Sample records for glottal incompetence secondary

  1. Independent exercise for glottal incompetence to improve vocal problems and prevent aspiration pneumonia in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Fujimaki, Yoko; Tsunoda, Koichi; Kobayashi, Rika; Tonghyo, Chong; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Numata, Tsutomu; Ishii, Toyota; Kuroda, Reiko; Masuda, Sawako; Hashimoto, Sho; Misawa, Hayato; Shindo, Naoko; Mori, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroko; Uchiyama, Naoki; Kamei, Yuichirou; Tanaka, Masashi; Hamaya, Hironobu; Funatsuki, Shingo; Usui, Satoko; Ito, Ikuno; Hamada, Kohei; Shindo, Akihito; Tokumaru, Yutaka; Morita, Yoko; Ueha, Rumi; Nito, Takaharu; Kikuta, Shu; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Kondo, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takashi; Itoh, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Sumio


    To evaluate the effect of a self-controlled vocal exercise in elderly people with glottal closure insufficiency. Parallel-arm, individual randomized controlled trial. Patients who visited one of 10 medical centers under the National Hospital Organization group in Japan for the first time, aged 60 years or older, complaining of aspiration or hoarseness, and endoscopically confirmed to have glottal closure insufficiency owing to vocal cord atrophy, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The patients of the intervention group were given guidance and a DVD about a self-controlled vocal exercise. The maximum phonation time which is a measure of glottal closure was evaluated, and the number of patients who developed pneumonia during the six months was compared between the two groups. Of the 543 patients enrolled in this trial, 259 were allocated into the intervention group and 284 into the control; 60 of the intervention group and 75 of the control were not able to continue the trial. A total of 199 patients (age 73.9 ±7.25 years) in the intervention group and 209 (73.3 ±6.68 years) in the control completed the six-month trial. Intervention of the self-controlled vocal exercise extended the maximum phonation time significantly ( p < 0.001). There were two hospitalizations for pneumonia in the intervention group and 18 in the control group, representing a significant difference ( p < 0.001). The self-controlled vocal exercise allowed patients to achieve vocal cord adduction and improve glottal closure insufficiency, which reduced the rate of hospitalization for pneumonia significantly. gov Identifier-UMIN000015567.

  2. Buccinator sandwich pushback: a new technique for treatment of secondary velopharyngeal incompetence. (United States)

    Hill, C; Hayden, C; Riaz, M; Leonard, A G


    A small percentage of patients have inadequate velopharyngeal closure, or secondary velopharyngeal incompetence, following primary palatoplasty. Use of the buccinator musculomucosal flap has been described for primary palate repair with lengthening, but its use in secondary palate lengthening for the correction of insufficient velopharyngeal closure has not been described. This study presents the results of a series of patients who had correction of secondary velopharyngeal incompetence using bilateral buccinator musculomucosal flaps used as a sandwich. In this prospective study between 1995 and 1998, a group of 16 patients with insufficient velopharyngeal closure as determined by speech assessment and videoradiography were selected. Nasopharyngoscopy was carried out in addition in a number of cases. Case selection was a result of these investigations and clinical examination in which the major factor in velopharyngeal insufficiency was determined to be short palatal length. The patients underwent palate lengthening using bilateral buccinator musculomucosal flaps as a sandwich. All patients were assessed 6 months postoperatively. The operative technique, postoperative course, and recorded postoperative complications including partial/total flap necrosis and residual velopharyngeal insufficiency were evaluated. Preoperative and postoperative speech samples were rated by an independent speech therapist. Ninety-three percent (15 of 16) had a significant improvement in velopharyngeal insufficiency, and 14 patients had no hypernasality postoperatively. Both cases of persistent mild hypernasality had had a recognized postoperative complication. The sandwich pushback technique for the correction of persistent velopharyngeal incompetence was successful in achieving good speech results.

  3. Agutaynen Glottal Stop. (United States)

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  4. Glottal insufficiency with aspiration risk in dysphagia. (United States)

    Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael


    Glottal closure is an important part of the mechanism that protects the airway during the normal swallow. Glottal insufficiency disrupts glottal closure and therefore puts patients at risk of aspiration. Treatment of glottal insufficiency can be classified as surgical or nonsurgical. The objective of treating glottal insufficiency is to avoid aspiration or penetration of secretions or food into the airway. Nonsurgical treatment consists of swallowing maneuvers and other measures. Surgical treatment of glottal insufficiency includes injection laryngoplasty, medialization thyroplasty with or without arytenoid adduction or with arytenopexy and cricothyroid subluxation, hypopharyngoplasty, cricopharynx muscle dilation, and cricopharynx myotomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolutionary games under incompetence. (United States)

    Kleshnina, Maria; Filar, Jerzy A; Ejov, Vladimir; McKerral, Jody C


    The adaptation process of a species to a new environment is a significant area of study in biology. As part of natural selection, adaptation is a mutation process which improves survival skills and reproductive functions of species. Here, we investigate this process by combining the idea of incompetence with evolutionary game theory. In the sense of evolution, incompetence and training can be interpreted as a special learning process. With focus on the social side of the problem, we analyze the influence of incompetence on behavior of species. We introduce an incompetence parameter into a learning function in a single-population game and analyze its effect on the outcome of the replicator dynamics. Incompetence can change the outcome of the game and its dynamics, indicating its significance within what are inherently imperfect natural systems.

  6. Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleyer, Ismael Rodrigo; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Siltanen, Samuli; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo


    A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency ( F 0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F 0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude. (paper)

  7. Analysis of glottal source parameters in Parkinsonian speech. (United States)

    Hanratty, Jane; Deegan, Catherine; Walsh, Mary; Kirkpatrick, Barry


    Diagnosis and monitoring of Parkinson's disease has a number of challenges as there is no definitive biomarker despite the broad range of symptoms. Research is ongoing to produce objective measures that can either diagnose Parkinson's or act as an objective decision support tool. Recent research on speech based measures have demonstrated promising results. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the glottal source signal in Parkinsonian speech. An experiment is conducted in which a selection of glottal parameters are tested for their ability to discriminate between healthy and Parkinsonian speech. Results for each glottal parameter are presented for a database of 50 healthy speakers and a database of 16 speakers with Parkinsonian speech symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to analyse the results and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values were used to quantify the performance of each glottal parameter. The results indicate that glottal parameters can be used to discriminate between healthy and Parkinsonian speech, although results varied for each parameter tested. For the task of separating healthy and Parkinsonian speech, 2 out of the 7 glottal parameters tested produced AUC values of over 0.9.

  8. Superpixel-based segmentation of glottal area from videolaryngoscopy images (United States)

    Turkmen, H. Irem; Albayrak, Abdulkadir; Karsligil, M. Elif; Kocak, Ismail


    Segmentation of the glottal area with high accuracy is one of the major challenges for the development of systems for computer-aided diagnosis of vocal-fold disorders. We propose a hybrid model combining conventional methods with a superpixel-based segmentation approach. We first employed a superpixel algorithm to reveal the glottal area by eliminating the local variances of pixels caused by bleedings, blood vessels, and light reflections from mucosa. Then, the glottal area was detected by exploiting a seeded region-growing algorithm in a fully automatic manner. The experiments were conducted on videolaryngoscopy images obtained from both patients having pathologic vocal folds as well as healthy subjects. Finally, the proposed hybrid approach was compared with conventional region-growing and active-contour model-based glottal area segmentation algorithms. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of segmentation accuracy and elapsed time. The F-measure, true negative rate, and dice coefficients of the hybrid method were calculated as 82%, 93%, and 82%, respectively, which are superior to the state-of-art glottal-area segmentation methods. The proposed hybrid model achieved high success rates and robustness, making it suitable for developing a computer-aided diagnosis system that can be used in clinical routines.

  9. Relationship between aerodynamic measures of glottal efficiency and stroboscopic findings in asymptomatic singing students. (United States)

    Lundy, D S; Roy, S; Casiano, R R; Evans, J; Sullivan, P A; Xue, J W


    Singing requires exquisite coordination between the respiratory and phonatory systems to efficiently control glottal airflow. Asymptomatic singing students underwent pulmonary function testing (PFT), videostrobolaryngoscopic examination, and measures of glottal efficiency (maximum phonation time [MPT], glottal flow rate [GFR], and phonation quotient [PQ]) performed in both a sung and spoken tone. Pulmonary function and glottal efficiency values were within reported normative data for professional singers. However, sung tones were made with significantly higher GFR and PQ and lower PQ than spoken tones. The mean GFR was not related to the degree of glottal closure (by videostrobolaryngoscopy) or underlying pulmonary support.

  10. Method for consolidating incompetent formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlich, J.P.; Calvert, D.G.


    An incompetent formation is consolidated and left permeable by first injecting a solidifiable liquid resin, and following this by an organic liquid to set the resin. The liquid resin used may be 3 (glycidyloxy) propyl trimethoxysilane in sufficient concentration to considerably increase the compressive strength of the consolidated zone. The silane may be used in a ratio of between 0.5 and 5% of the total volume of the liquid resin. The liquid resin used may be a phenol-formaldehyde condensation product dispersed in an aliphatic alcohol with from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. The liquid resin used may be an epoxy containing a hardener. The resin may be displaced into the formation by a liquid hydrocarbon. (5 claims)

  11. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren


    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  12. The effects of frequency and intensity level on glottal closure in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Albers, FWJ

    The degree of glottal closure during phonation has an influence on voice quality and it is related to the robustness of the voice source. To quantify glottal closure a frame of reference was created by investigating 47 healthy men and 92 healthy women with no vocal complaints using

  13. Age- and gender-related difference of vocal fold vibration and glottal configuration in normal speakers: analysis with glottal area waveform. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya


    Glottal area waveform (GAW) analysis is widely used in the assessment of vocal fold vibration by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). Because normative GAW data obtained from a large number of subjects have not been reported, we conducted a prospective study to obtain normative results for GAW analysis of HSDI findings and clarify normal variations associated with gender and age. Vocally healthy adults were divided into a young group (aged ≤ 35 years) and an elderly group (aged ≥ 65 years). The configuration and size of the glottal area were assessed at different phases of the glottal cycle, and gender- and age-related differences were evaluated. A total of 26 young subjects (nine men and 17 women; mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (eight men and 12 women; mean age: 73 years) were investigated. The glottal area at different points of the glottal cycle showed a negative correlation with frequency. Although the GAW parameters of young women appeared to be different from those of the other subgroups, the differences were not statistically significant. Young women predominantly had a triangular- or vase-shaped glottal configuration at all frequencies, whereas the other subgroups showed various glottal shapes. The present study clarified gender- and age-related differences of GAW parameters obtained with HSDI. Young women were likely to show different glottal configurations and different responses to frequency changes from those of young men, elderly men, and elderly women. Phonosurgeons should pay attention to the normal variations detected in the present study. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pregnancy Outcome in Cervical Incompetence: Comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical incompetence is a major cause of recurrent mid-trimester pregnancy loss and preterm deliveries; it contributes significantly to fetal loss and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite its wide use, the effectiveness of cervical cerclage in its management remains unsettled. Objective: To evaluate the ...

  15. Managing the Incompetent Teacher. Second Edition. (United States)

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    Featuring the same practical guidelines for ridding schools of incompetent teachers as the 1984 edition, this new edition incorporates substantially revised material on three topics: criteria and information sources for evaluating teaching effectiveness, remediation procedures, and grounds for dismissal. The book presents an eight-step systematic,…

  16. Performance Evaluation of Glottal Inverse Filtering Algorithms Using a Physiologically Based Articulatory Speech Synthesizer (United States)


    vol. 74, pp. 279–295, 1999. [11] M. Fröhlich, D. Michaelis, and H. W. Strube, “SIM— simultaneous inverse filtering and matching of a glottal flow...1 Performance Evaluation of Glottal Inverse Filtering Algorithms Using a Physiologically Based Articulatory Speech Synthesizer Yu-Ren Chien, Daryush...D. Mehta, Member, IEEE, Jón Guðnason, Matías Zañartu, Member, IEEE, and Thomas F. Quatieri, Fellow, IEEE Abstract—Glottal inverse filtering aims to

  17. Investigation of a glottal related harmonics-to-noise ratio and spectral tilt as indicators of glottal noise in synthesized and human voice signals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Peter J


    The harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) of the voiced speech signal has implicitly been used to infer information regarding the turbulent noise level at the glottis. However, two problems exist for inferring glottal noise attributes from the HNR of the speech wave form: (i) the measure is fundamental frequency (f0) dependent for equal levels of glottal noise, and (ii) any deviation from signal periodicity affects the ratio, not just turbulent noise. An alternative harmonics-to-noise ratio formulation [glottal related HNR (GHNR\\')] is proposed to overcome the former problem. In GHNR\\' a mean over the spectral range of interest of the HNRs at specific harmonic\\/between-harmonic frequencies (expressed in linear scale) is calculated. For the latter issue [(ii)] two spectral tilt measures are shown, using synthesis data, to be sensitive to glottal noise while at the same time being comparatively insensitive to other glottal aperiodicities. The theoretical development predicts that the spectral tilt measures reduce as noise levels increase. A conventional HNR estimator, GHNR\\' and two spectral tilt measures are applied to a data set of 13 pathological and 12 normal voice samples. One of the tilt measures and GHNR\\' are shown to provide statistically significant differentiating power over a conventional HNR estimator.

  18. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models (United States)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael


    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  19. 38 CFR 1.465 - Incompetent and deceased patients. (United States)


    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.465 Incompetent and deceased patients. (a) Incompetent patients other than minors..., alcoholism or alcohol abuse, infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia is subject to §§ 1.460 through 1.... (3) Information related to sickle cell anemia. Information related to sickle cell anemia may be...

  20. 20 CFR 725.507 - Guardian for minor or incompetent. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian for minor or incompetent. 725.507... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Payment of Benefits General Provisions § 725.507 Guardian for minor or incompetent. An adjudication officer may require that a legal guardian or representative...

  1. "Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence


    Szasz, T


    Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination...

  2. Modeling the Pathophysiology of Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction with a Triangular Glottal Model of the Vocal Folds (United States)

    Galindo, Gabriel E.; Peterson, Sean D.; Erath, Byron D.; Castro, Christian; Hillman, Robert E.; Zañartu, Matías


    Purpose: Our goal was to test prevailing assumptions about the underlying biomechanical and aeroacoustic mechanisms associated with phonotraumatic lesions of the vocal folds using a numerical lumped-element model of voice production. Method: A numerical model with a triangular glottis, posterior glottal opening, and arytenoid posturing is…

  3. Geometry of human vocal folds and glottal channel for mathematical and biomechanical modeling of voice production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šidlof, Petr; Švec, J. G.; Horáček, Jaromír; Veselý, Jan; Klepáček, I.; Havlík, R.


    Roč. 41, - (2008), s. 985-995 ISSN 0021-9290 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2076401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal fold geometry * glottal channel shape * quantitative description Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2008

  4. "Idiots, infants, and the insane": mental illness and legal incompetence. (United States)

    Szasz, T


    Prior to the second world war, most persons confined in insane asylums were regarded as legally incompetent and had guardians appointed for them. Today, most persons confined in mental hospitals (or treated involuntarily, committed to outpatient treatment) are, in law, competent; nevertheless, in fact, they are treated as if they were incompetent. Should the goal of mental health policy be providing better psychiatric services to more and more people, or the reduction and ultimate elimination of the number of persons in the population treated as mentally ill?

  5. Pregnancy Outcome after Cerclage for Cervical Incompetence at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    miscarriages, pre-labour rupture of membranes and preterm labour1, 2, 3. Typically an incompetent cervix presents with recurrent mid-trimester miscarriage that is usually sudden with minimal or no abdominal pains1, 2. Diagnosis is often based on history of these recurrent mid trimester miscarriages and on a few occasions ...

  6. 31 CFR 240.14 - Checks issued to incompetent payees. (United States)


    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE INDORSEMENT AND PAYMENT OF CHECKS... without submission of documentary proof of the authority of the guardian or other fiduciary, with the... the certifying agency with information as to the incompetence of the payee and documentary evidence...

  7. Identifying Cancer Driver Genes Using Replication-Incompetent Retroviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Bii


    Full Text Available Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations. They can also be used for almost any human cancer due to the broad tropism of the vectors. Replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have the ability to dysregulate nearby cancer genes via several mechanisms including enhancer-mediated activation of gene promoters. The integrated provirus acts as a unique molecular tag for nearby candidate driver genes which can be rapidly identified using well established methods that utilize next generation sequencing and bioinformatics programs. Recently, retroviral vector screens have been used to efficiently identify candidate driver genes in prostate, breast, liver and pancreatic cancers. Validated driver genes can be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. In this review, we describe the emergence of retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors as a novel tool to identify cancer driver genes in different cancer types.

  8. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention...

  9. 8 CFR 1236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 1236.2 Section 1236.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL...

  10. 42 CFR 2.15 - Incompetent and deceased patients. (United States)


    ... effective action on his or her own behalf, the program director may exercise the right of the patient to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incompetent and deceased patients. 2.15 Section 2.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS...

  11. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed. (United States)

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R


    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cardiac autonomic impairment and chronotropic incompetence in fibromyalgia


    da Cunha Ribeiro, Roberta Potenza; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme Gianini; Dassouki, Thalita; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; Calich, Ana Luisa; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Bonfá, Eloísa; Gualano, Bruno


    Abstract Introduction We aimed to gather knowledge on the cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) in response to exercise and to investigate whether this population suffers from chronotropic incompetence (CI). Methods Fourteen women with FM (age: 46 ± 3 y...

  13. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers. (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus


    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Embedded Fibers and an Epithelium Layer on the Glottal Closure Pattern in a Physical Vocal Fold Model (United States)

    Xuan, Yue; Zhang, Zhaoyan


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the possible structural and material property features that may facilitate complete glottal closure in an otherwise isotropic physical vocal fold model. Method: Seven vocal fold models with different structural features were used in this study. An isotropic model was used as the baseline model, and…

  15. Teacher Incompetence, Misconduct and Dismissal in British Columbia: An Archival Analysis (1962–1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart M. Piddocke


    Full Text Available The assessment of teacher competence and the administrative management of teacher performance are pressing issues of educational accountability. Much is claimed about the putative incompetence of teachers but little systematic data exist to document the extent of this alleged incompetence or to describe incidents of incompetence. This paper reports an archival study of such cases in British Columbia between 1962-1987 and compares these findings with an earlier study from the United States.

  16. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze


    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  17. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw. (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed


    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of an artificially lengthened vocal tract on estimated glottal contact quotient in untrained male voices. (United States)

    Gaskill, Christopher S; Erickson, Molly L


    The use of hard-walled narrow tubes, often called resonance tubes, for the purpose of voice therapy and voice training has a historical precedent and some theoretical support, but the mechanism of any potential benefit from the application of this technique is not well understood. Fifteen vocally untrained male participants produced a series of spoken /a/ vowels at a modal pitch and constant loudness, before and after a minute of repeated phonation into a 50-cm hard-walled glass tube at the same pitch and loudness targets. Electroglottography was used to measure the glottal contact quotient (CQ) during each phase of the experiment. Single-subject analysis revealed statistically significant changes in CQ during tube phonation, but with no discernable pattern across the 15 participants. These results indicate that the use of resonance tubes can have a distinct effect on glottal closure, but the mechanism behind this change remains unclear. The implication is that vocal loading techniques such as this need to be studied further with specific attention paid to the underlying mechanism of any measured changes in glottal behavior, and especially to the role of instruction and feedback in the therapeutic and pedagogical application of these techniques. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of wavelet packet energy entropy for emotion classification in speech and glottal signals (United States)

    He, Ling; Lech, Margaret; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Xiaomei; Deng, Lihua


    The automatic speech emotion recognition has important applications in human-machine communication. Majority of current research in this area is focused on finding optimal feature parameters. In recent studies, several glottal features were examined as potential cues for emotion differentiation. In this study, a new type of feature parameter is proposed, which calculates energy entropy on values within selected Wavelet Packet frequency bands. The modeling and classification tasks are conducted using the classical GMM algorithm. The experiments use two data sets: the Speech Under Simulated Emotion (SUSE) data set annotated with three different emotions (angry, neutral and soft) and Berlin Emotional Speech (BES) database annotated with seven different emotions (angry, bored, disgust, fear, happy, sad and neutral). The average classification accuracy achieved for the SUSE data (74%-76%) is significantly higher than the accuracy achieved for the BES data (51%-54%). In both cases, the accuracy was significantly higher than the respective random guessing levels (33% for SUSE and 14.3% for BES).

  20. An Experiential-Behavioral Approach to the Treatment of Social Incompetence (United States)

    White, W. C., Jr.; Andrews, J. V.


    This article documents an attempt to treat severe social incompetence of selected male college students through the use of behavioral rehearsal and social learning approaches, designed to curtail social anxiety. (MB)

  1. Investigation into The Effect of Arabic Incompetence on The Students’ Performance in Islamic Studies in Ibadan South-East Of Oyo State In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Adekunle Adegoke


    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of incompetence in Arabic language on students’ performances in Islamic studies in the selected senior secondary schools in Ibadan South-East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the argument that the poor performance of senior secondary students in Islamic studies is as a result of incompetence and non-proficiency in Arabic language on the side of learners and teachers. The methodology employed in this study was the quantitative approach. Location of the study was Ibadan South-East Local Government Area of Oyo State. Teachers of Islamic studies and students were randomly selected using the stratified random sampling technique from six senior secondary schools. The data gathered were analysed using simple percentages and chi-square statistical analysis. The findings revealed that significant number of students in Senior Secondary School’s poor performance in Islamic studies was due to their incompetence in Arabic as a result of their lack of exposure to the Arabic language and their poor background in Arabic from the previous classes. It also revealed that some of their teachers in Islamic studies were not competent in Arabic reading and writing. Abstrak Penelitian ini menginvestigasi efek ketidakmampuan bahasa Arab terhadap kinerja siswa studi Islam di sekolah-sekolah menengah atas terpilih di Ibadan Tenggara, di Area Pemerintahan Daerah Negara Oyo, Nigeria. Tujuan utama penelitian ini untuk menegaskan argumen bahwa buruknya kinerja siswa sekolah menengah atas pada studi Islam adalah akibat dari ketidakmampuan dan ketidakmahiran bahasa Arab pada peserta didik dan guru. Metode penelitian pendekatan kuantitatif. Lokasi penelitian adalah di Area Pemerintah Daerah Ibadan Tenggara Negara Oyo. Guru dan siswa program studi Islam dipilih secara acak menggunakan teknik stratified random sampling dari enam sekolah menengah atas. Data yang terkumpul

  2. Cardiac autonomic impairment and chronotropic incompetence in fibromyalgia. (United States)

    da Cunha Ribeiro, Roberta Potenza; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme Gianini; Dassouki, Thalita; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; Calich, Ana Luisa; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Bonfá, Eloísa; Gualano, Bruno


    We aimed to gather knowledge on the cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) in response to exercise and to investigate whether this population suffers from chronotropic incompetence (CI). Fourteen women with FM (age: 46 ± 3 years; body mass index (BMI): 26.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2) and 14 gender-, BMI- (25.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2), and age-matched (age: 41 ± 4 years) healthy individuals (CTRL) took part in this cross-sectional study. A treadmill cardiorespiratory test was performed and heart-rate (HR) response during exercise was evaluated by the chronotropic reserve. HR recovery (deltaHRR) was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and at both first (deltaHRR1) and second (deltaHRR2) minutes after the exercise test. FM patients presented lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) when compared with healthy subjects (22 ± 1 versus CTRL: 32 ± 2 mL/kg/minute, respectively; P < 0.001). Additionally, FM patients presented lower chronotropic reserve (72.5 ± 5 versus CTRL: 106.1 ± 6, P < 0.001), deltaHRR1 (24.5 ± 3 versus CTRL: 32.6 ± 2, P = 0.059) and deltaHRR2 (34.3 ± 4 versus CTRL: 50.8 ± 3, P = 0.002) than their healthy peers. The prevalence of CI was 57.1% among patients with FM. Patients with FM who undertook a graded exercise test may present CI and delayed HR recovery, both being indicative of cardiac autonomic impairment and higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality.

  3. Investigating the Effects of Glottal Stop Productions on Voice in Children With Cleft Palate Using Multidimensional Voice Assessment Methods. (United States)

    Aydınlı, Fatma Esen; Özcebe, Esra; Kulak Kayıkçı, Maviş E; Yılmaz, Taner; Özgür, Fatma F


    The aim was to investigate the effects of glottal stop productions (GS) on voice in children with cleft palate using multidimensional voice assessment methods. This is a prospective case-control study. Children with repaired cleft palate (n = 34) who did not have any vocal fold lesions were separated into two groups based on the results of the articulation test. The glottal stop group (GSG) consisted of 17 children who had GS. The control group (CG) consisted of an equal number of age- and gender-matched children who did not have GS. The voice evaluation protocol included acoustic analysis, Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI), and perceptual analysis (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain method). The velopharyngeal statuses of the groups were compared using the nasopharyngoscopy and the nasometer. The total pVHI score and the subscales of the pVHI were found to be significantly higher in the GSG. The F0, jitter, and shimmer were found to be numerically higher in the GSG with the difference being statistically significant in jitter (P speech and language pathology intervention including voice therapy techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Particle swarm optimization based feature enhancement and feature selection for improved emotion recognition in speech and glottal signals. (United States)

    Muthusamy, Hariharan; Polat, Kemal; Yaacob, Sazali


    In the recent years, many research works have been published using speech related features for speech emotion recognition, however, recent studies show that there is a strong correlation between emotional states and glottal features. In this work, Mel-frequency cepstralcoefficients (MFCCs), linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCCs), perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features, gammatone filter outputs, timbral texture features, stationary wavelet transform based timbral texture features and relative wavelet packet energy and entropy features were extracted from the emotional speech (ES) signals and its glottal waveforms(GW). Particle swarm optimization based clustering (PSOC) and wrapper based particle swarm optimization (WPSO) were proposed to enhance the discerning ability of the features and to select the discriminating features respectively. Three different emotional speech databases were utilized to gauge the proposed method. Extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed to classify the different types of emotions. Different experiments were conducted and the results show that the proposed method significantly improves the speech emotion recognition performance compared to previous works published in the literature.

  5. Changes in women's fear of success and fear of appearing incompetent in business. (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, J; Bass, K


    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether fear of success and of appearing incompetent among women have changed recently. Another purpose was to examine whether such fears differed among women who hold Traditional views and those who hold Progressive views about the roles of women in the workplace. The Fear of Success Scale, the Fear of Appearing Incompetent Scale, and the Attitude Toward Women Scale were completed by 61 male and 52 female graduating seniors. Significant differences were found between the groups for scores on the Attitude Toward Women Scale, but none between the sexes for scores on the Fear of Success Scale or the Fear of Appearing Incompetent Scale. Significant differences were found, however, on the latter two scales when women were separated into Traditional and Progressive groups.

  6. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  7. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP


    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  8. On the relationship between input parameters in two-mass vocal-fold model with acoustical coupling an signal parameters of the glottal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hirtum, Annemie; Lopez, Ines; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, Xavier


    In this paper the sensitivity of the two-mass model with acoustical coupling to the model input-parameters is assessed. The model-output or the glottal volume air flow is characterised by signal-parameters in the time-domain. The influence of changing input-parameters on the signal-parameters is

  9. On the relationship between input parameters in the two-mass vocal-fold model with acoustical coupling and signal parameters of the glottal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirtum, van A.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.


    In this paper the sensitivity of the two-mass model with acoustical coupling to the model input-parameters is assessed. The model-output or the glottal volume air flow is characterised by signal-parameters in the time-domain. The influence of changing input-parameters on the signal-parameters is

  10. Effects of Vocal Fold Nodules on Glottal Cycle Measurements Derived from High-Speed Videoendoscopy in Children (United States)


    The goal of this study is to quantify the effects of vocal fold nodules on vibratory motion in children using high-speed videoendoscopy. Differences in vibratory motion were evaluated in 20 children with vocal fold nodules (5–11 years) and 20 age and gender matched typically developing children (5–11 years) during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Normalized kinematic features of vocal fold displacements from the mid-membranous vocal fold point were extracted from the steady-state high-speed video. A total of 12 kinematic features representing spatial and temporal characteristics of vibratory motion were calculated. Average values and standard deviations (cycle-to-cycle variability) of the following kinematic features were computed: normalized peak displacement, normalized average opening velocity, normalized average closing velocity, normalized peak closing velocity, speed quotient, and open quotient. Group differences between children with and without vocal fold nodules were statistically investigated. While a moderate effect size was observed for the spatial feature of speed quotient, and the temporal feature of normalized average closing velocity in children with nodules compared to vocally normal children, none of the features were statistically significant between the groups after Bonferroni correction. The kinematic analysis of the mid-membranous vocal fold displacement revealed that children with nodules primarily differ from typically developing children in closing phase kinematics of the glottal cycle, whereas the opening phase kinematics are similar. Higher speed quotients and similar opening phase velocities suggest greater relative forces are acting on vocal fold in the closing phase. These findings suggest that future large-scale studies should focus on spatial and temporal features related to the closing phase of the glottal cycle for differentiating the kinematics of children with and without vocal fold nodules. PMID:27124157

  11. Peroxidase Activity in Poplar Inoculated with Compatible and Incompetent Isolates of Paxillus involutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Peroxidase activity of the hybrid poplar Populus×canescens (Ait. Sm. (= P. tremula L. × P. alba L. inoculated with compatible and incompetent isolates of Paxillus involutus (Batsch Fr. was investigated. Screening of the ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates was initiated with exploration of mycelial growth characteristics and mycorrhizal ability in vitro with poplar. Both traits varied within the fungus although they did not seem to be genetically correlated. While isolates SCO1, NAU, and 031 grew faster than others, only isolates MAJ, SCO1, and 031 were able to form ectomycorrhiza with poplar. Isolates MAJ (compatible and NAU (incompetent were subsequently selected for further experiments. Activity of peroxidase, one of the defense-related enzymes, was examined in pure culture and short root components of compatible and incompetent interactions between poplar and P. involutus. Peroxidase activities increased significantly in poplar inoculated with incompetent isolate of the fungus compared to control, while induction of the same enzyme was not detected in compatible associations.

  12. Human CD46-transgenic mice in studies involving replication-incompetent adenoviral type 35 vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagh, S.; Jong, E. de; Goudsmit, J.; Lecollinet, S.; Gillissen, G.; Vries, M. de; Leuven, K. van; Que, I.; Ouwehand, K.; Mintardjo, R.; Weverling, G.J.; Radošević, K.; Richardson, J.; Eloit, M.; Lowik, C.; Quax, P.; Havenga, M.


