins leave the body through the ...

  9. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  10. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  11. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  12. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  13. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  14. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  15. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  16. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  17. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  18. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  19. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  1. Mortar fights acid corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-14

    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  2. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  3. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  5. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  6. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  7. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  8. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  9. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  10. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  11. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  12. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  13. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  14. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  15. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  16. Comparison of ν-support vector regression and logistic equation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... In this paper, we developed a ν-SVR model with genetic algorithms (GA) ..... bioinformatics, proteomics and system biology. Current ... for gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger. ... 2D-MH: A web-server for generating.

  17. Description of electrophoretic loci and tissue specific gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-02-09

    Feb 9, 1994 ... alligators (Dessauer & Densmore 1983), lizards of the Xan- tusiidae (Bezy ..... expressed in red blood cells, and Esa-5 in brain (Harris &. Hopkinson ... catalyses the conversion of glucose to gluconic acid (Harris &. Hopkinson ...

  18. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  19. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  20. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  1. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  2. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  3. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  4. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  5. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  6. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  7. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  8. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  9. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  10. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  11. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  12. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  13. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  14. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  15. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Acid precipitation literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  17. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.; Dashek, W.; Galson, E.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have much lower but significant cross-reactivities. Purification methods which reduce the levels of cross-reacting substances are described. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  18. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  19. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  20. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  1. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  2. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  3. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  4. the Effect of six weeks of high intensity interval training and zinc ‎supplement on serum ‎creatine kinase and uric acid levels in ‎futsal players ‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Saeedy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: strenuous training‎-induced reactive oxygen species is associated with several ‎chronic diseases‎ by damaging cell proteins and membrane lipids; it seems uric acid as a major ‎intracellular antioxidant could lower membranous lipid peroxidation and muscle damage. The aim ‎of this study was to examine the effect of six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and ‎‎without zinc ‎on serum Creatine Kinase and uric acid in female futsal players.‎ Methods: Thirty-two female futsal players were randomly divided into four groups: placebo, ‎Zinc, ‎HIT ‎and Zinc+HIT. All subjects had to attend futsal-specific training three sessions per ‎week. Zinc and ‎Placebo groups took ‎30 mg ‎day−1 of zinc gluconate or dextrose, respectively; ‎HIT groups accomplished high-intensity interval training contained 6 to 10 repetitions of a 30-‎second ‎running at 100% of VO2peak with a 4-minutes rest between efforts, during six weeks.‎ Results: After six weeks, Creatine Kinase ‎levels augmented insignificantly from 83.98 to 120.19‎ ‎‎(P=0.101 in ‎placebo, from 99.58 to 150.1(P=0.167 in HIT and from 81.07 to 107.90‎ ‎‎(P=0.152 ‎in HIT+Zinc group; while Creatine Kinase ‎levels increased significantly from 66.86 to ‎‎‎124.81(P=0.004 only in Zinc group. Uric acid levels increased in all groups (Placebo (P=1, Zinc ‎‎(P=‎0.317‎, HIT (P=‎0.157‎, ‎Zinc+HIT (P=1 insignificantly Conclusions: The findings indicated that ‎after six weeks, serum Creatine Kinase and uric acid ‎levels increased insignificantly in all groups; Creatine Kinase ‎levels augmented significantly, only ‎in Zinc group. Zinc as an antioxidant supplement could not decrease the muscle damage, and even ‎increased the serum Creatine Kinase as a marker of muscle damage, significantly

  5. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  6. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  7. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  8. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  9. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  11. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  12. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  13. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  14. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  15. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  16. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... by comparing the pre-ascorbic acid results with those obtained 21/2 hours after the intravenous ... (ASO), C-reactive protein and antibodies to certain respiratory viruses. These investigations were ..... vitamin.6 However, other investigators were unable to detect any protective effects of ascorbic acid on the ...

