Sample records for glomus tumor

  1. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Meric Ugurlar


    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  2. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

    Madhuri S. Kate


    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  3. Surgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors.

    Pareschi, Roberto; Righini, Stefano; Destito, Domenico; Raucci, Aldo Falco; Colombo, Stefano


    The treatment of choice for glomus jugulare tumors is still controversial. High rates of morbidity, incomplete resection, and the aggressive behavior of these tumors are the main arguments for advocates of primary radiotherapy. However, constant refinements in skull base techniques have made complete resection of these lesions a realistic goal. The high probability of achieving local control of these tumors by surgery has convinced us to support this option strongly. Between 1993 and 2000 we diagnosed 52 glomus tumors of the temporal bone. Of these patients, only 42 had a class C lesion (glomus jugulare) and were included in this study; 37 of these patients underwent surgery, 10 of whom had intracranial extension of the disease. The overall resection rate was 96 %. Facial nerve function at 1 year was House-Brackmann grade I to II in 52 % of patients and grade III or better in 84 % of patients. Hospitalization was shorter than 14 days in 33 patients (89 %). All patients with pharyngolaryngeal palsy had sufficient compensation at discharge. Twelve vocal chord Teflon injections were performed after surgery to reduce hoarseness and aspiration. No patient died. No relapse was observed (mean follow-up, 4.9 years).

  4. Intraosseous glomus tumor of the fibula

    Bahk, W.J. [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Gyunggido (Korea). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Mirra, J.M. [Orthopaedic Oncology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anders, K.H. [Dept. of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente, Woodland Hills, CA (United States)


    Glomus tumor is a rare, benign vascular tumor and intraosseous glomus tumor, which arises primarily within bone, is even rarer. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman with glomus tumor primarily in the midshaft of the fibula that radiologically mimicked chondromyxoid fibroma, aneurysmal bone cyst or adamantinoma, together with a review of other reported cases. (orig.)

  5. Glomus Tumor Presenting as Raynaud's Phenomenon

    M. H. Abdelrahman


    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare tumors that often include hands and feet; they present characteristically with paroxysmal pain, exquisite point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Such diagnosis needs to be confirmed by imaging like ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for glomus tumors. There are only few case reports of glomus tumors in association with Raynaud’s phenomenon; this is considered to be the 4th case.

  6. The association between glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis.

    Harrison, Bridget; Moore, Amy M; Calfee, Ryan; Sammer, Douglas M


    To determine whether an epidemiologic association exists between glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis. Using a pathology database, we established a study cohort consisting of all patients who had undergone excision of a glomus tumor of the hand between 1995 and 2010. We created a control cohort by randomly selecting 200 patients who had undergone excision of a ganglion cyst over the same period. We reviewed medical records for each cohort to identify patients with a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. We calculated the odds ratio was calculated and performed Fisher's exact test to determine the significance of the association. We identified 21 patients with glomus tumors of the hand. Six of these patients carried the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis (29%). In contrast, no patients in the control group carried the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. The odds ratio for a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis in association with a glomus tumor compared with controls was 168:1. This study provides evidence of a strong epidemiologic association between glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis. Glomus tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis in neurofibromatosis patients who present with a painful lesion of the hand or finger. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knee glomangioma: a rare location for a glomus tumor

    Ricardo Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Glomus tumor is a rare, benign neoplasm rising from the glomus apparatus of the skin. It occurs most frequently on fingers and toes and accounts for 1.6% of all soft tissue tumors. Clinical diagnosis may prove difficult if the tumor occurs on an extra digital location. We report a case of a vascular-type glomus tumor (glomangioma found in an atypical location, namely the lateral aspect of the knee joint.

  8. Glomus Tumors: Symptom Variations and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis

    Ki Weon Ham


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe typical clinical symptoms of glomus tumors are pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to temperature change, and the presence of these clinical findings is helpful in diagnosis. However, the tumors often pose diagnostic difficulty because of variations in presentation and the nonspecific symptoms of glomus tumors. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have reported on the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in diagnosing glomus tumors in patients with unspecific symptoms.MethodsThe inclusion criteria of this study were: having undergone surgery for subungual glomus tumor of the hand, histopathologic confirmation of glomus tumor, and having undergone preoperative MRI. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The characteristics of the tumors and the presenting symptoms including pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to temperature change were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsFive out of 21 patients (23% did not show the typical glomus tumor symptom triad because they did not complain of pain provoked by coldness. Nevertheless, preoperative MRI showed well-defined small soft-tissue lesions on T1- and T2-weighted images, which are typical findings of glomus tumors. The tumors were completely resected and confirmed as glomus tumor histopathologically.ConclusionsEarly occult lesions of glomus tumor in the hand may not be revealed by physical examination because of their barely detectable symptoms. Moreover, subungual lesions may be particularly difficult to evaluate on physical examination. Our cases showed that MRI offers excellent diagnostic information in clinically undiagnosed or misdiagnosed patients. Preoperative MRI can accurately define the character and extent of glomus tumor, even though it is impalpable and invisible.

  9. Intravenous Glomus Tumor Masquerading as Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Neuroma.

    Chim, Harvey; Al-Qattan, Husain; Valencia, Herbert; Brathwaite, Carole; Price, Andrew; Grossman, John A I


    Background: Intravenous glomus tumors are extremely rare. Methods: We report a patient with an intravenous glomus tumor within a venous aneurysm misdiagnosed as a neuroma of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, based on clinical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and findings on a magnetic resonance imaging neurogram. Results: After surgical resection, the patient's symptoms, including pain and localized hypersensitivity, totally resolved. Conclusions: This case illustrates 2 important points. First, unlike extradigital glomus tumors, magnetic resonance imaging is not reliable in diagnosing intravenous glomus tumors. Second, in the presence of chronic localized neuroma type pain and sensitivity in the upper limb without a clear cause, an extradigital cutaneous or intravenous glomus tumor must be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Superficial Fibromatosis Mimicking Glomus Tumor of the Second Toe.

    Jo, Hyang Jeong; Chae, Soo Uk; Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Yeung Jin; Choi, Deok Hwa; Park, Jae In


    Various types of tumor can occur in the subungual space, including glomus tumors, subungual exostosis, hemangioma, epidermal cysts, and malignant tumors. While fibromatosis can occur at various sites throughout the body, it is very rarely seen in the toe. Here, we are the first to report a case of superficial fibromatosis mimicking a glomus tumor in the subungual space of the second toe. The presentation of this condition shows the possibility of encountering uncommon superficial fibromatosis in the distal phalanx of the toe, and suggests that superficial fibromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a glomus tumor in the toe.

  11. Middle ear and mastoid glomus tumors (glomus tympanicum): an algorithm for the surgical management.

    Sanna, Mario; Fois, Paolo; Pasanisi, Enrico; Russo, Alessandra; Bacciu, Andrea


    Glomus tumors are slow-growing benign lesions and represent the most common primary neoplasms of the middle ear. The objective of the present study is to report our surgical strategy in the management of glomus tympanicum tumors. Between December 1988 and July 2008, 68 patients with histologically confirmed glomus tympanicum tumor underwent surgical treatment. The follow-up of the series ranged from 6 to 194 months (mean, 33.4 months). Distribution of tumors according to Fisch and Mattox classification was as follows: type A, 44 cases (64.7%); type B, 24 cases (35.3%). All of the 44 Class A tumors were safely removed via either a stapedectomy-type transcanal approach or a retroauricolar-transcanal approach. Five patients with Class B tumors were operated on through a transmastoid approach. Nineteen patients with larger Class B tumors underwent a subtotal petrosectomy with blind sac closure of the external auditory canal and middle ear obliteration. Gross total tumor removal was achieved in all 68 cases. In one case (1.4%) there was recurrence after 9 years, for which the patient was re-operated. No residual/recurrence has been detected on computed tomography in the rest of the patients. Surgical excision of glomus tympanicum tumors is a safe procedure, allowing total tumor removal with minimal morbidity, a low recurrence rate, and a low complication rate. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glomus tumor of the gastric body:helical CT findings

    HU Xiao-yun; HU Chun-hong; FANG Xiang-ming; ZHANG Tong-hua


    @@ Glomus tumors, also known as glomangiomas, are rare and originate in the neuromyoarterial glomus, a normal arteriovenous shunt which is abundantly supplied with nerve fibers and fulfills a temperature-regulating function. The classic location of glomus tumor is the subungual region, but the tumor can occur elsewhere in the skin, soft tissues, nerves, stomach, nasal cavity, and trachea.1 In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract the tumor occurs more often in the stomach than other parts, and typically occurs as a solitary submucosal nodule in the antrum.2 We reported a case of glomus tumor originating from the greater curvature of stomach which was studied with contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (CT) and described the characteristic helical CT findings of the rare lesion.

  13. Radiotherapy in glomus jugulare and glomus tympanicum tumors. Zur Radiotherapie der Glomus-jugulare-et-tympanicum-Tumoren

    Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Kapp, B.; Bohndorf, W. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie); Ptok, M. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke)


    Glomus jugulare tumors are difficult to manage therapeutically due to their localisation. Operation may be successful in small tumors but can be hazardous in larger lesions mainly because of bleeding and palsy of cranial nerves. In these cases there should be used radiation therapy under the condition that it is planned by use of computed tomography. Moreover reproducibility of radiation treatment set-up is vital. In this way tumor regression may be achieved. Four own illustrative cases are demonstrated. According to the stage of disease a modified treatment strategy is presented which integrates surgical procedures, angiographic embolisation and radiotherapy. (orig.).