    Wild-type strains of mice do not express CD46, a high-affinity receptor for human group B adenoviruses including type 35. Therefore, studies performed to date in mice using replication-incompetent Ad35 (rAd35) vaccine carriers may underestimate potency or result in altered vector distribution. Here,

  13. Efeitos do som basal em fendas glóticas Effects of vocal fry incomplete glottal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana de Paula Bolzan


    Full Text Available TEMA: som basal em fendas glóticas. PROCEDIMENTOS: participaram desta pesquisa dois sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos e diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico de fenda em ampulheta. Houve gravação da emissão sustentada da vogal /a/ e exame videolaringoestroboscópico, imediatamente a seguir, os sujeitos realizaram o som basal em três séries de 15 repetições, e foram submetidos a novo exame laríngeo e gravação da vogal. Os dados pré e pós-realização do som basal foram submetidos às analises acústica, perceptivo-auditiva e videolaringoestroboscópica, realizadas por juízes (três fonoaudiólogas e três otorrinolaringologistas, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: em ambos os sujeitos, houve melhora no fechamento glótico e amplitude de vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; piora no tipo de voz; aumento das medidas de ruído e de Jitter. CONCLUSÃO: o som basal promoveu redução das fendas glóticas e aumento da amplitude de vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; piora do tipo de voz, que ficou mais ruidoso; aumento das medidas de ruído e de Jitter, sugerindo irregularidade vibratória, provavelmente devido ao efeito do ajuste do som basal ao mobilizar intensamente a mucosa.BACKGROUND: vocal fry in incomplete glottal closure. PROCEDURE: two individuals aged between 20 and 40 years old presenting an otolaryngological diagnosis of ampoule chink were part of the study. A recording of the sustained emission of /a/ vowel took place, as well as a videostroboscopic examination. Right after, the individuals completed the vocal fry in three series of 15 repetitions, being submitted to a new laryngeal examination and to the vowel’s recording. Both pre-vocal and post vocal fry data were assessed through acoustic, perceptive-auditive and videostroboscopic analysis, carried out by judges (three speech and language pathologists and three otolaryngologists, respectively. RESULTS: for both individuals, there was an improvement


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Ahmad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Varicose veins affect at least 1 out of 5 in the world and the cost of health care for the society is significant. In a developing country like India, study encompassing the clinical evaluation and management of lower limb varicose veins on the conventional lines seems a necessity to improve the quality care with the available resources. OBJECTIVES To study the relation between site of incompetence and complications, pattern of complications, surgical management and its outcome for lower limb varicose veins. METHODS A total 26 number of patients with primary varicose veins admitted, investigated, operated and followed up. Final outcome evaluated. All the information was taken down in the proforma, designed for the study. RESULTS In the study, it was noted that the varicose veins affect younger, adult, and middle age population. (20 to 60 years. Majority of the patients were male (84.60%. Perforator incompetence only = 42.3% (n=11. Perforator incompetence + saphenofemoral/saphenopopliteal incompetence seen in 57.7%. Long saphenous vein involvement was seen in 90.5% of the patients and both LSV and SSV involvement in 9.5%. A greater portion of the patients had combined valvular incompetence (69.56%. The mean ulcer healing time in our study was 2.8 weeks following surgery (90%. Residual incompetent perforators are seen in 7.6% (n=2. New incompetent perforators seen in 7.6% (n=2. Postoperative wound infection of the incision of SPJ ligation was seen in 3.8% (n=1 of the patients, but not the SEPS wound infection and the total complication rate was 3.85%. The mean postoperative stay for patients undergoing SEPS procedure alone was 3.6 days. The mean postoperative stay for patients who underwent perforator ligation with concomitant stripping procedure was 5 days. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Majority of the patients present with complications of varicose vein with combined valvular incompetence and surgical treatment with stripping of path

  15. Amniopatch treatment for spontaneous previable, preterm premature rupture of membranes associated or not with incompetent cervix. (United States)

    Kwak, Hye-Min; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Yu, Hee-Jun; Lee, Jee-Hun; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa


    We reviewed women with previable spontaneous premature rupture of membranes (sPPROM) in whom an amniopatch was performed and compared their pregnancy outcomes with a conservative management group. Amniopatch, an amnioinfusion of autologous platelet concentrate followed by cryoprecipitate, was performed in 7 women with sPPROM diagnosed at 17-23 weeks' gestation, including one twin pregnancy. Three patients had incompetent cervices and the other 4 patients had sPPROM without incompetent cervices. Pregnancy outcomes of the cases were compared with the controls who were managed conservatively (n = 22). Amniopatch treatment was successful in 1 of 7 cases (14.3%), in which the ruptured membranes were completely sealed and the patient delivered a healthy baby at 39 weeks' gestation. No procedure-related complications were observed. Overall, neonatal outcome was similar in the amniopatch and conservatively managed groups, although the incidences of early neonatal sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in the amniopatch group. The overall success rate of amniopatch among our small number of cases was low. However, if successful, amniopatch may prolong a pregnancy with previable sPPROM to term. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Vocal Fold Augmentation with Injectable Polycaprolactone Microspheres/Pluronic F127 Hydrogel: Long-Term In Vivo Study for the Treatment of Glottal Insufficiency (United States)

    Kwon, Seong Keun; Kim, Hee-Bok; Song, Jae-Jun; Cho, Chang Gun; Park, Seok-Won; Choi, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Junsun; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, Jin Ho


    There is increasing demand for reconstruction of glottal insufficiency. Several injection materials have been examined for this purpose, but all had limitations, such as poor long-term durability, migration from the injection site, inflammation, granuloma formation, and interference with vocal fold vibration due to viscoelastic mismatch. Here, we developed a novel injection material, consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres, which exhibits better viscoelasticity than conventional materials, and Pluronic F127 carrier, which decreases the migration of the injection materials. The material was injected into rabbits with glottal insufficiency and compared with the FDA-approved injection material, calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA). Endoscopic and histological examinations indicated that PCL/Pluronic F127 remained at the injection site with no inflammatory response or granuloma formation, whereas CaHA leaked out and migrated from the injection site. Therefore, vocal fold augmentation was almost completely retained during the 12-month follow-up period in this study. Moreover, induced phonation and high-speed recording of vocal fold vibration showed decreased vocal fold gap area in the PCL/Pluronic F127 group. Our newly developed injection material, PCL/Pluronic F127, permits efficient augmentation of paralyzed vocal fold without complications, a concept that can be applied clinically, as demonstrated by the successful long-term follow-up. PMID:24465582

  17. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation of great saphenous vein incompetence using the ClariVein device: a safety study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, R. van; Boersma, D.; Elias, S.; Holewijn, S.; Werson, D.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endovenous mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. METHODS: The newly developed ClariVein device uses a technique that combines mechanical endothelial damage using a rotating wire with the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasuki Rajam


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic venous insufficiency presents with a spectrum of clinical features ranging from pain or heaviness of affected limbs to non-healing ulcers over the lower limbs and usually require some form of surgical intervention, performing direct perforator vein division preferably by subfascial endoscopic perforator ligation surgery for perforator incompetence, as despite aggressive conservative therapy including compression, lifestyle modification and venotonic medications which are of high cost treatment with increased risk of increasing symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective longitudinal clinical study of 30 patients selected by systematic sampling method from November 2014 to September 2015 at our institution was conducted to determine the results of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS in perforator incompetence. RESULTS For venous clinical severity scoring pre operatively and after 3 weeks post-surgery, the mean for VCSS pre-operatively was 6.66 and a standard deviation of 2.399. The T value was calculated and was found to be 4.9321 and p value of 0.00001(p value less than 0.05 is significant. Similarly for the cases with active ulcer, the size assessment pre-operatively and post-SEPS was again analysed using student t test and the mean ulcer size prior to surgery was found to be 3.3 and standard deviation of 1.984. The T value was calculated and was found to be 1.789009 and a p value of 0.04 (p value less than 0.05 is significant. CONCLUSION Our study concluded that favourable and significant ulcer healing rate with improvement and reduction in clinical severity suggests that SEPS plays an important role in surgical management of advanced stages of venous insufficiency.

  19. The Double-Orifice Valve Technique to Treat Tricuspid Valve Incompetence. (United States)

    Hetzer, Roland; Javier, Mariano; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria


    A straightforward tricuspid valve (TV) repair technique was used to treat either moderate or severe functional (normal valve with dilated annulus) or for primary/organic (Ebstein's anomaly, leaflet retraction/tethering and chordal malposition/tethering, with annular dilatation) TV incompetence, and its long-term outcome assessed. A double-orifice valve technique was employed in 91 patients (mean age 52.6 ± 23.2 years; median age 56 years; range: 0.6-82 years) with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Among the patients, three had post-transplant iatrogenic chordal rupture, five had infective endocarditis, 11 had mitral valve insufficiency, 23 had Ebstein's anomaly, and 47 had isolated severe TV incompetence. The basic principle was to reduce the distance between the coapting leaflets, wherein the most mobile leaflet could coapt to the opposite leaflet, by creating two orifices, ensuring valve competence. The TV repair was performed through a median sternotomy or right anterior thoracotomy in the fifth intercostal space under cardiopulmonary bypass. The degree and extent of creating a double-valve orifice was determined by considering the minimal body surface area (BSA)-related acceptable TV diameter. Repair was accomplished by passing pledgeted mattress sutures from the middle of the true anterior annulus to a spot on the opposite septal annulus, located approximately two-thirds of the length of the septal annulus to avoid injury to the bundle of His. The annular apposition divides the TV into a larger anterior and a smaller posterior orifices, enabling valve closure, on both sides. In adults, the diameter of the anterior valve orifice should be 23-25 mm, and the posterior orifice 15-18 mm; thus, the total valve orifice area is 5-6 cm2. In children, the total valve orifice should be a standard deviation of 1.7 mm for a BSA of 1.0m2. During a mean follow up of 8.7 ± 1.34 years (median 10 years; range: 1.5-25.9 years) there have been no reoperations for TV insufficiency

  20. Chronotropic incompetence can limit exercise tolerance in COPD patients with lung hyperinflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulo S


    Full Text Available Sébastien Hulo,1 Jocelyn Inamo,2 Aurélie Dehon,3 Olivier Le Rouzic,4 Jean-Louis Edme,1 Remi Neviere51Université Lille, CHU Lille, EA 4483, IMPact de l’Environnement Chimique sur la Santé humaine, Lille, France; 2Département de Cardiologie – CHU Fort de France, Martinique – Faculté de Médecine – Université des Antilles, France; 3Pôle d’Anesthésie Réanimation ADRU, CHU Nîmes, Nîmes, France; 4Université Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France; 5Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Lille, FrancePurpose: Metabolic-chronotropic relationship is the only concept that assesses the entire chronotropic function during exercise, as it takes into account individual fitness. To better understand interrelationships between chronotropic incompetence (CI, dynamic hyperinflation (DH and exercise limitation among Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD disease severity, we evaluated cardiopulmonary responses to symptom-limited cycle exercise in stable patients.Patients and methods: We prospectively studied 47 COPD patients classified by GOLD stage severity. Pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary responses to symptom-limited incremental exercise were studied. CI was defined by regression line between percent heart rate (HR reserve and percent oxygen uptake (V’O2 reserve, ie, chronotropic-metabolic index (CMI. DH was defined from the knot resulting from the nonlinear regressions of inspiratory capacity changes from rest to peak (dynamic inspiratory capacity (ICdyn with percentage of maximal HR and CMI.Results: Aerobic capacity (median interquartile ranges peak V’O2, 24.3 (23.6; 25.2, 18.5 (15.5; 21.8, 17.5 (15.4; 19.1 mL·kg-1·min-1 and CMI worsened according to GOLD severity. The optimal knot of ICdyn was equal to −0.34 L. The

  1. The Consequences of Official Labels: An Examination of the Rights Lost by the Mentally Ill and Mentally Incompetent Since 1989. (United States)

    Walker, Andrea M; Klein, Michael S; Hemmens, Craig; Stohr, Mary K; Burton, Velmer S


    This study presents a survey of state statutes which restrict the civil rights of persons with a mental illness or who have been declared mentally incompetent. Five civil rights (voting, holding public office, jury service, parenting, and marriage) are examined. The results of this study are compared with the results of studies conducted in 1989 and 1999 to determine what changes have occurred over time in the restriction of civil rights of those suffering from mental health problems. This comparison reveals that states continue to restrict the rights of the mentally ill and incompetent, and that there is a trend towards increased restriction of political rights, including the right to vote and hold public office.

  2. Death penalty support for special offender populations of legally convicted murderers: juveniles, the mentally retarded, and the mentally incompetent. (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K


    The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Deploying culture as a defence against incompetence: The unconscious dynamics of public service work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peliwe P. Mnguni


    Research purpose: This article employs social defense theory to explore manifestations of anxiety and defense within South African public service organisations. Motivation for the study: Dominant discourse on public service institutions over-relies on political, sociological and public administration theories and tends to ignore psychosocial explanations. Further, whilst the psychodynamics of social service work are generally understood, the unconscious dynamics of generic public service work remain under-theorised. Research design, approach and method: This conceptual article draws on my personal observations as a reflective citizen and experiences as a consultant to government departments. Main findings: Herein, an argument is advanced that the deployment of ill-qualified party loyalists to key positions in the public service is perverse: it serves as a collective defense against the impossible aspects of the task at hand. The appointees, in turn, deploy organisational processes to defend against feelings of incompetence and the inevitability of failure. This practice, coupled with acute resource constraints, sets up front line staff for scapegoating. Practical/managerial implications: An appreciation of the multiple meanings of public service work and the defensive role played by public institutions stands to inform purposeful change towards sustainable public service organisational practice. Contribution/value-add: The discussion seeks to contribute to attempts that employ systems psychodynamics to make sense of anxiety and defense within organisations in general and public service institutions in particular.

  4. Ineffective participation: reactions to absentee and incompetent nurse leadership in an intensive care unit. (United States)

    Rouse, Ruby A


    The aim of the present study was to analyse reactions to ineffective leader participation in an intensive care unit (ICU). Critical examination of leadership failures helps identify nurse manager behaviours to avoid. An online survey collected data from 51 interacting healthcare providers who work in an intensive care unit. Participants reported dissatisfaction with nurse leaders who were perceived as absent or ill prepared. Participants categorized intensive care unit productivity and morale as moderate to low. Multiple regression suggested the best predictor of perceived unit productivity was supervisor communication; the best predictor of employee morale was perceived leader mentoring. Intensive care unit nurses reported wanting active participation from their leaders and expressed dissatisfaction when supervisors were perceived as absent or incompetent. Ineffective leader participation significantly correlated with lower employee perceptions of productivity and morale. Senior managers should recruit and develop supervisors with effective participation skills. Organizations primarily concerned about productivity should focus on developing the communication skills of nurse leaders. Units mainly concerned with employee morale should emphasize mentorship and role modelling. Formal assessment of nurse leaders by all intensive care unit team members should also be used to proactively identify opportunities for improvement.

  5. [Premature birth in patient with cervix incompetence and history of myasthenia gravis]. (United States)

    Fuentealba, Maximiliano; Troncoso, Miguel; Vallejos, Joaquin; Ponce, Sebastian; Villablanca, Nelson; Melita, Pablo


    Cervical incompetence it's a dilatation of the cervix during the third trimester of pregnancy that ends with the interruption of it. The incidence in Chile is about 0.1-2% of the total pregnancies and it's one of the causes of preterm birth. A 34 years old pregnant patient. Timectomized at age 18 to treat her miastenia gravis, previously trated with medication, had 4 previous preterm labours all of them under 25 weeks and vaginal births. All fetuses died postpartum. A cerclage was made during the third, fourth and fifth pregnancies. She didn't present hypertension during the gestation and no cervical diameter under 15mm. Since the fourth gestation the following tests are taken: Antifosfolipidic antibodies, APTT,PT. All the results are either normal or negative. Microbial cultures were negative. No amniocentesis was made. A McDonald cervical cerclage was made during pregnancies number 3, 4 and 5 on the 16th week to delay the labor. Also oral micronized progesterone, on a 400mg/24 hours dosis, was administered to avoid preterm birth. On the 24th week the pharmacological treatment started including Intramuscular Betamethasone, 12 mg/24 hours (2 doses), to induce lung maturity on the fetus. It is thought that the administration of progesterone could have improved the situation of the patient, because it acts as a labour repressants. The use of cerclage could have helped, but the factors that may influence the effectiveness of this method are unknown. Perhaps there is some immunologic factor associated with the miastenia gravis that alters the normal course of pregnancy.

  6. The physiological basis of Glottal electromagnetic micropower sensors (GEMS) and their use in defining an excitation function for the human vocal tract (United States)

    Burnett, Gregory Clell


    The definition, use, and physiological basis of Glottal Electromagnetic Micropower Sensors (GEMS) is presented. These sensors are a new type of low power (excitation function for the human vocal tract. For the first time, an excitation function may be calculated in near real time using a noninvasive procedure. Several experiments and models are presented to demonstrate that the GEMS signal is representative of the motion of the subglottal posterior wall of the trachea as it vibrates in response to the pressure changes caused by the folds as they modulate the airflow supplied by the lungs. The vibrational properties of the tracheal wall are modeled using a lumped-element circuit model. Taking the output of the vocal tract to be the audio pressure captured by a microphone and the input to be the subglottal pressure, the transfer function of the vocal tract (including the nasal cavities) can be approximated every 10-30 milliseconds using an autoregressive moving-average model. Unlike the currently utilized method of transfer function approximation, this new method only involves noninvasive GEMS measurements and digital signal processing and does not demand the difficult task of obtaining precise physical measurements of the tract and subsequent estimation of the transfer function using its cross-sectional area. The ability to measure the physical motion of the trachea enables a significant number of potential applications, ranging from very accurate pitch detection to speech synthesis, speaker verification, and speech recognition.

  7. Correlation among the dysphonia severity index (DSI), the RBH voice perceptual evaluation, and minimum glottal area in female patients with vocal fold nodules. (United States)

    Hussein Gaber, Ammar Gaber; Liang, Fa-Ya; Yang, Jin-Shan; Wang, Ya-Jing; Zheng, Yi-Qing


    To investigate the clinical significance and correlation of the dysphonia severity index (DSI), the RBH (roughness [R]; breathiness [B]; hoarseness [H]) perceptual voice quality evaluation, and minimum glottal area (MGA) in patients with vocal fold nodules and validate the practicality of the DSI further. The DSI evaluation, the voice RBH perceptual evaluation, and the MGA were performed on 30 female patients with vocal fold nodules (the patient group) and 30 female volunteers with normal voices (the control group). The DSI determination was calculated using the following formula: DSI = 0.13 × MPT + 0.0053 × F(0)-High - 0.26 × I-Low - 1.18 × Jitter(%) + 12.4. The RBH evaluation was graded according to four scales. The MGA was measured by KayPENTAX Kips (7105) software. The differences among the DSI, the RBH grade, and MGA of the patients were compared. The median DSI values of the patient group and the control group were -0.81 and 3.79, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P dysphonia in female patients with vocal nodules has significant clinical application and good correlation with MGA measurement. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondary Hypertension (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  9. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  10. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter

  11. "Macho" Beliefs Moderate the Association Between Negative Sexual Episodes and Activation of Incompetence Schemas in Sexual Context, in Gay and Heterosexual Men. (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro


    Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings

  12. I'll show them: the social construction of (in)competence in survivors of childhood brain tumors. (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Greenberg, Mark; Greenberg, Corin; Spiegler, Brenda


    Multimodal therapy for the treatment of childhood cancer has resulted in increased survival rates, yet as growing cohorts of children mature, late effects are becoming apparent. Specifically, brain tumor survivors tend to have poor social skills, peer relationship problems, academic difficulties, and delayed college entry. This article addresses findings specific to the unique experience of childhood cancer survivors as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. Qualitative methods involving focus groups and in-depth interviews with 14 childhood cancer survivors and 22 family members were used. The dialectic of incompetence/competence pervaded all narratives. Contradictory concepts of integration/ isolation, realistic/unrealistic goals, and the need for special help/no help were underscored by respondents. The struggle to deal with these contradictory factors led to the simultaneous resistance and acceptance of feelings of competence.

  13. Radiofrequency-induced thermal therapy: results of a European multicentre study of resistive ablation of incompetent truncal varicose veins. (United States)

    Braithwaite, B; Hnatek, L; Zierau, U; Camci, M; Akkersdijk, Gjm; Nio, D; Sarlija, M; Ajduk, M; Santoro, P; Roche, E


    To investigate the effectiveness of bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermal therapy (RFITT) in a multicentre non-randomized study. Some 672 incompetent saphenous veins (85% great saphenous varicose vein, 15% short saphenous vein) in 462 patients (56.5% CEAP [clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements] class 3 or worse) were treated in eight European centres. Patients were assessed between 180 and 360 days postoperatively. Occlusion rates were determined by duplex ultrasound and compared with the power used for treatment, pull back rate and experience of the operating surgeon. Complete occlusion rates of 98.4% were achieved when treatments were performed by an experienced operator (more than 20 cases), when the maximum power setting on the RFITT generator was between 18 and 20 W and the applicator was withdrawn at a rate slower than 1.5 second/cm RFITT is efficacious, well tolerated by patients and has a low incidence of procedure-related post-operative complications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The analysis of the prerequisite appearing of the unfair competition in the market of research services to prevent raiding in science. Methodology. During the conducting of this study methods of scientific analysis and synthesis, the benchmarking method, the method of expert estimations were used. Findings. Possible methods of uncompetitive struggle during the performing of scientific research were examined. The urgency of this problem was proved. Therefore, the problem of the prerequisite appearing for incompetence on the market of research services and the task of its prevention and minimization of adverse effects for the development of science and technique is relevant, especially in the period of formation and the reform of the leading branches of the Ukrainian economy. The prerequisite appearing and conditions for the existence of incompetence in scientific activity were analyzed. The classification of the main ways of raiding was proposed and its justification was proved. Originality. The investigation of the phenomenon of unfair competition in the field of research services was pro-posed. The methods and means of competition between scientific organizations and individual scientists in some fields of knowledge were analyzed. The concept of "raiding" was introduced for the first time in the intellectual sphere. Practical value. The research results can be used to analyze the activity of scientific and engineering organizations, which carry out various studies to assess the validity and legitimacy of the obtained results, and to prevent raiding in science. The results of the study have practical value for public and private organizations in the determination of the competent performers to conduct research and development services, including expertise, and especially related to the evaluation of material losses or lost earnings when the impartiality and independence of this assessment is the guarantee of obtaining the reliable and

  15. Formação continuada de professores e fracasso escolar: problematizando o argumento da incompetência Teacher continued education and school failure: problematizing the argument of incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Trento Rebello de Souza


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o tema da formação docente, especialmente a formação continuada e sua relação com a baixa qualidade dos sistemas públicos de ensino; e apresenta análises de pesquisa sobre os principais programas educacionais implementados pelo governo do estado de São Paulo entre os anos 1982 e 1994. Além da análise documental, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa empírica que incluiu um estudo de caso de um dos projetos de formação continuada idealizados à época da implementação da Escola Padrão (1991-1994. As análises da literatura educacional e dos programas educacionais indicam que a formação continuada de professores foi encarada como elemento estratégico para forjar a competência do professor. O texto segue registrando a presença de um discurso que tem sustentado a crescente importância atribuída à formação continuada de professores, projetos e ações que visam à melhoria da qualidade dos sistemas de ensino. Trata-se do argumento da incompetência que é então descrito e problematizado. São apresentadas as várias versões que tal argumento assume, de acordo com o contexto no qual comparece, bem como as diferentes apropriações feitas pelos vários atores envolvidos nas políticas de formação continuada, desde os idealizadores dos programas até os professores participantes. Advoga-se que o argumento da incompetência tem fundamentado concepções e práticas reducionistas e homogeneizantes da formação continuada. Reitera-se a importância de se considerar, nas políticas de formação continuada, a heterogeneidade que caracteriza o corpo docente e as escolas e de se desenvolverem políticas educacionais mais abrangentes que visem melhorar de fato a qualidade dos serviços educacionais e não apenas a competência de seus professores.This article deals with the theme of teacher education, especially with continued education and its relation with the low quality of public school systems. It presents

  16. Comparison of urethral pressure profilometry and contrast radiography in the diagnosis of incompetence of the urethral sphincter mechanism in bitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, S.P.; Cripps, P.J.; Holt, P.E.


    Three diagnostic indicators of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence were compared in 25 continent and 25 incontinent anaesthetised bitches: the resting urethral pressure profile, the stressed urethral pressure profile and the radiographic position of the bladder neck. Logistic regression indicated that the best predictor of continence status was the stressed urethral pressure profile as assessed by the percentage of negative peaks extending below the resting intravesical pressure; it classified 43 of the 50 dogs correctly. The radiographic position of the bladder neck was a better predictor of continence than either the measurement of functional profile length or the maximum urethral closure pressure from the resting urethral pressure profile, whether alone or in combination. By combining the percentage of negative peaks on the stressed profile with the position of the bladder neck, 46 of the 50 dogs were classified correctly. Cut-off values for the percentage of negative peaks on the stressed urethral pressure profile, and for the radiographic position of the bladder neck are suggested for use in evaluating incontinent bitches in clinical practice

  17. Clinical Study of Phlebitis Migrans and Incompetence of the Leg’s Superficial Vein in Buerger Disease (United States)

    Iwai, Takehisa; Sato; Kume, Hiroko; Inoue, Yoshinori; Umeda, Makoto; Kagayama, Tomoko; Hirokawa, Masayuki


    Three of four (75%) vein biopsy samples from four patients (all male, mean onset: age 33.0, mean biopsy: age 59.7) of chronic phase phlebitis migrans showed positive periodontal bacteria DNA under the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method. Of the 24 cases of Buerger disease (22 males, 2 females, mean onset: age 31.9, mean examination: age 62.6) that were investigated in our vascular laboratory, 65% of the patients suffered from moderate to severe varicose veins. Eight cases had a history of phlebitis migrans and three had an active ulcer or uncontrollable erosion in the foot. The rate of incidence was significantly higher than that of the well-matched control group. Other findings included one instance of deep vein thrombosis, and one instance of deep vein reflux. We could suggest that some intractable ulcer or erosion cases of Buerger disease may be complicated by superficial vein incompetence or other deep vein insufficiency. We also we need to check Buerger disease patients with duplex for vein reflux and other insufficiencies. Treatment of the varicose veins (including elastic stockings) was effective for all of the patients. (English Translation of Jpn J Phlebology 2011; 22: 25–31.) PMID:23555485

  18. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Luis; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pía; Andía, Marcelo; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo; Uribe, Sergio


    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  19. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail:; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)


    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  20. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition. (United States)

    Woodward, Bill


    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition.

  1. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition (United States)

    Woodward, Bill


    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  2. Características acústicas da oclusiva glotal associada à sequência de Pierre Robin: estudo de caso Acoustic characteristics of glottal stop associated to Pierre Robin Sequence: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino


    Full Text Available A fissura de palato, em associação à Sequência de Pierre Robin, pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de produções atípicas (compensatórias, na fala da criança, como é o caso da oclusiva glotal (golpe de glote comumente observada em substituição aos sons oclusivos (vozeados ou não. No presente estudo, foi realizada a análise dos parâmetros fonético-acústicos da oclusiva glotal produzidas em /k/ e /g/ por uma criança do gênero feminino, com 5 anos, que apresentava fissura de palato reparada, associada à Sequência de Pierre Robin. Para isso, foram selecionadas seis palavras em que a oclusiva velar encontrava-se na posição inicial da palavra e combinada com as vogais /a/, /i/ e /u/ na posição acentuada. Foi ainda realizado julgamento perceptivo-auditivo por três fonoaudiólogos, que apresentou concordância quanto à presença da oclusiva glotal de 100% para ambas as relações (intra e inter-juízes. Na inspeção dos dados via espectrograma foi observada variabilidade dos parâmetros espectrais (burst e transição formântica e essas variações também puderam ser computadas considerando as vogais separadamente. A análise estatística revelou diferença estatisticamente significante entre as duas consoantes velares (/k/ e /g/ nos parâmetros espectral (burst, temporal (VOT e duração relativa da oclusiva na palavra e os relativos às características acústicas das vogais adjacentes às oclusivas (período estacionário de F3. Por fim, as características acústicas da oclusiva glotal sugeriram que a criança pode ter utilizado de estratégias para marcar contrastes fônicos na língua, ainda que os mesmos não tenham magnitude suficiente para serem resgatados auditivamente pelo ouvinte.The cleft palate, in association with Pierre Robin Sequence, may foster the development of atypical (compensatory productions on the child’s speech such as the use of glottal stop as a substitution for occlusive sounds (voiced or

  3. Características acústicas da oclusiva glotal associada à sequência de Pierre Robin: estudo de caso Acoustic characteristics of glottal stop associated to Pierre Robin Sequence: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino


    Full Text Available A fissura de palato, em associação à Sequência de Pierre Robin, pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de produções atípicas (compensatórias, na fala da criança, como é o caso da oclusiva glotal (golpe de glote comumente observada em substituição aos sons oclusivos (vozeados ou não. No presente estudo, foi realizada a análise dos parâmetros fonético-acústicos da oclusiva glotal produzidas em /k/ e /g/ por uma criança do gênero feminino, com 5 anos, que apresentava fissura de palato reparada, associada à Sequência de Pierre Robin. Para isso, foram selecionadas seis palavras em que a oclusiva velar encontrava-se na posição inicial da palavra e combinada com as vogais /a/, /i/ e /u/ na posição acentuada. Foi ainda realizado julgamento perceptivo-auditivo por três fonoaudiólogos, que apresentou concordância quanto à presença da oclusiva glotal de 100% para ambas as relações (intra e inter-juízes. Na inspeção dos dados via espectrograma foi observada variabilidade dos parâmetros espectrais (burst e transição formântica e essas variações também puderam ser computadas considerando as vogais separadamente. A análise estatística revelou diferença estatisticamente significante entre as duas consoantes velares (/k/ e /g/ nos parâmetros espectral (burst, temporal (VOT e duração relativa da oclusiva na palavra e os relativos às características acústicas das vogais adjacentes às oclusivas (período estacionário de F3. Por fim, as características acústicas da oclusiva glotal sugeriram que a criança pode ter utilizado de estratégias para marcar contrastes fônicos na língua, ainda que os mesmos não tenham magnitude suficiente para serem resgatados auditivamente pelo ouvinte.The cleft palate, in association with Pierre Robin Sequence, may foster the development of atypical (compensatory productions on the child’s speech such as the use of glottal stop as a substitution for occlusive sounds (voiced or

  4. [Secondary hypertension]. (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka


    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  5. Secondary Evaluations. (United States)

    Cook, Thomas D.

    Secondary evaluations, in which an investigator takes a body of evaluation data collected by a primary evaluation researcher and examines the data to see if the original conclusions about the program correspond with his own, are discussed. The different kinds of secondary evaluations and the advantages and disadvantages of each are pointed out,…

  6. Secondary Headaches (United States)

    ... in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can be caused by general medical conditions such as severe hypertension, or by conditions that affect the brain and ...

  7. [Correlation analysis of cement leakage with volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and vertebral body wall incompetence in percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures]. (United States)

    Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Huang, Weiquan; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Yongchao; Zhang, Shuncong; Jin, Daxiang


    To investigate the risk factors of cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Between March 2011 and March 2012, 98 patients with single level OVCF were treated by PVP, and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 77.2 years (range, 54-95 years). The mean disease duration was 43 days (range, 15-120 days), and the mean T score of bone mineral density (BMD) was -3.8 (range, -6.7- -2.5). Bilateral transpedicular approach was used in all the patients. The patients were divided into cement leakage group and no cement leakage group by occurrence of cement leakage based on postoperative CT. Single factor analysis was used to analyze the difference between 2 groups in T score of BMD, operative level, preoperative anterior compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative middle compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative sagittal Cobb angle of operative vertebrae, preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence, cement volume, and volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body. All relevant factors were introduced to logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors of cement leakage. All procedures were performed successfully. The mean operation time was 40 minutes (range, 30-50 minutes), and the mean volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body was 24.88% (range, 7.84%-38.99%). Back pain was alleviated significantly in all the patients postoperatively. All patients were followed up with a mean time of 8 months (range, 6-12 months). Cement leakage occurred in 49 patients. Single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence between 2 groups (P 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body (P

  8. Strategic ambiguities in the process of consent: role of the family in decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatment for incompetent elderly patients. (United States)

    Tse, Chun-yan; Tao, Julia; Chun-yan, Tse


    This paper evaluates the Hong Kong approach to consent regarding the forgoing of life-sustaining treatment for incompetent elderly patients. It analyzes the contextualized approach in the Hong Kong process-based, consensus-building model, in contrast to other role-based models which emphasize the establishment of a system of formal laws and a clear locus of decisional authority. Without embracing relativism, the paper argues that the Hong Kong model offers an instructive example of how strategic ambiguities can both make good sense within particular cultural context and serve important moral goals.