  17. Chloroacetic acids in environmental processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Schröder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2003), s. 127-130 ISSN 1610-3653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Dichloroacetic acid * Trichloroacetic acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  18. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  19. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  20. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  1. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  2. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  3. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  4. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  5. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  6. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  7. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella

    2000-11-01

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  8. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S

    1982-06-01

    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  9. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  10. catalyzed oxidation of some amino acids by acid bromate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: Kinetic investigations on Pd(II) catalyzed oxidation of dl-serine and dl- ... A suitable mechanism in agreement with observed kinetics has been ..... In acidic solution of potassium bromate quick .... Annual Review of Biochemistry.

  11. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid exerts a selective anti-tumor activity on cultured human melanoma .... percentage of proliferation was calculated by the following formula: Proliferation ..... artificially imposing the cell cycle checkpoint. Among.

  12. Influence of fluorozirconic acid on sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Elaish, R.; Curioni, M.; Gowers, K.; Kasuga, A.; Habazaki, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Skeldon, P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of additions of fluorozirconic acid to sulfuric acid on the anodizing behavior of aluminum have been investigated under a constant voltage at temperatures of 0 and 20◦C. The fluoroacid increased the rate of film growth, with a dependence on the fluoroacid concentration, the electrolyte temperature and the anodizing time. Compositional analyses showed that fluorine species were present in the films. However, zirconium species were absent. The fluoroacid generally enhanced film diss...

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-01-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with [ 14 C]-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of [ 14 C]-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA

  14. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  15. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  16. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  17. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  18. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  19. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1977-01-01

    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  20. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil .... pathway [fatty acid desaturase-2 (BnFAD2, AY577313), fatty acid desaturase-3 ..... Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils.

  1. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  2. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    . Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...

  3. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  6. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  8. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  9. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen'eva, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, γ-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp 2 , VOCOR or CpV (OCOR) 2 type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented

  10. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  11. Uronic acids in oligosaccharide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Leendert Johannes van den

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis reports on research aimed at the assembly of acidic and zwitterionic polysaccharides of bacterial origin, using suitably protected 1-thioglycoside residues. Thioglycosides are attractive monosaccharide building blocks because of their high stability towards the diverse reaction

  12. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  13. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  14. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  15. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  16. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  17. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  18. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JiaWei; ZHU XiaoXia

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications.Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver.They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers.These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  19. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications. Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver. They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers. These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  20. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  1. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  2. Ursodeoxycholic acid for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-di; Li, Lei; Wang, Ji-yao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Databases, and article references were searched. We included randomized controlled trials using liver biopsy as a reference standard. We identified three eligible studies. Among histological responses, only lobular inflammation improved in the high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [mean deviation (MD): -0.23 (-0.40, -0.06), P=0.008]. However, fibrosis may tend to increase [MD: 0.08 (-0.04, 0.20), P=0.17]. Among biochemical responses, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase reduction was significantly greater in the ursodeoxycholic acid group than in the placebo group, and the reduction tendency was only shown in the high-dose subgroup [MD: -35.58 (-52.60, -18.56), Pursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [MD: 0.43 (0.14, 0.72), P=0.004]. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients did not differ significantly from control patients with regard to alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Adverse events were nonspecific and considered of no major clinical relevance. Ursodeoxycholic acid in monotherapy has no substantial positive effect on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  3. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  4. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  5. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matern, S.; Gerok, W.

    1977-01-01

    Specific radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of serum unconjugated cholic, conjugated cholic and conjugated deoxycholic acids have been developed. Prior to the radioimmunoassay, extraction of serum bile acids was performed with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labeled glyco[ 3 H]cholic acid using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3%, and conjugated lithocholic acid 3 H]cholic acid was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 80 pmol of unlabeled glycocholic acid. Fasting serum conjugated cholic acid in healthy subjects was 0.68 +- 0.34 μmol/l. Unconjugated cholic acid was determined by a solid phase radioimmunoassay using the cholic acid antibody chemically bound to Sepharose. The displacement curve of [ 3 H]cholic acid in the solid phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabeled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. Fasting serum conjugated deoxycholic acid concentrations in 10 healthy subjects ranged from 0.18 to 0.92 μmol/l determined by a radioimmunoassay using antiserum obtained after immunization with deoxycholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an 'oral cholate tolerance test' as a sensitive indicator of liver function and by an 'oral cholyglycine tolerance test' as a useful test for bile acid absorption. (orig.) [de

  6. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2009-09-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  7. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  8. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.; Ferrell, Jessica M.