  14. A Rare Case of Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Esophagus

    Gurvinder Singh Bali


    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare neoplasms that usually occur on the hands in a subungual location, or sometimes in palms, wrists or soles of the feet. They are described as purple/pink tiny painful lesions with a triad of pain, local point tenderness, and cold hypersensitivity. They are almost always benign, but rare malignant variants have been reported. They have also been reported to be present at unusual locations, like the lung, stomach, or liver. Gastrointestinal glomus tumors are extremely rare tumors and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Most that have been reported were usually benign in nature. A rare esophageal glomangioma, mimicking a papilloma, was reported in 2006. We report a case of glomangiosarcoma (malignant glomus tumor in a 49-year-old female, who presented with symptoms of dysphagia including some spasm and hoarseness and subjective unintentional weight loss. On endoscopic exam, she was found to have a distal esophageal mass with malignant features. Radiologically, the mass had a size of about 8 cm on the CT scan without evidence of metastases. Pathology and immunostaining of the biopsy showed features resembling a malignant glomus tumor. She underwent an endoscopic and laparoscopic staging of the tumor along with ultrasound. Based on the laparoscopic findings, which were consistent with the preoperative diagnosis, she was scheduled for an esophagectomy. Histopathology and immunophenotypic features of the excised mass were consistent with a diagnosis of malignant glomus tumor.

  15. An Extradigital Glomus Tumor in the Upper Arm: A Case Report

    Lee, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Keun [Dept. of Orthopedics Surgery, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Kum [Dept. of Pathology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Glomus tumors are rare benign soft tissue neoplasms arising from neuromyoarterial glomus bodies. Although the typical location of the tumors is the distal phalanx, they can occur in extradigital locations. We report a case of a glomus tumor unusually located in the upper arm with typical magnetic resonance imaging findings and pathologic findings

  16. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.


    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  17. Glomus tumor (golomangioma) of the tongue. A light and electron microscopic study.

    Tajima, Y; Weather, D R; Neville, B W; Benoit, P W; Pedley, D M


    A rare case of an intraoral glomus tumor on the ventral surface on the tongue was studied by light and electron microscopy. With light microscopy, the tumor was composed of dilated vascular channels surrounded by "epithelioid" glomus cells exhibiting large round nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Bodian stains showed significant staining for nerve fibers among the tumor cells. Electron microscopic study demonstrated that the tumor cells had ultrastructural features which were similar to both smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, suggesting that a "transitional" cell may give rise to glomus tumor. The literature on oral glomus tumors is briefly reviewed.

  18. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Yoshinori Handa


    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  19. Glomus Tumor of the Stomach - A Case Report and A Literature Review.

    Chabowski, Mariusz; Paszkowski, Adam; Skotarczak, Jerzy; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Leśniak, Michał; Janczak, Dawid; Janczak, Dariusz


    The study presented a case of a patient with a glomus tumor of the stomach, a mesenchymal neoplasm manifesting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Forrest IB). The patient was operated twice. First, he underwent elective laparotomy, during which Billroth I (Rydygier's method) gastric resection was performed. This his was followed by Billroth II resection with Braun's anastomosis. Histopathological examination revealed glomus tumor tissue. Literature data on the glomus tumor of the stomach are presented.

  20. Thoracoscopic Surgery for Glomus Tumor: An Uncommon Mediastinal Neoplasm and Iatrogenic Tracheal Rupture

    Fang, Zhongjie; Ma, Dehua; Luo, Huarong


    Mediastinal glomus tumors are rarely recognized, and only seven cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe a rare mediastinal glomus tumor and review the characteristics of this rare clinical case. The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented with coughing for 3 months. Her chest computed tomography scan demonstrated a localized tumor in the posterior superior mediastinum. Intraoperatively, we found a longitudinal rupture of the membranous trachea above the carina. We completely resected the tumor and repaired the tracheal rupture under a thoracoscopy using a pedicled muscle flap. The tissue was diagnosed as a mediastinal glomus tumor according to its histological and immunophenotypic characteristics.

  1. A Primary Pulmonary Glomus Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Yasushi Ariizumi


    Full Text Available A case of a glomus tumor originating from the lung is reported. A 43-year-old female had undergone resection of a right lung tumor following a clinical diagnosis of carcinoid, sclerosing hemangioma, or other sarcoma. Histologically, the tumor comprised uniform small round to oval cells with centrally located nucleus, a clear cytoplasm, and apparent cell borders. The tumor also showed a focally hemangiopericytomatous pattern with irregularly branching or dilated vessels. Electron microscopy revealed smooth muscle differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunostaining further revealed that the tumor cells expressed smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, muscle specific actin (HHF-35, but not cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, or chromogranin A. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary glomus tumor was established. Glomus tumors of the lung are very rare and only 21 cases have been reported to date. The histological features of the present tumor and the relevant literature are discussed.

  2. [Glomus tumors of the temporal bone: a report of 6 cases].

    Arruda, W O; Teive, H A; Torres, L F; Ramina, R; Parolim, M K; Maniglia, J J; Barrionuevo, C E


    The authors review the clinical, radiological and pathological features of 6 cases of glomus tumors of the temporal bone. Out of the 6 patients, 5 were female; age was distributed between 22 and 76 years (mean 48 years). The main clinical features were hypoacusia, tinnitus and otoscopic findings suggestive of the diagnosis. In one case was noted the concomitant presence of a neurinoma of the VIII cranial nerve with a ipsilateral glomus tumor, and in another case there was a concomitancy of carotid body tumor with temporal glomus jugularis tumor. Metastases were not observed in any case. Tumoral lesions were successfully ressected employing microsurgical techniques and a multidisciplinary staff involving neurosurgeons, head and neck surgeons and otolaryngologists. Radioteraphy was not employed, neither pre-operative embolization. Some aspects related to the nosology, embriology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this interesting type of neoplasms are discussed.

  3. Subungual glomus tumor: an uncommon cause of median canaliform nail-dystrophy of Heller

    Mrinal Gupta, Vikas Sharma


    Full Text Available Glomus tumor is an uncommon vascular tumor involving mostly subunguum of the thumb or the index finger. It commonly presents as a pink or purplish circumscribed nodule underneath the nail plate. Pain is paroxysmal in nature and precipitated often from exposure to cold or pressure/blunt trauma. Dystrophy of the nail plate occurs rarely. The described case, a 40-year-old woman, had dystrophic thumbnail ascribed to subungual glomus tumor that resembled median canaliform nail-dystrophy of Heller.

  4. A case of a glomus tumor of the stomach resected by laparoscopy endoscopy cooperative surgery.

    Nakajo, Keiichiro; Chonan, Akimichi; Tsuboi, Rumiko; Nihei, Kousuke; Iwaki, Tomoyuki; Yamaoka, Hajime; Sato, Shun; Matsuda, Tomomi; Nakahori, Masato; Endo, Mareyuki


    A 56-year-old woman who was found to have a submucosal tumor (SMT) of the stomach in a medical check-up was admitted to our hospital for a detailed investigation of the SMT. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an SMT of 20mm at the anterior wall of the antrum of the stomach. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a hyperechoic tumor in the fourth layer of the stomach wall. CT examination showed a strongly enhancing tumor on arterial phase images and persistent enhancement on portal venous phase images. Laparoscopy endoscopy cooperative surgery was performed with a diagnosis of SMT of the stomach highly suspicious of a glomus tumor. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of α-SMA but no expression of desmin, c-kit, CD34, or S-100. The tumor was finally diagnosed as a glomus tumor of the stomach.

  5. An intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor.

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M


    Glomus tumors are rare skull base slow-growing, hypervascular neoplasms that frequently involve critical neurovascular structures, and delay in diagnosis is frequent. Surgical removal is rarely radical and is usually associated with morbidity or mortality. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has gained an increasing dependable role in the management of glomus jugulare tumors, with high rate of tumor growth control, preserving or improving clinical status and with limited complications. This study aims to evaluate intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of twenty-two patients bearing growing glomus jugulare tumors at the International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo, Egypt, between 2005 and 2011. The mean follow-up period was 56 months (range 36-108 months); there were 3 males, 19 females; mean age was 43.6 years; 15 patients had GKS as the primary treatment; 2 patients had surgical residuals; 2 had previous radiation therapy; and 3 previously underwent endovascular embolization. The average tumor volume was 7.26 cm3, and the mean marginal dose was 14.7 Gy. Post gamma knife surgery through the follow-up period neurological status was improved in 12 patients, 7 showed stable clinical condition and 3 patients developed new moderate deficits. Tumor volume post GKS was unchanged in 13 patients, decreased in 8, and showed tumor regrowth in 1 patient. Tumor progression-free survival in our studied patients was 95.5% at 5 and 7 years of the follow-up period post GKS. Gamma knife surgery could be used safely and effectively with limited complications as a primary management tool in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors controlling tumor growth with preserving or improving clinical status especially those who do not have significant cranial or cervical extension, elderly, and surgically unfit patients; moreover, it is safe and highly effective as adjuvant therapy as well.

  6. The safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor


    Background Glomus jugulare is a slowly growing, locally destructive tumor located in the skull base with difficult surgical access. The operative approach is, complicated by the fact that lesions may be both intra and extradural with engulfment of critical neurovascular structures. The tumor is frequently highly vascular, thus tumor resection entails a great deal of morbidity and not infrequent mortality. At timeslarge residual tumors are left behind. To decrease the morbidity associated with surgical resection of glomus jugulare, gamma knife surgery (GKS) was performed as an alternative in 13 patients to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods A retrospective review of 13 residual or unresectable glomus jagulare treated with GKS between 2004 and 2008.. Of these, 11 patients underwent GKS as the primary management and one case each was treated for postoperative residual disease and postembolization. The radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin ranged between 12-15 Gy. Results Post- gamma knife surgery and during the follow-up period twelve patients demonstrated neurological stability while clinical improvement was achieved in 5 patients. One case developed transient partial 7th nerve palsy that responded to medical treatment. In all patients radiographic MRI follow-up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in two cases and remained stable (local tumor control) in eleven patients. Conclusions Gamma knife surgery provids tumor control with a lowering of risk of developing a new cranial nerve injury in early follow-up period. This procedure can be safely used as a primary management tool in patients with glomus jugulare tumors, or in patients with recurrent tumors in this location. If long-term results with GKS are equally effective it will emerge as a good alternative to surgical resection. PMID:20819207

  7. The safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor

    Hafez Raef FA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomus jugulare is a slowly growing, locally destructive tumor located in the skull base with difficult surgical access. The operative approach is, complicated by the fact that lesions may be both intra and extradural with engulfment of critical neurovascular structures. The tumor is frequently highly vascular, thus tumor resection entails a great deal of morbidity and not infrequent mortality. At timeslarge residual tumors are left behind. To decrease the morbidity associated with surgical resection of glomus jugulare, gamma knife surgery (GKS was performed as an alternative in 13 patients to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods A retrospective review of 13 residual or unresectable glomus jagulare treated with GKS between 2004 and 2008.. Of these, 11 patients underwent GKS as the primary management and one case each was treated for postoperative residual disease and postembolization. The radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin ranged between 12-15 Gy. Results Post- gamma knife surgery and during the follow-up period twelve patients demonstrated neurological stability while clinical improvement was achieved in 5 patients. One case developed transient partial 7th nerve palsy that responded to medical treatment. In all patients radiographic MRI follow-up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in two cases and remained stable (local tumor control in eleven patients. Conclusions Gamma knife surgery provids tumor control with a lowering of risk of developing a new cranial nerve injury in early follow-up period. This procedure can be safely used as a primary management tool in patients with glomus jugulare tumors, or in patients with recurrent tumors in this location. If long-term results with GKS are equally effective it will emerge as a good alternative to surgical resection.