  9. Caracterização da gravidez com insuficiência istmocervical Characterization of pregnancy with cervical incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Costa Rodrigues


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar características comuns às portadoras de insuficiência istmocervical (IIC que serviriam para reconhecê-las precocemente e auxiliariam no seguimento do ciclo gravídico-puerperal. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: cinqüenta gestantes portadoras de IIC submetidas à circlagem uterina segundo a técnica de McDonald modificada foram analisadas em estudo descritivo observacional. Por meio dos dados dos prontuários, foram estudadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, antecedentes obstétricos, momento do diagnóstico de IIC, aspectos relativos à circlagem e incidência de prematuridade. RESULTADOS: em média, a idade materna foi de 29,2 anos e o número de gestações anteriores foi de 3,7. Quanto aos antecedentes obstétricos, tivemos 189 gestações anteriores; em 18 delas já se tinha o diagnóstico de IIC e a circlagem havia sido realizada, tendo resultado em 18 crianças vivas (8 nasceram prematuramente e 10 no termo. Das 171 prenhezes prévias em que o diagnóstico de IIC não estava firmado, 90 evoluíram para abortamentos, 68 foram partos pré-termos e 13 de termo. Em relação ao momento do diagnóstico de IIC, 30 (60% pacientes tiveram-no firmado no intervalo entre os partos e 20 (40% durante a gestação. A idade gestacional média em que as pacientes foram submetidas à circlagem foi de 18,2 semanas; 40% das circlagens foram de urgência e 60% eletivas. A incidência de prematuridade foi de 30% (15/50. CONCLUSÃO: a avaliação obstétrica cuidadosa de multigestas com perdas gestacionais recorrentes, no intervalo entre os partos e/ou no primeiro trimestre da gravidez, pode permitir o diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado da IIC, evitando a prematuridade.PURPOSE: to identify characteristics common to women who suffer from cervical incompetence (CI allowing their early identification and helping in the follow-up of the gestational-postdelivery cycle. PATIENTS AND METHODS: fifty pregnant women suffering from CI and submitted

  10. Secondary osteoporosis. (United States)

    Gennari, C; Martini, G; Nuti, R


    Generalized osteoporosis currently represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with many different causes and pathogenetic mechanisms, that often are variably associated. The term "secondary" is applied to all patients with osteoporosis in whom the identifiable causal factors are other than menopause and aging. In this heterogeneous group of conditions, produced by many different pathogenetic mechanisms, a negative bone balance may be variably associated with low, normal or increased bone remodeling states. A consistent group of secondary osteoporosis is related to endocrinological or iatrogenic causes. Exogenous hypercortisolism may be considered an important risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in the community, and probably glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common type of secondary osteoporosis. Supraphysiological doses of corticosteroids cause two abnormalities in bone metabolism: a relative increase in bone resorption, and a relative reduction in bone formation. Bone loss, mostly of trabecular bone, with its resultant fractures is the most incapacitating consequence of osteoporosis. The estimated incidence of fractures in patients prescribed corticosteroid is 30% to 50%. Osteoporosis is considered one of the potentially serious side effects of heparin therapy. The occurrence of heparin-induced osteoporosis appeared to be strictly related to the length of treatment (over 4-5 months), and the dosage (15,000 U or more daily), but the pathogenesis is poorly understood. It has been suggested that heparin could cause an increase in bone resorption by increasing the number of differentiated osteoclasts, and by enhancing the activity of individual osteoclasts. Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with loss of trabecular and cortical bone; the enhanced bone turnover that develops in thyrotoxicosis is characterized by an increase in the number of osteoclasts and resorption sites, and an increase in the ratio of resorptive to formative bone

  11. Secondary osteoporosis. (United States)

    Boyle, I T


    Osteoporosis with attendant increased fracture risk is a common complication of many other diseases. Indeed, almost all chronic diseases make some impact on life-style, usually by restricting physical activity and hence reducing the anabolic effect of exercise and gravitational strains on the skeleton. Restricted appetite and modified gastrointestinal tract function is another commonplace finding that has an impact on bone nutrition and synthesis, as on other systems. Sex hormone status is of particular importance for the maintenance of the normal skeleton, and the postmenopausal woman is at particular risk for most causes of secondary osteoporosis. In dealing with secondary osteoporosis in the hypo-oestrogenic woman, the question of giving hormone replacement therapy in addition to other disease-specific therapy should always be considered, as, for example, in a young amenorrhoeic woman with Crohn's disease. Similarly, in hypogonadal men the administration of testosterone is useful for bone conservation. The wider availability of bone densitometry ought to make us more aware of the presence of osteoporosis in the many disease states discussed above. This is particularly important as the life span of such patients is now increased by improved management of the underlying disease process in many instances. Even in steroid-induced osteoporosis--one of the commonest and most severe forms of osteoporosis--we now have some effective therapy in the form of the bisphosphonates and other anti-bone-resorbing drug classes. The possibility of prophylaxis against secondary osteoporosis has therefore become a possibility, although the very long-term effects of such drug regimens are still unknown. In some situations, such as thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's syndrome and immobilization, spontaneous resolution of at least part of the osteoporosis is possible after cure of the underlying problem. The shorter the existence of the basic problem, the more successful the restoration of the

  12. A ringed fascia lata graft without peritendinous areolar tissue encircling the levator veli palatini and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles gradually shrinks to reduce velopharyngeal incompetence, functioning as an intravelar palatal lift. (United States)

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke


    We have previously reported that fascia lata grafts with peritendinous areolar tissue used to treat severe congenital blepharoptosis gradually shrink within 6 weeks postoperatively and maintain long-term shrinkage of 15.5% on average. Accordingly, it seemed possible that a fascia lata graft without peritendinous areolar tissue would shrink more than the one with peritendinous areolar tissue in a clinical setting. We evaluated this possibility in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome having postoperative deep atonic nasopharynx. In combination with intravelar veloplasty and palatal lengthening with modified bilateral buccinator sandwich pushback, a ringed fascia lata without peritendinous areolar tissue encircling the levator veli palatini and superior constrictor muscles was grafted to cure severe velopharyngeal incompetence. Obstructive sleep apnea did not occur following surgery. Pharyngoscopy, videofluoroscopy, and nasometry showed no amelioration of velopharyngeal incompetence at 1 month postoperatively, but marked velopharyngeal incompetence reduction was evident at 4 months and 2 years after surgery. The extended recovery period suggests that the anticipated postoperative shrinkage of the ringed fascia lata without peritendinous areolar tissue played a more prominent role than intravelar veloplasty and palatal lengthening, which posteroinferiorly elongated the atonic soft palate. Although the pharyngeal flap procedure is the most popular technique for treatment of velopharyngeal incompetence, it is sometimes accompanied by respiratory complications. Thus, the gradual postoperative shrinkage of a ringed fascia lata graft encircling the velopharyngeal muscles functions as an intravelar palatal lift and may be an additional surgical method with less respiratory complications to narrow atonic nasopharyngeal port.

  13. Factors affecting optimal linear endovenous energy density for endovenous laser ablation in incompetent lower limb truncal veins - A review of the clinical evidence. (United States)

    Cowpland, Christine A; Cleese, Amy L; Whiteley, Mark S


    Objectives The objective is to identify the factors that affect the optimal linear endovenous energy density (LEED) to ablate incompetent truncal veins. Methods We performed a literature review of clinical studies, which reported truncal vein ablation rates and LEED. A PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) flow diagram documents the search strategy. We analysed 13 clinical papers which fulfilled the criteria to be able to compare results of great saphenous vein occlusion as defined by venous duplex ultrasound, with the LEED used in the treatment. Results Evidence suggests that the optimal LEED for endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein is >80 J/cm and water might have a lower optimal LEED. A LEED 80 J/cm and <95 J/cm based on current evidence for shorter wavelength lasers. There is evidence that longer wavelength lasers may be effective at LEEDs of <85 J/cm.

  14. Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm caused to patients through incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence regarding the availability of hospital equipment. (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, David Jan


    There have been several reports of state hospitals not having functional equipment such as radiological equipment. Where these are due to incompetence, Indifference, maladministration or negligence by the public officials concerned, they may be held personally liable for the resulting harm to patients. However, the courts have often observed that where the State has been sued vicariously for the wrongs of public officials, it has not obtained reimbursement from the offending official. It has therefore been suggested that irresponsible public servants should be sued in their personal capacity (in addition to the State), to prevent taxpayers always having to pay for their misdeeds. If an individual public official cannot afford to pay all the damages awarded, the injured party can recover the balance from the State by citing it as a vicarious joint wrongdoer.

  15. "Too stubborn to ever be governed by enforced insanity": Some therapeutic jurisprudence dilemmas in the representation of criminal defendants in incompetency and insanity cases. (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L


    Little attention has been paid to the importance of the relationship between therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) and the role of criminal defense lawyers in insanity and incompetency-to-stand-trial (IST) cases. That inattention is especially noteworthy in light of the dismal track record of counsel providing services to defendants who are part of this cohort of incompetency-status-raisers and insanity-defense-pleaders. On one hand, this lack of attention is a surprise as TJ scholars have, in recent years, turned their attention to virtually every other aspect of the legal system. On the other hand, it is not a surprise, given the omnipresence of sanism, an irrational prejudice of the same quality and character of other irrational prejudices that cause (and are reflected in) prevailing social attitudes of racism, sexism, homophobia, and ethnic bigotry, that infects both our jurisprudence and our lawyering practices. Sanism is largely invisible and largely socially acceptable, and is based predominantly upon stereotype, myth, superstition, and deindividualization. It is sustained and perpetuated by our use of alleged "ordinary common sense" (OCS) and heuristic reasoning in an unconscious response to events both in everyday life and in the legal process. This paper examines the literature that seeks to apply TJ principles to the criminal law process in general, drawing mostly on the work of Professor David Wexler. It considers why the lack of attention that I have referred to already is surprising (given TJ's mandate and the fact that many TJ issues are inevitably raised in any insanity or IST case). The paper then considers why this lack of attention is not surprising, given the omnipresence of sanism. It will consider some of the actual counseling issues that might arise in these contexts, and offer some suggestions to lawyers representing clients in cases in which mental status issues may be raised. The paper concludes that we must rigorously apply therapeutic

  16. Suppression of leaky expression of adenovirus genes by insertion of microRNA-targeted sequences in the replication-incompetent adenovirus vector genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahori Shimizu


    Full Text Available Leaky expression of adenovirus (Ad genes occurs following transduction with a conventional replication-incompetent Ad vector, leading to an induction of cellular immunity against Ad proteins and Ad protein-induced toxicity, especially in the late phase following administration. To suppress the leaky expression of Ad genes, we developed novel Ad vectors by incorporating four tandem copies of sequences with perfect complementarity to miR-122a or miR-142-3p into the 3′-untranslated region (UTR of the E2A, E4, or pIX gene, which were mainly expressed from the Ad vector genome after transduction. These Ad vectors easily grew to high titers comparable to those of a conventional Ad vector in conventional 293 cells. The leaky expression of these Ad genes in mouse organs was significantly suppressed by 2- to 100-fold, compared with a conventional Ad vector, by insertion of the miRNA-targeted sequences. Notably, the Ad vector carrying the miR-122a–targeted sequences into the 3′-UTR of the E4 gene expressed higher and longer-term transgene expression and more than 20-fold lower levels of all the Ad early and late genes examined in the liver than a conventional Ad vector. miR-122a–mediated suppression of the E4 gene expression in the liver significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity which an Ad vector causes via both adaptive and non-adaptive immune responses.

  17. Modified Valsalva test differentiates primary from secondary cough headache. (United States)

    Lane, Russell J M; Davies, Paul T G


    The current definition of cough headache includes provocation of the symptom by Valsalva manoeuvre, and it is generally believed that all cough headache results from a sudden increase in intracranial pressure. We sought to question that presumption and to determine whether the Valsalva test might distinguish primary from secondary cough headache. We examined 16 consecutive cough headache patients using a modified Valsalva test (exhalation into the connecting tube of a standard anaeroid sphygmomanometer to 60 mm Hg for 10 seconds). A positive response was recorded if the manoeuvre provoked headache. All patients subsequently underwent brain MRI. None of the patients had neurological signs. Eleven had positive modified Valsalva tests. Ten were found subsequently to have posterior fossa pathologies (secondary cough headache: 8 Chiari Type 1 malformations, 2 posterior fossa meningiomas). The cough headache was relieved following surgery in all cases. One patient with a positive Valsalva test had an apparently normal brain MRI but measurements of hindbrain and posterior fossa dimensions were consistent with 'posterior fossa crowdedness'. The remaining 5 patients had negative (4 patients) or equivocal (1 patient) Valsalva tests and normal MRI scans (primary cough headache). These findings suggest that secondary cough headache results from a transient increase in intracranial CSF pressure during exertion in the presence of obstruction to normal cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The modified Valsalva test can also determine whether tonsillar herniation found on brain MRI is symptomatic. Primary cough headache appears to be caused by a different mechanism, possibly through congestion of the orbital venous plexus in the presence of jugular venous incompetence and a reduced threshold for trigeminal sensory activation.

  18. Critical significance of the region between Helix 1 and 2 for efficient dominant-negative inhibition by conversion-incompetent prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Taguchi

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders in man and animals associated with the accumulation of the pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(c. A profound conformational change of PrP(c underlies formation of PrP(Sc and prion propagation involves conversion of PrP(c substrate by direct interaction with PrP(Sc template. Identifying the interfaces and modalities of inter-molecular interactions of PrPs will highly advance our understanding of prion propagation in particular and of prion-like mechanisms in general. To identify the region critical for inter-molecular interactions of PrP, we exploited here dominant-negative inhibition (DNI effects of conversion-incompetent, internally-deleted PrP (ΔPrP on co-expressed conversion-competent PrP. We created a series of ΔPrPs with different lengths of deletions in the region between first and second α-helix (H1∼H2 which was recently postulated to be of importance in prion species barrier and PrP fibril formation. As previously reported, ΔPrPs uniformly exhibited aberrant properties including detergent insolubility, limited protease digestion resistance, high-mannose type N-linked glycans, and intracellular localization. Although formerly controversial, we demonstrate here that ΔPrPs have a GPI anchor attached. Surprisingly, despite very similar biochemical and cell-biological properties, DNI efficiencies of ΔPrPs varied significantly, dependant on location and inversely correlated with the size of deletion. This data demonstrates that H1∼H2 and the region C-terminal to it are critically important for efficient DNI. It also suggests that this region is involved in PrP-PrP interaction and conversion of PrP(C into PrP(Sc. To reconcile the paradox of how an intracellular PrP can exert DNI, we demonstrate that ΔPrPs are subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal/autophagic degradation pathways. Using autophagy pathways ΔPrPs obtain access to the locale

  19. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.


    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  20. "Learned Helplessness" or "Learned Incompetence"? (United States)

    Sergent, Justine; Lambert, Wallace E.

    Studies in the past have shown that reinforcements independent of the subjects actions may induce a feeling of helplessness. Most experiments on learned helplessness have led researchers to believe that uncontrollability (non-contingency of feedback upon response) was the determining feature of learned helplessness, although in most studies…

  1. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.


    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  2. Quantitative secondary electron detection (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi


    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  3. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.


    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  4. Secondary fuel delivery system (United States)

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.


    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  5. Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. (United States)

    Jamal, Sophie A; Miller, Paul D


    We reviewed the etiology and management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is appropriate and in response to a stimulus, most commonly low serum calcium. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium is normal and the PTH level is elevated. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of PTH after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which hypercalcemia has ensued. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs in men and women with chronic kidney disease usually after kidney transplant. The etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively straightforward whereas data on the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism is limited to a few small trials with short follow-up. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching secondary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, David


    Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi

  7. Secondary amenorrhea (image) (United States)

    Secondary amenorrhea is the cessation of menstrual flow for a period of 6 months or more in the absence ... as anxiety can be the root cause of amenorrhea. Treatment can range from behavior modification for excessive ...

  8. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS


    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  9. Secondary Fire Analysis. (United States)


    Megaton Weapons and Secondary Ignition There are very few well documented data on fires initiated by physical damage (i.e., secondary ignitions). Those data...where significant physical damage to buildings and/or contents can occur. Where this outer bound is located relative to the primary ignition range is...maintenance 7.9 Busline facilities, including shops 3.0 Convalescent homes8 3.1 Hospitals 8.0 Radio and television transmitters Collges and universities

  10. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma. (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji


    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.


    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and

  12. Two secondary drops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure shows formation of two secondary drops of unequal size and their merger. The process is same as the earlier process until t= 0.039 Tc with necking occurring at two places, one at the bottom of the column and the other at the middle. The necking at the middle of the liquid column is due to Raleigh instability.

  13. [Primary and secondary encopresis]. (United States)

    Lang-Langer, Ellen


    While the difficulty of the child to part with its faeces in primary encopresis is linked to the incapability to experience the object as separated and independent from himself, secondary encopresis is a progressed psychical state of development. In this case we have to deal with regression caused by conflict. Two case-studies show clearly the differences.

  14. [Secondary thrombotic microangiopathies]. (United States)

    Coppo, P


    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are termed secondary when associated to a specific context favouring their occurrence. They encompass mainly TMA associated with pregnancy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cancer, drugs, or HIV infection. Secondary TMA represent a heterogeneous group of diseases which clinical presentation largely depends on the associated context. It is therefore mandatory to recognize these conditions since they have a significant impact in TMA management and prognosis. A successful management still represents a challenge in secondary TMA. Significant progresses have been made in the understanding of pregnancy-associated TMA, allowing an improvement of prognosis; on the opposite, other forms of secondary TMA such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated TMA or TMA associated with chemotherapy remain of dismal prognosis. A better understanding of pathophysiology in these forms of TMA, in association with a more empirical approach through the use of new therapeutic agents that can also help in the understanding on new mechanisms a posteriori, should improve their prognosis. The preliminary encouraging results reported with complement blockers in this field could represent a convincing example. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Secondary coolant purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiteler, F.Z.; Donohue, J.P.


    The present invention combines the attributes of volatile chemical addition, continuous blowdown, and full flow condensate demineralization. During normal plant operation (defined as no primary to secondary leakage) condensate from the condenser is pumped through a full flow condensate demineralizer system by the condensate pumps. Volatile chemical additions are made. Dissolved and suspended solids are removed in the condensate polishers by ion exchange and/or filtration. At the same time a continuous blowdown of approximately 1 percent of the main steaming rate of the steam generators is maintained. Radiation detectors monitor the secondary coolant. If these monitors indicate no primary to secondary leakage, the blowdown is cooled and returned directly to the condensate pump discharge. If one of the radiation monitors should indicate a primary to secondary leak, when the temperature of the effluent exiting from the blowdown heat exchanger is compatible with the resin specifications of the ion exchangers, the bypass valve causes the blowdown flow to pass through the blowdown ion exchangers

  16. Secondary hypertension in adults. (United States)

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong


    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  17. Secondary combined suicide pact. (United States)

    Jayanth, S H; Girish Chandra, Y P; Hugar, Basappa S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar


    This article reports a combined suicide pact, where in a young couple; a 26 year old male and a 20 year old female committed suicide by using two methods. The couple had resorted to hanging and self-immolation to prevent failure of single method alone. In secondary combined suicides, several other methods of suicide are tried after the first method chosen has failed. It is primary combined suicide only when two or more methods are used simultaneously. Both types of combined suicide by one individual is well reported in the literature whereas the same by two persons together is rare. In this report, the deceased were disappointed lovers, poor and the family members were against their marriage. The investigation of scene, methods employed to commit suicide, autopsy findings and the interview with their relatives altogether suggested that it was a secondary combined suicide pact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.


    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  19. Secondary Breast Augmentation. (United States)

    Brown, Mitchell H; Somogyi, Ron B; Aggarwal, Shagun


    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Assess common clinical problems in the secondary breast augmentation patient. 2. Describe a treatment plan to correct the most common complications of breast augmentation. 3. Provide surgical and nonsurgical options for managing complications of breast augmentation. 4. Decrease the incidence of future complications through accurate assessment, preoperative planning, and precise surgical technique. Breast augmentation has been increasing steadily in popularity over the past three decades. Many of these patients present with secondary problems or complications following their primary breast augmentation. Two of the most common complications are capsular contracture and implant malposition. Familiarity and comfort with the assessment and management of these complications is necessary for all plastic surgeons. An up-to-date understanding of current devices and techniques may decrease the need to manage future complications from the current cohort of breast augmentation patients.

  20. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask


    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  1. Characteristics and generation of secondary jets and secondary gigantic jets (United States)

    Lee, Li-Jou; Huang, Sung-Ming; Chou, Jung-Kung; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chen, Alfred B.; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Frey, Harald U.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Lee, Lou-Chuang


    Secondary transient luminous events (TLEs) recorded by the ISUAL-FORMOSAT2 mission can either be secondary jets or secondary gigantic jets (GJs), depending on their terminal altitudes. The secondary jets emerge from the cloud top beneath the preceding sprites and extend upward to the base of the sprites at ˜50 km. The secondary jets likely are negative electric discharges with vertically straight luminous columns, morphologically resembling the trailing jet of the type-I GJs. The number of luminous columns in a secondary jet seems to be affected by the size of the effective capacitor plate formed near the base of the preceding sprites and the charge distribution left behind by the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges. The secondary GJs originate from the cloud top under the shielding area of the preceding sprites, and develop upward to reach the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. The observed morphology of the secondary GJs can either be the curvy shifted secondary GJs extending outside the region occupied by the preceding sprites or the straight pop-through secondary GJs developing through the center of the preceding circular sprites. A key factor in determining the terminal height of the secondary TLEs appears to be the local ionosphere boundary height that established by the preceding sprites. The abundance and the distribution of the negative charge in the thundercloud following the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges may play important role in the generation of the secondary TLEs.

  2. Causes of secondary headache (image) (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  3. Secondary beams at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.


    GANIL, a user's facility since 1983, can deliver a broad spectrum of heavy-ion beams, from He to U, to well-equipped experimental areas. Their very large intensities are to be exploited to produce secondary beams, either using the fragmentation method (beams at energy per nucleon larger than 30 MeV/u), or the ISOL method. With the latter one, these ions have to be re-accelerated. The project of a cyclotron as a post-accelerator is described. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Secondary Vertex Finder Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Heer, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration


    If a jet originates from a b-quark, a b-hadron is formed during the fragmentation process. In its dominant decay modes, the b-hadron decays into a c-hadron via the electroweak interaction. Both b- and c-hadrons have lifetimes long enough, to travel a few millimetres before decaying. Thus displaced vertices from b- and subsequent c-hadron decays provide a strong signature for a b-jet. Reconstructing these secondary vertices (SV) and their properties is the aim of this algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is studied with tt̄ events, requiring at least one lepton, simulated at 13 TeV.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina


    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  6. [Secondary osteoporosis in gynecology]. (United States)

    Taguchi, Y; Gorai, I


    Several diseases and medications are known to induce secondary osteoporosis. Among them, same situations are related to gynecological field. They include Turner's syndrome, anorexia nervosa, ovarian dysfunction, oophorectomy, GnRH agonist therapy, and osteoporosis associated with pregnancy. We briefly describe these secondary osteoporosis in this article as follows. Several studies have found osteoporosis to be a common complication of Turner's syndrome and hormone replacement therapy has been used as a possible management; in anorexic patient, low body weight, prolonged amenorrhea, early onset of anorexia nervosa, and hypercortisolism have been reported to be risks for bone demineralization; since oophorectomy which is a common intervention in gynecology leads osteoporosis, it is important to prevent osteoporosis caused by surgery as well as postmenopausal osteoporosis; GnRH agonist, which induces estrogen deficient state and affect bone mass, is commonly used as a management for endometriosis and leiomyoma of uterus; associated with pregnancy, post-pregnancy spinal osteoporosis and transient osteoporosis of the hip are clinically considered to be important and heparin therapy and magnesium sulfate therapy are commonly employed during pregnancy, affecting calcium homeostasis.

  7. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.


    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  8. Transitions in Secondary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben


    statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social......The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Population-based registers are used to include information on family upbringing, e.g. alcohol abuse, criminality, use of psychopharmaca and out-of-home placement. We estimate a parsimonious version of Cameron and Heckman's (2001) dynamic...

  9. [Secondary orbital lymphoma]. (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D


    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. HANARO secondary coolant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Duk.


    In this report, the basic theory for management of water quality, environmental factors influencing to the coolant, chemicals and its usage for quality control of coolant are mentioned, and water balance including the loss rate by evaporation (34.3 m 3 /hr), discharge rate (12.665 m 3 /hr), concentration ratio and feed rate (54.1 m 3 /hr) are calculated at 20 MW operation. Also, the analysis data of HANSU Limited for HANARO secondary coolant (feed water and circulating coolant) - turbidity, pH, conductivity, M-alkalinity, Ca-hardness, chloride ion, total iron ion, phosphoric ion and conversion rate are reviewed. It is confirmed that the feed water has good quality and the circulating coolant has been maintained within the control specification in general, but some items exceeded the control specification occasionally. Therefore it is judged that more regular discharge of coolant is needed. (author). 6 refs., 17 tabs., 18 figs

  11. New secondary energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.


    As an introduction, the FRG's energy industry situation is described, secondary energy systems to be taken into consideration are classified, and appropriate market requirements are analyzed. Dealt with is district heating, i.e. the direct transport of heat by means of circulating media, and long-distance energy, i.e. the long-distance energy transport by means of chemical conversion in closed- or open-cycle systems. In closed-cycle systems heat is transported in the form of chemical latent energy. In contrast to this, chemical energy is transported in open-cycle systems in the form of fuel gases produced by coal gasification or by thermochemical water splitting. (GG) [de

  12. Secondary interactions in HIJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longacre, R.S.


    This talk deals with the investigation of secondary interactions in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions using the Monte Carlo event generator HIJET. The HIJET generator considers p-A and A-A collisions to be a sum of independent N-N collisions, with the N-N cross section and scattering dynamics not dependent on whether the nucleon has previously participated in an interaction. It is very reasonable to assume that each collision should be well represented by an independent N-N collision, however the cross section for the forward going struck nucleon may be different. For each primary N-N interaction, a call is made to the MINBIAS routine of the program ISAJET - an event generator for high energy N-N interactions. MINBIAS computes the energy loss of the colliding nucleons and production of particles. MINBIAS is based on inclusive high energy N-N interactions forming multi-pomeron chains, with each chain fragmenting according to the Field-Feynman algorithm

  13. [Uveitic Secondary Glaucoma]. (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Claudia; Heinz, Carsten


    An intraocular pressure increase with development of glaucomatous damage is a common complication of uveitis. The prevalence has a wide range depending on various factors such as the underlying uveitis type and the duration of the disease. Pathogenetically, a distinction must be made between a secondary angle closure component and the more frequently occurring open-angle glaucoma. In diagnostics, in addition to the clinical optic nerve head assessment, perimetry and tonometry, the use of imaging examination equipment, such as OCT and HRT, are recommended. In the context of uveitic glaucoma, it must be considered in the evaluation, because the glaucoma-typical changes are generally less pronounced or can be concealed by retinal swelling in comparison with other forms of glaucoma. Therapeutically, drug therapy in the form of eye drops continues to be a first-line recommendation, with the use of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or beta-blockers primarily preferred, depending on the contraindications. An operative therapy follows after unsuccessful or inadequate conservative therapy: the adequate surgical technique depends on the respective finding and includes actually techniques such as filtering procedures and glaucoma drainage devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Glottal inverse filtering analysis of human voice production — A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A (grossly) simplified manner to study the functioning of the human speech production ...... selective auditory impairment in autism: can perceive but do not attend, Proc. Natl. Acad. .... Fritzell B 1996 Voice disorders and occupations, Logoped.

  15. Performance Art at Secondary Level (United States)

    Horn, Sheridan


    This article considers the far-reaching potential and the particular characteristics of performance art within the secondary art curriculum. It discusses the means by which an art department has incorporated it into their teaching curriculum at a state secondary school with reference to installations and the work of different performance artists…

  16. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.


    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  17. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.


    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  18. The incompetent patient on the slippery slope. (United States)

    Dresser, R; Whitehouse, P J


    Most patients suffering from progressive dementia have thoughts, emotions, perspectives, and perceptions of a world of experience. Decisions about life-sustaining treatment should incorporate a principled approach to evaluating what life is like for these patients.

  19. Is the Problem Cultural Incompetence or Racism? (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda


    Clinical competence-including asking about and understanding the impact of a patient's culture-should be what we all expect when we seek treatment. Behavioral health organizations have opportunities to create culturally competent and responsive services. But we need to add another call to action-acknowledging and addressing the disparities caused by racism.

  20. 8 CFR 1240.43 - Incompetent respondents. (United States)


    ... 1240.43 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings To Determine Deportability of Aliens in the United States: Hearing and Appeal (for Proceedings Commenced Prior...

  1. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine


    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  2. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy. (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac


    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  3. Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wink, Michael


    ... (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sterols, cardiac glycosides and steroid saponins). A chapter is also included covering the importance of secondary metabolites in taxonomy, as viewed from the perspective of molecular systematics...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE AND ... Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. ... A comprehensive school health education

  5. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.


    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  6. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  7. Secondary electron emission from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, K.; Ono, S.; Ishigaki, F.


    The high yield of secondary electron emission from insulators due to electron bombardment may be the result of an increase of the depth of escape. The free-electron scattering theory is applied to the high energy of primary beams, but cannot be applied to the low energy of secondary escaping beams because of the large energy gap of the insulators. The plasmon loss with the valence electron is considered when the secondary electrons escape. Based on the energy retardation power formula of the penetration and energy loss of an electron probe into solid targets, secondary electron emissions from insulators are calculated from the assumptions that the distribution of the secondary electrons due to both incident and back-scattered electrons within the target is isotropic and that it follows the absorption law of the Lenard type. The universal yield-energy curve of the secondary electron emission, which is deduced as a function of three parameters such as ionisation potential, valence electron and the back-scattered coefficient in addition to the free-electron density effect, is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  8. Secondary reconstruction of maxillofacial trauma. (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime; Van Sickels, Joseph E


    Craniomaxillofacial trauma is one of the most complex clinical conditions in contemporary maxillofacial surgery. Vital structures and possible functional and esthetic sequelae are important considerations following this type of trauma and intervention. Despite the best efforts of the primary surgery, there are a group of patients that will have poor outcomes requiring secondary reconstruction to restore form and function. The purpose of this study is to review current concepts on secondary reconstruction to the maxillofacial complex. The evaluation of a posttraumatic patient for a secondary reconstruction must include an assessment of the different subunits of the upper face, middle face, and lower face. Virtual surgical planning and surgical guides represent the most important innovations in secondary reconstruction over the past few years. Intraoperative navigational surgery/computed-assisted navigation is used in complex cases. Facial asymmetry can be corrected or significantly improved by segmentation of the computerized tomography dataset and mirroring of the unaffected side by means of virtual surgical planning. Navigational surgery/computed-assisted navigation allows for a more precise surgical correction when secondary reconstruction involves the replacement of extensive anatomical areas. The use of technology can result in custom-made replacements and prebent plates, which are more stable and resistant to fracture because of metal fatigue. Careful perioperative evaluation is the key to positive outcomes of secondary reconstruction after trauma. The advent of technological tools has played a capital role in helping the surgical team perform a given treatment plan in a more precise and predictable manner.