    2018-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, bile acid pool size, and bile acid composition. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, and gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to regulate host metabolism. Alteration of bile acid metabolism by high-fat diets, sleep disruption, alcohol, and drugs reshapes gut microbiome and causes dysbiosis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Gender differences in bile acid metabolism, FXR signaling, and gut microbiota have been linked to higher prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. Alteration of bile acid homeostasis contributes to cholestatic liver diseases, inflammatory diseases in the digestive system, obesity, and diabetes. Bile acid-activated receptors are potential therapeutic targets for developing drugs to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:29325602

  9. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  10. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  11. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J. A.; Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-01-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  12. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J. A., E-mail: jjaen@ancon.up.ac.p [Universidad de Panama, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama); Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G. [Universidad de Panama, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama)

    2003-06-15

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  13. The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, regulate colonic epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Magdalena S; Lajczak, Natalia K; Goggins, Bridie J; Keely, Simon; Keely, Stephen J

    2018-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T 84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable supports was assessed over 48 h with or without bile acids. Cell migration was measured in Boyden chambers. mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. DCA (50-150 µM) significantly inhibited wound closure in cultured epithelial monolayers and attenuated cell migration in Boyden chamber assays. DCA also induced nuclear accumulation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), whereas an FXR agonist, GW4064 (10 µM), inhibited wound closure. Both DCA and GW4064 attenuated the expression of CFTR Cl - channels, whereas inhibition of CFTR activity with either CFTR- inh -172 (10 µM) or GlyH-101 (25 µM) also prevented wound healing. Promoter/reporter assays revealed that FXR-induced downregulation of CFTR is mediated at the transcriptional level. In contrast, UDCA (50-150 µM) enhanced wound healing in vitro and prevented the effects of DCA. Finally, DCA inhibited and UDCA promoted mucosal healing in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, these studies suggest bile acids are important regulators of epithelial wound healing and are therefore good targets for development of new drugs to modulate intestinal barrier function in disease treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid, inhibits colonic epithelial wound healing, an effect which appears to be mediated by activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, with subsequent downregulation of CFTR expression and activity. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid promotes

  14. 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by 15 N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO 2 + and NO + ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  16. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  17. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid ... Gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was ... Total amino acid analysis was done on acid hydrolysates of RJ samples by the ion-exchange ... The data of amino acids and protein content for all analyzed fresh and.

  19. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  20. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  1. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiang; Liu Yajie; Zheng Zhihong; Yuan Baohua; Shen Chuan; Shi Weijun

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  2. Queensland Mines plant trials with Caro's acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.C.; Fulton, E.J.; Vautier, F.E.; Waters, D.J.; Ring, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory leach tests have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of Caro's acid (permonosulphuric acid) as an alternative oxidant to pyrolusite in the leaching of uranium ores. Results demonstrated that Caro's acid reduced acid consumption in leaching and the time required for neutralisation of tailings liquor. The uranium extraction was unaffected by choice of oxidant. A plant trial confirmed that significant savings in acid and lime usage can be achieved under plant conditions. Plant operations also demonstrated that Caro's acid has a number of significant operating advantages over pyrolusite. Queensland Mines Ltd. have recently decided to convert their leaching process from pyrolusite to Caro's acid

  3. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  4. Mine waters: Acidic to circumneutral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Acid mine waters, often containing toxic concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cr, can be produced from the mining of coal and metallic deposits. Values of pH for acid mine waters can range from –3.5 to 5, but even circumneutral (pH ≈ 7) mine waters can have high concentrations of As, Sb, Mo, U, and F. When mine waters are discharged into streams, lakes, and the oceans, serious degradation of water quality and injury to aquatic life can ensue, especially when tailings impoundments break suddenly. The main acid-producing process is the exposure of pyrite to air and water, which promotes oxidative dissolution, a reaction catalyzed by microbes. Current and future mining should plan for the prevention and remediation of these contaminant discharges by the application of hydrogeochemical principles and available technologies, which might include remining and recycling of waste materials.