  8. Glomus jugulare tumor with intra- and extracranial extension. A case report with MRI study

    Morisako, Toshitaka; Goya, Tomokazu; Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Kazuo


    A case of glomus jugulare tumor with intra- and extracranial extension is described. The patient was a 63-year-old woman who complained of gait and memory disturbances. On admission neurological examination revealed recent memory disturbance, left deafness, left XI, XIIth cranial nerve palsies, and slight ataxic gait. Roentgenogram of the skull showed an enlarged left jugular foramen with bone erosion. Plain X-ray computerized tomography scan (X-CT) indicated obstructive hydrocephalus and X-CT with contrast enhancement revealed a mass lesion in the left posterior cranial fossa extending through enlarged left jugular foramen to the extracranial space toward the level of C/sub 2/. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a large mass with blood supply from branches of left external carotid and vertebral arteries. The tumor stain was not remarkable. Left internal jugular vein was completely obstructed at the level of the second cervical vertebral body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly showed the tumor extending from the anterolateral portion to the second cervical vertebral body through the enlarged jugular foramen to the posterior cranial fossa. Brain stem and cerebellar hemisphere which were markedly compressed by the mass were clearly visualized. At first a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was made and four weeks later subtotal removal of the tumor was undertaken. Histopathology of tumor specimen showed typical glomus jugulare tumor. MRI was considered to be very useful for the diagnosis and treatment of the glomus jugulare tumor with intra- and extracranial extension

  9. Surgical treatment of subungual glomus tumors: Experience with lateral subperiosteal and transungual approaches

    Fatih Kabakas


    Conclusion: As a result, early recovery occurs and postoperative nail deformity is unaccepted. The main advantages of lateral subperiosteal approach are reducing postoperative nail deformity and early recovery. However, not every glomus tumor is suitable for lateral subperiosteal approach. In peripherally located tumors, the lateral subperiosteal approach provides quick recovery of the cosmetic appearance and less deformation of the nail. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 70-78

  10. Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery of the jugulotympanic glomus tumor: long-term results.

    Liscak, Roman; Urgosik, Dusan; Chytka, Tomas; Simonova, Gabriela; Novotny, Josef; Vymazal, Josef; Guseynova, Khumar; Vladyka, Vilibald


    Glomus tumors usually display indolent behavior, and the effectiveness of radiation in stopping their growth can be assessed after long-term follow-up. Currently only midterm results of radiosurgery are available, so the authors included patients treated by Gamma Knife at least 10 years ago in this study to obtain a perspective of long-term results. During the period from 1992 to 2003, the Gamma Knife was used to treat 46 patients with glomus tumors. The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 79 years (median 56 years). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment in 17 patients (37%). Open surgery preceded radiosurgery in 46% of cases, embolization in 17%, and fractionated radiotherapy in 4%. The volume of the tumor ranged from 0.2 to 24.3 cm(3) (median 3.6 cm(3)). The minimal dose to the tumor margin ranged between 10 and 30 Gy (median 20 Gy). One patient was lost for follow-up after radiosurgery. Clinical follow-up was available in 45 patients and 44 patients were followed with MRI in a follow-up period that ranged from 12 to 217 months (median 118 months). Neurological deficits improved in 19 (42%) of 45 patients and deteriorated in 2 patients (4%). Tumor size decreased in 34 (77%) of 44 patients with imaging follow-up, while an increase in volume was observed in 1 patient (2%) 182 months after radiosurgery and Gamma Knife treatment was repeated. One patient underwent another Gamma Knife treatment for secondary induced meningioma close to the glomus tumor 98 months after initial radiosurgical treatment. Seven patients died 22-96 months after radiosurgery (median 48 months), all for unrelated reasons. Radiosurgery has proved to be a safe treatment with a low morbidity rate and a reliable long-term antiproliferative effect.

  11. Diagnostic utility of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for glomus tumor of the stomach.

    Kato, Shin; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Chinen, Kenji; Murakami, Takahiro; Kunishima, Fumihito


    A 52-year-old man was referred for further investigation of a gastric submucosal tumor on the greater curvature of the antrum. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic solid mass, which was primarily connected to the muscular layer of the stomach. We performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The pathological examination showed proliferation of oval-shaped cells with nest formation, which stained strongly positive for muscle actin, and negative for c-kit, CD34, CD56, desmin, S-100, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase. Therefore, we performed laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery based on the preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumor of the stomach. The final histological diagnosis confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. Although preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumor of the stomach is difficult with conventional images and endoscopic biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an essential tool to gain histological evidence of glomus tumor of the stomach for early diagnosis.

  12. Symplastic glomus tumor of the urinary bladder treated by robot-assisted partial cystectomy: a case report and literature review.

    Palmisano, Franco; Gadda, Franco; Spinelli, Matteo G; Maggioni, Marco; Rocco, Bernardo; Montanari, Emanuele


    Glomus tumors arising in the urinary bladder are extremely rare, and only two cases have been reported in the English Literature. We present a case of a 58-year-old man with an asymptomatic mass of the anterior wall of the bladder that measured 2.5 × 2.5 cm. Endoscopic excision was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as symplastic glomus tumor. The patient finally underwent robotic-assisted partial cystectomy, and he remains healthy without any recurrence to date.After reviewing this case and previous reports, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features and treatment options for this rare neoplasm.

  13. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: a single-center series of 75 cases.

    Ibrahim, Ramez; Ammori, Mohannad B; Yianni, John; Grainger, Alison; Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias


    OBJECTIVE Glomus jugulare tumors are rare indolent tumors that frequently involve the lower cranial nerves (CNs). Complete resection can be difficult and associated with lower CN injury. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has established its role as a noninvasive alternative treatment option for these often formidable lesions. The authors aimed to review their experience at the National Centre for Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Sheffield, United Kingdom, specifically the long-term tumor control rate and complications of GKRS for these lesions. METHODS Clinical and radiological data were retrospectively reviewed for patients treated between March 1994 and December 2010. Data were available for 75 patients harboring 76 tumors. The tumors in 3 patients were treated in 2 stages. Familial and/or hereditary history was noted in 12 patients, 2 of whom had catecholamine-secreting and/or active tumors. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment modality in 47 patients (63%). The median age at the time of treatment was 55 years. The median tumor volume was 7 cm(3), and the median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 18 Gy (range 12-25 Gy). The median duration of radiological follow-up was 51.5 months (range 12-230 months), and the median clinical follow-up was 38.5 months (range 6-223 months). RESULTS The overall tumor control rate was 93.4% with low CN morbidity. Improvement of preexisting deficits was noted in 15 patients (20%). A stationary clinical course and no progression of symptoms were noted in 48 patients (64%). Twelve patients (16%) had new symptoms or progression of their preexisting symptoms. The Kaplan-Meier actuarial tumor control rate was 92.2% at 5 years and 86.3% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife radiosurgery offers a risk-versus-benefit treatment option with very low CN morbidity and stable long-term results.

  14. Cough syncope in a 43-year-old woman with glomus jugulare tumor

    Susanta Bandyopadhyay


    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of recurrent cough syncope in a 43-year-old woman, which was initially thought to be seizures. Syncopal episodes were triggered by paroxysms of cough and were characterized by unresponsiveness and myoclonic jerks in her extremities. She had a left-sided glomus jugulare tumor that extended into the posterior cranial fossa with evidence of worsening communicating hydrocephalus on brain imaging. We postulate that bouts of cough produced increased intracranial pressure both by raising intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures as well as by transient obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow secondary to intermittent tonsillar herniation during cough. This resulted in diffuse decrease in cerebral blood flow causing syncope. The patient's syncopal episodes decreased in frequency once an external ventricular drain was placed followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Search for factors that can increase intracranial pressure seems warranted in patients with recurrent cough syncope.

  15. Tumor glômico endobrônquico com atelectasia de lobo superior direito Bronchial glomus tumor with right upper lobe atelectasis

    Artur Eugênio de Azevedo-Pereira


    Full Text Available Tumores glômicos são raras neoplasias benignas de tecidos moles. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 32 anos de idade que apresentava atelectasia em lobo superior direito devido a um tumor endobrônquico. O paciente foi submetido a lobectomia superior direita e broncoplastia em cunha. O diagnóstico patológico foi de tumor glômico endobrônquico. Até onde sabemos, essa apresentação com atelectasia em lobo superior direito nunca foi relatada. O tumor glômico deve ser considerado no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões endobrônquicas que causam atelectasia lobar.Glomus tumors are uncommon benign soft tissue neoplasms. We report the case of a 32-year-old male who presented with right upper lobe atelectasis due to an endobronchial tumor. The patient underwent right upper lobectomy and wedge bronchoplasty. The pathological diagnosis was bronchial glomus tumor. To our knowledge, this presentation (with right upper lobe atelectasis has never before been reported. Glomus tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endobronchial lesions causing lobar atelectasis.