  9. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension. (United States)

    Robinson, Darlene Y


    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary School Student's Attitude towards Consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.

  11. Quantitative assessment of videolaryngostroboscopic images in patients with glottic pathologies. (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kopczynski, Bartosz; Strumillo, Pawel; Morawska, Joanna; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola


    Digital imaging techniques enable exploration of novel visualization modalities of the vocal folds during phonation and definition of parameters, facilitating more precise diagnosis of voice disorders. Application of computer vision algorithms for analysis of videolaryngostroboscopic (VLS) images aimed at qualitative and quantitative description of phonatory vibrations. VLS examinations were conducted for 45 females, including 15 subjects with vocal nodules, 15 subjects with glottal incompetence, and 15 normophonic females. The recorded VLS images were preprocessed, the glottis area was segmented out, and the glottal cycles were identified. The glottovibrograms were built, and then the glottal area waveforms (GAW) were quantitatively described by computing the following parameters: open quotient (OQ), closing quotient (CQ), speed quotient (SQ), minimal relative glottal area (MRGA), and a new parameter termed closure difference index (CDI). Profiles of the glottal widths assessed along the glottal length differentiated the study groups (P diagnostics. Results of the performed ROC curve analysis suggest that the evaluated parameters can distinguish patients with voice disorders from normophonic subjects.

  12. Cancer as secondary immunodeficiency. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño


    Full Text Available The secondary immunodeficiency’s, previously presented in immunocompetent individuals. The lack of primary or secondary response to the presence of a foreign antigen, in the case of infections is a sentinel data in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency (can be primary or secondary, in the case of a self antigen may generate the presence of Cancer. Cancer has shown an increase in the prevalence and incidence globally. Most current medical treatments in cancer are focused primarily on immunomodulatory actions (immunosuppression / immune stimulation or both. Knowledge of key concepts from the perspective of innate and acquired immunity lead to cancer development, engaging immune surveillance and escape mechanisms of this that contribute to better understand the origin, behavior and treatment of neoplasm’s. These treatments can cause immunological disorders such as allergy, anaphylaxis, lack of response immunogenicity care fields specialist in Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

  13. Function-related Secondary User Needs and Secondary Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    basis of both a critical analysis of the theory and an examination of selected data types .... (2) "Secondary needs related to the user's linguistic and subject-specific ... understand the Afrikaans word skepe needs to know that skepe is the plural.

  14. Summarizing primary and secondary effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    Current methods for decomposing class differentials in educational decisions into primary and secondary effects produce many parameters, rendering them ill-equipped for parsimonious comparisons across countries or birth cohorts. This paper develops a parametric method that provides an optimal...... summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single...

  15. Dynamic decoupling of secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Tembulkar, J.M.


    The dynamic analysis of primary systems must often be performed decoupled from the secondary system. In doing so, one should assure that the decoupling does not significantly affect the frequencies and the response of the primary systems. The practice consists of heuristic algorithms intended to limit changes in the frequencies. The change in response is not considered. In this paper, changes in both the frequencies and the response are considered. Rational, but simple algorithms are derived to make accurate predictions. Material up to MDOF primary-SDOF secondary system is presented in this paper. MDOF-MDOF systems are treated in a companion paper. (orig.)

  16. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.


    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  17. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.; Blomgren, J.C.; Fackelmann, J.M.


    Steam generators in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced tubing degradation by a variety of corrosion-related mechanisms which depend directly on secondary water chemistry. As a result of this experience, the Steam Generator Owners Group and EPRI have sponsored a major program to provide solutions to PWR steam generator problems. This report, PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines, in addition to presenting justification for water chemistry control parameters, discusses available analytical methods, data management and surveillance, and the management philosophy required to successfully implement the guidelines

  18. 34 CFR 300.36 - Secondary school. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary school. 300.36 Section 300.36 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.36 Secondary school. Secondary school means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public secondary charter school that provides...

  19. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites (United States)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  20. Secondary syphilis presenting as vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.; Mehmood, T.; Khan, B.; Malik, N.; Malik, K.Z.; Sukhera, A.M.


    Syphilis is a chronic, systemic and sexually transmitted infectious disease affecting most of the organs in the body. A young African man presented with vertigo, unsteadiness of gait and a skin rash suggestive of secondary syphilis. Diagnosis was confirmed on serology and was treated with two shots of long-acting penicillin, following which his symptoms settled. (author)

  1. Hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Nobunori; Nakamura, Saburo; Kushi, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Tsubokawa, Takashi; Moriyasu, Nobuo


    The relationship between the extension and severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage, as demonstrated by computed tomography (CT), and hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage was studied. In 94 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, as analyzed by CT scan performed within 7 days after onset, high-density areas in the subarachnoid space were recognized in 61 cases (64%) and secondary hydrocephalus occurred in 22 cases (23%). 17 cases died within 2 weeks, before the occurrence of the hydrocephalus. The CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage was classified into 5 types, according to its severity and extension; especially the degree of high density in the basal cistern and/or cisterns around the brain stem was remarked. Secondary hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed in 90% of the cases; they had a density higher than a CT number of 60 in the basal cistern and/or cisterns around the brain stem (Type V). The mean interval between the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage and the appearance of hydrocephalus was 20.6 days. We conclude that a significantly high density of extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space, especially in the basal cistern and/or the cisterns around the brain stem, can be predictive of secondary hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage. (author)

  2. Teacher's Guide to Secondary Mathematics. (United States)

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This is a teacher's guide to secondary school mathematics. Developed for use in the Duval County Public Schools, Jacksonville, Florida. Areas of mathematics covered are algebra, analysis, calculus, computer literacy, computer science, geometry, analytic geometry, general mathematics, consumer mathematics, pre-algebra, probability and statistics,…

  3. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.


    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Starodubtseva


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Two or more RA-related conditions were diagnosed according to the results of the QUEST-RA program implemented in 34 countries. Osteoarthritis along with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis was detected among the most commonly diseases. Owing to expanded diagnostic capabilities, the recognition and treatment of the comorbidities have recently received much attention, as embodied in the draft Association of Rheumatologists of Russia Guidelines for RA management (2014; Part 1. The concept and major characteristics of secondary osteoarthritis in RA are analyzed. It is precisely the inflammatory process and underlying disease-related risk factors, including treatment, that have impact on the development of secondary osteoarthritis and patients’ quality of life as a whole. All this allows an inference about the mechanisms closely intertwined with the underlying disease for the development of secondary osteoarthritis, which initiates cartilage damage and further remodeling. Primary and secondary osteoarthritis was comparatively analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on current cartilage biomarkers, their diagnostic value and role in monitoring the efficiency of treatment in clinical trials. The paper provides a comparative analysis of detectable serum and urine biomarkers according to the results of the complex analysis made by the National Institutes of Health. Particular attention is given to cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP. Foreign authors’ investigations suggest that there is a relationship between serum COMP levels and disease severity and joint X-ray changes. There is evidence for the efficacy of hyaluronic acid used in the treatment of secondary osteoarthritis in patients with RA. 

  5. Resultados gestacionais e perinatais de gestações com insuficiência cervical submetidas a circlagem eletiva Gestational and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with cervical incompetence submitted to elective cerclage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luís Nomura


    women submitted to cervical cerclage during pregnancy. METHODS: a series of 123 pregnancies in 116 women submitted to elective cervical cerclage by Espinosa-Bahamondes, Palmer and MacDonald techniques and followed at the High-Risk Antenatal Care Unit at CAISM/UNICAMP is described. Variables were analyzed through frequency, mean and standard deviation, comparisons were made using c² or Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: 73% had at least one previous abortion, 17.9% had had 3 prior abortions, and 48% had prior preterm deliveries. The mean gestational age at cerclage was 16 weeks. Cerclage by the Espinosa-Bahamondes technique predominated (94.3%. The overall complication rate was 69%, with preterm labor as the most frequent (31.7%, followed by vaginitis (26%, preterm premature rupture of membranes (10.5% and fetal death (8.7%. Other clinical complications were less common and included urinary tract infections (5.6%, hypertensive disorders (4% and gestational diabetes (2.4%. Fetal loss occurred in 8.9% of pregnancies (11 stillbirths. Premature deliveries were present in 18%. History of previous premature deliveries was associated with the occurrence of premature deliveries. CONCLUSION: Obstetrical history compatible with cervical incompetence was frequent, and prior preterm delivery was associated with a preterm delivery in the pregnancy under analysis. The use of cerclage by the Espinosa-Bahamondes technique resulted in 18% of premature newborns, and 104 per thousand rate of perinatal death. Prospective, controlled trials are needed to evaluate the real benefits of cervical cerclage performed during pregnancy.

  6. Building a secondary containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.


    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  7. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A


    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two.......0001). No day-to-day or observer-to-observer differences in SHAs were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients, in the range of 0.51 to 0.84, indicated a moderate to almost perfect reliability between observers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: No standardized approach in SHA-assessment has hitherto been...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  8. Vascular Morphodynamics During Secondary Growth. (United States)

    de Reuille, Pierre Barbier; Ragni, Laura


    Quantification of vascular morphodynamics during secondary growth has been hampered by the scale of the process. Even in the tiny model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem can include more than 2000 cells in a single cross section, rendering manual counting impractical. Moreover, due to its deep location, xylem is an inaccessible tissue, limiting live imaging. A novel method to visualize and measure secondary growth progression has been proposed: "the Quantitative Histology" approach. This method is based on a detailed anatomical atlas, and image segmentation coupled with machine learning to automatically extract cell shapes and identify cell type. Here we present a new version of this approach, with a user-friendly interface implemented in the open source software LithoGraphX.

  9. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.


    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  10. Secondary middle turbinate: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval, E-mail: [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Secondary middle turbinate is an anatomical variant rarely observed in the nasal cavity, firstly described by Khanobthamchai et al. as a bone structure originating from the lateral nasal wall and covered by soft tissue. In most cases reported in the literature, this variant is bilateral, occurring without associated complications. In the present report, the authors describe the case of patient of their institution with such anatomical variation. (author)

  11. Monoparesis secondary to herpes zoster.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, S


    We describe a 90-year-old woman with right upper limb monoparesis secondary to varicella zoster virus infection as a result of extensive inflammatory involvement of the entire brachial plexus at root level. To our knowledge, this is the first report of entire brachial plexus involvement in a living patient of such advanced age. Despite a delay in presentation and thus initiation of treatment, a favourable clinical response was observed.

  12. Linear morphea with secondary mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay


    Full Text Available Secondary mucin deposition in the skin is a common feature of lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. In scleroderma, it occurs uncommonly or in small amount. We describe a 7-year-old boy with progressive, linear, bound-down plaques involving the thighs, lower abdomen and back with no systemic involvement. Histopathology showed features of scleroderma with abundant mucin deposition in the reticular dermis. This report highlights excessive mucin deposition in lesions of morphea.

  13. Secondary middle turbinate: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval


    Secondary middle turbinate is an anatomical variant rarely observed in the nasal cavity, firstly described by Khanobthamchai et al. as a bone structure originating from the lateral nasal wall and covered by soft tissue. In most cases reported in the literature, this variant is bilateral, occurring without associated complications. In the present report, the authors describe the case of patient of their institution with such anatomical variation. (author)

  14. EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) (United States)

    Haskett, Scott A.; Weis, Steven C.; Doggrell, Leslie J.; Sciulli, Dino; Meink, Troy E.; Ganley, Jeff T.; Maly, Joseph R.; Jurisson, Karl


    Despite growing international interest in small satellites, high dedicated expendable launch vehicle costs and the lack of secondary launch opportunities continue to hinder the full exploitation of small satellite technology. In the United States, the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, other government agencies, commercial companies, and many universities use small satellites to perform space experiments, demonstrate new technology, and test operational prototype hardware. In addition, the DoD continues to study the role of small satellites in fulfilling operational mission requirements. However, the US lacks sufficient small satellite launch capacity. Furthermore, US government agencies are restricted to the use of US launch vehicles, which eliminates many affordable launch opportunities. In an effort to increase the number of space experiments that can be flown with a small, fixed budget, the DoD Space Test Program (STP) has teamed with the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) to develop a low-cost solution for the small satellite launch program. Our solution, which can be implemented on both Boeing and Lockheed-Martin Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-Medium (EELV-M) boosters, is called the EELV Secondary Payload Adaptor (ESPA). ESPA will increase the number of launch opportunities for 180kg-class (or smaller) satellites at prices highly competitive with other secondary launch services worldwide.

  15. Secondary effects of glyphosate on plants (United States)

    Glyphosate is a unique herbicide with interesting secondary effects. Unfortunately, some have assumed that the secondary effects that occur in glyphosate-susceptible plants treated with glyphosate, such as altered mineral nutrition, reduced phenolic compound production and pathogen resistance, also ...

  16. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  17. Secondary Analysis for Results Tracking Database (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Secondary Analysis and Results Tracking (SART) activity provides support for the development of two databases to manage secondary and third-party data, data...

  18. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih


    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  19. Secondary Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Secondary Highways for the United States. The Secondary Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class value on each link present...

  20. Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease


    McPhee, Stephen J.


    Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural h...

  1. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development (United States)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar


    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  2. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Reifen


    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  3. Fahr's Syndrome and Secondary Hypoparathyroidism. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Vitorino Modesta; Da Mata, Ana Medeiros De Farias; Ribeiro, Kelle Regina Alves; Calvo, Isadora Cartaxo De Sousa


    A typical case of Fahr's syndrome is described in a 76-year-old Brazilian female who underwent a total thyroidectomy three decades ago. Six years before the current admission, she started with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Associated disorders involved extra-pyramidal, cognitive, nocturnal terror and mood changes. With suspicion of hypocalcemia due to secondary hypoparathyroidism, laboratory determinations confirmed the diagnoses. Furthermore, imaging studies of the central nervous system detected multiple calcifications, with characteristic distribution of Fahr's syndrome. Clinical management was successful.

  4. Atoms in the secondary school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.


    A basic nuclear physics teaching programme, at present being used in a number of Hungarian secondary schools, is described in this and a previous article (Marx. Phys. Educ.; 11: 409 (1976)). Simple notions of quantum theory and general principles of superposition and de Broglie wavelength, the uncertainty relation and the exclusion principle are used. Using these principles, teaching of concepts concerning the excited states of the hydrogen atom, Pauli's exclusion principle, ion formation, covariant bonding and the shape of molecules, are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  6. [Inherited primitive and secondary polycythemia]. (United States)

    Barba, T; Boileau, J-C; Pasquet, F; Hot, A; Pavic, M


    Myeloproliferative disorders and secondary polycythemia cover most of the polycythemia cases encountered in daily practice. Inherited polycythemias are rare entities that have to be suspected when the classical causes of acquired polycythemia have been ruled out. Recent advances were made in the understanding of these pathologies, which are still little known to the physicians. This review reports the state of knowledge and proposes an algorithm to follow when confronted to a possible case of inherited polycythemia. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. NPP Krsko secondary side analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabijan, Lj.


    The purpose of this work is to analyze secondary side thermohydraulics response on steam generator tube plugging in order to ensure nominal NPP power. We had established that the additional opening of the governing valve No. 3 and 4 can compensate pressure drop caused by steam generator tube plugging. Two main steam flows with four governing valves were simulated. Steam expansion in turbine and feed water system was modeled separately. All important process point and steam moisture changes impact on nominal NPP power were analysed. (author)

  8. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Heart Failure. (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed S; Dishmon, Dwight A; Garg, Nadish; Weber, Karl T


    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a well-known pathophysiologic feature of chronic renal failure. In recent years, SHPT has become recognized as a complication of the aldosteronism associated with congestive heart failure and where excretory Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ wasting results in plasma-ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Elevations in plasma parathyroid hormone have adverse systemic consequences, including intracellular Ca 2+ overloading of myocytes and vascular smooth muscle with the induction of oxidative stress. Herein, we briefly review the presence and adverse outcomes of SHPT in persons with heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 133.102 - Secondary treatment. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary treatment. 133.102 Section... TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.102 Secondary treatment. The following paragraphs describe the minimum level of effluent quality attainable by secondary treatment in terms of the parameters—BOD5, SS and pH. All...

  10. Rheumatic Heart Disease Associated with Secondary Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... non-specific chronic inflammatory changes. The patient's secondary amyloidosis was presumed to be related to the long standing RHD after exclusion of other causes of secondary amyloidosis. The patient finally died due to heart failure and acute pulmonary edema. Conclusion: Long standing RHD can lead to secondary ...

  11. Job Satisfaction of Secondary Content Area Leaders (United States)

    Roberts, Christine K.


    Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…

  12. Aerodynamic and cephalometric analyses of velopharyngeal structure and function following re-pushback surgery for secondary correction in cleft palate. (United States)

    Nakamura, Norifumi; Ogata, Yuko; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Suzuki, Akira; Kikuta, Rumiko; Ohishi, Masamichi


    The goal of this study was to clarify the efficacy of and indication for re-pushback surgery as secondary treatment for cleft palate. Fifteen patients treated by re-pushback surgery involving intravelar veloplasty (IVV) with buccal mucosal grafting on the nasal surface and followed up more than 6 months were enrolled in this study. Pre- and postoperative velopharyngeal functions were analyzed by perceptual voice analysis, blowing ratio, and nasalance scores during phonation of /i/ and /tsu/. Cephalometric analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between velopharyngeal structure and the outcome of re-pushback surgery. Control data were obtained from the longitudinal files of normal 10-year-old children in Kyushu University Dental Hospital. Eight of 15 patients obtained complete velopharyngeal closure (complete group), five patients improved remarkably (improved group), and no effective result was seen in two patients (ineffective group). Nasality disappeared or remarkably improved after the operation in 13 patients. Effective surgical results were found in 86.7% of the patients. Partial flap necrosis was seen in two patients in whom re-pushback surgery was performed using mucosal palatal flaps instead of mucoperiosteal flaps. Preoperative velar length and the length/depth ratio of the re-pushback group were significantly smaller than the controls, but there was no difference after the operation. Furthermore, the preoperative length/depth ratio of the complete group (ranged more than 100%) was significantly greater than those of the other two groups (ranged less than 100%). Re-pushback surgery by IVV with free mucous grafting on the nasal surface was effective in managing velopharyngeal incompetence secondarily, improving velopharyngeal structure and function.

  13. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurie, S.; Bucci, G.; Johnson, L.; King, M.; Lamanna, L.; Morgan, E.; Bates, J.; Burns, R.; Eaker, R.; Ward, G.; Linnenbom, V.; Millet, P.; Paine, J.P.; Wood, C.J.; Gatten, T.; Meatheany, D.; Seager, J.; Thompson, R.; Brobst, G.; Connor, W.; Lewis, G.; Shirmer, R.; Gillen, J.; Kerns, M.; Jones, V.; Lappegaard, S.; Sawochka, S.; Smith, F.; Spires, D.; Pagan, S.; Gardner, J.; Polidoroff, T.; Lambert, S.; Dahl, B.; Hundley, F.; Miller, B.; Andersson, P.; Briden, D.; Fellers, B.; Harvey, S.; Polchow, J.; Rootham, M.; Fredrichs, T.; Flint, W.


    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239)

  14. On the prediction of turbulent secondary flows (United States)

    Speziale, C. G.; So, R. M. C.; Younis, B. A.


    The prediction of turbulent secondary flows, with Reynolds stress models, in circular pipes and non-circular ducts is reviewed. Turbulence-driven secondary flows in straight non-circular ducts are considered along with turbulent secondary flows in pipes and ducts that arise from curvature or a system rotation. The physical mechanisms that generate these different kinds of secondary flows are outlined and the level of turbulence closure required to properly compute each type is discussed in detail. Illustrative computations of a variety of different secondary flows obtained from two-equation turbulence models and second-order closures are provided to amplify these points.

  15. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.


    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  16. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY


    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  17. Portal hydatid with secondary cavernomatosis. (United States)

    Rodríguez Sanz, Mª Belén; Roldán Cuena, Mª Del Mar; Blanco Álvarez, Carlos Alberto; Sánchez Jiménez, Raúl


    The hydatid cyst is a parasitic infection included within the category of zoonoses, in which there exists a direct or indirect relation with animals, particularly with dogs. We report a clinical case of a patient who has undergone surgery of hydatid cyst in the right hepatic lobe. Seven years later the patient presents hydatid cyst in portal vein with secondary cavernomatosis, which is a rare complication. There are few cases described in the literature. The symtomatology presented by hydatid cyst is variable and the diagnosis is made by ultrasonography, TC and/or RNM. The treatment of choice is the surgical removal of the cyst, prior to surgery Albendazol must be administered for 1-2 weeks and be maintained for 4 more weeks after surgery.

  18. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.K.


    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) which is primarily a method for investigating the chemical composition of the uppermost atomic layer of solid surfaces is explained. In this method, the specimen is bombarded with a primary positive ion beam of small current density monolayer. Positive and negative ions sputtered from the specimen are mass analysed to give the surface chemical composition. The analytical system which consists of a primary ion source, a target manipulator and a mass spectrometer housed in an ultrahigh vacuum system is described. This method can also be used for profile measurements in thin films by using higher current densities of the primary ions. Fields of application such as surface reactions, semiconductors, thin films emission processes, chemistry, metallurgy are touched upon. Various aspects of this method such as the sputtering process, instrumentation, and applications are discussed. (K.B.)

  19. Pulmonary involvement of secondary syphilis. (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Imai, Yuichiro; Yoshihara, Shingo; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Sato, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Taku; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Yano, Hisakazu; Mikasa, Keiichi


    Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. Since clinical manifestations of syphilis are highly variable, clinicians should bear in mind that pleural chest pain with bilateral subpleural nodules can be caused by pulmonary syphilis.

  20. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Tilmann; Kim, Hyun Uk


    . In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http...... analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work......Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly...

  1. PWR secondary water chemistry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.; Copley, S.E.; Siegwarth, D.P.


    Secondary water chemistry studies have been performed at ten operating PWRs for the past several years. The program includes seven PWRs with recirculating U-tube steam generators, and three once-through steam generator (OTSG) PWRs. Program results indicate that during periods of minimal condenser inleakage, condensate polishers do not remove significant quantities of sodium, chloride and sulfate. At higher inlet impurity levels, demineralizer removal efficiencies improve markedly. Corrosion product removal efficiencies generally are 60 to 95% depending on system design and operating practices. Significant quantities of sodium and chloride 'hide out' in steam generators with a portion returning during transients, particularly during plant shutdowns. In OTSG PWRs, a significant portion of the total sodium and chloride transported via the steam is removed with the moisture separator drains (MSD) and returned to the OTSG when MSDs are pumped forward. Partial return of MSDs to the condenser would result in reduced feedwater and steam impurity levels. (author)

  2. Modelling secondary eclipses of Kepler exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambálek Lubomír


    Full Text Available We have selected several Kepler objects with potentially the deepest secondary eclipses. By combination of many single phased light-curves (LCs we have produced a smooth LC with a larger SNR and made the secondary eclipses more distinct. This allowed us to measure the depth of primary and secondary minimum with greater accuracy and then to determine stellar and planetary radii by simplex modelling.

  3. Wound infection secondary to snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wagener


    Full Text Available Background. Snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality. Objective. A prospective audit was undertaken to determine the bacterial causation of wound infection secondary to snakebite, and attempt to quantify the burden of disease. Methods. The audit was undertaken at Ngwelezane Hospital, which provides both regional and tertiary services for north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, over a 4-month period. Records of patients who required surgical debridement for extensive skin and soft-tissue necrosis were analysed. At the time of debridement, tissue samples of necrotic or infected tissue were sent for bacteriological analysis as standard of care. Microbiology results were analysed. Results. A total of 164 patients were admitted to hospital for management of snakebite, of whom 57 required surgical debridement and 42 were included in the final microbiological analysis. Children were found to be the most frequent victims of snakebite; 57.8% of patients in this study were aged ≤10 years and 73.7% ≤15 years. Culture showed a single organism in 32/42 cases, two organisms in 8 and no growth in 2. Eight different types of organisms were cultured, five of them more than once. Thirty-five specimens (83.3% grew Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent being Morganella morganii and Proteus species. Thirteen specimens (31.0% grew Enterococcus faecalis. Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae showed 31.4% sensitivity to ampicillin, 40.0% sensitivity to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 34.3% sensitivity to cefuroxime, 97.1% sensitivity to ceftriaxone, and 100% sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and amikacin. E. faecalis was 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin, 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 92.3% resistant to erythromycin and 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion. Children are

  4. Wound infection secondary to snakebite. (United States)

    Wagener, M; Naidoo, M; Aldous, C


    Snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality. A prospective audit was undertaken to determine the bacterial causation of wound infection secondary to snakebite, and attempt to quantify the burden of disease. The audit was undertaken at Ngwelezane Hospital, which provides both regional and tertiary services for north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, over a 4-month period. Records of patients who required surgical debridement for extensive skin and soft-tissue necrosis were analysed. At the time of debridement, tissue samples of necrotic or infected tissue were sent for bacteriological analysis as standard of care. Microbiology results were analysed. A total of 164 patients were admitted to hospital for management of snakebite, of whom 57 required surgical debridement and 42 were included in the final microbiological analysis. Children were found to be the most frequent victims of snakebite; 57.8% of patients in this study were aged ≤10 years and 73.7% ≤15 years. Culture showed a single organism in 32/42 cases, two organisms in 8 and no growth in 2. Eight different types of organisms were cultured, five of them more than once. Thirty-five specimens (83.3%) grew Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent being Morganella morganii and Proteus species. Thirteen specimens (31.0%) grew Enterococcus faecalis. Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae showed 31.4% sensitivity to ampicillin, 40.0% sensitivity to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 34.3% sensitivity to cefuroxime, 97.1% sensitivity to ceftriaxone, and 100% sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and amikacin. E. faecalis was 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin, 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 92.3% resistant to erythromycin and 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. Children are particularly vulnerable to snakebite, and the consequences can be

  5. Intracranial abscess secondary to dental infection. (United States)

    Brady, Paul; Bergin, Sarah; Cryan, Bartley; Flanagan, Oisin


    We report a case of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) bacteraemia and secondary brain abscess in a patient where periodontal disease was implicated as the probable source.

  6. Intracranial abscess secondary to dental infection


    Brady, Paul; Bergin, Sarah; Cryan, Bartley; Flanagan, Oisin


    We report a case of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.actinomycetemcomitans) bacteraemia and secondary brain abscess in a patient where periodontal disease was implicated as the probable source.

  7. Nigeria Secondary School Science Teachers‟ Awareness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady


    Oct 27, 2012 ... Science teachers‟ computer illiteracy, inadequate infrastructures, ... development is human capital- the values, attitudes, knowledge, skills, ... raises questions concerning junior secondary education's focus on the.

  8. Qualitative Secondary Analysis: A Case Exemplar. (United States)

    Tate, Judith Ann; Happ, Mary Beth

    Qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) is the use of qualitative data that was collected by someone else or was collected to answer a different research question. Secondary analysis of qualitative data provides an opportunity to maximize data utility, particularly with difficult-to-reach patient populations. However, qualitative secondary analysis methods require careful consideration and explicit description to best understand, contextualize, and evaluate the research results. In this article, we describe methodologic considerations using a case exemplar to illustrate challenges specific to qualitative secondary analysis and strategies to overcome them. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfectionism among Turkish Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Camadan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze perfectionism among Turkish secondary school students. Perfectionism was compared according to the some variables like academic achievement, type of school, field (Quantitative, Verbal and Equally Weighted and gender. The study was performed with271 female and 320 male students. In this study Frost Multidimentional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Mısırlı-Taşdemir (2003, was used. At the end of the study, in all subscales of perfectionism scale, there was significant variation according to student’s academic success levels. There was significant variation according to the school types in all subscales except Personal Standards subscale. While there was significant variation according to the field, in Parental Criticism and Concern over Mistakes subscales; according to gender, there was significant variation only in Doubt about Actions subscale. To not acceptnonperfect situations while trying to reach a goal may cause that students have procrastination behaviors and more anxiety. Therefore, their academic achievement may be affected negatively. With individual and group psychological counseling to perfectionist students can help them to notice their characteristics well and determine realistic goal. In this way, their academic achievement can be contributed positively

  10. Emerging drugs for secondary hyperparathyroidism. (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mario; Tomlinson, James; Walsh, Liron; Bellasi, Antonio


    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a common, serious, and progressive complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and mineral metabolism abnormalities. These disturbances may result in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), which is associated with poor quality of life and short life expectancy. The goal of SHPT treatment is to maintain PTH, calcium, and phosphorus within accepted targeted ranges. This review highlights the pathogenesis of SHPT and current SHPT therapeutic approaches, including the use of low-phosphate diets, phosphate binders, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its analogs, calcimimetics, and parathyroidectomy in addition to discussing emerging drugs in development for SHPT. Numerous studies indicate that mineral abnormalities occur early in the course of CKD, are prevalent by the time patients enter dialysis, and foreshadow a risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Several newly developed compounds may potentially overcome the limitations of current SHPT therapies. If emerging therapies can reduce PTH, normalize mineral metabolism, promote treatment adherence, and reduce the risk of side effects, they may provide the requisite features for improving long-term outcomes in patients with SHPT receiving dialysis and reduce the risks of CKD-MBD.

  11. PWR secondary water chemistry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.


    Several types of corrosion damage are currently chronic problems in PWR recirculating steam generators. One probable cause of damage is a local high concentration of an aggressive chemical even though only trace levels are present in feedwater. A wide variety of trace chemicals can find their way into feedwater, depending on the sources of condenser cooling water and the specific feedwater treatment. In February 1975, Nuclear Water and Waste Technology Corporation (NWT), was contracted to characterize secondary system water chemistry at five operating PWRs. Plants were selected to allow effects of cooling water chemistry and operating history on steam generator corrosion to be evaluated. Calvert Cliffs 1, Prairie Island 1 and 2, Surry 2, and Turkey Point 4 were monitored during the program. Results to date in the following areas are summarized: (1) plant chemistry variations during normal operation, transients, and shutdowns; (2) effects of condenser leakage on steam generator chemistry; (3) corrosion product transport during all phases of operation; (4) analytical prediction of chemistry in local areas from bulk water chemistry measurements; and (5) correlation of corrosion damage to chemistry variation

  12. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis (United States)

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F.; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal


    Patient: Female, 66 Final Diagnosis: Calciphylaxis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis • blood transfusions Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. Case Report: A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  13. Examining Practice in Secondary Visual Arts Education (United States)

    Mitchell, Donna Mathewson


    Teaching in secondary visual arts classrooms is complex and challenging work. While it is implicated in much research, the complexity of the lived experience of secondary visual arts teaching has rarely been the subject of sustained and synthesized research. In this paper, the potential of practice as a concept to examine and represent secondary…

  14. Secondary School Students' Predictors of Science Attitudes (United States)

    Tosun, Cemal; Genç, Murat


    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect the secondary school students' attitudes in science. This study was conducted using survey method. The sample of the study was 503 students from four different secondary schools in Bartin and Düzce. Data were obtained using the Survey of Factors Affecting Students' Science Attitudes…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  16. Efficacy of secondary isoniazid preventive therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the efficacy of secondary preventive therapy against tuberculosis (TB) among goldminers working in South Africa. Design. An observational study. Methods. The incidence of recurrent TB was compared between two cohorts of HIV-infected miners: one cohort had received secondary preventive ...

  17. Secondary Teachers' Perceptions of Online Learning (United States)

    Brown, Chris L.


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe secondary teachers' perceptions of online learning in Washington. This was done by distributing a survey to three districts in the State of Washington to identify the advantages and challenges of online learning according to participating secondary teachers. In addition, the teachers provided…

  18. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang


    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  19. Waste management - textbook for secondary schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.