  5. Preparation of deuterated succinic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Masashi; Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Goto, Hideyuki; Ogasahara, Shoji; Mataka, Shuntaro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Yonemitsu, Tadashi (Kyushu Sangyo Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1991-04-01

    Succinic (2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})- and (2,2,3,3-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-acids were prepared from maleic anhydride and dimethyl fumarate, and acetylene dicarboxylic acid and its dimethyl ester by treatment with Cu-Al and Ni-Al alloys in 10% NaOD-D{sub 2}0 in 95% to 100% isotopic purity. The succinic {sup 2}H{sub 4} acid having high isotopic purity was also obtained on the hydrolysis of 1,2-ethanedinitrile with alkaline deuterium oxide. Based on the {sup 1}H({sup 2}H) spectra analysis of N-(o-biphenyl)(2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})succinimide, it was elucidated that the Raney alloy reduction with alkaline deuterium oxide proceeds stepwise. (author).

  6. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  7. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  8. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  9. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  10. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  11. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  12. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  15. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  16. Nitrous Acid as an Oxidant in Acidic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-25

    current work is the account of Ogsts and Sawski3 who studied the oxidation of benzyl ethers at 90C in acidic, aqueous dioxane. They found an increase in...and G. Tobin, Chem. Com., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm., 605 (1969). 15. (a) B. Challis and A. Lawson. J. Chem

  17. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows first- ... amino acids by chloramines 7,8 while, little attention has been focused on ... in glass-stoppered pyrex boiling tubes whose outer surface was coated ... BAB in a measured aliquot (5 ml each) of the reaction mixture at different intervals of.

  18. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  19. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  20. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible bo....... Evidence suggests that geometric and steric factors are key features for controlling the equilibria. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  1. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  2. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muppala Ashokraju

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... to γ-valerolactone over ordered mesoporous Cu/Fe2O3 catalyst ... Compared to the direct use of biomass as fuel, its con- ... still room for the design and development of an efficient. 1 ... advantages no necessity of separation of levulinic acid ... of catalyst was placed in a quartz reactor and pre-treated in.

  3. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato cv. Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were cultivated in a greenhouse to allow sampling of the second fruit in the first cluster and comparison with tomato fruit that developed following para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA) treatment. Sugar content, activities of sugar related enzymes and the effects of ...

  4. Serum n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic Acid and Tetracosahexaenoic Acid Increase Following Higher Dietary α-Linolenic Acid but not Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Yu-Hong; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-02-01

    n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.

  5. Acid precipitation and forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C O; Cowling, E B

    1977-04-01

    Effects of acidic precipitation on forest vegetation may be classified as being either direct or indirect. Among the most important direct effects are damage to protective cuticular layers, interference with normal functioning of guard cells, poisoning of plant cells after diffusion of acidic substances through stomata or cuticle and interference with reproductive processes. Indirect effects include accelerated leaching of substances from foliar organs, increased susceptibility to drought and other environmental stress factors, and alteration of symbiotic associations and host-parasite interactions. The potential importance of nutrient uptake through foliage and the need to understand atmosphere-plant-soil interactions are stressed.

  6. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  7. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  8. Enzymatic synthesis of 11C-pyruvic acid and 11C-L-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, L.; Chang, C.C.; Cook, J.S.; Macdonald, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    L-Lactic acid is formed as the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in all cells, but this reaction is of special significance in the myocardium. L-Lactic acid is reversibly formed from and is in equilibrium with myocardial pyruvic acid, which is its sole metabolic pathway. 11 C-Pyruvic acid is synthesized from 11 C carbon dioxide using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and coenzymes. The 11 C-pyruvic acid is then converted to 11 -L-lactic acid by lactic acid dehydrogenase. The availability of 11 C-pyruvic acid and 11 C-L-lactic acid will permit the in vivo investigation of lactate metabolism. (author)