  16. Radiation therapy for glomus tumors of the temporal bone; Tratamento radioterapico dos tumores glomicos do osso temporal

    Dall' Igna, Celso; Antunes, Marcelo B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia da Cabeca e Pescoco; Dall' Igna, Daniela Pernigotti [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    The treatment of glomic tumors has been controversial since its first description. It can be done with surgery, radiotherapy or just expectation. Aim: the objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of radiotherapy.Study Design: clinical with transversal cohort. Material and method: it was made a retrospective review in the charts of the patients with glomus jugular tumors treated with radiotherapy. Disease control was determined by (1) no progression of symptoms or cranial nerve dysfunction or (2) no progression of the lesion in radiological follow-up. It was also evaluated the follow-up period and the sequelae of the treatment. Results: twelve patients were included, 8 of then women. The follow-up period was from 3 to 35 years, with a media of 11,6 years. The main symptoms were: hearing loss, pulsate tinnitus, dizziness and vertigo. The signs were pulsate retrotympanic mass, facial palsy and cofosis. The tumors were staged using Fischs classification. The radiotherapy was performed with linear accelerator with dose ranging from 4500-5500 in 4-6 weeks. In the follow-up period were possible to identify sequelaes like dermatitis, meatal stenosis, cofosis and facial palsy. Discussion: the signs and symptoms were the same found in the medical literature. The type and dosages of the radiotherapy were also the same of others reports. All patients had improvement of the symptoms and only one was not considered as having disease controlled. Complications were, in general, minor complications, with exception of the cofosis and facial palsy. Conclusion: radiotherapy is a viable alternative to treatment of these tumors because their good response and low level of complications. It should be considered specially in advanced tumors where a surgical procedure could bring a high level of morbidity. (author)

  17. 原发性肺副节瘤一例病理分析%Pathological analysis on a case of glomus jugulare tumor

    平小佳; 吕晶; 杜媛媛; 刘艳琳


    Objective To investigate glomus juglare tumor's clinical features of pathology, and to analyze its biological behavior. Methods A case of glomus jugulare tumor was analyzed referring to the relevant literatures. Results Primary glomus jugulare tumor appeared similar to that of paraganglioma in the other part of human body. Immunohistochemical staining for Syn, S-100, CgA and NSE, GFAP was positive and negative for CK, EMA, CEA, HMB-45, CD34 and CD99 in the tumor cells. Conclusion Glomus jugulare tumor is a rare neoplasm arising from the paraganglion and it purses an aggressive ability and lower grade in biological behavior.Analyzing histological features combining with data reference of CT or MRI and immunohistochemical staining,the pathological diagnosis of glomus jugulare tumor can be made.%目的 探讨原发性肺副节瘤的临床病理特征和生物学行为.方法 对1例原发性肺副节瘤进行组织学观察和免疫组化标记分析,同时复习相关文献.结果 原发性肺副节瘤的组织学改变类似于其他部位的副神经节瘤.免疫组化标记:瘤细胞Syn、NSE、CgA 、S-100、GFAP均阳性,CK、EMA、CEA、HMB-45、CD34、CD68和CD99 均阴性.结论 副节瘤是一种起源于副神经节的肿瘤,较少见.而原发性肺副节瘤极为罕见.呈侵袭性生长,有低度恶性的生物学行为.根据肿瘤的组织学特征和免疫组化表达,结合临床资料及影象学检查可以作出诊断[1].

  18. Glomus jugulare (Type A: A case review

    Vinod T Kandakure


    Full Text Available We report a glomus jugulare tumor in a 60 yrs old female; non diabetic, non hypertensive who presented with continuous pulsatile hissing tinnitus in right ear with progressive hearing impairment and fullness in the ear. Detailed history and examination with aid of investigations it turned out to be glomus jugulare, treated by surgical excision by post auricular hypotympanotomy approach.

  19. Desvascularización preoperatoria de tumor del glomus mediante colocación de stent cubierto en la carótida externa

    Sergio A. Garrido


    Full Text Available RESUMENLos tumores del glomus carotídeo se caracterizan por su vascularización importante y sumanejo preoperatorio puede incluir la embolización percutánea previa a la resección quirúrgica.Esta técnica disminuye la hemorragia y el tamaño del tumor y hace menos riesgosala disección, con reducción de la morbimortalidad. Una técnica alternativa es la interrupciónde la irrigación del tumor mediante la colocación de un stent cubierto en la carótidaexterna, que es la vía principal de irrigación. Esta técnica es útil en especial en tumoresgrandes y evita el riesgo de embolia intracraneal cuando se emplean coils para realizar laembolización. En esta presentación se describe el caso de una paciente de 31 años tratadade esta manera; se le colocó el stent y 24 horas después se realizó la resección del tumor.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2010;78:252-254.

  20. Tratamento radioterápico dos tumores glômicos do osso temporal Radiation therapy for glomus tumors of the temporal bone

    Celso Dall'Igna


    tumors has been controversial since its first description. It can be done with surgery, radiotherapy or just expectation. AIM: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of radiotherapy. STUDY DESIGN: clinical with transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was made a retrospective review in the charts of the patients with glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiotherapy. Disease control was determined by (1 no progression of symptoms or cranial nerve dysfunction or (2 no progression of the lesion in radiological follow-up. It was also evaluated the follow-up period and the sequelae of the treatment. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included, 8 of then women. The follow-up period was from 3 to 35 years, with a media of 11,6 years. The main symptoms were: hearing loss, pulsate tinnitus, dizziness and vertigo. The signs were pulsate retrotympanic mass, facial palsy and cofosis. The tumors were staged using Fisch's classification. The radiotherapy was performed with linear accelerator with dose ranging from 4500-5500 in 4-6 weeks. In the follow-up period were possible to identify sequelaes like dermatitis, meatal stenosis, cofosis and facial palsy. DISCUSSION: The signs and symptoms were the same found in the medical literature. The type and dosages of the radiotherapy were also the same of others reports. All patients had improvement of the symptoms and only one was not considered as having disease controlled. Complications were, in general, minor complications, with exception of the cofosis and facial palsy. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy is a viable alternative to treatment of these tumors because their good response and low level of complications. It should be considered specially in advanced tumors where a surgical procedure could bring a high level of morbidity.

  1. Tumor glômico endobrônquico com atelectasia de lobo superior direito Bronchial glomus tumor with right upper lobe atelectasis


    Tumores glômicos são raras neoplasias benignas de tecidos moles. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 32 anos de idade que apresentava atelectasia em lobo superior direito devido a um tumor endobrônquico. O paciente foi submetido a lobectomia superior direita e broncoplastia em cunha. O diagnóstico patológico foi de tumor glômico endobrônquico. Até onde sabemos, essa apresentação com atelectasia em lobo superior direito nunca foi relatada. O tumor glômico deve ser considerado no diagnóstico dif...

  2. Experiencia en tumores glómicos en el Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González" (México: Reporte de casos Experience in glomus tumors in the General Hospital "Dr. Gea González" (México: Case report

    C. Gargollo Orvañanos


    Full Text Available Los tumores glómicos fueron descritos en 1924; están formados por elementos vasculares, musculares y nerviosos por debajo de la uña y pueden afectar la regulación de la irrigación de la punta del dedo con el frío. Constituyen el 1-2% de los tumores de la mano. Aunque no se trata de una patología frecuente, el cirujano plástico debe estar familiarizado con ella para un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados. Presentamos la experiencia en tumores glómicos de la clínica de mano del Hospital Dr. Manuel Gea González; reportamos los hallazgos clínicos y el manejo en cada caso mediante resección quirúrgica y enfatizamos sobre la importancia de una exposición adecuada durante la cirugía para resecar el tumor completamente y evitar recidivas.Glomus tumors were described in 1924; they involve vascular, muscle and nerve elements under the nail and can affect vascular supply of the finger tip. It represents 1-2% of hand tumors. Although it is not a common pathology, plastic surgeons must be familiarized to be able to diagnose and treat it properly. We present the experience of glomus tumor in our hand clinic at Hospital Dr. Manuel Gea González, reporting the clinical presentation and the surgical excision. We emphasize the importance of a good exposition of the tumor in the surgery for a complete excision and to avoid recurrences.

  3. 颈静脉球瘤切除并跨面神经移植患者的护理%Nursing of a patient undergoing glomus jugulare tumor resection and cross-facial nerve transplantation

    金晓婷; 杨虹


    This paper reports the nursing care of a patient undergoing glomus jugulare tumor resection and cross-facial nervel transplantation. Preoperative nursing focused on the evaluation of blood vessels,skin preparation,and preoperative exami-nation ;postoperative nursing points included monitoring the life signs,close observation of the incision and drainage,observation and nursing of complications, oral care and rehabilitation nursing of facial paralysis.%报告了1例颈静脉球瘤切除并跨面神经移植患者的护理.术前重点做好血管的评估、皮肤准备,完善各项术前检查;术后做好生命体征及病情的严密观察、切口及引流的观察、并发症的观察与护理,做好口腔护理及面瘫的康复护理,这是保证手术成功的关键.

  4. Oral ketamine in the palliative care setting: a review of the literature and case report of a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and glomus tumor-associated complex regional pain syndrome.

    Soto, Eliezer; Stewart, Douglas R; Mannes, Andrew J; Ruppert, Sarah L; Baker, Karen; Zlott, Daniel; Handel, Daniel; Berger, Ann M


    Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been shown to be effective not only for its anesthetic properties but also for the analgesic and opiate-sparing effects. However, data on efficacy and safety of oral ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic or cancer pain syndromes is limited with most of the evidence based on small clinical trials and anecdotal experiences. In this review, we will analyze the clinical data on oral ketamine in the palliative care setting. After an extensive search using five major databases, a total of 19 relevant articles were included. No official clinical guidelines for the use of oral ketamine in this patient population were found. Studies on oral ketamine for cancer and neuropathic pain have shown mixed results which could be partially due to significant differences in hepatic metabolism. In addition, we will include a case report of a 38-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with history of chronic, severe pain in her fingertips secondary to multiple glomus tumors which evolved into CRPS resistant to multiple therapies but responsive to oral ketamine. Based on our experience with oral ketamine, this drug should be administered after an intravenous trial to monitor response and side effects in patients with an adequate functional status. However, patients in the palliative care and hospice setting, especially the one at the end of their lives, may also benefit from oral ketamine even if an intravenous trial is not feasible.