    This text-book consist of five parts: (I) Waste management; (II) Solid waste management; (III) Recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials; (IV) Radioactive waste management; Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. (V) Suggestions for leisure time activities. This text-book is assigned for high school students.

  20. Secondary Products (Markets, Competition, and Technological Improvements) (United States)

    Philip A. Araman


    Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...

  1. Assessing Participation in Secondary Education Quality Enhancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Participation in Secondary Education Quality Enhancement: Teachers, Parents and Communities in Cross River State. ... ailing economy, low moral values and philosophy of the end justifies the means were reasons for low parents and communities involvement in secondary education-quality improvement.

  2. Transcriptional regulatory network controlling secondary cell wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary wall is an abundant component of plant biomass and has a potential to be a renewable resource of bioenergy and biomaterials. It is important to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying secondary wall formation and how it contributes to plant biomass production. In this review, we summarized the potential ...

  3. Secondary School Science Department Chairs Leading Change (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.


    Secondary school department chairs are content area specialists in their schools and are responsible for providing students with the most appropriate curricula. However, most secondary school department chairs have limited authority to institute change unilaterally (Gmelch, 1993; Hannay & Erb, 1999). To explore how these educational leaders…

  4. Secondary education in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Bronneman-Helmers; L.J. Herweijer; H.M.G. Vogels


    Original title: Voortgezet onderwijs in de jaren negentig. Many changes and innovations have been set in motion in Dutch secondary education in recent years: the introduction of basic secondary education, increases in scale, profiles and the 'house of study' in the second phase of senior

  5. Nucleic acid secondary structure prediction and display.


    Stüber, K


    A set of programs has been developed for the prediction and display of nucleic acid secondary structures. Information from experimental data can be used to restrict or enforce secondary structural elements. The predictions can be displayed either on normal line printers or on graphic devices like plotters or graphic terminals.

  6. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary students at Tanga municipality. A cross sectional descriptive analytical study which targeted all girls in secondary schools at Tanga municipality, Low socioeconomic status was found to be an important cause for adolescent pregnancies as ...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting. (United States)


    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  8. Outcome Standards for Secondary Marketing Education. (United States)

    Stone, James R., III


    Describes a study which sought to establish outcome standards very important for secondary marketing education. Business people, former students, and marketing educators were asked to judge the standards identified from the literature in terms of importance to secondary marketing education. (CT)

  9. Secondary School Administration in Anambra State Today ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, a descriptive survey research design was used to identify the challenges that impede secondary school administration today in Anambra State. The population of the study was all the 259 public secondary school principals in the state. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A 20-item ...

  10. [Diagnostic of secondary hypertension in clinical practice]. (United States)

    Somlóová, Z; Rosa, J; Petrák, O; Strauch, B; Zelinka, T; Holaj, R; Widimský, J


    Arterial hypertension is a common worldwide disease with a prevalence of approximately 26%. Secondary cause is known in 5-10% of patients with hypertension. We should think of secondary hypertension in all patients with resistant hypertension, in patients with sudden deterioration in the control of hypertension and in patients with laboratory and clinical signs of diseases associated with secondary hypertension. It is important to distinguish between secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistance (noncompliance to treatment, white coat syndrome). Secondary causes of hypertension can be divided into endocrine (primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, hypercortisolism, hyperparathyreoidism), renal - renovascular and renal parenchymal hypertension, and other causes as sleep apnoe syndrome, hypertension in pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta and intracranial tumors.

  11. [Secondary Arterial Hypertension: Uncertainties in Diagnosis]. (United States)

    Dinis, Paulo Gomes; Cachulo, Maria Carmo; Fernandes, Andreia; Paiva, Luis; Gonçalves, Lino


    Arterial hypertension is regarded today as a global public health problem, and the prevalence rate in Portugal is 26.9%. According to the etiology, is classified into primary or secondary arterial hypertension. In about 90% of cases it is not possible to establish a cause, so is called primary arterial hypertension. In the remaining 5 to 10%, it can be identified secondary causes, which are potentially treatable. For secondary arterial hypertension study to be cost-effective, it is essential to understand which patients investigate, and evaluate the best strategy to adopt. The main causes identified as responsible for secondary arterial hypertension are: kidney disease; endocrine and vascular diseases and obstructive sleep apnea. Among these some are consensual, and others more controversial in the literature. In this regard we present two cases of arterial hypertension, which are potentially secondary in etiology, but still focus of debate.

  12. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunyamin Aydin


    Full Text Available Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn’s disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  13. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea. (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes


    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  14. Uncertainty analysis for secondary energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.


    In many transport calculations the integral design parameter of interest (response) is determined mainly by secondary particles such as gamma rays from (n,γ) reactions or secondary neutrons from inelastic scattering events or (n,2n) reactions. Standard sensitivity analysis usually allows to calculate the sensitivities to the production cross sections of such secondaries, but an extended formalism is needed to also obtain the sensitivities to the energy distribution of the generated secondary particles. For a 30-group standard cross-section set 84% of all non-zero table positions pertain to the description of secondary energy distributions (SED's) and only 16% to the actual reaction cross sections. Therefore, any sensitivity/uncertainty analysis which does not consider the effects of SED's is incomplete and neglects most of the input data. This paper describes the methods of how sensitivity profiles for SED's are obtained and used to estimate the uncertainty of an integral response due to uncertainties in these SED's. The detailed theory is documented elsewhere and implemented in the LASL sensitivity code SENSIT. SED sensitivity profiles have proven particularly valuable in cross-section uncertainty analyses for fusion reactors. Even when the production cross sections for secondary neutrons were assumed to be without error, the uncertainties in the energy distribution of these secondaries produced appreciable uncertainties in the calculated tritium breeding rate. However, complete error files for SED's are presently nonexistent. Therefore, methods will be described that allow rough error estimates due to estimated SED uncertainties based on integral SED sensitivities

  15. Ruling out secondary causes of hypertension. (United States)

    Ott, Christian; Schneider, Markus P; Schmieder, Roland E


    In the majority of hypertensive patients, no particular cause for abnormal blood pressure is evident (primary or essential hypertension). In contrast, in the minority of patients with secondary hypertension a specific underlying cause is responsible for the elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of secondary hypertension is higher in patients with resistant hypertension than in the general hypertensive population and increases with age. The list of secondary forms of hypertension is long and prevalence of the individual causes of secondary hypertension varies. Hence, this review divides them into two categories: common causes and rare causes. If appropriately diagnosed and treated, patients with a secondary form of hypertension might be cured, or at least show an improvement in their blood pressure control. Consequently, screening for secondary causes of hypertension plays an essential part in the care of patients with arterial hypertension. If the basal work-up raises the suspicion of a secondary cause of hypertension, specific diagnostic procedures become necessary, some of which can be performed by primary care physicians, while others require specialist input.

  16. Importance of secondary damage in downer cows. (United States)

    Poulton, P J; Vizard, A L; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F


    To investigate the relative importance in downer cows of the primary cause of recumbency in comparison with secondary complications. Downer dairy cows were monitored during their recumbency under field conditions in South Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. The cause of the original recumbency of the 218 cows was determined and secondary damage, status on day 7 and final outcome were recorded. Some type of secondary damage was found in 183/218 (84%) cows, of which 173/218 (79%) had damage deemed to be clinically important. By day 7, 52 (24%) had recovered and 69 (32%) eventually recovered. Of the 149 (68%) cows that were euthanased or died, 23 (15%) were deemed to have been lost solely from the primary cause, 107 (72%) from secondary damage and 19 (13%) from a combination of both. There was no difference in recovery among the five broad groups of causes of primary recumbency. Secondary damage was very common and presented in a large variety of ways, with many cows having multiple types of secondary damage concurrently. For most cows the secondary damage was more important than the initial primary damage in determining their fate. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. [Secondary glaucoma in Paraguay. Etiology and incidence]. (United States)

    Strohl, A; Pozzi, S; Wattiez, R; Roesen, B; Miño de Kaspar, H; Klauss, V


    Glaucoma is the third-most-frequent cause of blindness in the world, with a total of 5.2 million blind people as a result of this disease; 80% live in developing countries. In Paraguay, after cataract it is the second-most-frequent-cause. Early detection of the risk factors and groups can help to avoid progress of this disease. Trauma, cataract and infectious uveitis represent special risks for developing secondary glaucoma, which is a more frequent cause of blindness in third-world countries than in industrialized nations. Until now there has been little data regarding the causes, disease course, and options for therapy. Therefore, secondary glaucoma was examined in Paraguay to obtain information on the situation in Latin America. The aim of the study was to explore the causes of secondary glaucoma for programs concerning prevention and therapy. From November 1996 to February 1997 patients with secondary glaucoma were examined at the University Hospital of Asunción, Paraguay. After the clinical examination the secondary glaucomas were classified. Patients with primary glaucoma were included in the same period of time as well in order to get the rate of secondary glaucoma. Altogether 293 patients were examined: 61 with secondary and 232 with primary glaucoma. The causes of secondary glaucoma in 73 eyes were: 20 (27%) with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, 19 (26%) with post-traumatic glaucoma, 16 (22%) with neovascular glaucoma, 4 (5%) with lens-related glaucoma, 3 (4%) with glaucoma associated with ocular surgery, 2 (3%) with pigmentary and 2 (3%) with corticoid-induced glaucoma. A ratio of 4:1 primary glaucomas to secondary glaucomas was found. The development of special measures for prevention and early therapy is only possible if the causes of this severe disease are explored. The results of this study represent basic information and could help to introduce of prevention programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kotova


    Full Text Available We present a clinical case of parathyroid cancer in a patient with relapsing secondary hyperparathyroidism at 4 years after subtotal parathyroidectomy. Its unique character is related to the combination of relapsing secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyromatosis, ectopic of an adenomatous hyperplastic parathyroid gland into the thyroid gland, and parathyroid cancer. Several most complicated aspects of parathyroid surgery are disclosed, such as the choice of strategy for surgical intervention in secondary hyperparathyroidism, complexity of morphological and cytological diagnostics of this disorder.

  19. Principles for enabling deep secondary design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt


    design by analyzing two cases where secondary designers fundamentally change functionality, content and technology complexity level. The first case redesigns a decision model for agile development in an insurance company; the second creates a contingency model for choosing project management tools...... and techniques in a hospital. Our analysis of the two cases leads to the identification of four principles of design implementation that primary designers can apply to enable secondary design and four corresponding design implementation principles that secondary designers themselves need to apply....

  20. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings. (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch


    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  1. Predicting Thermal Behavior of Secondary Organic Aerosols (United States)

    Volume concentrations of steady-state secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were measured in 139 steadystate single precursor hydrocarbon oxidation experiments after passing through a temperature controlled inlet tube. Higher temperatures resulted in greater loss of particle volume, wi...

  2. Liquorice: a root cause of secondary hypertension


    Varma, Ravi; Ross, Calum N.


    We describe a patient presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia who was ultimately diagnosed with liquorice- induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. This rare cause of secondary hypertension illustrates the importance of a methodical approach to the assessment of hypertension.

  3. Predicting Thermal Behavior of Secondary Organic Aerosols (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Volume concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are measured in 139 steady-state, single precursor hydrocarbon oxidation experiments after passing through a...

  4. Secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akio; Kajiyama, Shin-Ichiro


    Cyanobacteria attracted much attention recently because of their secondary metabolites with potent biological activities and unusual structures. This paper reviews some recent studies on the isolation, structural, elucidation and biological activities of the bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria Nostoc species.

  5. Modeling Secondary Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Möbius, Eberhard; Wood, Brian E.


    An accurate, analytic heliospheric neutral test-particle code for helium atoms from the interstellar medium (ISM) is coupled to global heliospheric models dominated by hydrogen and protons from the solar wind and the ISM. This coupling enables the forward-calculation of secondary helium neutrals from first principles. Secondaries are produced predominantly in the outer heliosheath, upwind of the heliopause, by charge exchange of helium ions with neutral atoms. The forward model integrates the secondary production terms along neutral trajectories and calculates the combined neutral helium phase space density in the innermost heliosphere where it can be related to in-situ observations. The phase space density of the secondary component is lower than that of primary neutral helium, but its presence can change the analysis of primaries and the ISM, and can yield valuable insight into the characteristics of the plasma in the outer heliosheath. (paper)

  6. Secondary School Students Preferences for Instructional Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Yet, value pertaining to discipline in sexual attitude among adolescent is gradually being eroded. ... education into the secondary school curriculum. .... hidden. This result also goes to confirm the researcher's opinion that parents tend to shy ...

  7. Debriefing Note Secondary Education Support Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Neil; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Thomsen, Thomas J.

    Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria...

  8. Tdap Booster Requirements for Secondary Schools (United States)

    ... Experts State Information Tdap booster requirements for secondary schools State Td or Tdap Mandate for Sec School ... Checklists Standing Orders Storage & Handling Talking with Parents Temperature Logs Top Handouts Translations Vaccine Index >> view all ...

  9. Predictors of examination malpractice among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Validated scales were used to collect data and SPSS was used to carry out a t-test and stepwise ... Keywords: Examination, Malpractice, Text Anxiety, Secondary School Students.

  10. Perception of Sexuality Education amongst Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of Sexuality Education amongst Secondary School Students in Port ... Methods: A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as ... Only 7.6% acknowledged the school teacher as a source of information.

  11. Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools. ... engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, ... and teachers in their perception regarding the effects of teachers classroom ...

  12. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H.


    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author)

  13. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Surgery)


    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author).

  14. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič


    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  15. Survey Review: ELT Coursebooks for Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Campbell, C.; Laanemets, U.; Lillepea, M.; Loog, T.; Kammiste, T.; Kartner, P.; Magi, O.; Truus, K.


    Presents a review of English textbooks developed for secondary learners of English as a Second Language. The survey was prepared by a group of seven Estonian teachers and a British English language teaching consultant. (Author/JL)

  16. Secondary electron emission from textured surfaces (United States)

    Huerta, C. E.; Patino, M. I.; Wirz, R. E.


    In this work, a Monte Carlo model is used to investigate electron induced secondary electron emission for varying effects of complex surfaces by using simple geometric constructs. Geometries used in the model include: vertical fibers for velvet-like surfaces, tapered pillars for carpet-like surfaces, and a cage-like configuration of interlaced horizontal and vertical fibers for nano-structured fuzz. The model accurately captures the secondary electron emission yield dependence on incidence angle. The model shows that unlike other structured surfaces previously studied, tungsten fuzz exhibits secondary electron emission yield that is independent of primary electron incidence angle, due to the prevalence of horizontally-oriented fibers in the fuzz geometry. This is confirmed with new data presented herein of the secondary electron emission yield of tungsten fuzz at incidence angles from 0-60°.

  17. Perception of Sexuality Education amongst Secondary School

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school students attending a series of Schools debates in Port. Harcourt Metropolis. ... 31(2): 109–113. Keywords:Perceptions, sexuality education, secondary school, students. ..... implications for counseling practices. European Journal of ...

  18. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in three public secondary schools in Ogbondoroko and Laduba .... population live in the rural areas where information on sexually transmitted ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Diagnoses of HIV ...

  19. COCHLEATA controls leaf size and secondary inflorescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 18, 2012 ... sion promotes production of secondary branches from the axils of cauline leaves ... ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 transcription factor, which in turn represses the ...... Blixt S 1967 Linkage studies in Pisum VII. The manifestation of ...

  20. Secondary laser cooling of strontium-88 atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkin, S. A.; Khabarova, K. Yu., E-mail:; Galyshev, A. A.; Berdasov, O. I.; Gribov, A. Yu.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Slyusarev, S. N. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise “All-Russia Research Institute for Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements” (VNIIFTRI) (Russian Federation)


    The secondary laser cooling of a cloud of strontium-88 atoms on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}–{sup 3}P{sub 1} (689 nm) intercombination transition captured into a magneto-optical trap has been demonstrated. We describe in detail the recapture of atoms from the primary trap operating on the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}–{sup 1}P{sub 1} (461 nm) transition and determine the recapture coefficient κ, the number of atoms, and their temperature in the secondary trap as a function of experimental parameters. A temperature of 2 µK has been reached in the secondary trap at the recapture coefficient κ = 6%, which confirms the secondary cooling efficiency and is sufficient to perform metrological measurements of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}–{sup 3}P{sub 1} (698 nm) clock transition in an optical lattice.

  1. Amino acid code of protein secondary structure. (United States)

    Shestopalov, B V


    The calculation of protein three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem to be solved. This paper presents principles of the code theory of protein secondary structure, and their consequence--the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. The doublet code model of protein secondary structure, developed earlier by the author (Shestopalov, 1990), is part of this theory. The theory basis are: 1) the name secondary structure is assigned to the conformation, stabilized only by the nearest (intraresidual) and middle-range (at a distance no more than that between residues i and i + 5) interactions; 2) the secondary structure consists of regular (alpha-helical and beta-structural) and irregular (coil) segments; 3) the alpha-helices, beta-strands and coil segments are encoded, respectively, by residue pairs (i, i + 4), (i, i + 2), (i, i = 1), according to the numbers of residues per period, 3.6, 2, 1; 4) all such pairs in the amino acid sequence are codons for elementary structural elements, or structurons; 5) the codons are divided into 21 types depending on their strength, i.e. their encoding capability; 6) overlappings of structurons of one and the same structure generate the longer segments of this structure; 7) overlapping of structurons of different structures is forbidden, and therefore selection of codons is required, the codon selection is hierarchic; 8) the code theory of protein secondary structure generates six variants of the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. There are two possible kinds of model construction based on the theory: the physical one using physical properties of amino acid residues, and the statistical one using results of statistical analysis of a great body of structural data. Some evident consequences of the theory are: a) the theory can be used for calculating the secondary structure from the amino acid sequence as a partial solution of the problem of calculation of protein three

  2. Secondary acute leukemia - review of 15 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, P; Rajni, A; Gopal, R; Saikia, T; Kurkure, P A; Nair, C N; Advani, S H


    Acute leukemia is a rare complication of long-term chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy and radiotherapy. With improved survival in cancer patients resulting from modern methods of investigations and treatment, more case of secondary leukemia have come to light. In this review, fifteen cases of secondary leukemia, its prognostic implications and methods to reduce the risk of its development are emphasised. Relevant literature is also reviewed. (author). 3 tabs., 24 refs.

  3. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki


    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  4. Heteronormativity in secondary schools in Zagreb


    Bijelić, Nataša; Hodžić, Amir


    This paper analyses the presence and characteristics of heteronormativity in the context of the Croatian school system by focusing on secondary schools in the capital of Zagreb. We base our analysis on the results of a survey on opinions and attitudes regarding homosexuality conducted on a sample of 322 students and 117 teachers in nine secondary schools. The research reveals that stereotypes and prejudice towards lesbians and gays are omnipresent and widespread. Both students and teachers ho...

  5. Modes of failures: primary and secondary stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.


    The paper begins with a reminder that the purpose of stress classification is to ensure suitable margins with respect to failure modes. The distinction between primary stresses and secondary stresses is then examined and a method is given for assessing the degree of elastic follow up in the elastic plastic field. The importance of elastic follow up is then highlighted by an examination of the effect of primary and secondary stresses on crack behavior

  6. Ionic secondary emission SIMS principles and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darque-Ceretti, E.; Migeon, H.N.; Aucouturier, M.


    The ionic analysis by secondary emission (SIMS) is one of material analysis based on the ions bombardment. That is micro-analysis method in taking into account that the dimensions of the analysed volume are under the micrometer. This paper details in a first part some ionic secondary emission principle to introduce a description of the instrumentation: microprobe, ions production, spectrometers. (A.L.B.)

  7. Basic aspects of secondary electron distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.K.


    Graphical methods proposed by Platzman and by Fano are applied to the analysis of the basic features observed in secondary electron spectra. These methods are useful not only in checking the consistency of experimental data, but also in extrapolating the spectra to the range of primary- and secondary-electron energies not covered by experiments. Illustrative examples are presented for He, Ne, and NO. (U.S.)

  8. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren


    In the last decade, the prediction of protein secondary structure has been optimized using essentially one and the same assignment scheme known as DSSP. We present here a different scheme, which is more predictable. This scheme predicts directly the hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the secondary......-forward neural network with one hidden layer on a data set identical to the one used in earlier work....

  9. Storage and transmission of secondary energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.


    In the area of the total energy flow, possibilities and limits of shifts in time (storage) and in space (transfer) of secondary energy, i.e. electrical, chemical and thermal energy are examined and formulated. These shifts are linked to the qualitative conversions of secondary energy. The multiple technological possibilities, the spectrum of governing factors and the numerous technical and economical parameters show that only a complex optimization is possible. (Auth.)

  10. Promoting Science in Secondary School Education. (United States)

    Chiovitti, Anthony; Duncan, Jacinta C; Jabbar, Abdul


    Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Theory of Economic Development (Secondary Stage)


    Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais


    This is a secondary stage of theory of economic development. This research study is covering the secondary phase of development which rules the tactical plans of the main strategy. In this stage, the social and economical demands varies from country to country and we have developed the theory according to the Pakistani economic conditions. It requires great a lot of technical and strategic analysis to chose the accurate plans accordingly.

  12. Minimizing secondary coolant blowdown in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. C.; Woo, J. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Cho, Y. G.; Lim, N. Y.


    There is about 80m 3 /h loss of the secondary cooling water by evaporation, windage and blowdown during the operation of HANARO, 30MW research reactor. The evaporation and the windage is necessary loss to maintain the performance of cooling tower, but the blowdown is artificial lose to get rid of the foreign material and to maintain the quality of the secondary cooling water. Therefore, minimizing the blowdown loss was studied. It was confirmed, through the relation of the number of cycle and the loss rate of secondary coolant, that the number of cycle is saturated to 12 without blowdown because of the windage loss. When the secondary coolant is treated by high Ca-hardness treatment program (the number of cycle > 10) to maintain the number of cycle around 12 without blowdown, only the turbidity exceeds the limit. By adding filtering system it was confirmed, through the relation of turbidity and filtering rate of secondary cooling water, that the turbidity is reduced below the limit (5 deg.) by 2% of filtering rate without blowdown. And it was verified, through the performance test of back-flow filtering unit, that this unit gets rid of foreign material up to 95% of the back-flow and that the water can be reused as coolant. Therefore, the secondary cooling water can be treated by the high Ca-hardness program and filter system without blowdown

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent secondary school students in Uvwie ... METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out on 358 senior secondary ... secondary school students in Uvwie have a fairly good knowledge of AIDS, ...

  14. Secondary hypertension: the ways of management. (United States)

    Rossi, Gian P; Seccia, Teresa M; Pessina, Achille C


    The prevalence of secondary hypertension is lower than that of primary (essential) hypertension, but it is likely that it has been underestimated because appropriate tests were not generally performed. Hence, before embarking on a search for secondary hypertension physicians are generally advised to select populations of patients with a high pre-test probability of secondary forms of hypertension in order to maximize the positive predictive value and the gain in "ruling in" of the diagnostic tests. Based on updated information on prevalence and pathophysiology we herein critically review the general diagnostic strategy and the management of the main forms of secondary hypertension. In particular, strategies for identifying primary aldosteronism, the most frequent form of endocrine secondary hypertension, and for determining its unilateral or bilateral causes are discussed in details, because of the differences of treatment that requires adrenalectomy in the unilateral forms and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade in the bilateral forms. The tests available for the diagnosing pheochromocytoma (pheo), which is much rarer but extremely important to identify, as it can be fatal if unrecognized are also discussed, with emphasis on the recent developments in genetic testing. Renovascular hypertension is also a common curable form of hypertension, which should be identified as early as possible to avoid the onset of cardiovascular target organ damage and events, is also discussed.

  15. Numerical study of jets secondary instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancher, Pierre


    The work presented in this dissertation is a contribution to the study of the transition to turbulence in open shear flows. Results from direct numerical simulations are interpreted within the framework of hydrodynamic stability theory. The first chapter is an introduction to the primary and secondary instabilities observed in jets and mixing layers. The numerical method used in the present study is detailed in the second chapter. The dynamics of homogeneous circular jets subjected to stream wise and azimuthal perturbations are investigated in the third chapter. A complete scenario describing the evolution of the jet is proposed with emphasis on the dynamics of vorticity within the flow. In the fourth chapter a parametric study reveals a three-dimensional secondary instability mainly controlled in the linear regime by the Strouhal number of the primary instability. In the nonlinear regime the dynamics of the azimuthal harmonies are described by means of model equations and are linked to the formation of stream wise vortices in the braid. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the convective or absolute nature of the secondary instabilities in plane shear layers. It is shown that there are flow configurations for which the two-dimensional secondary instability (pairing) is absolute even though the primary instability (Kelvin-Helmholtz) is convective. Some preliminary results concerning the three-dimensional secondary instabilities arc presented at the end of this chapter. The last chapter summarizes the main results and examines possible extensions of this work. (author) [fr

  16. Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions (United States)

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Holb, Imre J.; Pócsi, István


    Fungi and plants are rich sources of thousands of secondary metabolites. The genetically coded possibilities for secondary metabolite production, the stimuli of the production, and the special phytotoxins basically determine the microscopic fungi-host plant interactions and the pathogenic lifestyle of fungi. The review introduces plant secondary metabolites usually with antifungal effect as well as the importance of signaling molecules in induced systemic resistance and systemic acquired resistance processes. The review also concerns the mimicking of plant effector molecules like auxins, gibberellins and abscisic acid by fungal secondary metabolites that modulate plant growth or even can subvert the plant defense responses such as programmed cell death to gain nutrients for fungal growth and colonization. It also looks through the special secondary metabolite production and host selective toxins of some significant fungal pathogens and the plant response in form of phytoalexin production. New results coming from genome and transcriptional analyses in context of selected fungal pathogens and their hosts are also discussed. PMID:26300892

  17. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih


    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  18. Strong eukaryotic IRESs have weak secondary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhua Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that eukaryotic Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES lack secondary structure and to examine the generality of the hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IRESs of the yeast and the fruit fly are located in the 5'UTR immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The minimum folding energy (MFE of 60 nt RNA segments immediately upstream of the initiation codons was calculated as a proxy of secondary structure stability. MFE of the reverse complements of these 60 nt segments was also calculated. The relationship between MFE and empirically determined IRES activity was investigated to test the hypothesis that strong IRES activity is associated with weak secondary structure. We show that IRES activity in the yeast and the fruit fly correlates strongly with the structural stability, with highest IRES activity found in RNA segments that exhibit the weakest secondary structure. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a subset of eukaryotic IRESs exhibits very low secondary structure in the 5'-UTR sequences immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The consistency in results between the yeast and the fruit fly suggests a possible shared mechanism of cap-independent translation initiation that relies on an unstructured RNA segment.

  19. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas. (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun


    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  20. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria. (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon


    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Academic Procrastination of Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Ribič Hederih


    Full Text Available Procrastination is a trait and/or a form of behavior that denotes an individual’s delay in an activity which should be done, and which causes discomfort. In the study we wished to determine the differences between high school students regarding gender, educational programme and learning success of the previous school year in three factors. On a sample of 284 high school students of different Slovenian secondary schools, we found that on average boys show statistically significantly more shortage of learning self-discipline than girls, while girls, on average, significantly more discomfort than boys. Comparison of secondary school students between programmes showed that, on average, gimnazija students show significantly more learning self-discipline than students in secondary technical education. The comparison in relation to different levels of learning success at the end of the previous school year and the factors of procrastination showed, however, no statistically significant differences.

  2. Cosmogenic Secondary Radiation from a Nearby Supernova (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew


    Increasing evidence has been found for multiple supernovae within 100 pc of the solar system. Supernovae produce large amounts of cosmic rays which upon striking Earth's atmosphere, produce a cascade of secondary particles. Among these cosmic ray secondaries are neutrons and muons, which penetrate far within the atmosphere to sea level and even below sea level. Muons and neutrons are both forms of ionizing radiation which have been linked to increases in cancer, congenital malformations, and other maladies. This work focuses on the impact of muons, as they penetrate into ocean water to impact the lowest levels of the aquatic food chain. We have used monte carlo simulations (CORSIKA, MCNPx, and FLUKA) to determine the ionizing radiation dose due to cosmic ray secondaries. This information shows that although most astrophysical events do not supply the necessary radiation flux to prove dangerous; there may be other impacts such as an increase to mutation rate.

  3. Secondary Circuit Start Up Chemistry Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontan, Guillaume; Morel, Pascal


    In a context of investment and renewal of equipment, Electricite De France (EDF) put enhanced efforts on operating practices during start-up of the secondary circuit, in order to improve operational performance and materials lifetime. This article focuses on the objective of optimizing the filling, the chemical conditioning and the thermal conditioning of the secondary fluid, while taking into account the following issues: - Limiting the time required to obtain a proper chemistry, - Limiting the amount of water and steam used, - Limiting the amount of effluent generated. The scope is all start-up conditions of secondary circuit, both after refuelling outage or fortuitous shutdowns of the plant. The recommendations produced are based on existing local procedures and good practices, which were collected and developed in order to propose a generic methodology understandable and useful both for operators, chemists and managers. (authors)

  4. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: Three rare secondary causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Eswaradass Venkatesan


    Full Text Available Periodic paralysis is a rare neuromuscular disorder, related to a defect in muscle ion channels, characterized by episodes of painless muscle weakness, which may be precipitated by heavy exercise, fasting, or high-carbohydrate meals. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis may be familial (primary or secondary. Here, we report three cases of secondary causes of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. On evaluation, case 1 had distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA due to Sjogren′s syndrome, case 2 had drug induced proximal RTA (Fanconi′s syndrome and case 3 had thyrotoxicosis. Clinician must be aware of causes of secondary PP as recognition and diagnosis can completely prevent further attacks of periodic paralysis. Each of the above case is rare, but completely treatable if diagnosed. Low dose steroids with bicarbonate replacement in case 1, stopping tenofovir in case 2 and carbimazole therapy in case 3 prevented further attacks of periodic paralysis and cardiopulmonary complications.

  5. Secondary traumatic stress and secondary posttraumatic growth in a sample of Dutch police family liaison officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Maarten; Saan, M.C.; Bollen, Lidewij; Kuijpers, Karlijn


    This study investigated secondary traumatic stress (STS) and secondary posttraumatic growth (SPG) in a sample of Dutch police family liaison officers (N = 224). Our study had two aims: (a) to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS and (b) to investigate the association between STS

  6. Financial Literacy of Secondary Students, and Its Place within Secondary Schools (United States)

    Neill, Alex; Berg, Melanie; Stevens, Liesje


    This report investigates the behaviour, attitudes and experiences of New Zealand secondary students with money and financial products. It also looks at financial literacy programmes in New Zealand secondary schools and explores barriers to the implementation of financial literacy teaching. The research was commissioned by the Commission for…

  7. Function-related secondary user needs and secondary data? a crit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the development of the modern theory of lexicographical functions by offering a critical examination of the following concepts associated with it: primary needs, primary data, secondary needs, secondary data, function-related needs, and function-related data. By way of introduction, ...

  8. Kenya's Constituency Development Fund, Free Secondary Education Policy, and Access to Secondary Education (United States)

    Nzuki, Charles Kyalo


    The effects of the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) and the Free Secondary Education Policy (FSEP) on access to secondary school education in Kenya's Yatta sub-county have not been adequately explored in available public policy literature. Hence, this qualitative multiple-case study was designed to understand the effects of the 2 policies on…

  9. Factors Affecting Subsidized Free Day Secondary Education in Enhancing Learners Retention in Secondary Schools in Kenya (United States)

    James, Asena Muganda; Simiyu, Aggrey Mukasa; Riechi, Andrew


    Learners are the key stakeholders of a school for it to be registered by the Department of Education. However the retention of these learners in Kenya's Secondary Level Education is a great challenge in Kenya. Every secondary school dropout signifies unfulfilled objective, goal and aim for the individual as well as the community at large. The…

  10. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation, which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  11. Technical specifications for PWR secondary water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.; van Rooyen, D.