  9. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  10. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  11. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  13. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  14. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  15. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  16. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  17. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  18. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  19. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.; Ritchey, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation of Fe 3 HN 4 H 8 (PO 4 ) 6 is prevented in the second cycle extractor, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing ammonia laden organic solvent stream, from the second cycle stripper, with first cycle raffinate iron stream containing phosphoric acid, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle extractor. (author)

  1. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  2. Back to acid soil fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma

  3. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  4. An assessment of acid fog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H 2 SO 4 was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H + concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ''clear air'') aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions

  5. An assessment of acid fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  6. Endocrine functions of bile acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, Sander M.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Auwerx, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs), a group of structurally diverse molecules that are primarily synthesized in the liver from cholesterol, are the chief components of bile. Besides their well-established roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, it has recently emerged that BAs are also

  7. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the inf......Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal...... of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  8. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  9. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2 1 /n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O)·2(H 2 O). α- and β-An(HPO 2 OH) 4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2 1 /n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution

  10. Amino acid metabolism in plant leaf, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Osamu; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    14C-labelled sodium bicarbonate and 15N-labelled ammonium sulfate were simultaneously vacuum-infiltrated into detached sunflower leaves, and the incorporation of 14C and 15N into free amino acids was chased during 60-min period in the light and in the dark. In the light, the 14C specific activity of aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine rapidly increased for 5 min and thereafter decreased. On the other hand, that of glutamic acid continued to increase slowly during the entire 60-min period. In the dark, aspartic acid most actively incorporated 14C. The difference of changes in 14C specific activity between glutamic acid and other amino acids was also observed in the dark as in the light. These results suggest that the carbon skeleton of glutamic acid is synthesized from aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine. 15N content of glutamine was the highest of all amino acids investigated in the light, and it was followed by glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, serine and glycine, in this order. In the dark, 15N content of glutamic acid fell remarkably and was lower than that of alanine up to 5 min. From these 15N tracer experiments, it is suggested that the incorporation of ammonium into glutamic acid is strictly dependent on light and that alanine incorporates ammonium by the direct animation besides the transamination from glutamic acid. (auth.)

  11. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  12. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

  13. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  14. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  15. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  16. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with 14 C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 14 C-arachidonic acid or 14 C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes

  17. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K

    1989-01-01

    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  18. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...

  19. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  20. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  1. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  2. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  3. Complex formation of calcium with humic acid and polyacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirishima, A.; Tanaka, K.; Niibori, Y.; Tochiyama, O. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to understand the migration behavior of radionuclides in the underground, it is also important to estimate the effect of the competing cations originally present in the groundwater. In this connection, the complexation of Ca(II) with Aldrich humic acid has been examined. For the study at trace concentrations ({proportional_to} 10{sup -10} M) of Ca(II), the solvent extraction of {sup 45}Ca with TTA and TOPO in cyclohexane has been used. At macro concentrations (10{sup -4} M) of Ca(II), the measurement of the free Ca{sup 2+} ion concentration with a calcium selective electrode has been conducted. To estimate the polyelectrolyte effect of humic acid separately from its heterogeneous composition effect, polyacrylic acid ([-CH{sub 2}CH(COOH)-]{sub n}) has been selected as a representative of the homogeneous polymeric weak acids and its complexation with Ca(II) has also been examined. The values of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} have been obtained at pH 5 {proportional_to} 7 in 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0 M NaCl, where {beta}{sub {alpha}} is the apparent formation constants defined by {beta}{sub {alpha}} = [ML]/([M][R]). In this definition, [ML] and [M] are the concentrations of bound and free Ca{sup 2+} respectively, [R] is the concentration of dissociated proton exchanging sites. log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of humate decreases from 2.19 {proportional_to} 2.92 (depending on pH and ionic strength 1.0 < I < 0.4) at pCa = 10 to 1.98 {proportional_to} 2.44 at pCa = 4, while the variation of pCa has no appreciable influence on the log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of polyacrylate (1.36 {proportional_to} 3.24 for I = 0.1 {proportional_to} 1.0). For both humate and polyacrylate, log {beta}{sub {alpha}} decreases linearly with log[Na{sup +}], where [Na{sup +}] is the bulk concentration of sodium ion. Their dependences of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} on ionic strength are stronger than those of log {beta} of monomeric carboxylates such as oxalate and EDTA, indicating the large electrostatic effect of