  5. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    Nugent, N


    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  6. Glomus tumor in a patient suffering from Von Recklinghausen disease. A case presentation. Tumor glómico en un paciente con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen. Presentación de un caso.

    Ricardo Souza Bello

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pacient with Von Recklinghausen desease background, she suffers from pain since 2 years evolution in the pulpex of the second finger in the right hand. A physical and radiographic examination is done and a solitary glomal tumor is diagnosed. She goes under surgical treatment with exeresis and biopsia of the lesion. The anatomopathological examination confirmed the glomal tumor diagnosis.

    Se presenta el caso de una paciente con antecedentes de la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen, que sufre dolor de aproximadamente 2 años de evolución en el pulpejo del segundo dedo mano derecha. Se realiza examen físico y radiográfico y se diagnostica un tumor glómico solitario. Se somete a tratamiento quirúrgico realizándose exéresis y biopsia de la lesión. El examen anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de tumor glómico.

  7. A Glomus Tumour of the Elbow: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Anley, Cameron; Vrettos, Basil; Roche, Stephen; Solomons, Michael


    Extradigital glomus tumours are relatively uncommon. We present a case report of a glomus tumour of the elbow and review of the literature with regards to the clinical features, work-up and management of these tumours, to highlight the importance of considering a glomus tumour as part of the differential diagnosis in patient with atypical pain around the elbow.


    Yakelín Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las raíces de plantas de tomate cultivadas a partir de semillas recubiertas con inoculantes micorrizógenos, para evaluar la dinámica de inducción de mecanismos de defensa en la interacción tomate-Glomus clarum y tomate-Glomus fasciculatum a través del comportamiento de peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa. La actividad de ambas enzimas se mantuvo baja durante el comienzo de la simbiosis; posteriormente se produjo un incremento en las plantas colonizadas, siendo más acentuado en las raíces inoculadas con G. clarum y al estabilizarse la simbiosis tienden a disminuir ligeramente. Se realizó el análisis isoenzimático los días de la dinámica donde fue mayor la actividad de las enzimas estudiadas; en general, se observaron cuatro bandas constitutivas con actividad polifenoloxidasa en todos los tratamientos aunque con diferencias en cuanto a su aparición en el tiempo y en la intensidad de estas. Mientras en el patrón de peroxidasas se observaron tres isoenzimas constitutivas y una adicional, específica de la simbiosis, en las raíces colonizadas por los hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares. Los resultados indican que estos hongos provocaron inicialmente una respuesta similar a la "defensiva" en las raíces de tomate, la cual fue subsecuentemente suprimida. Además, la menor inducción de las enzimas estudiadas en las plantas colonizadas por G. fasciculatum sugiere una mayor compatibilidad entre esta especie y el tomate.

  9. Glomus in a finger. A case report Glomus en un dedo de la mano. Presentación de un caso

    Luis Fernando Arias Restrepo


    Full Text Available

    Glomus is a benign tumor of vascular origin, more frequently found in the subungual region of the fingers (75%. It is characterized by the triad of severe pain and hypersensitivity to both touch and temperature. The only effective treatment is surgical resection. Based on the archives of the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia, we describe the case of a 66 year-old woman with a glomus in the fourth finger of the left hand. It was typical from the clinical, radiological and histological points of view, hence its academic interest. We review the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of patients with this tumor. Despite the characteristic history of these patients, diagnosis may be difficult if the tumor is not taken into account.


    El glomus es un tumor benigno de origen vascular más frecuentemente (75% de los casos localizado en la región subungueal de los dedos de las manos. Se caracteriza por la tríada de dolor intenso e hipersensibilidad tanto al tacto como a la temperatura. El único tratamiento recomendado es la resección quirúrgica. Con base en el archivo del Departamento de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia, describimos el caso de una mujer de 66 años con este tipo de tumor en el cuarto dedo de la mano izquierda; sus características clínicas, radiológicas e histológicas fueron

  10. Managing Vascular Tumors-Open Approaches.

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Gourin, Christine


    The most common vascular tumors encountered by the otolaryngologist are rare chromaffin cell tumors termed paragangliomas. Within the head and neck region, they commonly arise from the carotid body, vagus nerve (glomus vagale), and jugular vein (glomus jugulare). Other vascular head and neck tumors include sinonasal malignancies, because of proximity to or involvement of the pterygoid plexus as well as the rich vascularity of the sinonasal mucosa; juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, a vascular tumor of male adolescents; unusual vascular tumors such as hemangiopericytoma; and metastatic renal cell cancer, which has a proclivity for an unusually rich blood supply.

  11. Radiotherapy for jugulo-tympanic paragangliomas (Glomus jugulare tumours)

    Sharma, P.D.; Johnson, A.P.; Whitton, A.C.


    Parasympathetic paraganglia are found in the region of the jugular bulb, in association with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve and the auricular branch of the vagus. The name commonly applied to these structures is 'glomus jugulare'. Tumours arising from these paraganglia (paragangliomas or glomus jugulare tumours) are usually histologically benign but locally destructive. They may involve the middle ear, the temporal bone, or the jugular foramen, and may extend into the neck or cranium. Very occasionally they are malignant and metastasise (Taylor et al., 1965). The clinical features of these tumours and the techniques for their diagnosis are well established, but treatment remains controversial. Radiotherapy has been the preferred treatment at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, and sixty cases seen at this hospital between 1942 and 1982 are reviewed here.

  12. Tumorer

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.


    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  13. Glomus vagale presenting as a supraclavicular mass: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Puvaneswary, M.; Gani, J. [John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Departments of Medical Imaging and Surgery; Kalnins, I.K. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Sydney NSW (Australia)


    Glomus vagale are rare vascular tumours of the paraganglion cells of the vagus nerve, and they usually occur in the carotid space. Tumours can be familial, multicentric, malignant but rarely hormonally active. A rare case is reported of glomus vagale presenting as a supraclavicular mass. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Partially trombosed glomus type spinal arteriovenous malformation – case presentation

    Gorgan M.R.


    Full Text Available Spinal AVM are very rare vascular lesions and most o the studies give reports on only a few cases. Given their localization between the spinal tracts and the gray matter core of the medulla and their multiple feeders from posterior and anterior spinal arteries they are amongst the most difficult surgical pathology in the nervous sistem. We present the case of a 60 years old male with a glomus type T10-L2 spinal AVM that presented with motor deficit in the lower limbs and urinary incontinence. The partially thrombosed lesion was completely resected without previous embolisation, and the patient was walking with assistance at discharge. This is a rare case that presented with progressive neurological deterioration consistent with an ischemic rather than a hemorrhagic event. Microsurgery is a better option than conservative treatment in these rare cases of spontaneous occlusion of intramedullary arteriovenous malformations.


    F. Fernández


    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo la evaluación de la viabilidad de los hongos micorrízicos (HMA Glomus mosseae (INCAM 2 y Glomus sp1 (INCAM 4 en soluciones líquidas. Se realizaron dos experimentos, uno donde se estudió la viabilidad fúngica de las esporas en un medio líquido de conservación y como control, agua destilada estéril durante ocho meses. En el segundo se estudió la capacidad de colonización de las esporas almacenadas durante ocho meses. En cada experimento se aplicó el ANOVA correspondiente y prueba de comparación de Tukey. En el medio líquido se logró un tiempo de viabilidad y estabilidad superior a los ocho meses, con importantes pérdidas de viabilidad de las esporas de ambas especies en el agua. Las cepas expresaron su capacidad germinativa hasta los 30 días de incubación, no detectándose diferencias significativas. En las esporas se encontraron elevados porcentajes de germinación, lo cual parece relacionarse con el fuerte estrés provocado a las paredes de estas, debido a la permanencia durante ocho meses en un medio líquido osmóticamente protector. Los ensayos de colonización permitieron aseverar que las esporas produjeron una fuerte colonización gradual a partir de los 14 días de iniciado el experimento, siendo muy similar en ambas especies. Finalmente, se puede aseverar que el inoculante líquido es efectivo desde el punto de vista biológico, logrando niveles de funcionamiento aceptados.

  16. Endogenous H2S is required for hypoxic sensing by carotid body glomus cells.

    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Nanduri, Jayasri; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Fox, Aaron P; Gadalla, Moataz M; Kumar, Ganesh K; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R


    H(2)S generated by the enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) has been implicated in O(2) sensing by the carotid body. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether glomus cells, the primary site of hypoxic sensing in the carotid body, generate H(2)S in an O(2)-sensitive manner and whether endogenous H(2)S is required for O(2) sensing by glomus cells. Experiments were performed on glomus cells harvested from anesthetized adult rats as well as age and sex-matched CSE(+/+) and CSE(-/-) mice. Physiological levels of hypoxia (Po(2) ∼30 mmHg) increased H(2)S levels in glomus cells, and dl-propargylglycine (PAG), a CSE inhibitor, prevented this response in a dose-dependent manner. Catecholamine (CA) secretion from glomus cells was monitored by carbon-fiber amperometry. Hypoxia increased CA secretion from rat and mouse glomus cells, and this response was markedly attenuated by PAG and in cells from CSE(-/-) mice. CA secretion evoked by 40 mM KCl, however, was unaffected by PAG or CSE deletion. Exogenous application of a H(2)S donor (50 μM NaHS) increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in glomus cells, with a time course and magnitude that are similar to that produced by hypoxia. [Ca(2+)](i) responses to NaHS and hypoxia were markedly attenuated in the presence of Ca(2+)-free medium or cadmium chloride, a pan voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker, or nifedipine, an L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, suggesting that both hypoxia and H(2)S share common Ca(2+)-activating mechanisms. These results demonstrate that H(2)S generated by CSE is a physiologic mediator of the glomus cell's response to hypoxia.

  17. Comparative Neurologic Outcomes of Salvage and Definitive Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Glomus Jugulare: A 20-Year Experience.