    The bases for establishing Technical Specifications for PWR secondary water chemistry are reviewed. Whereas extremely stringent control of secondary water needs to be maintained to prevent denting in some units, sound bases for establishing limits that will prevent stress corrosion, wastage, and denting do not exist at the present time. This area is being examined very thoroughly by industry-sponsored research programs. Based on the evidence available to date, short term control limits are suggested; establishment of these or other limits as Technical Specifications is not recommended until the results of the research programs have been obtained and evaluated

  12. Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schreiber, Trine; Tønnesen, Pia Hvid

    The discussion paper is a publication from the project Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School. The project is a collaboration between the National Library of Education at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, and the Royal School of Library and Information Science....... The project is funded by Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF). The discussion paper is published in connection with the conference Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School on 22 April 2010. See video streaming from the conference etc. at

  13. English language knowledge for secondary teachers

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Alison


    If teachers are to successfully develop their students' English language skills it is vital that they overcome any existing lack of confidence and training in grammar and language concepts. Language Knowledge for Secondary Teachers is an accessible book aiming to equip secondary teachers with the knowledge they need to teach language effectively. It clearly explains the essential concepts for language study, introduces the terminology needed for 'talking about language' and shows how this knowledge can be applied to the skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening. This

  14. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)


    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  15. Collaborative Tools in Upper Secondary School - Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Degn, Hans-Peter; Bech, Christian Winther


    The paper will discuss potentials of digital media to support student engagement and student production in Danish upper secondary education with a specific focus on group work and collaboration. With the latest school reform, upper secondary education in Denmark has experienced an increased focus...... on the system theoretical approach will be described. Third, the findings from the qualitative, and quantitative studies will be presented. The paper concludes that the study demonstrates changes in the way group work is organised by the students using digital media, and a tendency to develop student engagement...

  16. Overview of factors influencing the secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistine, P.A.


    The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

  17. Secondary poisoning of owls by anticoagulant rodenticides (United States)

    Mendenhall, Vivian M.; Pank, L.F.


    Anticoagulants-compounds that prevent clotting of the blood-are extensively used for control of small mammal pests. The potential secondary hazards of 6 anticoagulant rodenticides to birds of prey were examined in this study. Whole rats or mice were killed with each anticoagulant and were fed to 1-3 species of owls. Owls died of hemorrhaging after feeding on rats killed with bromadiolone, brodifacoum, or diphacinone; sublethal hemorrhaging occurred in owls fed rats killed with difenacoum. These results demonstrate potential secondary hazards of 4 anticoagulants to avian predators. No abnormalities were observed in owls fed rats killed with fumarin and chlorophacinone

  18. IFR code for secondary particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.R.; Yu, S.S.


    A numerical simulation has been constructed to obtain a detailed, quantitative estimate of the electromagnetic fields and currents existing in the Advanced Test Accelerator under conditions of laser guiding. The code treats the secondary electrons by particle simulation and the beam dynamics by a time-dependent envelope model. The simulation gives a fully relativistic description of secondary electrons moving in self-consistent electromagnetic fields. The calculations are made using coordinates t, x, y, z for the electrons and t, ct-z, r for the axisymmetric electromagnetic fields and currents. Code results, showing in particular current enhancement effects, will be given

  19. Stem secondary growth of tundra shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders


    Our knowledge of stem secondary growth of arctic shrubs (a key component of tundra net primary production, NPP) is very limited. Here, we investigated the impact of the physical elements of the environment on shrub secondary growth by comparing annual growth rates of model species from similar...... growth (stem apical growth, stem length, and apical growth of stem plus leaves), in some cases even with opposite responses. Thus caution should be taken when estimating the impact of the environment on shrub growth from apical growth only. Integration of our data set with the (very limited) previously...

  20. Magnetite deposition in PWR secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, V.; Riess, R.; Ruehle, W.


    Recently, local magnetite (Fe 3 04) deposition has been observed at various locations within the secondary systems of Siemens-designed PWRs. These deposits sometimes limited operational flexibility and affected routine operation checks. In addition, these deposits may affect the heat transfer characteristics of heat exchangers. Prior to replacement of components or piping or other extensive maintenance activities it should be investigated whether any modification in secondary-side water chemistry might counteract this corrosion phenomenon, which has proven very effective in maintaining steam generator performance. A VGB study will make an assessment of available field information, and countermeasures will be elaborated. This paper describes the current status of the project. (orig.) [de

  1. Beam-ripple monitor with secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Noda, Koji; Takada, Eiichi; Komiyama, Akihito; Ichinohe, Ken-ichi; Sano, Yoshinobu


    To replace the scintillation-ripple monitor, we have developed a new monitor with a smaller destructive effect on the beam. In this monitor, we use secondary electrons emitted from an aluminum foil with a thickness of 2 μm. The signals of secondary electrons are amplified by an electron multiplier having a maximum gain of 10 6 . By using the new monitor, we could clearly observe the beam ripple with a beam intensity of 3.6x10 8 pps (particle per second). This monitor can also be used as an intensity monitor in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 pps. (author)

  2. 13 CFR 120.601 - SBA Secondary Market. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA Secondary Market. 120.601 Section 120.601 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Fiscal and Transfer Agent (fta) § 120.601 SBA Secondary Market. The SBA secondary market...

  3. Patients with secondary amenorrhea due to tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which can affect various organs, including human's genital organs such as the endometrium. Tuberculosis endometritis can cause clinical symptoms of secondary amenorrhea and infertility. Infertility in genital TB caused by the involvement of the endometrium. The case presentation is ...

  4. Secondary Vocational Horticulture Programs--An Assessment. (United States)

    Burnett, Michael F.; Smith, Charles W.


    The objectives of the study were to determine characteristics of secondary horticulture teachers, the structure of horticulture departments, funding sources, nature and scope of facilities, types of supervised occupational experience programs in which horticulture students participated, and curriculum characteristics of vocational horticulture…

  5. Organic Horticulture in the Secondary School (United States)

    Marrocco, Aldo


    This report is based on five years experience working with primary and secondary school teachers in Italy to develop organic farming as an activity for students. The tasks involved were intended to develop our students' environmental awareness, allow them to produce food organically and show that market gardening could be a productive hobby. In…

  6. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.


    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  7. Impact of effective communication in Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of effective communication in secondary school administration in Enugu State. It was a descriptive study. The study comprised 659 respondents made up of 28 principals and 631 teachers. The population of the study was obtained through random sampling technique. The instrument used for ...

  8. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition (United States)

    National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016


    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  9. Best Practices in Montessori Secondary Programs (United States)

    Donahoe, Marta


    This article is the result of years of study, both formal and informal; hundreds of hours of traditional and Montessori classroom observations; reading and digesting articles and books on secondary education, Montessori education, adolescent brain research, leadership, and best practices in education; and most enlightening of all, 20 years of…

  10. Correlating continuous assessment scores to junior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between continuous assessment scores and junior secondary school certificate examination(JSCE) final scores in Imo State. A sample of four hundred students were purposively selected from thirty eight thousand students who took the 1997 JSCE in Imo State. The data used were ...

  11. Secondary wastewater treatment by microalgae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae play a fundamental role in primary and secondary wastewater treatment. In this work the growth, photosynthetic activity and removal of phosphorus from wastewater effluents by indigenous blue-green algal species, Spirulina and Oscillatoria, isolated from Gaborone oxidation ponds was studied. Oscillatoria and ...

  12. Investigating Declining Enrolments in Secondary Mathematics (United States)

    Hine, Gregory


    This research paper examines the perspective of the Heads of Learning Area: Mathematics (HOLAMs) within all Western Australian secondary schools as to why they felt capable students were not enrolling in the two higher-level mathematics courses of study. All HOLAMs were invited to participate in a single, anonymous online survey comprising…

  13. Career information processing strategies of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the strategies commonly adopted by Osun state secondary school students in processing career information. It specifically examined the sources of career information available to the students, the uses to which the students put the information collected and how their career decision making skills can be ...

  14. Preparing Future Secondary Computer Science Educators (United States)

    Ajwa, Iyad


    Although nearly every college offers a major in computer science, many computer science teachers at the secondary level have received little formal training. This paper presents details of a project that could make a significant contribution to national efforts to improve computer science education by combining teacher education and professional…

  15. Secondary School Transition: Planning for Success. (United States)

    Hemphill, Rae

    Parents of adolescents with attention deficit disorders are offered suggestions for easing the transition of their teen from elementary to secondary school. Careful scheduling of classes with the guidance counselor to "fit" the individual teen's needs is urged. The importance of ongoing communication with the school concerning class progress,…

  16. Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves (United States)

    Edelman, Joshua B.

    A sharp, circular 7° half-angle cone was tested in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at 6° angle of attack. Using a variety of roughness configurations, measurements were made using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and fast pressure sensors. High-frequency secondary instabilities of the stationary crossflow waves were detected near the aft end of the cone, from 110° to 163° from the windward ray. At least two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities were measured. The secondary instabilities have high coherence between upstream and downstream sensor pairs. In addition, the amplitudes of the instabilities increase with the addition of roughness elements near the nose of the cone. Two of the measured instabilities were captured over a range of axial Reynolds numbers of about 1 - 2 million, with amplitudes ranging from low to turbulent breakdown. For these instabilities, the wave speed and amplitude growth can be calculated. The wave speeds were all near the edge velocity. Measured growth before breakdown for the two instabilities are between e3 and e4 from background noise levels. The initial linear growth rates for the instabilities are near 50 /m. Simultaneous measurement of two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities was made during a single run. It was found that each mode was spatially confined within a small azimuthal region, and that the regions of peak amplitude for one mode correspond to regions of minimal amplitude for the other.

  17. Understanding reading problems in secondary schools: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... factors are discussed based on the evidence obtained by observations and research findings. The importance of teaching reading 'as a subject in the secondary school is hinted. Recommendations are made to ensure that reading as a tool to learning is given a prominent place in schools and libraries throughout Nigeria ...

  18. Changing Pattern of Bacteriuria among Asymptomatic Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: A survey of 628 adolescents attending secondary schools in Enugu was ... females in whom asymptomatic bacteriuria needs to be treated in pregnancy in order to prevent the attendant risks to the fetus. Thus, there is a ...

  19. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II


    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    meeting the criteria for DSM IV- TR is increasing. What is not clear with this increase is whether it is primary mania or secondary mania linked with HIV. METHODS. This study design was a case series in which patients with acute manic episodes were admitted to. Chainama Hills College Hospital and University. Teaching ...

  1. Laboratory Technicians in Australian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Hackling, Mark W.


    A number of reports have argued that secondary science education needs to be more inquiry oriented and involve authentic and practical investigations to develop scientific literacy and better engage students in learning science. Inquiry-oriented approaches, such as those advocated in the new science national curriculum, require that teachers have…

  2. [Pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects of secondary anorexia]. (United States)

    Laviano, A; Cascino, A; Muscaritoli, M; Rossi Fanelli, F


    Anorexia is an often underrated symptom in the clinical management of patients suffering from chronic diseases. Moreover, the anorexia accompanying chronic diseases (secondary anorexia) is often confused with anorexia nervosa, a typically neuropsychiatric disorder involving completely different pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Secondary anorexia is one of the main factors responsible for the development of malnutrition, which in turn negatively affects patient morbidity and mortality. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of secondary anorexia. However, consistent experimental and clinical evidence seems to point to hypothalamic serotonergic system hyperactivity as a preeminent cause; this hyperactivity appears to be triggered by enhanced brain availability of tryptophan, the aminoacid precursor of serotonin. The hyperactive hypothalamic serotonergic system might also represent the final effector where different regulatory and modulating pathways, including cytokines, converge. The involvement of tryptophan and the hypothalamic serotonergic system is further supported by the effectiveness of a therapeutic strategy, based on the inhibition of tryptophan entry into the brain, in increasing the food intake of anorectic patients. Although these results represent an encouraging approach to the treatment of secondary anorexia, with possible beneficial effects on the nutritional status of patients, they need to be validated in larger trials.

  3. Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the prevalence of substance abuse among female secondary school students in Anambra State. Design: This is a cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on smoking, use of sedatives and alcohol drinking habits from 725 ...

  4. Evaluating Accounting Software in Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Chalupa, Marilyn


    The secondary accounting curriculum must be modified to include computers and software. Educators must be aware of the computer skills needed on the job and of the accounting software that is available. Software selection must be tailored to fit the curriculum and the time available. (JOW)

  5. Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause. (United States)

    Charles, Lesley; Triscott, Jean; Dobbs, Bonnie


    Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of secondary hypertension vary by age. The most common causes in children are renal parenchymal disease and coarctation of the aorta. In adults 65 years and older, atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, renal failure, and hypothyroidism are common causes. Secondary hypertension should be considered in the presence of suggestive symptoms and signs, such as severe or resistant hypertension, age of onset younger than 30 years (especially before puberty), malignant or accelerated hypertension, and an acute rise in blood pressure from previously stable readings. Additionally, renovascular hypertension should be considered in patients with an increase in serum creatinine of at least 50% occurring within one week of initiating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy; severe hypertension and a unilateral smaller kidney or difference in kidney size greater than 1.5 cm; or recurrent flash pulmonary edema. Other underlying causes of secondary hypertension include hyperaldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnea, pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome, thyroid disease, coarctation of the aorta, and use of certain medications.

  6. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy in secondary immune deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Carlo; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Kimby, Eva


    RT in secondary immune deficiencies (SID), and most published guidelines are mere extrapolations from the experience in PID. AREAS COVERED: In this article, four European experts provide their consolidated opinion on open questions surrounding the prophylactic use of IgRT in SID, based on their clinical...

  7. Peninsula Humane Society Teacher's Packet. Secondary Level. (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this teacher's packet are designed to familiarize secondary school students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons grouped under social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities focus on pet overpopulation, expressions of social responses in…

  8. Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas production characteristics and acceptability study of some forage for ruminant feeding in South-Western Nigeria. ... Chemical composition and qualitative analysis of saponins, phenol and steroids of the plants were determined. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was ...




  10. Career conversations in senior secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.


    In the Netherlands, many schools for senior secondary vocational education are implementing competence-based curricula. These curricula start from a constructivist approach and are based on the idea that young people should learn to reflect on their personal ambitions and motives, and to undertake

  11. Directional Secondary Emission of a Semiconductor Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We investigate the time-resolved secondary emission of a homogeneously broadened microcavity after resonant excitation. The sample consists of a 25nm GaAs single quantum well (QW) in the center of a wedged ¥ë cavity with AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg reflectors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At zero detun...

  12. Secondary hypertension | Ker | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary hypertension is rare and the diagnosis may be challenging although, on occasion, there are clinical features indicative of a specific underlying cause. The more commonly encountered causes include renal parenchymal and vascular disease, phaeochromocytoma, endocrine causes, sleep apnoea and drugs.

  13. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity (United States)

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi


    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  14. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  15. Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 28, 2015 ... Alternaria spp. are cosmopolitan mould fungi and can be found in soils ... the secondary metabolites products from A. alternata and ..... Zone of inhibition (mm) of test bacterial strains to fungal products and standard antibiotics. Fungal ... marine actinomycetes from pulicat, Muttukadu, and Ennore estuaries.

  16. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  17. Secondary systems of PWR and BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, N.


    The secondary systems of a nuclear power plant comprises the steam, condensate and feedwater cycle, the steam plant auxiliary or ancillary systems and the cooling water systems. The presentation gives a general review about the main systems which show a high similarity of PWR and BWR plants. (orig./RW)

  18. Helpers in Distress: Preventing Secondary Trauma (United States)

    Whitfield, Natasha; Kanter, Deborah


    Those in close contact with trauma survivors are themselves at risk for trauma (e.g., Bride, 2007; Figley, 1995). Family, friends, and professionals who bear witness to the emotional retelling and re-enacting of traumatic events can experience what is called "secondary trauma" (Elwood, Mott, Lohr, & Galovski, 2011). The literature…

  19. Secondary Data Analysis in Family Research (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.


    This article first provides an overview of the part that secondary data analysis plays in the field of family studies in the early 21st century. It addresses changes over time in the use of existing omnibus data sets and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The second part of the article focuses on the elements that make a study a…

  20. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data (United States)

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David


    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  1. Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum. (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

  2. Secondary Teachers' Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices. (United States)

    Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.

    The nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary teachers of health and physical education, home economics, science, and social studies were assessed. Of the 518 teachers who completed the survey instruments, 43 percent had never taken a food or nutrition course, and 63 percent had no inservice training in nutrition or food…

  3. Life Purposes of Iranian Secondary School Students (United States)

    Hedayati, Nasibeh; Kuusisto, Elina; Gholami, Khalil; Tirri, Kirsi


    This article examines Iranian secondary students' (N = 336) life purposes. Economic and hedonistic life goals were the most valued. Relationships in terms of having a family and children were also appreciated. In the students' views, religiousness was associated with social goals such as helping others in need and volunteering in the community.…

  4. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  5. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  6. Information training for secondary school level teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau Thierry, A. de


    The INSTN (National Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Techniques) in France, organizes each year an information training concerning the nuclear field for secondary school level teachers; created in 1957, the two-weeks session is concerned with radioactivity and nuclear reactor principles and a four-day practical teaching. Since 1968, 1150 teachers assisted to the session

  7. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie A.


    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  8. Acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renck, Decio Valente; Lopes Junior, Joao Ivan


    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition whose diagnosis is hardly achieved. The prevalence is higher in elderly men. The present case report describes the case of a male, 78-year-old patient who underwent pleural effusion drainage 17 years before presenting with clinical manifestations and tomographic findings compatible with acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia. (author)

  9. Versatile secondary beam for the meson area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.


    A new secondary beam design is outlined for the Meson M6 Beamline that combines versatility with economy. The beamline described will transport charged particles of either sign to 800 GeV/c and bring the beam to a focus in one of three potential experimental areas. The plan makes maximal use of existing civil construction

  10. Authentic Teaching Experiences in Secondary Mathematics Methods (United States)

    Stickles, Paula R.


    Often secondary mathematics methods courses include classroom peer teaching, but many pre-service teachers find it challenging to teach their classmate peers as there are no discipline issues and little mathematical discourse as the "students" know the content. We will share a recent change in our methods course where pre-service…

  11. Should Secondary Schools Buy Local Area Networks? (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley


    The advantages of microcomputer networks include resource sharing, multiple user communications, and integrating data processing and office automation. This article nonetheless favors stand-alone computers for Australian secondary school classrooms because of unreliable hardware, software design, and copyright problems, and individual progress…

  12. Direct amination of secondary alcohols using Ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pingen, D.L.L.; Müller, C.; Vogt, D.


    Hydrogen shuttle: For the first time secondary alcohols and ammonia can be directly converted into primary amines with a selectivity of up to 99¿% by using a simple ruthenium/phosphine catalyst (see scheme; R1, R2= alkyl, aryl, alkenyl; M=[Ru3(CO)12]; and L=phosphine ligand).

  13. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.


    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  14. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G


    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  15. Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students (United States)

    Kilic, Hulya


    The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers' knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the…

  16. Prejudices against Immigrants in Secondary School (United States)

    Etxeberria, Felix; Murua, Hilario; Arrieta, Elisabet; Garmendia, Joxe; Etxeberria, Juan


    This paper presents the results of a study of prejudice against immigrants in secondary schools in the Basque Country, in Spain. We carried out a review of the best-known questionnaires and catalogues on prejudices regarding immigration and we drew up a new questionnaire, with positive and negative scales of prejudices, in order to apply them to…

  17. assessing participation in secondary education quality enhancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    for low parents and communities involvement in secondary education-quality improvement. It was recommended that the quality of instruction in ... concern on standard of education hinges on the quality of instruction the children are ... NTI, 2000). This implies that teachers have a duty of helping students under their care to.

  18. Live Imaging of Mouse Secondary Palate Fusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kim, S.; Procházka, Jan; Bush, J.O.

    jaro, č. 125 (2017), č. článku e56041. ISSN 1940-087X Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Developmental Biology * Issue 125 * live imaging * secondary palate * tissue fusion * cleft * craniofacial Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2016

  19. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratories: Development and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This publication describes the work of the IAEA and the WHO in the establishment of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Membership in the SSDL network has now risen to about 50 laboratories, of which 36 are in developing countries

  20. Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific Innovations. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... Through review of various innovations developed by universities including SUA, it was established that there are several innovations in different fields especially in crop cultivation, animal ...

  1. Computer Activities in Illinois Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Dennis, J. Richard; And Others

    A brief, non-technical questionnaire was sent to 875 secondary school administrators (primarily principals) in the State of Illinois. Information was collected in four areas: (1) general school characteristics, (2) availability and use of computers, (3) perceived need for and qualifications of teachers of computer science, and (4) perceived need…

  2. The Gender of Secondary School Principals. (United States)

    Bonuso, Carl; Shakeshaft, Charol


    A study was conducted to understand why so few of the secondary school principals in New York State are women. Results suggest two possible causes: either sufficient women candidates do not apply for the positions, or sex discrimination still exists. (KH)

  3. Problems of implementing continuous assessment in secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined problems of implementing continuous assessment in secondary schools in Obowo local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to 100 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistics were used for data ...

  4. Vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and preeclampsia. (United States)

    Scholl, Theresa O; Chen, Xinhua; Stein, T Peter


    Secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is defined by a high concentration of intact parathyroid hormone when circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is low, is a functional indicator of vitamin D insufficiency and a sign of impaired calcium metabolism. Two large randomized controlled trials examined effects of calcium supplementation on preeclampsia but did not consider the vitamin D status of mothers. We examined the association of secondary hyperparathyroidism with risk of preeclampsia. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care (mean ± SD: 13.7 ± 5.7 wk) using prospective data from a cohort of 1141 low-income and minority gravidae. Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurred in 6.3% of the cohort and 18.4% of women whose 25(OH)D concentrations were 20 ng/mL were not at increased risk. Intact parathyroid hormone was related to higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and arterial pressure at week 20 before clinical recognition of preeclampsia. Energy-adjusted intakes of total calcium and lactose and circulating 25(OH)D were correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure or arterial pressure and with parathyroid hormone. Some women who are vitamin D insufficient develop secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia.

  5. Creativity of secondary school students: entrepreneurial skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study adopted a quasi-experimental design using a pre-test, post-test control design in order to investigate the entrepreneurial skills and creative abilities of secondary school students in Physics. The study was carried out in Obio/Akpo Local Government Area of Rivers State of Nigeria, using purposive sampling ...

  6. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.


    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  7. Initiation of secondary ice production in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sullivan


    Full Text Available Disparities between the measured concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs and in-cloud ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs have led to the hypothesis that mechanisms other than primary nucleation form ice in the atmosphere. Here, we model three of these secondary production mechanisms – rime splintering, frozen droplet shattering, and ice–ice collisional breakup – with a six-hydrometeor-class parcel model. We perform three sets of simulations to understand temporal evolution of ice hydrometeor number (Nice, thermodynamic limitations, and the impact of parametric uncertainty when secondary production is active. Output is assessed in terms of the number of primarily nucleated ice crystals that must exist before secondary production initiates (NINP(lim as well as the ICNC enhancement from secondary production and the timing of a 100-fold enhancement. Nice evolution can be understood in terms of collision-based nonlinearity and the phasedness of the process, i.e., whether it involves ice hydrometeors, liquid ones, or both. Ice–ice collisional breakup is the only process for which a meaningful NINP(lim exists (0.002 up to 0.15 L−1. For droplet shattering and rime splintering, a warm enough cloud base temperature and modest updraft are the more important criteria for initiation. The low values of NINP(lim here suggest that, under appropriate thermodynamic conditions for secondary ice production, perturbations in cloud concentration nuclei concentrations are more influential in mixed-phase partitioning than those in INP concentrations.

  8. Laryngeal complications after type 1 thyroplasty. (United States)

    Cotter, C S; Avidano, M A; Crary, M A; Cassisi, N J; Gorham, M M


    Type I thyroplasty has become a primary surgical choice for voice restoration in patients with glottal incompetence. This study examines factors associated with laryngeal complications after type I thyroplasty. Ten laryngoscopic variables were analyzed from preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative videolaryngoscopies of 51 patients undergoing 58 medialization procedures. Ten patient and operative variables were examined by medical record review. Major complications were defined as wound hemorrhage, airway obstruction, or prosthesis extrusion. Minor complications were defined as vocal fold hematoma without airway obstruction or prosthesis movement. The major complication rate was 8.6%, and the minor complication rate was 29%. No delayed hemorrhage or airway obstruction occurred. Prosthesis extrusion occurred in five (8.6%) patients 1 week to 5 months after surgery. Extrusion was associated with suboptimal prosthesis placement in 80% of cases. Two patients retained excellent glottal closure despite extrusion. Vocal fold hematoma was identified in 14 (24%) cases and resolved within 1 week. Prosthesis movement occurred in three (5%) patients 1 week to 6 months after surgery and resulted in poor glottal closure. All patients with prosthesis extrusion or movement were female. Type I thyroplasty remains a safe outpatient procedure with few major complications. Prosthesis extrusion was associated with suboptimal prosthesis placement and may or may not result in poor glottal closure. Minor vocal fold hematomas were relatively frequent, resolved rapidly, and were not associated with airway obstruction. Female patients may be more prone to complications because of their small laryngeal size.

  9. Her Own Boss: Gender and the Pursuit of Incompetent Play


    Jenson, Jennifer


    This paper examines gender and computer game playing, in particular questions of identity, access and playful engagement with these technologies. Because computer-based media are not only central tools for learning and work, and because games are increasingly being recruited as educational and instructional genres, it is likewise exceedingly important, from an educational equity standpoint to examine the ways in which rapidly evolving computer game-based learning initiatives threaten to compo...

  10. 31 CFR 10.51 - Incompetence and disreputable conduct. (United States)


    ... this paragraph (a)(13) include those which reflect or result from a knowing misstatement of fact or law... revealed, or from consciously disregarding information indicating that material facts expressed in the opinion or offering material are false or misleading. For purposes of this paragraph (a)(13), reckless...

  11. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law. (United States)

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali


    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.

  12. Cardiogenic shock – a look at acute functional mitral incompetence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood pressure remained low at 78/60 mmHg. The biochemical work-up ... the right atrium and ventricle were also ... started, to reduce the preload. ... result in physical disruption of the valve, ... dysfunction as well as retrograde flow from.

  13. The writing approaches of secondary students. (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Smith, Jennifer; O'Ryan, Leslie


    Research with college students has supported a model of writing approaches that defines the relationship between a writer and writing task along a deep and surface process continuum (Biggs, 1988). Based on that model, Lavelle (1993) developed the Inventory of Processes in College Composition which reflects students' motives and strategies as related to writing outcomes. It is also important to define the approaches of secondary students to better understand writing processes at that level, and development in written composition. This study was designed to define the writing approaches of secondary students by factor analysing students' responses to items regarding writing beliefs and writing strategies, and to compare the secondary approaches to those of college students. A related goal was to explore the relationships of the secondary writing approaches to perceived self-regulatory efficacy for writing (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), writing preferences, and writing outcomes. The initial, factor analytic phase involved 398 junior level high school students (11th grade) enrolled in a mandatory language arts class at each of three large Midwestern high schools (USA). Then, 49 junior level students enrolled in two language arts classes participated as subjects in the second phase. Classroom teachers administered the Inventory of Processes in College Composition (Lavelle, 1993), which contained 72 true-or-false items regarding writing beliefs and strategies, during regular class periods. Data were factor analysed and the structure compared to that of college students. In the second phase, the new inventory, Inventory of Processes in Secondary Composition, was administered in conjunction with the Perceived Self-Regulatory Efficacy for Writing Inventory (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), and a writing preferences survey. A writing sample and grade in Language Arts classes were obtained and served as outcome variables. The factor structure of secondary writing reflected three

  14. Reconstitution of a secondary cell wall in a secondary cell wall-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka


    The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  15. Outbursts from the secondary component in OJ 287 and the secondary spin-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihajoki P.


    Full Text Available At the end of March 2012 a prominent optical outburst was observed in the binary black hole system OJ 287. It does not fit the expected sequence of outbursts from the primary component and the bremsstrahlung outbursts from the accretion disk impacts of the secondary component. These occur in a well established pattern repeated with an approximately 12 year interval. In this work we discuss the possibility that the outburst originates from the secondary black hole. The timing of the 2012 outburst relative to the expected sequence would make it a counterpart of the precursor outbursts in 1993 and 2004, which occured before the main pattern of outbursts. If so, it appears that a precursor occurs when the secondary reaches a constant level above the mean accretion disk level of the primary component. It may be that this encounter induces an outburst in the secondary which is nearly as prominent as the outbursts in the expected sequence. The strength of these outbursts depends strongly on the spin of the secondary. In this work we investigate the limits on the secondary spin-up and spin alignment from interaction with the accretion disk of the primary component and its magnetic field.

  16. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England. (United States)

    Chinn, Steve


    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  17. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones. (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng


    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  18. Acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.S.


    MR imaging of the kidney was performed in 6 patients with acute renal failure (ARF) secondary to rhabdomyolysis caused by snake bite (n = 4), crush injury (n = 1), and carbon monoxide poisoning (n = 1). A test for urine myoglobin was positive in all 6 patients and MR imaging was done 6 to 18 days after the causative event of the rhabdomyolysis. MR images in all 6 patients showed globular swelling of the kidneys, preserved corticomedullary contrast on T1-weighted images, and obliteration of corticomedullary contrast on T2-weighted images. Unlike other medical renal diseases in which corticomedullary contrast is lost on T1-weighted images, preservation of the corticomedullary contrast on T1-weighted MR images with globular renal swelling was a constant finding in patients with ARF secondary to rhabdomyolysis. (orig.)

  19. Monju secondary heat transport system sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Hiroi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin; Iwata, Koji.


    On December 8, 1995, the sodium leakage from the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) occurred in the piping room of the reactor auxiliary building in Monju. The secondary sodium leaked through a temperature sensor, due to the breakaway of the tip of the well tube of the sensor installed near the outlet of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the C loop of SHTS. The reactor core remained cooled and thus, from the viewpoint of radiological hazards, the safety of the reactor was secured. There were no adverse effects for operating personnel or the surrounding environment. The cause of the well tube failure is considered to result from high cycle fatigue due to flow induced vibrations. Delay in draining the sodium from the leaking loop increased the consequential effects from sodium combustion products. (author)

  20. Perception of secondary victimization in gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda López


    Full Text Available Gender violence is a complex phenomenon that does not end with the removal of the abuser, as the abused person can experience secondary victimization. This study examined this process in a sample of 38 battered women. A multicausal approach was used to assess satisfaction with health system, the police, and the judiciary. The study also assessed the role of two variables that have remained unaddressed: family support and perceived danger. The results indicate that dissatisfaction with judicial treatment and legal action plays a key role in the perception of secondary victimization. It was also found that women who perceive less risk value the judicial system more because they do not need the system to take protective measures or other measures for them. Moreover, women who receive family support are more satisfied with the police system.