  4. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  5. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  6. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  7. Prediction of acid generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses acid rock drainage (ARD), a term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The principal ingredients for ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. The oxidation reactions responsible for the formation of ARD are often accelerated by biological activity. These reactions yield low pH (acidic) water that has the potential to mobilize heavy metals that may be contained in the geologic materials that are contacted. ARD can cause a detrimental impact on the quality of ground or surface water to which it discharges. ARD likely has been associated with mines since mining began. ARD is not necessarily confined to mining activities, but can occur naturally wherever sulfide-bearing rock is exposed to air and water. It is important to recognize that not all operations that expose sulfide-bearing rock will result in ARD

  8. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  9. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J

    1984-04-01

    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  10. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  11. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  12. Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamic acid was transformed into acrylonitrile in a two step procedure involving an oxidative decarboxylation in water to 3-cyanopropanoic acid followed by a decarbonylation-elimination reaction using a palladium catalyst

  13. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  14. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  15. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  16. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  17. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  18. THE INTERCORRELATION OF THE AMINO ACID QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Levels of amino acids were determined in the grains of guinea corn, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ... KEY WORDS: Amino acid quality, Raw, Steeped, Germinated, Guinea corn ..... Health Organization: Geneva; 1999; pp. 101-119.

  19. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  20. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  1. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, T.; Yao, T.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid and the role of 7-ketolithocholic acid as an intermediate in this biotransformation were studied in 11 patients with Crohn's disease and in 5 healthy volunteers. The incorporation of deuterium into biliary ursodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid was determined by computed gas chromatography-mass fragmentography after ingestion of a dideuterated chenodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic-11,12-d2 acid. The incorporation of deuterium into ursodeoxycholic acid increased to a peak level at 48 h in the patients with Crohn's disease, but was delayed in healthy volunteers. In 8 patients and 2 healthy controls there were small amounts of 7-ketolithocholic acid in bile. The incorporation of deuterium into 7-ketolithocholic acid was confirmed in only 2 patients and the peak level was noted at 48 h. These observations suggest that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate of this biotransformation in patients with Crohn's disease

  2. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  3. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun

    2005-01-01

    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  5. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  6. Neutralising acid mine waters underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, A S

    1978-09-01

    It is essential to treat acid mine drainage in order to avoid its corrosive effects on plant and equipment. Neutralisation aims at increasing the pH to 7 and is carried out using lime, limestone or dolomite, in conjunction with aeration. Use of residues from settling ponds to slake the lime increases economy in water and lime, improves sedimentation and provides a better and more even sediment.

  7. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  8. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14 CO 2 . None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14 CO 2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  9. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  10. Folic acid derivatives for use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical preparation of two folic acid derivatives, labelled with 125 I or 131 I, is described for use in radioimmunoassay of folic acid and its metabolites in biological fluids such as blood serum. Labelled compounds of the present invention more closely resemble folic acid in that they have glutamic acid in the terminal position. Examples of the use of these compounds in three different assays are given. (U.K.)

  11. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  12. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Krick, Teresa; Shub, David A.; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that n...

  13. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirex-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2018-01-01

    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  14. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  15. Extraction of cesium from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.; Simonov, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of cesium from acidic solutions is studied. Halogen-substituted carboxylic acids were chosen for the aqueous phase and nitrobenzene the diluent. The distribution coefficients are determined by the use of radioactive tracers 134 Cs and 137 Cs. It is believed that large singly charged anions of strong acids are necessary for the extraction of cesium. Metal halide acids are selected for supplying the anions

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  17. Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid. L...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...