    Wakefield, Daniel V; Venable, Garrett T; VanderWalde, Noam A; Michael, L Madison; Sorenson, Jeffery M; Robertson, Jon H; Cunninghan, David; Ballo, Matthew T


    Objective  This case series investigates management of glomus jugulare (GJ) tumors utilizing definitive and salvage Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). Methods  A retrospective chart review was performed to collect data. Statistical analysis included patient, tumor, and treatment information. Results  From 1996 to 2013, 17 patients with GJ received GKSRS. Median age was 64 years (range, 27-76). GKSRS was delivered for definitive treatment in eight (47%) and salvage in nine (53%) patients. Median tumor volume was 9.8 cm (3) (range, 2.8-42 cm (3) ). Median dose was 15 Gy (range, 13-18 Gy). Median follow-up was 123 months (range, 38-238 months). Tumor size decreased in 10 (59%), stabilized in 6 (35%), and increased in 1 patient (6%). Overall neurological deficit improved in 53%, stabilized in 41%, and worsened in 6% of patients. Overall cause-specific survival was 100%, and actuarial local control was 94%. Eighty-eight percent of patients without prior resection experienced neurologic deficit improvement, while 25% of patients with prior resection experienced neurologic improvement ( p  = 0.02). Conclusion  Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides effective long-term control of GJ and overall improvement or stabilization of neurological deficit in most patients. Patients with prior resection are less likely to experience improvement of neurologic deficit.

  18. Tumor


    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  19. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots.

    Bellone, Carlos H; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo


    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar cane root through the emergent lateral roots. The microorganisms were capable of coexisting both intra and intercellularly, producing changes in the cell wall, thus allowing colonization and interaction between the organisms. These changes increased the number of microorganisms inside the root as well as acetylene nitrogen reduction. Sugar cane plant biomass increased with joint-inoculation. The number of endophytic microorganisms and nitrogen fixing activity increased when they were colonized by Azospirillum and Glomus together.

  20. First experiences with genetic counselling based on predictive DNA diagnosis in hereditary glomus tumours (paragangliomas)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Jansen, JC; vanSchothorst, EM; Oosterhof, AW; Devilee, P; Bakker, E; Zoeteweij, MW; vanderMey, AGL


    Hereditary glomus tumour (MIM 168000) or paraganglioma (PGL) is a slowly progressive disorder causing benign tumour growth predominantly in the head and neck region. Though benign in nature the tumours can lead to severe morbidity. Inheritance of PGL is autosomal dominant and is strongly modified by

  1. Light and electron microscopic examination of human subungual tissue. Glomus and lamellated bodies.

    Sargon, Mustafa F; Celik, H Hamdi; Denk, C Cem; Dagdeviren, Attila; Leblebicioglu, Gursel


    There is only limited data related to the subungual glomus body. We therefore studied the structure of this organ, aiming to obtain further evidence. Additionally, we encountered undefined receptor like structures in close association with these glomus cells, named them as lamellated bodies and examined both of the structures at light and electron microscopic levels. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, during the time period May 2001 to March 2002. In this study, the subungual tissues of 4 patients were examined. Within subungual tissue, 2 groups of morphologically significant structures were determined by light microscopy. The first structure was described as glomus body. It was characterized as an encapsulated structure, rich in rounded clear cells filling its central compartment. The latter structure having a lamellated appearance was described as lamellated body. In the electron microscopic examination, lamellated bodies were characterized by central filament rich large cells and surrounding cytoplasmic processes of ensheathing cells, some of which were vacuolated. Glomus bodies were surrounded by a capsule and centrally located numerous rounded cells which reflected the structural features of an active cell. The lamellated bodies are very unusual structures and they are not found in any other part of the body. The structural organization of the ensheathing cells in the lamellated bodies greatly resembles many skin associated receptors. Therefore, we planned future studies by using immunohistochemistry, to reveal nervous elements for structural contribution.

  2. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae established with Glomus fasciculatus spores isolated from the feces of cricetine mice

    Frederick M. Rothwell; Coleman Holt


    Cricetine mice were trapped on two revegetated surface-mined areas - one with a freshly seeded grass-legume cover and one with an early successional grass-forb cover. Chlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatus isolated from the feces of these animals produced representative endomycorrhizae with corn under greenhouse conditions.

  3. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal

  4. First experiences with genetic counselling based on predictive DNA diagnosis in hereditary glomus tumours (paragangliomas)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Jansen, JC; vanSchothorst, EM; Oosterhof, AW; Devilee, P; Bakker, E; Zoeteweij, MW; vanderMey, AGL


    Hereditary glomus tumour (MIM 168000) or paraganglioma (PGL) is a slowly progressive disorder causing benign tumour growth predominantly in the head and neck region. Though benign in nature the tumours can lead to severe morbidity. Inheritance of PGL is autosomal dominant and is strongly modified by

  5. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S


    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal structure

  6. First experiences with genetic counselling based on predictive DNA diagnosis in hereditary glomus tumours (paragangliomas)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Jansen, JC; vanSchothorst, EM; Oosterhof, AW; Devilee, P; Bakker, E; Zoeteweij, MW; vanderMey, AGL

    Hereditary glomus tumour (MIM 168000) or paraganglioma (PGL) is a slowly progressive disorder causing benign tumour growth predominantly in the head and neck region. Though benign in nature the tumours can lead to severe morbidity. Inheritance of PGL is autosomal dominant and is strongly modified by

  7. Glomus eburneum and Scutellospora fulgida, species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota new for Europe

    Janusz Błaszkowski


    Full Text Available Morphological characters of spores and mycorrhizae of Glomus eburneum and spores of Scutellospora fulgida, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, are described and illustrated. Additionally, the known distribution of these species in both Poland and other regions of the world is presented. Both species were not earlier reported from Europe.

  8. Hyphal Growth from Spores of the Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus Caledonius: Effect of Amino Acids

    Hepper, C.M.; Jakobsen, Iver


    Hyphal growth from spores of Glomus caledonius (Nicol. and Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdemann was stimulated by cystine, glycine and lysine at optimum concentrations of 4.6, 556 and 825 mg l−1 respectively. When all three amino acids were supplied together in water agar, five times more growth...

  9. Glomus claroideum and G. spurcum, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota new for Poland and Europe, respectively

    Janusz Błaszkowski


    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development and morphological properties of spores of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota of the genus Glomus, G. claroideum and G. spurcum, are described and illustrated. Spores of the two species were not earlier found in Poland, and this paper is the first report of the occurrence of G. spurcum in Europe. In one-species pot cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant, the mycorrhizae of G. claroideum consist of arbuscules, vesicles, as well as intra- and extraradical hyphae staining intensively with trypan blue. Glomus spurcum mycorrhizae were not recognized, because many attempts to establish one-species cultures of this fungus failed. Additionally, the distribution of both the fungi in the world is presented.

  10. Production of Plant Growth-Regulating Substances by the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae

    Barea, José M.; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción


    Glomus mosseae, a representative species of Endogonaceae (Phycomycetes) able to form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, was investigated for phytohormone production. Spores of G. mosseae were axenically germinated in water, and the resultant mycelial growth was assayed by standard procedures for extracting plant hormones from microbial cultures. Paper partition chromatography and specific bioassays were used to separate and identify plant growth-regulating substances. The microorganism synthesi...

  11. Glomus intraradices and Pacispora robiginia, species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota new for Poland

    Janusz Błaszkowski


    Full Text Available Morphological characters of spores and mycorrhizae of Glomus intraradices, as well as spores of Pacispora robiginia, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, were described and illustrated. Additionally, the known distribution of these species in both Poland and other regions of the world was presented. Both the species were not so far recorded in Poland and this paper is the second report of the finding of P. robiginia in the

  12. Comparison of prominent Azospirillum strains in Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus consortia for promotion of maize growth.

    Couillerot, Olivier; Ramírez-Trujillo, Augusto; Walker, Vincent; von Felten, Andreas; Jansa, Jan; Maurhofer, Monika; Défago, Geneviève; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Comte, Gilles; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan


    Azospirillum are prominent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) extensively used as phytostimulatory crop inoculants, but only few studies are dealing with Azospirillum-containing mixed inocula involving more than two microorganisms. We compared here three prominent Azospirillum strains as part of three-component consortia including also the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 and a mycorrhizal inoculant mix composed of three Glomus strains. Inoculant colonization of maize was assessed by quantitative PCR, transcription of auxin synthesis gene ipdC (involved in phytostimulation) in Azospirillum by RT-PCR, and effects on maize by secondary metabolic profiling and shoot biomass measurements. Results showed that phytostimulation by all the three-component consortia was comparable, despite contrasted survival of the Azospirillum strains and different secondary metabolic responses of maize to inoculation. Unexpectedly, the presence of Azospirillum in the inoculum resulted in lower phytostimulation in comparison with the Pseudomonas-Glomus two-component consortium, but this effect was transient. Azospirillum's ipdC gene was transcribed in all treatments, especially with three-component consortia, but not with all plants and samplings. Inoculation had no negative impact on the prevalence of mycorrhizal taxa in roots. In conclusion, this study brought new insights in the functioning of microbial consortia and showed that Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus three-component inoculants may be useful in environmental biotechnology for maize growth promotion.

  13. Experimental Study on Heterograft of Glomus Ccl ls of Carotid Body for Hemioarkinsonian Rats

    曹学兵; 孙圣刚; 童萼塘


    Summary: To observe the effects of heterograft of glomus cells of carotid body on hemiparkinsonian rat models, rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of the right dopamin ergic neurons of substantia nigra received intrastriatal glomus cells heterograft. Apomorphine-induced rotation was monitored for 30 rmin at various time points after grafting. The striata were cut and ex-amined for dopamine content by HPLC and for immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons (TH+ ) at the end of the experiments. The results showed that apomorphine-induced rotational behavior was significantly reduced for 12 weeks and the dopamine contents were signifi cantly elevated after grafting (P<0.01), and TH+ cells survived better. The present study demon strates that intrastriatal heterograft of glomus cells within carotid body in rats with 6-OHDA-elicited lesions could reduce apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and elevate the dopamine contents and numbers of TH+ cell surviving within striatum, and can serve as a new and effective alternative for Parkinson disease.