  1. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)


    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  2. [Secondary prevention of ischemic non cardioembolic stroke]. (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Pinto, Xavier; Soler, Cristina; Cardona, Pere


    Stroke patients are at high risk for recurrence or new occurrence of other cardiovascular events or cardiovascular mortality. It is estimated that a high percentage of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke can be prevented by a suitable modification of lifestyle (diet and exercise), reducing blood pressure (BP) with antihypertensive medication, platelet aggregation inhibitors, statins and high intake reducing consumption of. Unfortunately the degree of control of the different risk factors in secondary prevention of stroke is low. The clinical practice guidelines show clear recommendations with corresponding levels of evidence, but only if implemented in a general way they will get a better primary and secondary stroke prevention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoy, Maxime; Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin; Tourin, Arnaud


    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices

  4. A Ulysses Detection of Secondary Helium Neutrals (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Witte, Manfred


    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) mission has recently studied the flow of interstellar neutral He atoms through the solar system and discovered the existence of a secondary He flow that likely originates in the outer heliosheath. We find evidence for this secondary component in Ulysses data. By coadding hundreds of Ulysses He beam maps together to maximize signal-to-noise ratio, we identify a weak signal that is credibly associated with the secondary component. Assuming a laminar flow from infinity, we infer the following He flow parameters: V=12.8+/- 1.9 km s-1, λ =74\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4+/- 1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8, β =-10\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5+/- 4\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 1, and T=3000+/- 1100 K; where λ and β are the ecliptic longitude and latitude direction in J2000 coordinates. The secondary component has a density that is 4.9 ± 0.9% that of the primary component. These measurements are reasonably consistent with measurements from IBEX, with the exception of temperature, where our temperature is much lower than IBEX’s T = 9500 K. Even the higher IBEX temperature is suspiciously low compared to expectactions for the outer heliosheath source region. The implausibly low temperatures are due to the incorrect assumption of a laminar flow instead of a diverging one, given that the flow in the outer heliosheath source region will be deflecting around the heliopause. As for why the IBEX and Ulysses T values are different, difficulties with background subtraction in the Ulysses data are a potential source of concern, but the discrepancy may also be another effect of the improper laminar flow assumption, which could affect the IBEX and Ulysses analyses differently.

  5. Impact of Secondary Interactions in Asymmetric Catalysis


    Frölander, Anders


    This thesis deals with secondary interactions in asymmetric catalysis and their impact on the outcome of catalytic reactions. The first part revolves around the metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction and how interactions within the catalyst affect the stereochemistry. An OH–Pd hydrogen bond in Pd(0)–π-olefin complexes of hydroxy-containing oxazoline ligands was identified by density functional theory computations and helped to rationalize the contrasting results obtained emplo...

  6. A Kernel for Protein Secondary Structure Prediction


    Guermeur , Yann; Lifchitz , Alain; Vert , Régis

    2004-01-01; International audience; Multi-class support vector machines have already proved efficient in protein secondary structure prediction as ensemble methods, to combine the outputs of sets of classifiers based on different principles. In this chapter, their implementation as basic prediction methods, processing the primary structure or the profile of multiple alignments, is investigated. A kernel devoted to the task is in...

  7. Secondary hypertension, issues in diagnosis and treatment. (United States)

    Pullalarevu, Raghavesh; Akbar, Ghulam; Teehan, Geoffrey


    Secondary hypertension (SH) often implies a correctable form of nonessential hypertension. Often certain clinical clues prompt a more extensive evaluation of the causes of the hypertension. Renovascular disease, intrinsic renal disease, primary hyperaldosteronism, and obstructive sleep apnea represent the most common causes of SH. This article defines the disorder and details its epidemiology, prevalence, pathophysiology, physical findings, and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional Laour in Teaching Secondary Physical Education


    Ye Hoon Lee; Hyungil Harry Kwon; Hwajung Oh


    Background: Teaching physical education is an emotion-laden context which requires physical education teachers to engage in emotional labor in order to foster their well-being, as well as student’s outcomes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictability of emotional labour strategies on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion among secondary physical education teachers in South Korea. Specifically, the four forms of emotional labour (i.e., surface acting, deep a...

  9. The secondary school teaching in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascualena, M.T.


    The Spanish educational system is to be completely re-shaped in 1995 (for the secondary grade level); the important work involved has clearly shown the information lack concerning energy, and especially nuclear energy. Energy instruction should be provided in a new way, spread on several years in various domains (natural science, physics, etc.). Forum Atomico Espanol, a nuclear energy organization, has provided information with various tools (books, conferences, etc.) for teacher's and pupil's training

  10. Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardeen, Marjorie G.; /Fermilab; Johansson, K.Erik; /Stockholm U.; Young, M.Jean


    This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

  11. Parotitis with secondary syphilis: a case report. (United States)

    Hira, S K; Hira, R S


    Painless swelling of the parotid salivary gland was observed in a patient presenting with secondary syphilis. This case is of special interest to venereologists and surgeons as parotitis associated with syphilis may be mistaken for common tumours of the parotid glands. A diagnosis of syphilitic parotitis should be considered in patients presenting with swollen parotid salivary glands in countries where syphilis is prevalent. PMID:6704695

  12. Fahr’s Syndrome and Secondary Hypoparathyroidism


    Santos Vitorino Modesto dos; Da Mata Ana Medeiros De Farias; Ribeiro Kelle Regina Alves; Calvo Isadora Cartaxo De Sousa


    A typical case of Fahr’s syndrome is described in a 76-year-old Brazilian female who underwent a total thyroidectomy three decades ago. Six years before the current admission, she started with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Associated disorders involved extra-pyramidal, cognitive, nocturnal terror and mood changes. With suspicion of hypocalcemia due to secondary hypoparathyroidism, laboratory determinations confirmed the diagnoses. Furthermore, imaging studies of the central nervous syste...

  13. Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, Marjorie G.; Johansson, K. Erik; Young, M. Jean


    This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.

  14. Secondary mechanisms in a gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.; Blevin, H.A.


    The technique for studying swarms of electrons in a gas discharge by observing the photon flux from the discharge has been adapted to investigate the role of the secondary mechanisms. First results, reported here, show that, contrary to previous indications, ion bombardment of the cathode plays only a negligible, if any, part in the low pressure discharge in hydrogen at E/N approx. less than 200Td

  15. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.


    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  16. Iatrogenic hyperthyroidism secondary to dextrothyroxine administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankins, J.H.; Heise, C.M.; Cowan, R.J.


    Two patients are reported who presented with clinical hyperthyroidism, increased serum thyroid function studies, and depressed radioactive iodine uptake, secondary to chronic ingestion of D-T4. Symptoms abated, and function studies returned to normal, following discontinuation of D-T4. This uncommon effect of D-T4 may be more prevalent than is generally realized and must be recognized as another potential cause of low radioiodine uptake in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism.

  17. "Negative symptoms"secondary to intracranial tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kate


    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors are increasingly common in the elderly population. They may present with varied symptoms, some of which may be psychiatric in nature. In patients with known psychiatric disorders, these symptoms may be misattributed resulting in a delay in diagnosis and management. We present a case of an elderly female with paranoid schizophrenia and new onset symptoms secondary to intracranial tumor, which were initially misdiagnosed.

  18. Iatrogenic hyperthyroidism secondary to dextrothyroxine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, J.H.; Heise, C.M.; Cowan, R.J.


    Two patients are reported who presented with clinical hyperthyroidism, increased serum thyroid function studies, and depressed radioactive iodine uptake, secondary to chronic ingestion of D-T4. Symptoms abated, and function studies returned to normal, following discontinuation of D-T4. This uncommon effect of D-T4 may be more prevalent than is generally realized and must be recognized as another potential cause of low radioiodine uptake in patients with clinical hyperthyroidism

  19. Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions


    Esenwa, Charles; Gutierrez, Jose


    Charles Esenwa, Jose GutierrezDepartment of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dy...

  20. Method for the secondary recovery of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H H


    A method for the secondary recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations consists of flooding these formations with aqueous fluids. These aqueous fluids contain one or more saline solutes which are either present before the flooding or which are dissolved from the formation during flooding. These fluids contain, as a thickening agent, a substantially linear, high molecular weight, water-soluble alkenylaromatic polymer which has sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups on the aromatic nuclei. This saline solute and polymer are mutually compatible. (5 claims)

  1. Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Knowledge of Students


    Kılıç, Hülya


    The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers’ knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the forms of observations, interviews and written documents. Knowledge of students is defined as teachers’ knowledge of what mathematical concepts are ...

  2. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma. (United States)

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B


    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary-water chemistry at Millstone 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putkey, T.A.; Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.


    Secondary system chemistry and steam generator corrosion observations at the Millstone 2 pressurized water reactor are summarized. Condenser retubing and retrofit of full-flow condensate polishers led to significant improvements in steam generator blowdown chemistry following observations of denting after one year of operation at elevated blowdown chloride levels. Notwithstanding the chemistry improvements, denting has continued but at a much reduced rate. In addition, extensive pitting of the Alloy 600 tubing between the tubesheet and first support plate has been reported recently

  4. [Advances in the treatment of secondary osteoporosis]. (United States)

    Galindo Zavala, R; Núñez Cuadros, E; Díaz Cordovés-Rego, G; Urda Cardona, A L


    Osteoporosis is being increasingly recognised in paediatric practice as a consequence of the increasing life expectancy of children who suffer from chronic diseases and other factors. There are many non-pharmacological measures that can improve children' bone health, for example, avoiding inflammatory activity and osteotoxic treatments; increasing sun exposure and weight-bearing exercise, and maintaining an adequate nutritional status. Vitamin D and calcium supplements have been proposed as a measure to increase bone mass, but their effect and therapeutic indications are not completely clear. On the other hand, bisphosphonates are currently the only pharmacological alternative for the patients with infantile secondary osteoporosis. However, more studies are required on the therapeutic indications, posology, and long term secondary effects of biphosphonates. The aim of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the therapeutic alternatives for childhood secondary osteoporosis and their safety in children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests. (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A


    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  6. Essential hypertension vs. secondary hypertension among children. (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric


    The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Secondary control for microgrids using potential functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrizi-Sani, A.; Iravani, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)


    Issues with power grids include reliability, aging infrastructure, limited use of communications, efficiency, and low asset utilization. The smart grid involves a vision of the future electric system. Core elements of the smart grid include information technology, communication, and power electronic devices. This presentation discussed and compared the current grid with the smart grid and presented operational requirements of the microgrid. The concept of potential functions for secondary control based on availability of communication within the microgrid was introduced. The smart grid vision requires the microgrid to remain in operation even when islanded. The existing primary control does not guarantee stable islanded operation. Other topics that were discussed included primary and secondary control; proposed secondary control; the control hierarchy; and advantages and differences over conventional methods. A case study involving different scenarios was presented. It was concluded that the microgrid central controller minimizes each potential function to determine the set points of the corresponding distributed energy resources unit associated with the minimum of the potential function. tabs., figs.

  8. Upgrade of the Proton West secondary beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, L.


    As originally designed and operated, protons entering PW6 were steered by a series of EPB dipoles into a single interaction length beryllium target, some 43 feet from the enclosure wall. Ensuing secondary beams, either p + /π + or p - /π - , were collected by a string of quadrupoles following the target, steered westward, away from the Proton Center line, through PW6 and PW7, and ultimately focussed on experiment production targets located within the large PW8 hall. Around the Spring of 1988 it was decided to upgrade the existing Proton West secondary beamline to allow for transport of a primary proton beam, anticipated to be either 800 or 900 GeV/c, through PW8. This upgrade project, which is now nearing completion, was largely motivated by the then recent approval of E-771, a hadronic beauty production experiment located in PW8. E-771 represents the third in a series of experiments for the large-acceptance dimuon spectrometer presently located at the end of the Proton West beamline. This Technical Memo is a summary of the upgrade --- an explanation of the underlying strategy and a documentation of the final locations of the secondary beamline elements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Rhabdomyolysis Secondary to Clenbuterol Use and Exercise. (United States)

    Grimmer, Nicole M; Gimbar, Renee Petzel; Bursua, Adam; Patel, Meet


    The literature regarding rhabdomyolysis secondary to illicit drug use is sparse. Clenbuterol is a bronchodilator approved for veterinary use, which in high doses can increase protein deposition and lipolysis similarly to anabolic steroids, and is thereby abused for bodybuilding and weight loss effects. Clenbuterol has previously been described in case reports to be cardiotoxic, with patient presentations similar to overdoses of sympathomimetic substances, but reports of rhabdomyolysis are limited to a single case series in horses. We report the first case of rhabdomyolysis secondary to clenbuterol in a human. Our patient used clenbuterol for muscle-building effects in addition to exercise for multiple days prior to presentation. The patient's chief complaint at Emergency Department (ED) presentation was discolored urine. Workup for rhabdomyolysis was initiated, and an initial creatine kinase was measured at 122,933 units/L. Our patient's rhabdomyolysis was successfully treated with supportive therapy, and the patient was eventually discharged to home with no identifiable disability. The patient's kidney function remained at baseline, and no acute kidney injury was experienced secondary to rhabdomyolysis. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Patients presenting to the ED may have been unintentionally exposed through cutting of illicit substances or through intentional use in bodybuilding. Clenbuterol has well-described cardiotoxic effects, and we report the additional toxicity of rhabdomyolysis with its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Paricalcitol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal transplantation. (United States)

    Trillini, Matias; Cortinovis, Monica; Ruggenenti, Piero; Reyes Loaeza, Jorge; Courville, Karen; Ferrer-Siles, Claudia; Prandini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Cannata, Antonio; Villa, Alessandro; Perna, Annalisa; Gotti, Eliana; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Martinetti, Davide; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto


    Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 μg/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (Psecondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Aphonia and dysphagia after gastrectomy. (United States)

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Satako, Kimura; Mizutari, Kunio; Fujimine, Takekatsu; Fujii, Masato; Syunji, Ikeuchi; Matunaga, Tatsuo; Tsunoda, Koichi


    A 67-year-old male was referred to our otolaryngological clinic because of aphonia and dysphagia. His voice was breathy and he could not even swallow saliva following a total gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma performed 2 weeks previously. Laryngeal fiberscopy revealed major glottal incompetence when he tried to phonate. However, both vocal folds abducted over the full range during inhalation. The patient could not swallow saliva because of a huge glottal chink, even during phonation. Based on these findings, he was diagnosed as having bilateral incomplete cricoarytenoid dislocation after intubation. The patient underwent speech therapy; within 1 min his vocal fold movement recovered dramatically and he was able to phonate and swallow. There have been few case reports of bilateral cricoarytenoid dislocation, and no effective rehabilitation has been reported. We believe that our method of vocal rehabilitation serves as a useful reference for physicians and surgeons worldwide.

  12. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera


    The secondary system pipe rupture occurred on August 9, 2004, while Mihama unit 3 was operating at the rated thermal power. The rupture took place on the condensate line-A piping between the No.4 LP heater and the deaerator, downstream of an orifice used for measuring the condensate flux. The pipe is made of carbon steel, and normally has 558.8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness. The pipe wall had thinned to 0.4 mm at the point of minimum thickness. It is estimated that the disturbed flow of water downstream of the orifice caused erosion/corrosion and developed wall thinning, leading to a rupture at the thinnest section under internal pressure, about 1MPa. Observation of the pipe internal surface revealed a scale-like pattern typical in this kind of phenomenon. Eleven workers who were preparing for an annual outage that was to start from August 14 suffered burn injuries, of who five died. Since around 1975, we, Kansai Electric, have been checking pipe wall thickness while focusing on the thinning of carbon steel piping in the secondary system. Summarizing the results from such investigation and reviewing the latest technical knowledge including operating experience from overseas utilities, we compiled the pipe thickness management guideline for PWR secondary pipes, 1990. The pipe section that ruptured at the Mihama unit 3 should have been included within the inspection scopes according to the guideline but was not registered on the inspection list. It had not been corrected for almost thirty years. As the result, this pipe section had not been inspected even once since the beginning of the plant operation, 1976. It seems that the quality assurance and maintenance management had not functioned well regarding the secondary system piping management, although we were responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants as licensee. We will review the secondary system inspection procedure and also improve the pipe thickness management guideline. And also, we would replace

  13. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge Level of the Concepts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge Level of the Concepts of Environmental ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... level of the certificate of secondary education geography teachers when teaching the concepts of ...

  14. Knowledge and Attitude of Secondary School Teachers towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Attitude of Secondary School Teachers towards Reproductive Health Education in Schools. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A study was carried out among secondary school teachers in Ilorin, Kwara ...

  15. The Implementation of the Creative Arts Curriculum in Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 3 (3), April, 2009 ... secondary school level, but at the senior secondary school level, they are optional. ... this study will redirect educational planners to effect positive changes in the.

  16. Laboratory Course on "Streptomyces" Genetics and Secondary Metabolism (United States)

    Siitonen, Vilja; Räty, Kaj; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko


    The "'Streptomyces' genetics and secondary metabolism" laboratory course gives an introduction to the versatile soil dwelling Gram-positive bacteria "Streptomyces" and their secondary metabolism. The course combines genetic modification of "Streptomyces"; growing of the strain and protoplast preparation, plasmid…

  17. Secondary cycle design considerations for reduction of reactor transients frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, L.; Leal, M.R.L.V.


    The secondary cycle systems should not be considered of secondary importance to the pressurized water reactor safety. The advanced design and analysis techniques used for components related to nuclear safety are suggested. (E.G.) [pt

  18. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop/design an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, and separation module for secondary ESPA payloads. The standardized secondary payload...

  19. Metabolomics methods for the synthetic biology of secondary metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quoc-Thai Nguyen, [No Value; Merlo, Maria E.; Medema, Marnix H.; Jankevics, Andris; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko; Just, Wilhelm; Reiss, Thomas


    Many microbial secondary metabolites are of high biotechnological value for medicine, agriculture, and the food industry. Bacterial genome mining has revealed numerous novel secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, which encode the potential to synthesize a large diversity of compounds that

  20. refractive errors among secondary school students in Isuikwuato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    STUDENTS IN ISUIKWUATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ... the prevalence and types of refractive errors among secondary school students ... KEYWORDS: Refractive error, Secondary School students, ametropia, .... interviews of the teachers as regards the general performance of those students with obvious visual.

  1. Reid on olfaction and secondary qualities (United States)

    Quilty-Dunn, Jake


    Thomas Reid is one of the primary early expositors of the “dual-component” theory of perception, according to which conscious perception constitutively involves a non-intentional sensation accompanied by a noninferential perceptual belief. In this paper, I will explore Reid's account of olfactory perception, and of odor as a secondary quality. Reid is often taken to endorse a broadly Lockean picture of secondary qualities, according to which they are simply dispositions to cause sensations. This picture creates problems, however, for Reid's account of how we perceive secondary qualities, including odors. Given Reid's insistence that we come to be aware of odors only by inferring a causal relation to obtain between them and our olfactory sensations, it seems that he cannot allow for direct, noninferential perceptual awareness of odors. Since his general account of perception invokes noninferential perceptual beliefs to explain perceptual awareness, it seems that Reid must either reject this general account for the case of olfactory perception (and supplant it with something else), or else deny that we ever actually perceive odors. I will attempt to reconcile these ideas by appeal to Reid's doctrine of “acquired perception,” which involves the incorporation of learned conceptual representations into perceptual states via perceptual learning. Reidian acquired perception enables genuine olfactory perceptual acquaintance with odors despite the dependence of the semantic properties of the relevant representations on causal relations to sensations. In exploring these issues, I hope to illuminate several features of Reid's account of perception and demonstrate its interest to contemporary theorizing about conscious perception—especially olfaction—in the process. Reid's theory of olfaction remains a live, coherent option for present-day theorists. PMID:24399987

  2. Reid on Olfaction and Secondary Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake eQuilty-Dunn


    Full Text Available Thomas Reid is one of the primary early expositors of the dual-component theory of perception, according to which conscious perception constitutively involves a non-intentional sensation accompanied by a noninferential perceptual belief. In this paper, I will explore Reid's account of olfactory perception, and of odor as a secondary quality. Reid is often taken to endorse a broadly Lockean picture of secondary qualities, according to which they are simply dispositions to cause sensations. This picture creates problems, however, for Reid's account of how we perceive secondary qualities, including odors. Given Reid's insistence that we come to be aware of odors only by inferring a causal relation to obtain between them and our olfactory sensations, it seems that he cannot allow for direct, noninferential perceptual awareness of odors. Since his general account of perception invokes noninferential perceptual beliefs to explain perceptual awareness, it seems that Reid must either reject this general account for the case of olfactory perception (and supplant it with something else, or else deny that we ever actually perceive odors.I will attempt to reconcile these ideas by appeal to Reid's doctrine of acquired perception, which involves the incorporation of learned conceptual representations into perceptual states via perceptual learning. Reidian acquired perception enables genuine olfactory perceptual acquaintance with odors despite the dependence of the semantic properties of the relevant representations on causal relations to sensations. In exploring these issues, I hope to illuminate several features of Reid's account of perception and demonstrate its interest to contemporary theorizing about conscious perception--especially olfaction--in the process. Reid’s theory of olfaction remains a live, coherent option for present-day theorists.

  3. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.


    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a Research and Development program sponsored by NASA/OAST on the development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications. Some of the projected applications are planetary spacecraft, planetary rovers, and astronaut equipment. The main objective is to develop secondary lithium cells with greater than 100 Wh/kg specific energy while delivering 1000 cycles at 50 percent Depth of Discharge (DOD). To realize these ambitious goals, the work was initially focused on several important basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes, and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of realizable specific energy and cycle life. Some of the major advancements made so far in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. Methods were developed for the fabrication of large size high performance TiS2 cathodes. Among the various electrolytes examined, 1.5M LiAsF6/EC + 2-MeTHF mixed solvent electrolyte was found to be more stable towards lithium. Experimental cells activated with this electrolyte exhibited more than 300 cycles at 100 percent Depth of Discharge. Work is in progress in other areas such as selection of lithium alloys as candidate anode materials, optimization of cell design, and development of 5 Ah cells. The advances made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the development of secondary lithium cells are summarized.

  4. Spitzer secondary eclipses of Qatar-1b (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan J.


    Aims: Previous secondary eclipse observations of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b in the Ks band suggest that it may have an unusually high day side temperature, indicative of minimal heat redistribution. There have also been indications that the orbit may be slightly eccentric, possibly forced by another planet in the system. We investigate the day side temperature and orbital eccentricity using secondary eclipse observations with Spitzer. Methods: We observed the secondary eclipse with Spitzer/IRAC in subarray mode, in both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelengths. We used pixel-level decorrelation to correct for Spitzer's intra-pixel sensitivity variations and thereby obtain accurate eclipse depths and central phases. Results: Our 3.6 μm eclipse depth is 0.149 ± 0.051% and the 4.5 μm depth is 0.273 ± 0.049%. Fitting a blackbody planet to our data and two recent Ks band eclipse depths indicates a brightness temperature of 1506 ± 71 K. Comparison to model atmospheres for the planet indicates that its degree of longitudinal heat redistribution is intermediate between fully uniform and day-side only. The day side temperature of the planet is unlikely to be as high (1885 K) as indicated by the ground-based eclipses in the Ks band, unless the planet's emergent spectrum deviates strongly from model atmosphere predictions. The average central phase for our Spitzer eclipses is 0.4984 ± 0.0017, yielding e cos ω = -0.0028 ± 0.0027. Our results are consistent with a circular orbit, and we constrain e cos ω much more strongly than has been possible with previous observations. Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  5. Otorhinolaryngology manifestations secondary to oral sex. (United States)

    Fernández-López, Claudia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo

    Over the last few years, oral and pharyngeal signs and symptoms due to oral sex have increased significantly. However, no review articles related to this subject have been found in the medical literature. The objective of our study was to identify otorhinolaryngological manifestations associated with orogenital/oroanal contact, both in adults and children, in the context of consensual sex or sexual abuse. We performed a review of the medical literature on otorhinolaryngological pathology associated with oral sex published in the last 20 years in the PubMed database. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations secondary to oral sex practice in adults can be infectious, tumoral or secondary to trauma. The more common signs and symptoms found in the literature were human papillomavirus infection (above all, condyloma acuminata and papilloma/condyloma), oral or pharyngeal syphilis, gonococcal pharyngitis, herpes simplex virus infection and pharyngitis from Chlamydia trachomatis. The incidence of human papillomavirus -induced oropharyngeal carcinoma has dramatically increased. In children past the neonatal period, the presence of condyloma acuminatus, syphilis, gonorrhoea or palatal ecchymosis (the last one, unless justified by other causes) should make us suspect sexual abuse. Sexual habits have changed in the last decades, resulting in the appearance of otorhinolaryngological pathology that was rarely seen previously. For this reason, it is important for primary care physicians to have knowledge about the subject to perform correct diagnosis and posterior treatment. Some sexual abuse cases in children may also be suspected based on the knowledge of the characteristic oropharyngeal manifestations secondary to them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  6. Scintigraphy of parathyroids in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hublo, D.; Beauchat, V.; Pattou, F.; Lecomte-Houcke, M.; Prangere, T.; Ziegels, P.; Carnaille, B.; Proye, C.; Marchandise, X.; Steiling, M.


    Use of pre-surgery imaging of parathyroids is still questioned. The goal of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of the scintigraphy in the detection of secondary parathyroid anomalies with renal insufficiency. Thirty two patients (20 F, 12 M) of 14 - 74 years old were operated of secondary hyperparathyroidism with renal insufficiency. It was a matter of re-intervention in 9 cases. The acquisitions were achieved 20 min and 2 h after injection of 550 MBq of MIBI- 99m Tc or of Tetrofosmine - 99m Tc and 2 h after injection of 5.5 MBq of iodine 123. Eighty seven glands of 28 to 3820 mg were pulled out in 23 first surgeries while the parathyroid tissue was found in thymic prolongations in 5 of these patients. The masses of 41 glands, positive by scintigraphy (from 69 to 3829 mg), were significantly higher (Wilcoxon's test, p -8 ) than the 46 not-seen (from 28 to 1050 mg). The sensitivity of total detection is 47%, of 85% for the 33 glands of 500 mg or more and of 24% for the 54 glands of less than 500 mg. In 9 re-interventions, 12 abnormal glands were pulled out: 11 (of 430 to 4500 mg were positive by scintigraphy, while only one gland of 80 mg was not seen. In conclusion, the scintigraphy realised before first surgery for secondary hyperparathyroidism with renal insufficiency presents low sensitivity, related partly, at least, to the low mass of glands and justifies itself only by search for positive ectopic parathyroids. Instead, it appears performing and indispensable in case of re-intervention

  7. Ichthyosiform scaling secondary to megavoltage radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E.V.


    Acquired ichthyosis is a rare dermatosis associated with a number of malignancies. Side effects seen on the skin secondary to megavoltage radiotherapy are uncommon but may include fine dry desquamation and tanning. The authors present a case of ichthyosiform scaling limited to the radiation fields in a patient treated for brain metastases of a primary small cell lung carcinoma. The reader is reminded that side effects of megavoltage treatment do occur on the skin. A brief review of these effects is included. 5 references

  8. Aspects of quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.


    Parameters which have an influence on the formation of secondary ions by ion bombardment of a solid matrix are discussed. Quantitative SIMS-analysis with the help of calibration standards necessitates a stringent control of these parameters. This is particularly valid for the oxygen partial pressure which for metal analysis has to be maintained constant also under ultra high vacuum. The performance of the theoretical LTE-model (Local Thermal Equilibrium) using internal standards will be compared with the analysis with the help of external standards. The LTE-model does not satisfy the requirements for quantitative analysis. (Auth.)

  9. Depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.


    The effect of the solid body discreteness in the direction of the normal to the sample surface on the depth resolution of the secondary ion mass spectrometry method is analyzed. It is shown that for this case the dependence of the width at the semi-height of the delta profiles of the studied elements depth distribution on the energy and angle of incidence of the initial ions should have the form of the stepwise function. This is experimentally proved by the silicon-germanium delta-layers in the silicon samples [ru

  10. Secondary biogeneous radiation of human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.


    When studying samples of three types of tissues of alive healthy human organism (hands, surface of breast, hair) it is shown that hair permanently emit secondary biogeneous radiation (SBR) which may registered with biological detectors. The hypothesis is suggested that natural background radiation permanently exciting biopolymers (proteins, nuclei acids) being present in alive organism in condensed state induces permanently present electromagnetic field of SBR which is vitally important for human organism. The field partly extends beyond the organism, where it is registered with sensitive biological detectors [ru

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic thromboemboli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crysikopoulos, H.; Forrest, J.V.; Olson, L.K.; Roberts, A.C.


    The authors report their experience in 150 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary embolism (CPE). Plain film findings are variable, commonly nonspecific. Occasionally nonuniformity of pulmonary perfusion or truncation of central pulmonary arteries suggest CPE. Multiple, large, unmatched perfusion defects are the most common scintigraphic observations. CT can exclude conditions mimicking CPE, particularly fibrosing mediastinitis. Pulmonary arteriography depicts the location and distribution of emboli. CPE is becoming an increasingly important entity to recognize because of available surgical treatment. Thromboendarterectomy may improve functional status and survival. The diagnosis should be considered in any patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension

  12. Structure elucidation of secondary natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seger, C.


    The presented thesis deals with the structure elucidation of secondary natural products. Most of the compounds under investigation were terpenes, especially triterpenes, alkaloids and stilbenoids. Besides characterizing a multitude of already known and also new compounds, it was possible to detect and correct wrongly assigned literature data. The methodological aspect of this thesis lies - beside in the utilization of modern 2D NMR spectroscopy - in the evaluation of computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) techniques in the course of spectroscopy supported structure elucidation processes. (author)

  13. Fahr’s Syndrome and Secondary Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vitorino Modesto dos


    Full Text Available A typical case of Fahr’s syndrome is described in a 76-year-old Brazilian female who underwent a total thyroidectomy three decades ago. Six years before the current admission, she started with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Associated disorders involved extra-pyramidal, cognitive, nocturnal terror and mood changes. With suspicion of hypocalcemia due to secondary hypoparathyroidism, laboratory determinations confirmed the diagnoses. Furthermore, imaging studies of the central nervous system detected multiple calcifications, with characteristic distribution of Fahr’s syndrome. Clinical management was successful.

  14. Multicultural Upper Secondary School Life in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Yvonne


    Education has played an important role in the development of the Nordic welfare states. As in other European countries, present day Denmark wrestles with the problem of finding ways to handle the increased diversity of its population in terms of, for instance, ethnicity, religion and language...... secondary school as a micro-sociological laboratory of the multicultural processes and developments taking place in society at large. It is recommended to reflect upon and implement different strategies that could support a ‘citizenship education' which is needed in order to advance the cohesion...

  15. Bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy. (United States)

    Nguyen, Theresa M; Roy, Neil K; Zlupko, George R


    Acupuncture is becoming increasingly popular in the United States for a wide variety of uses, ranging from the treatment of chronic back pain to aiding in addiction therapy. As this form of complementary and alternative medicine becomes more prevalent in certain areas of the country, it is of paramount importance that the emergency physician be familiar with its methods and potential complications. In general, acupuncture is perceived as fairly safe. However, it is not without risks or side effects. In this case report, we discuss the history, methods, and common complications of acupuncture in the context of a patient who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy.

  16. Intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.S.; Dundas, S.; Holdsworth, C.D.


    We report a case of intestinal lymphangiectasia secondary to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient also had small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic insufficiency. Lymphatic ectasia as a histological feature has been described previously in association with postradiotherapy malabsorption, but radiation-induced lymphangiectasia producing clinical manifestations has hitherto not been reported. Replacement of dietary long-chain fats with medium-chain triglycerides, pancreatic enzyme supplements, and a short course of oxytetracycline, resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. The possibility of intestinal lymphangiectasia should be borne in mind in patients with postradiotherapy malabsorption. A low serum albumin and lymphocyte count should draw attention to this possibility

  17. Neurological presentations of a secondary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesaulenko I.E.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to turn the attention of specialists to antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, which is of interest to physicians of many specialties. The observation of the patient W., 32 years, with secondary APS was analyzed. Poor prognostic factors in CFA are the high frequency of thrombotic complications and thrombocytopenia, and laboratory markers — the presence of lupus anticoagulant. All patients with APS should be under medical supervision, whose main task is to assess the risk of recurrence of venous or arterial thrombosis and its prevention.