  14. Six years of following up a glomus jugulare tumor - a case report

    Ivanka Štenc Bradvica


    Full Text Available This case report followed up a patient for six years after she had been successfully treated by embolization and gamma knife surgery, while a complete surgical resection was contraindicated because of the high risk of possible mortality outcome. A development of internal hydrocephalus in a subacute postoperative period as a probable postoperative complication related to gamma knife surgery was noted.

  15. Laparoscopic antral resection with Billroth I reconstruction for a gastric glomus tumor

    Hamzeh M. Halawani


    CONCLUSION: This case may aid in improving the recognition and diagnosis of this rare entity and in differentiating it from more common GISTs and gastric carcinoids. A built up knowledge between physicians is extremely necessary to avoid common confusion in taking the right medical approach.


    Zhuang Qixin; Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Shixun; Shang kezhong; Yan Xinhua


    Objective: To investigate imaging findings of tumors invading parapharyngeal space. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)and digital subtruation angiography (DSA) findings of 19patients with tumors infiltrating parapharyngeal space by surgery and pathology were analysed, including four branchial cleft cysts, three jugular glomus tumors, four carotid body tumors, three neurilemomas and five carcinomas of nasopharynx involving parapharyngeal space. Fifteen patients underwent MRI scanning nine patients had CT scanning, three patients MRA and five patients DSA. Results: MRI provided clinically useful informations about the size, shape, extent and site of the parapharyngeal space tumors, and also their effects on adjacent structures. The main MRI features of paraganglioma presented as many low signal tortuous and creeping vessels in the tumor. The main CT features of jugular glomus tumor revealed as jugular foramen enlargement with bone destruction. Tumor vessels were clearly displayed by MRA and DSA. Conclusion: MRI was superior to CT in the diagnosis of tumors invading parapharyngeal space. The location and nature of the lesions could be diagnosed accurately by MRI combined with CT or DSA.

  17. Mitochondrial genome rearrangements in glomus species triggered by homologous recombination between distinct mtDNA haplotypes.

    Beaudet, Denis; Terrat, Yves; Halary, Sébastien; de la Providencia, Ivan Enrique; Hijri, Mohamed


    Comparative mitochondrial genomics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) provide new avenues to overcome long-lasting obstacles that have hampered studies aimed at understanding the community structure, diversity, and evolution of these multinucleated and genetically polymorphic organisms.AMF mitochondrial (mt) genomes are homogeneous within isolates, and their intergenic regions harbor numerous mobile elements that have rapidly diverged, including homing endonuclease genes, small inverted repeats, and plasmid-related DNA polymerase genes (dpo), making them suitable targets for the development of reliable strain-specific markers. However, these elements may also lead to genome rearrangements through homologous recombination, although this has never previously been reported in this group of obligate symbiotic fungi. To investigate whether such rearrangements are present and caused by mobile elements in AMF, the mitochondrial genomes from two Glomeraceae members (i.e., Glomus cerebriforme and Glomus sp.) with substantial mtDNA synteny divergence,were sequenced and compared with available glomeromycotan mitochondrial genomes. We used an extensive nucleotide/protein similarity network-based approach to investigated podiversity in AMF as well as in other organisms for which sequences are publicly available. We provide strong evidence of dpo-induced inter-haplotype recombination, leading to a reshuffled mitochondrial genome in Glomus sp. These findings raise questions as to whether AMF single spore cultivations artificially underestimate mtDNA genetic diversity.We assessed potential dpo dispersal mechanisms in AMF and inferred a robust phylogenetic relationship with plant mitochondrial plasmids. Along with other indirect evidence, our analyses indicate that members of the Glomeromycota phylum are potential donors of mitochondrial plasmids to plants.

  18. Glomus africanum and G. iranicum, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Kovács, Gábor M; Balázs, Tímea K; Orlowska, Elzbieta; Sadravi, Mehdi; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François


    Two new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomeromycota) of genus Glomus, G. africanum and G. iranicum, are described and illustrated. Both species formed spores in loose clusters and singly in soil and G. iranicum sometimes inside roots. G. africanum spores are pale yellow to brownish yellow, globose to subglobose, (60-)87(-125) μm diam, sometimes ovoid to irregular, 80-110 x 90-140 μm. The spore wall consists of a semipermanent, hyaline, outer layer and a laminate, smooth, pale yellow to brownish yellow, inner layer, which always is markedly thinner than the outer layer. G. iranicum spores are hyaline to pastel yellow, globose to subglobose, (13-)40(-56) μm diam, rarely egg-shaped, prolate to irregular, 39-54 x 48-65 μm. The spore wall consists of three smooth layers: one mucilaginous, short-lived, hyaline, outermost; one permanent, semirigid, hyaline, middle; and one laminate, hyaline to pastel yellow, innermost. Only the outermost spore wall layer of G. iranicum stains red in Melzer's reagent. In the field G. africanum was associated with roots of five plant species and an unrecognized shrub colonizing maritime sand dunes of two countries in Europe and two in Africa, and G. iranicum was associated with Triticum aestivum cultivated in southwestern Iran. In one-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant G. africanum and G. iranicum formed arbuscular mycorrhizae. Phylogenetic analyses of partial SSU sequences of nrDNA placed the two new species in Glomus group A. Both species were distinctly separated from sequences of described Glomus species.

  19. Glucose sensing by carotid body glomus cells: potential implications in disease

    Lin eGao


    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is a key chemoreceptor organ in which glomus cells sense changes in blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. CB glomus cells have also been found to detect hypoglycemia in both non-primate mammals and humans. O2 and low-glucose responses share a common final pathway involving membrane depolarization, extracellular calcium influx, increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, and neurotransmitter secretion, which stimulates afferent sensory fibers to evoke sympathoadrenal activation. On the other hand, hypoxia and low glucose induce separate signal transduction pathways. Unlike O2 sensing, the response of the CB to low glucose is not altered by rotenone, with the low glucose-activated background cationic current unaffected by hypoxia. Responses of the CB to hypoglycemia and hypoxia can be potentiated by each other. The counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia by the CB is essential for the brain, an organ that is particularly sensitive to low glucose. CB glucose sensing could be altered in diabetic patients, particularly those under insulin treatment, as well as in other medical conditions such as sleep apnea or obstructive pulmonary diseases, where chronic hypoxemia presents with plastic modifications in CB structure and function. The current review will focus on the following main aspects: 1 the CB as a low glucose sensor in both in vitro and in vivo models; 2 molecular and ionic mechanisms of low glucose sensing by glomus cells, 3 the interplay between low glucose and O2 sensing in CB, and 4 the role of CB low glucose sensing in the pathophysiology of cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases, and how this may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  20. Acaulospora scrobiculata and Glomus versiforme (Glomeromycota newly and second time, respectively, found in Poland

    Janusz Błaszkowski


    Full Text Available Morphological properties of spores and mycorrhizae of Acaulospora scrobiculata and Glomus versiforme, arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycom, were described and illustrated. The two species were revealed in trap cultures containing root-rhizosphere mixlures of plants colonizing maritime dunes of the Baltic Sea located in north-western Poland and then propagated in one-species cultures to characterize properties of their mycorrhizae. Acaulospona scrobiculata had not previously been found in Poland, and the only earlier finding of Gl. versiforme in this country comes from the year 1912. The known distribution of the two fungal species in the world is also presented.

  1. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices

    Dionicia Gloria León-Martínez


    Full Text Available To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010. Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction.

  2. Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François


    Two new ectocarpic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri (Glomeromycota), found in maritime sand dunes of northern Poland and those adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea are described and illustrated. Mature spores of G. drummondii are pastel yellow to maize yellow, globose to subglobose, (58-)71(-85) micromdiam, or ovoid, 50-80x63-98 microm. Their wall consists of three layers: an evanescent, hyaline, short-lived outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, pastel yellow to maize yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. Spores of G. walkeri are white to pale yellow, globose to subglobose, (55-)81(-95) micromdiam, or ovoid, 60-90x75-115 microm, and have a spore wall composed of three layers: a semi-permanent, hyaline outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, white to pale yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. In Melzer's reagent, only the inner- and outermost layers stain reddish white to greyish rose in G. drummondii and G. walkeri, respectively. Both species form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in one-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and parts of the LSU of the nrDNA of spores placed both species in Glomus Group B sensu Schüssler et al. [Schüssler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C, 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycolological Research 105: 1413-1421.].

  3. Micorrizas arbusculares en plantines de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae inoculados con Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae Arbuscular mycorrhizas in Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae

    Alejandra Becerra

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cita y describe por primera vez la asociación de Alnus acuminata Kunth «aliso del cerro» con el hongo formador de micorrizas arbusculares (MA Glomus intraradices Schenk & Smith. En un bioensayo en invernadero, se inocularon plantines de A. acuminata con fragmentos radicales de Medicago sativa L. colonizados por G. intraradices . Se describe la colonización MA y el tipo anatómico Arum . Se establece la funcionalidad de la simbiosis por la presencia de arbúsculos en las células corticales de la raíz.This work described for the first time the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM development in A. acuminata Kunth «andean alder» with G. intraradices Schenk & Smith. Seedlings of A. acuminata were inoculated with root fragments of Medicago sativa L. colonized by G. intraradices in a greenhouse. The Arum -type and AM colonization are described in A. acuminata seedlings. The presence of arbuscules in A. acuminata cortical cells define a functional symbiosis.

  4. Hypertension and a Large pulsatile neck mass: A Case of Malignant Glomus Vagale Tumour

    Modupe Oyewumi


    Full Text Available his teaching case report represents an unusual example of a neck mass in a previously healthy individual. The presence of a new neck mass is a relatively common head and neck problem and requires a full work up including a complete history and physical examination. With respect to our patient, thorough history taking, physical examinations and specific investigations led to the diagnosis of a malignant and functionally active paraganglioma.Vagal paraganglioma themselves are rare tumours and account for only 5-25% of all paragangliomas in the head and neck region. The presence of a malignant, functionally active, catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma is even rarer and accounts for only 1-3% of all reported glomus vagale tumours.This case report illustrates the need to carefully monitor all neck masses for changes in size, for any distortion to surrounding structures, and their given function.