  18. PWR secondary water chemistry diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Hattori, T.; Yamauchi, S.; Kato, A.; Suganuma, S.; Yoshikawa, T.


    Water chemistry control is one of the most important tasks in order to maintain the reliability of plant equipments and extend operating life of the plant. We developed an advanced water chemistry management system which is able to monitor and diagnose secondary water chemistry. A prototype system had been installed at one plant in Japan since Nov. 1986 in order to evaluate system performance and man-machine interface. The diagnosis system has been successfully tested off line using synthesized plant data for various cases. We are continuing to improve the applicability and develop new technology which make it evaluate steam generator crevice chemistry. (author)

  19. Predicting Protein Secondary Structure with Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Larsen, Simon; Thomsen, Claus


    we are considering here, is to predict the secondary structure from the primary one. To this end we train a Markov model on training data and then use it to classify parts of unknown protein sequences as sheets, helices or coils. We show how to exploit the directional information contained...... in the Markov model for this task. Classifications that are purely based on statistical models might not always be biologically meaningful. We present combinatorial methods to incorporate biological background knowledge to enhance the prediction performance....

  20. Secondary Intracranial Hypotension: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Gundogan Bozdag


    Full Text Available Intracranial hypotension is a clinical condition that characterized by postural (orthostatic headache and low pressure. It apperas with cerebrospinal fluid leak which occurs spontaneous or depending on the secondary attempts. 31 years old female patient which has diagnosis of acute appendicitis and underwent appendectomy under spinal anesthesia. postoperative she admitted with a postural headache, diplopia. Patient was treated with conservative methods after diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to asses an encountered complication after spinal anesthesia which widely applied for surgical procedures with imaging findings and literature.

  1. 340 Facility secondary containment and leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.


    This document presents a preliminary safety evaluation for the 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Containment system, Project W-302. Project W-302 will construct Building 340-C which has been designed to replace the current 340 Building and vault tank system for collection of liquid wastes from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory buildings in the 300 Area. This new nuclear facility is Hazard Category 3. The vault tank and related monitoring and control equipment are Safety Class 2 with the remainder of the structure, systems and components as Safety Class 3 or 4

  2. Myelopathy secondary to cerebral and spinal neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Huaraca-Hilario


    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common CNS parasitic disease but spinal presentation of this condition is rare, with a higher incidence in developing countries like ours. We report the case of a male patient 61 of age diagnosed with generalized neurocysticercosis in addition to the secondary presentation of hypertensive hydrocephalus and compression of the spinal cord, the latter is characterized by the appearance of paraparesis, changes in sensitivity and urinary retention. The final diagnosis was made by an MRI, so we have to emphasize the importance of neuroimaging in the definitive diagnosis of this disease.

  3. Senior Secondary School Children's Understanding of Plant Nutrition (United States)

    Mosothwane, Modise


    The purpose of this study was to assess children's understanding of plant nutrition. The research was done on a sample of secondary school pupils in the age range of 16 to 19 years in two senior secondary schools in Botswana. The sample contained 137 senior secondary pupils all in their final year of study. These children were above average…

  4. Mineralogy and heavy metal content of secondary mineral salts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary minerals associated with acid mine drainage play an important role in metal cycling and may pose a geochemical hazard. The occurrence of secondary minerals indicates prevailing and past geochemical conditions. Detecting and characterising secondary minerals is necessary to the planning of remediation ...

  5. Design of the GOES Telescope secondary mirror mounting (United States)

    Hookman, Robert A.


    The GOES Telescope utilizes a flexure mounting system for the secondary mirror to minimize thermally induced distortions of the secondary mirror. The detailed design is presented along with a discussion of the microradian pointing requirements and how they were achieved. The methodology used to dynamically tune the flexure/secondary mirror assembly to minimize structural interactions will also be discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  7. Impact of Cooperative Learning Approach on Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigated the impact of cooperative learning approach on the performance of secondary school students in mathematics using some selected secondary schools. It employed one hundred and twenty students selected from the entire population of students offering mathematics at the senior secondary ...

  8. The Implementation of the Creative Arts Curriculum in Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the status of the implementation of the creative arts curriculum at the secondary school level. The New National Policy on Education recognized the creative Arts as core subjects at the junior secondary school level, but at the senior secondary school level, they are optional. With very good laid down ...

  9. Noise in secondary electron emission: the low yield case

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk


    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 361-365 ISSN 0022-0744 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1065304 Keywords : secondary electrons * noise * SEM image noise * secondary emission noise * statistics of secondary electrons * non-Poisson factor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2005

  10. Teaching Chemistry in Secondary Schools: A Case for Cooperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relative effectiveness of cooperative instructional strategy on students' performance in secondary school chemistry. Two hundred and fifty (250) Senior Secondary two (SS II) chemistry students were purposively sampled from three public secondary schools in Ilesa Local Government Area of Osun ...

  11. The Development of a Secondary School Health Assessment Model (United States)

    Sriring, Srinual; Erawan, Prawit; Sriwarom, Monoon


    The objective of this research was to: 1) involved a survey of information relating to secondary school health, 2) involved the construction of a model of health assessment and a handbook for using the model in secondary school, 3) develop an assessment model for secondary school. The research included 3 phases. (1) involved a survey of…

  12. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve. (United States)


    ... shall retain control over the release of any cherries from the secondary inventory reserve. No cherries... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary inventory reserve. 930.57 Section 930.57... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve...

  13. 13 CFR 120.613 - Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. 120.613 Section 120.613 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.613 Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. When a Lender...

  14. Under-Representation in Nationally Representative Secondary Data (United States)

    Frederick, Karen; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey


    There has been a significant increase in the use of secondary data sets. Many such data sets purport to be nationally representative. Secondary data sets include research commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control, and other public entities. Research increasingly utilizes these secondary data in…

  15. Idiopathic Oesophageal Dysmotility Disorder: Stridor Secondary to Megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Natesh


    Full Text Available We present an interesting case of an elderly lady who presented with stridor caused by megaesophagus secondary to an acquired idiopathic dysmotility disorder. We discuss the aetiology and management of megaesophagus secondary to this condition and how it differs from megaesophagus secondary to achalasia.

  16. An Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Government Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It reveals that the spatial distribution of Government Owned Secondary Schools in Zaria area is very uneven. The paper argues that uneven distribution of Government Owned Secondary education facilities as well as their inadequacy and inefficiency encourage the proliferation of Private Owned Secondary Schools (POSS) ...

  17. The evolution of development of vascular cambia and secondary growth (United States)

    Andrew Groover; Rachel Spicer


    Secondary growth from vascular cambia results in radial, woody growth of stems. The innovation of secondary vascular development during plant evolution allowed the production of novel plant forms ranging from massive forest trees to flexible, woody lianas. We present examples of the extensive phylogenetic variation in secondary vascular growth and discuss current...

  18. Identifying secondary series for stepwise common singular spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Common singular spectrum analysis is a technique which can be used to forecast a pri- mary time series by using the information from a secondary series. Not all secondary series, however, provide useful information. A first contribution in this paper is to point out the properties which a secondary series should ...

  19. Vocal Tract and Glottal Function During and After Vocal Exercising With Resonance Tube and Straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzman, M.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Krupa, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J.G.; Geneid, A.


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), "523.e19"-"523.e34" ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vocal exercises * resonance tube * vocal tract impedance * computerized tomography * singer’s/speaker’s formant cluster Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2013

  20. Glottal closure instant and voice source analysis using time-scale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Ma(j,i) at scale i + 1, and where lw (resp. rw) is a weighting factor, taken as the absolute value of the ... In this section, the linear model for voiced speech production (Fant 1960; Flanagan 1972) is reviewed, in ..... (vii) Post-processing. Most of ...

  1. Secondary electron emission studied by secondary electron energy loss coincidence spectroscopy (SE2ELCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R.


    Emission of secondary electrons is of importance in many branches of fundamental and applied science. It is widely applied in the electron microscope for the investigation of the structure and electronic state of solid surfaces and particle detection in electron multiplier devices, and generally it is related to the energy dissipation of energetic particles moving inside a solid. The process of secondary electron emission is a complex physical phenomenon, difficult to measure experimentally and treat theoretically with satisfactory accuracy. The secondary electron spectrum measured with single electron spectroscopy does not provide detailed information of the energy loss processes responsible for the emission of secondary electrons. This information can be accessed when two correlated electron pairs are measured in coincidence and the pair consists of a backscattered electron after a given energy loss and a resulting emitted secondary electron. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the emission of secondary electrons, a reflection (e,2e) coincidence spectrometer named Secondary Electron Electron Energy Loss Coincidence Spectrometer (SE2ELCS) has been developed in the framework of this thesis which allows one to uncover the relation between the features in the spectra which are due to energy losses and true secondary electron emission structures. The correlated electron pairs are measured with a hemispherical mirror analyzer (HMA) and a time of flight analyzer (TOF) by employing a continuous electron beam. An effort has been made to increase the coincidence count rate by increasing the effective solid angle of the TOF analyzer and optimizing the experimental parameters to get optimum energy resolution. Double differential coincidence spectra for a number of materials namely, nearly free electron metals (Al, Si), noble metals (Ag, Au, Cu, W) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been measured using this coincidence spectrometer. The

  2. Obesity among secondary school students in Bahrain. (United States)

    Musaiger, A O; Matter, A M; Alekri, S A; Mahdi, A R


    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of obesity and factors associated with it in Bahraini secondary school students. A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 825 students (417 boys and 408 girls) aged 15 to 21 years was obtained from secondary schools. Obesity was determined using body mass index (BMI = Wt/Ht2). The findings revealed that 15.6% of boys and 17.4% of girls were either overweight or obese (BMI > or = 25). Family size, parents education, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with obesity among boys, while family history was the only socio-economic factors statistically associated with obesity among girls. Meal patterns such as eating between meals, number of meals per day, and method of eating were not associated with obesity in students. Boys who ate alone were 3 times more likely to be obese than those who ate with family members (odd ratio = 3.4). Measures to prevent and control obesity among children are suggested.

  3. Thermal performance of the ATST secondary mirror (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; DeVries, Joe; Hansen, Eric


    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has a 4.24m off-axis primary mirror designed to deliver diffractionlimited images of the sun. Its baseline secondary mirror (M2) design uses a 0.65m diameter Silicon Carbide mirror mounted kinematically by a bi-pod flexure mechanism at three equally spaced locations. Unlike other common telescopes, the ATST M2 is to be exposed to a significant solar heat loading. A thermal management system (TMS) will be developed to accommodate the solar loading and minimize "mirror seeing effect" by controlling the temperature difference between the M2 optical surface and the ambient air at the site. Thermo-elastic analyses for steady state thermal behaviors of the ATST secondary mirror was performed using finite element analysis by I-DEAS TM and PCRINGE TM for the optical analysis. We examined extensive heat transfer simulation cases and their results were discussed. The goal of this study is to establish thermal models by I-DEAS for an adequate thermal environment. These thermal models will be useful for estimating segment thermal responses. Current study assumes a few sample time dependent thermal loadings to synthesize the operational environment.

  4. Performance evaluations of the ATST secondary mirror (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; DeVries, Joseph; Hansen, Eric


    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has a 4.24m off-axis primary mirror designed to deliver diffraction-limited images of the sun. Its baseline secondary mirror (M2) design uses a 0.65m diameter Silicon Carbide mirror mounted kinematically by a bi-pod flexure mechanism at three equally spaced locations. Unlike other common telescopes, the ATST M2 is to be exposed to a significant solar heat loading. A thermal management system will be developed to accommodate the solar loading and minimize "mirror seeing effect" by controlling the temperature difference between the M2 optical surface and the ambient air at the site. Thermo-elastic analyses for steady state thermal behaviors of the ATST secondary mirror was performed using finite element analysis by I-DEAS TM and PCFRINGE TM for the optical analysis. We examined extensive heat transfer simulation cases and their results are discussed. The goal of this study is to evaluate the optical performances of M2 using thermal models and mechanical models. Thermal responses from the models enable us to manipulate time dependent thermal loadings to synthesize the operational environment for the design and development of TMS.

  5. An Inclusive Secondary School in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošová Eva


    Full Text Available The study presents a characterization of an inclusive secondary school in Bratislava and provides information about the forms and methods used in the work of the teachers, school psychologists, special teachers with regard to students with special needs (students with Attention and Hyperactivity Disorder, i.e. ADHD, with learning difficulties, with emotional and behaviour difficulties, etc., who are educated together with mainstream students. It also provides information on the first results of the measurements of the socio-emotional health of the students in the inclusive school, both as to its overall level (covitality index and as to the level of the four psychological dimensions of mental health. The pilot project of the inclusive school confirms that inclusive secondary schools and inclusive education operating within the intentions of positive psychology help the students to develop their cognitive and socio-emotional competences, to create favourable attitudes to diversity, to form the students’ scale of positive values and to encourage positive interpersonal relationships, social cohesion and social classroom climate.

  6. Artificial engineering of secondary lymphoid organs. (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan K H; Watanabe, Takeshi


    Secondary lymphoid organs such as spleen and lymph nodes are highly organized immune structures essential for the initiation of immune responses. They display distinct B cell and T cell compartments associated with specific stromal follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, respectively. Interweaved through the parenchyma is a conduit system that distributes small antigens and chemokines directly to B and T cell zones. While most structural aspects between lymph nodes and spleen are common, the entry of lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, and antigen into lymphoid tissues is regulated differently, reflecting the specialized functions of each organ in filtering either lymph or blood. The overall organization of lymphoid tissue is vital for effective antigen screening and recognition, and is a feature which artificially constructed lymphoid organoids endeavor to replicate. Synthesis of artificial lymphoid tissues is an emerging field that aims to provide therapeutic application for the treatment of severe infection, cancer, and age-related involution of secondary lymphoid tissues. The development of murine artificial lymphoid tissues has benefited greatly from an understanding of organogenesis of lymphoid organs, which has delineated cellular and molecular elements essential for the recruitment and organization of lymphocytes into lymphoid structures. Here, the field of artificial lymphoid tissue engineering is considered including elements of lymphoid structure and development relevant to organoid synthesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs. (United States)

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E


    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek


    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  9. Secondary isocurvature perturbations from acoustic reheating (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    The superhorizon (iso)curvature perturbations are conserved if the following conditions are satisfied: (i) (each) non adiabatic pressure perturbation is zero, (ii) the gradient terms are ignored, that is, at the leading order of the gradient expansion (iii) (each) total energy momentum tensor is conserved. We consider the case with the violation of the last two requirements and discuss the generation of secondary isocurvature perturbations during the late time universe. Second order gradient terms are not necessarily ignored even if we are interested in the long wavelength modes because of the convolutions which may pick products of short wavelength perturbations up. We then introduce second order conserved quantities on superhorizon scales under the conditions (i) and (iii) even in the presence of the gradient terms by employing the full second order cosmological perturbation theory. We also discuss the violation of the condition (iii), that is, the energy momentum tensor is conserved for the total system but not for each component fluid. As an example, we explicitly evaluate second order heat conduction between baryons and photons due to the weak Compton scattering, which dominates during the period just before recombination. We show that such secondary effects can be recast into the isocurvature perturbations on superhorizon scales if the local type primordial non Gaussianity exists a priori.

  10. Secondary abdominal appendicular pregnancy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso Mićo


    Full Text Available Introduction. The case report describes a 29-year-old nulliparous woman that was admitted at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Clinical Hospital Osijek complaining of mild abdominal pain without vaginal discharge. Case Outline. The patient’s menstrual cycle was irregular, from 30-45 days. An ultrasound examination showed suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy with a βHCG level of 1358 IU/L. Due to the presence of liquid in the pouch of Douglas the patient underwent emergency laparoscopy, which showed the presence of tumor mass between the right Fallopian tube and the appendix. These two structures associated with adhesions corresponded to secondary implantation after spontaneous tubal abortion which was confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Conclusion. Laparoscopy has emerged as the “gold standard” in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy, in this case the secondary abdominal pregnancy. From the diagnostic point of view, all women of reproductive age should be considered pregnant until proven otherwise, also keeping in mind that ectopic pregnancies can have different locations and many clinical features.

  11. RNA secondary structure prediction using soft computing. (United States)

    Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K


    Prediction of RNA structure is invaluable in creating new drugs and understanding genetic diseases. Several deterministic algorithms and soft computing-based techniques have been developed for more than a decade to determine the structure from a known RNA sequence. Soft computing gained importance with the need to get approximate solutions for RNA sequences by considering the issues related with kinetic effects, cotranscriptional folding, and estimation of certain energy parameters. A brief description of some of the soft computing-based techniques, developed for RNA secondary structure prediction, is presented along with their relevance. The basic concepts of RNA and its different structural elements like helix, bulge, hairpin loop, internal loop, and multiloop are described. These are followed by different methodologies, employing genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic. The role of various metaheuristics, like simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, and tabu search is also discussed. A relative comparison among different techniques, in predicting 12 known RNA secondary structures, is presented, as an example. Future challenging issues are then mentioned.

  12. Advances in pharmacotherapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mariano; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María E


    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease. This review will discuss the various therapeutic options available for the management of hyperparathyroidism. The main therapeutic strategies available to prevent or slow down the progression of hyperparathyroidism will be detailed here. Reductions in phosphatemia may be achieved by controlling dietary phosphorus, administering phosphorus binders, or increasing the frequency of dialysis sessions. Vitamin D sterols reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion while normalizing calcium (Ca) and vitamin D levels. Calcimimetics decrease PTH levels, probably with an additional effect on hyperplasia. Percutaneous injections in parathyroids represent an option useful in cases of hyperparathyroidism resistant to pharmacological therapy. Pubmed was searched by combining the terms 'secondary hyperparathyroidism' and the name of each one of the drugs reported in this review. PTH increases from early stages of renal disease. One of the goals in pre-dialysis is the prevention of hyperphosphatemia and the maintenance of Ca levels in the normal range. The management of hyperparathyroidism in dialysis requires control of phosphorus level. In this stage, the decision to use calcimimetics and vitamin D derivatives should be made according to serum levels of Ca and phosphorus.

  13. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece (United States)

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros


    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  14. 16 de Septiembre, 1810 Module. Secondary Level. [16 of September, 1810 Module. Secondary Level. (United States)

    Crystal City Independent School District, TX.

    Independence for Mexico took 11 years to achieve. Before its independence Mexico was ruled by Spain and had a basic caste system of indios, mestizos, criollos, and gachupines. The gachupines and criollos ruled the government and exploited the indios and mestizos. When the criollos became dissatisfied with being secondary to the gachupines, they…

  15. Barriers to Implementing the Response to Intervention Framework in Secondary Schools: Interviews with Secondary Principals (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mitch; De Jong, David


    Despite the successful implementation of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework in many elementary schools, there is little evidence of successful implementation in high school settings. Several themes emerged from the interviews of nine secondary principals, including a lack of knowledge and training for successful implementation, the…

  16. The Articulation of Secondary and Post-Secondary Vocational Education Programs. Workshop Products. (United States)

    Keene State Coll., NH.

    As a result of the cooperative efforts in articulation by secondary/postsecondary instructor teams, six packages representing the occupational areas of child care, culinary arts, electronics, health occupations, power mechanics, and industrial welding were developed. Each package contains the following three components: a series of job titles…

  17. The Relationship between Subsidized Free Day Secondary Education and Retention in Secondary Schools in Kenya (United States)

    James, Asena Muganda; Simiyu, Aggrey Mukasa; Riechi, Andrew


    A workforce that can adapt to the fast changing global dynamics is critical for sustainable growth and development. Secondary level segment in the education cycle of a Kenyan plays a key role in the development of this workforce and is important since it de-links one from elementary (primary) learning, provides a chance for one to complete the…

  18. Secondary traumatic stress in nurses: a systematic review. (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano


    Is there a "cost of caring" for health care providers of traumatized patients? The aim of this study is to review the literature on secondary traumatic stress in nurses in order to answer the following questions: What studies have been conducted on secondary traumatic stress in nurses in all clinical specialties? What instruments were used to measure secondary traumatic stress in nurses and what psychometric properties were reported? A systematic review. CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1981 to the present. Keywords used in the database searches included secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization, secondary trauma, PTSD, and nurses. Research studies were reviewed for the following inclusion criteria: the sample included nurses, the secondary traumatic stress symptoms were measured, and the language was English. Seven studies were found in which researchers examined secondary traumatic stress in nurses. The samples in five of these studies consisted of all nurses, whereas in the remaining two studies, nurses were included in the samples but the results were not specifically reported for the subgroup of nurses. Presence of secondary traumatic stress was reported in forensic nurses, emergency department nurses, oncology nurses, pediatric nurses, and hospice nurses. Three instruments were identified that measured secondary traumatic stress in practitioners who care for traumatized populations: Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, Compassion Fatigue Self Test for Helpers, and the Compassion Fatigue Scale-Revised. Presence of secondary traumatic stress in nurses was reported in all of the studies included in this literature review. The use of small samples and a number of different instruments to measure secondary traumatic stress symptoms, however, hindered the ability to make comparisons across studies and to draw conclusions. None of the studies conducted to date have focused on secondary traumatic stress in

  19. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  20. Plant Secondary Compounds in Small Ruminant Feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya

    to the utilization of cheaper resources as alternatives to reduce the production cost. Here, locally available materials and agro-industrial by-products commonly found in the Mediterranean countries (citrus pulp, carob pulp, and olive cake) were used in feeding trials with lambs and the effects on meat quality were...... evaluated. These plant-derived materials contain considerable amounts of secondary bioactive metabolites, which affect the fatty acid composition and/or act as antioxidants. Hence, it was hypothesized that at appropriate levels of inclusion in to the lamb diets, these feedstuffs would not negatively affect...... animal health and productivity, and would represent a strategy to naturally produce a healthy and oxidatively stable meat. In the first study (Experiment 1), Comisana male lambs were fed for 60 days: a conventional cereal-based concentrate diet, or concentrates in which 24% or 35% dried citrus pulp...

  1. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection. (United States)

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley


    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Secondary air injection system and method (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.


    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  3. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.


    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano


    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  5. Secondary Vocational Education in Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvido Melink


    Full Text Available The authors present a successful project of secondary vocational education carried out by our school for the occupation of a toolmaker and a machinist for the companies Domel, Indramat and Niko in Železniki, considering the modern methods of teaching adults and having consistently adjusted timetable of the lectures in accordance with the working hours of the candidates and the production process respectively. Lectures, training and practical work in the workshop were performed in the company and school's workshops and laboratories. In the additional chapter the authors draw attention to the problems of payment for the teachers of technical s ubjects, who enter the education process with great working experience from companies but start here as beginners since the school regulations do not define such cases.

  6. Unilateral Punctate Keratitis Secondary to Wallenberg Syndrome (United States)

    Boto, Ana; Del Hierro, Almudena; Capote, Maria; Noval, Susana; Garcia, Amanda; Santiago, Susana


    We studied three patients who developed left unilateral punctate keratitis after suffering left-sided Wallenberg Syndrome. A complex evolution occurred in two of them. In all cases, neurophysiological studies showed damage in the trigeminal sensory component at the bulbar level. Corneal involvement secondary to Wallenberg syndrome is a rare cause of unilateral superficial punctate keratitis. The loss of corneal sensitivity caused by trigeminal neuropathy leads to epithelial erosions that are frequently unobserved by the patient, resulting in a high risk of corneal-ulcer development with the possibility of superinfection. Neurophysiological studies can help to locate the anatomical level of damage at the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, confirming the suspected etiology of stroke, and demonstrating that prior vascular involvement coincides with the location of trigeminal nerve damage. In some of these patients, oculofacial pain is a distinctive feature. PMID:24882965

  7. Thermalization of secondary electrons under AMSGEMP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.; Pine, V.W.


    A Monte Carlo algorithm is used to determine the time behavior of source secondary electrons for ranges of the electric field to pressure ratio E/p of interest in AMSGEMP. The algorithm contains a very detailed cross section set describing electron interactions with the background gas. The authors show that the delay in the attainment of the peak time independent ionization frequency (or ionization coefficient) may result in negligible ionization over times of interest. In any case the behavior is shown to behave much differently than in examples where limited cross section sets, common in currently employed predictive codes, are employed. In particular, the importance of momentum transfer is indicated. A critique of the scaling implications of the phenomena is made

  8. Ruptured Massa Intermedia Secondary to Hydrocephalus. (United States)

    El Damaty, Ahmed; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S


    We report a case of ruptured massa intermedia (MI) as a sequela of hydrocephalus. A single case report is presented describing the sequelae of tumor bed hematoma after a posterior fossa hemangioblastoma resection in which the patient bled 3 days after surgery, resulting in secondary hydrocephalus and subsequently dilatation of the third ventricle, which resulted in rupture of the MI. The patient was managed on emergency basis with an external ventricular drain then endoscopically with a third ventriculostomy and clot extraction. Absent MI is not uncommon in hydrocephalic patients, and it is assumed to be the result of rupture from acute dilatation of the third ventricle. Our case report proves this assumption and documents the presence and absence of the MI before and after developing hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating carbon stock in secondary forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan


    of trees and species for destructive biomass measurements. We assess uncertainties associated with these decisions using data from 94 secondary forest plots in central Panama and 244 harvested trees belonging to 26 locally abundant species. AGB estimates from species-specific models were used to assess...... is the use of allometric regression models to convert forest inventory data to estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB). The use of allometric models implies decisions on the selection of extant models or the development of a local model, the predictor variables included in the selected model, and the number...... relative errors of estimates from multispecies models. To reduce uncertainty in the estimation of plot AGB, including wood specific gravity (WSG) in the model was more important than the number of trees used for model fitting. However, decreasing the number of trees increased uncertainty of landscape...

  10. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics (United States)

    Morris, Denise E.; Cleary, David W.; Clarke, Stuart C.


    Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012). Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. PMID:28690590

  11. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Morris


    Full Text Available Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012. Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic.

  12. Motives for secondary social sharing of emotions. (United States)

    Christophe, Véronique; Delelis, Gérald; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean-Louis


    This study provides new evidence of motives of secondary social sharing of emotions. In a retrospective study, 140 female (Mage = 29.4 yr., SD=12.8) and 116 male (M = 29.5 yr., SD = 13.1) participants were asked to recall a recent situation in which they had talked to a third person about a positive or negative, low or high intensity emotional narrative they had heard. 70% of the respondents reported having secondarily shared the reported event rapidly after the narration with several persons and at several times. Moreover, they not only described the event, the speaker's reaction and their own reactions, but also revealed the identity of their first confidant. Participants reported having spread the emotional narrative more widely in the high negative condition in order to seek emotional support and social comparison.

  13. Breast cancer literacy among higher secondary students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Dhakal, Sarmila


    Background: Being the most common cancer among women worldwide, it is vital to be well-aware of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and curability. However, few studies have reported breast cancer literacy in students using a validated instrument. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... among students of grades 11 and 12 from eleven higher secondary schools, one selected randomly from each ilaka of Parbat district. Questionnaire with modified Comprehensive Breast Cancer Knowledge Test was self-administered to 516 students. Knowledge score was categorized into two categories: 'good...... knowledge' and 'poor knowledge' taking median score as the cut-off. Chi-square test was used to determine difference in knowledge by socio-demographic factors, including gender. Results: Only 4.8 % of the students responded correctly to at least half of the items, and 1.4 % did not respond correctly to any...

  14. Direct laser initiation of open secondary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assovskiy, I G; Melik-Gaikazov, G V; Kuznetsov, G P


    The goal of this paper is experimental study of the mechanism of initiation of secondary explosives (SE) by short laser pulse. Laser initiation of SE is much more difficult in comparison with initiation of primary explosives. Using of some special methods is typically requested to realize laser initiation of SE: using of porous SE, putting it in a closed envelope, and using some optically dense additives. In this paper we consider interaction of laser pulse with open surface of non-porous, optically uniform SE. Only pure chemical methods were used to control the light sensitivity of SE. Implementation of the method of laser initiation is reduced to the optimization of composition and molecular structure of the explosives, along with the optimization of the laser pulse (its duration, energy density and wavelength). (paper)

  15. Unusual manifestations of secondary urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohui Lisa Zhao


    Full Text Available High-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma regularly invades the bladder wall, adjacent prostate, seminal vesicles, ureters, vagina, rectum, retroperitoneum, and regional lymph nodes. In advanced stages, it may disseminate to the liver, lungs, and bone marrow. On rare occasions, unusual metastatic foci like skin have been reported. The incidence of urothelial carcinoma has increased with associated rise in variants of urothelial carcinoma and unusual metastatic foci. It is imperative that urologists and pathologists are aware of the unusual variants and unusual metastatic locations to expedite the diagnostic process. Hereby we report an unusual case of secondary involvement of spinal nerve by conventional urothelial carcinoma. Also a second case of rhabdoid variant of urothelial carcinoma showing synchronous involvement of bladder and subcutaneous tissue of upper extremity is presented.

  16. External stent for repair of secondary tracheomalacia. (United States)

    Johnston, M R; Loeber, N; Hillyer, P; Stephenson, L W; Edmunds, L H


    Tracheomalacia was created in anesthetized piglets by submucosal resection of 3 to 5 tracheal cartilages. Measurements of airway pressure and flow showed that expiratory airway resistance is maximal at low lung volumes and is significantly increased by creation of the malacic segment. Cervical flexion increases expiratory airway resistance, whereas hyperextension of the neck reduces resistance toward normal. External stenting of the malacic segment reduces expiratory airway resistance, and the combination of external stenting and hyperextension restores airway resistance to normal except at low lung volume. Two patients with secondary tracheomalacia required tracheostomy and could not be decannulated after the indication for the tracheostomy was corrected. Both were successfully decannulated after external stenting of the malacic segment with rib grafts. Postoperative measurements of expiratory pulmonary resistance show a marked decrease from preoperative measurements. External stenting of symptomatic tracheomalacia reduces expiratory airway resistance by supporting and stretching the malacic segment and is preferable to prolonged internal stenting or tracheal resection.

  17. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids. (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H


    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  18. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.


    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  19. Engineering of secondary metabolite production in streptomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Gram, Lone

    Streptomycetes are known for their ability to produce a range of different secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-fungals, and anti-cancer compounds. Of these compounds, antibiotics play an important role in the clinics for treatment of both mild and severe bacterial...... the computational prediction of suitable 20 bp protospacers for the single guide RNAs and a USER-cloning method for construction of the CRISPR plasmids. Additional improvement to the system was achieved through the development of an optimised USER assembly workflow for cheaper and faster plasmid construction....... The workflow was verified by manual knock-down of two biosynthetic gene clusters in model organism Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), which confirmed the applicability of the system. A second part of the thesis was devoted to engineering of Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, which is a known producer of the narrow...

  20. Secondary electron emission in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G D; Ferron, J; Koropecki, R R, E-mail: [INTEC-UNL-CONICET, Gueemes 3450 - 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)


    We studied the reversible reduction induced by ion bombardment of the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield. This effect has been modelled as due to changes in dynamically sustained dipoles related with ions and electrons penetration ranges. Such charge configuration precludes the escape of electrons from the nanoporous silicon, making the SEE dependent on the flux of impinging ions. Since this dipolar momentum depends on the electric conduction of the porous medium, by controlled oxidation of the nanoporous structure we change the conduction features of the sample, studying the impact on the SEE reduction effect. Li ion bombardment was also used with the intention of changing the parameters determining the effect. FT-IR and Auger electron spectroscopy were used to characterize the oxidation degree of the samples at different depth scales