    I. de la Providencia


    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la factibilidad del uso de un ensayo inmunoenzimático sobre soporte sólido (ELISA, para la detección de esporas de Glomus clarum. Para ello se inmunizaron conejos de la raza Chinchilla con extractos proteicos provenientes de dichas esporas. El suero policlonal obtenido de los animales inmunizados se enfrentó a G. clarum y a las esporas de otras especies de Glomales. Se logró detectar las esporas de G. clarum con el uso del ELISA indirecto a la dilución 1/3 000, sin reacciones cruzadas con las otras especies de Glomales utilizadas en este estudio a esa misma dilución.

  6. Glomus intraradices para el control de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood en condiciones protegidas

    Jairo Cristóbal Alejo; Elizabeth Herrera-Parra; Vicente Reyes Oregel; Esaú Ruiz Sánchez; José María Tun Suárez; Teresita Celis Rodríguez


    Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación del hongo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus intraradices en plantas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Maya. Las variables de reproducción del nematodo estimadas fueron número de agallas por planta_1 (NA), número de hembras por g_1de raíz teñida (NHE) y número de huevos por g_1 de raíz licuada (NHU). Para las plantas, las variables agronómicas de vigor consideradas correspondieron a altura de planta (AP), peso de fruto (PF), peso de raíz (PR), volum...

  7. Utilization of Sparingly Soluble Phosphate by Red Clover in Association with Glomus mosseae and Bacillus megaterium


    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of sparingly soluble inorganic and organic sources of phosphorus (P) by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) whose roots were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae and in association with the phosphate-solubilizing (PS) bacterium Bacillus megaterium ACCC10010. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate had a synergistic effect on the colonization of plant roots by the AM fungus. There was a positive interaction between the PS bacterium and the AM fungus in mobilization of rock phosphate, leading to improved plant P nutrition. In dual inoculation with the AM fungus and the PS bacterium, the main contribution to plant P nutrition was made by the AM fungus. Application of P to the low P soil increased phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly promoted by inoculation with either the PS bacterium or the AM fungus.

  8. Estabelecimento e capacidade infectiva de Gigaspora margarita e Glomus clarum em solo sob erosão Establishment and infective capacity of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus clarum soil

    Anselmo Lúcio dos Santos


    Full Text Available O processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas pode ser favorecido pela inoculação de plantas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, selecionados para efetividade e competitividade. Com o objetivo de avaliar o estabelecimento e a capacidade infectiva (CI de fungos introduzidos em relação à comunidade de fungos autóctones (FA, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro, foram cultivadas 10 espécies de plantas (três gramíneas e sete leguminosas com três tratamentos de inoculação [controle; G. margarita (CNPAB 001; G. clarum (CNPAB 005]. No segundo, a Cl dos FMA foi avaliada no solo após o primeiro experimento, em bioensaio com plantas-iscas repicadas semanalmente para vasos contendo solo autoclavado. O estabelecimento e a Cl dos FMA foi baseada na presença de esporos após os cultivos. Os FMA introduzidos e as espécies vegetais influenciaram de modo diferenciado a esporulação dos FMA (Acaulospora rugosa, Entrophospora colombiana, Gigaspora margarita e Glomus macrocarpum. A inoculação possibilitou o estabelecimento dos fungos inoculados em todas as plantas avaliadas. No entanto, somente G. clarum apresentou Cl frente a população de fungos autóctones. Foi constatado que a CI destes isolados não está relacionada com o número de esporos. A produção de inoculantes comerciais a partir destes fungos é discutida.The processes of recovering degraded lands may be benefited by the inoculation of selected arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, for effectivety and competitiveness. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out, with the aim of evaluating the establishment and infective capacity (IC of introduced fungi in relation to community of autochthonous fungi (AF. In the first study, 10 plant species were cultivated (three grasses and seven legumes with three inoculum treatments [control; G margarita (CNPAB 001; G clarum (CNPAB 005]. In the second study, the IC of the AMF was evaluated in the soil

  9. Fern-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are represented by multiple Glomus spp.: do environmental factors influence partner identity?

    West, Brittany; Brandt, Jessica; Holstien, Kay; Hill, April; Hill, Malcolm


    Symbioses involving arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are among the most important ecological associations for many plant species. The diversity of AMF associated with ferns, however, remains poorly studied. Using recently designed Glomus-specific primers, we surveyed the AMF community associated with ferns from deciduous, broad-leaved second-growth forest habitats at the eastern edge of the piedmont region of central Virginia, USA. Results indicate that this molecular approach may be a useful tool for detecting AMF in ferns compared to traditional techniques based on morphology. Over 30 potential fungal ribotypes were identified from eight fern species using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Fungal ribotypes were found to differ widely in terms of (1) the number of fern partners with which they interact and (2) their relative frequency within each fern. Sequence analysis of fungal isolates from three species of fern indicated that the primers were generally highly specific for Glomus species but some non-target DNA was also amplified. Cloned polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from Polystichum acrostichoides and Osmunda regalis revealed several phylogenetically distinct Glomus species. A single Glomus species was identified in the cloned PCR products from Botrychium virginianum. These findings challenge the hypothesis that the extent or degree of fern-fungal symbiosis is somehow tied to root complexity. Environmental factors appear to influence the suite of AMF that form partnerships with ferns. Some species of fern from similar habitats associated with dissimilar fungal partners (e.g., P. acrostichoides and Athyrium filix-femina var. asplenioides), whereas others harbored uniform fungal communities (e.g., Asplenium platyneuron). The significance of these data in terms of ecological and evolutionary dynamics of the AMF-fern symbiosis is discussed.

  10. Ambispora gerdemannii and Glomus badium, two species of arbuscular fungi (Glomeromycota new for Europe and Poland, respectively

    Janusz Błaszkowski


    Full Text Available Morphological characters of spores, as well as sporocarps and spores of Ambispora gerdemannii and Glomus badium, respectively, arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, are described and illustrated. Additionally, the known distribution of these species in both Poland and the other regions of the world is presented. Ambispora gerdemannii was not earlier reported from Europe, and G. badium is a new fungus for Poland.

  11. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    Junli Hu; Fuyong Wu; Shengchun Wu; Cheung Lung Lam; Xiangui Lin; Ming Hung Wong


    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kan...

  12. Actinomicetos mineralizadores de fosfato involucrados en la interacción radical de Glomus sp. - trébol blanco

    Ruth Milena G\\u00F3mez-Vargas


    sp. (cepa MCR24 con la técnica del p-nitrofenil fosfato. Thermobifi da sp. (cepa MCR24 presentó la menor actividad. La inoculación de solo actinomicetos presentó valores mayores de fósforo inorgánico en suelo, mientras que la concentración de fósforo a nivel foliar fue mayor cuando había co-inoculación actinomiceto-Glomus sp., a excepción de la cepa Thermobifi da sp. (cepa MCR24. La co-inoculación con los actinomicetos y Glomus sp. estimuló la producción de biomasa y el porcentaje de colonización. Se determinó la capacidad para mineralizar fósforo orgánico por los actinomicetos al asociarse con Glomus sp. de forma sinérgica y benéfi ca tanto para la planta como para la micorriza. Se realizó el análisis de la varianza y prueba de "t" ALS (P<0,05 para comparar los promedios entre los tratamientos. Se determinó el grado de relación entre el porcentaje de micorrización y el peso seco de las plantas mediante "r" Coeficiente de Correlación, donde las plantas con los microorganismos presentaron una micorrización mayor del 70%.

  13. The Effects of Endogenous Mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. on Stand Establishment Rate and Yield of Open Field Tomato Crop



    Full Text Available Graded seeds of a tomato commercial cultivar (Suta F1 were sown in plugged (30 cm3 foam trays filled with vermiculate. For the half of seeds the substrate was homogenously mixed (10% vol/vol with broken expanded clay biologically activated by immobilized propagules of naturally occurring AM-fungi (Glomus intradadices, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus geosporum, Glomus clarum, supplied by BioSym B.V. For the next half, it was homogenously mixed with free clay particles of the same size with the previous one (10% vol/vol. Thirty days after sowing, tomato seedlings were transplanted in to 200 cm3 plastic pots filled with vermiculite. Either AMF non pre inoculated seedlings (non AMF, or AMF pre inoculated (AMF, were equally divided in three subgroups based on the level of salinity applied in the nutrient solution (0, 50 and 100 mM sodium chlorate. On the day of transplanting and 7 days after transplanting, 10 plants were randomly selected for each experimental plot. For each of them, the dry weight of root (RW, leaf (LA, steam (SW and the whole plant (W was determined and based on that, the relative growth rates (RGR and root relative growth rate (RRGR were calculated and used as the parameters assessing the stand establishment rate of tomato seedlings after transplanting. Additionally, stomata conductance and leaf temperature were measured to assess AMF effects on physiological performance of transplanted seedlings. In order to assess the effect of AM fungi pre inoculation on total yield, parallel with pot transplanting, a field experiment was conducted according to a three replication randomized block design. It was proved that the production of open field tomato can be enhanced by the pre inoculation of AM fungi to tomato transplants at the nursery stage. Due to the pre inoculation of AM fungi, the tomato seedlings can subsequently benefit a faster stand establishment rate and higher vigor which is further reflected to a prolonged

  14. Effects of Glomus mosseae on the toxicity of heavy metals to Vicia faba

    ZHANG Xu-hong; LIN Ai-jun; CHEN Bao-dong; WANG You-shan; SMITH Sally E; SMITH F Andrew


    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the growth of Vicia faba and toxicity induced by heavy metals (HMs) (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in a field soil contaminated by a mixture of these metals. There was also uninoculation treatment (NM) simultaneously. Mycorrhizal (GM) plants have significantly increased growth and tolerance to toxicity induced by heavy metals compared with NM plants. P uptake was significantly increased in GM plants. Mycorrhizal symbiosis reduced the transportation of HMs from root to shoot by immobilizing HMs in the mycorrhizal, shown by increasing the ratios of HMs from root to shoot. Oxidative stress, which can induce DNA damage, is an important mechanism of heavy metal toxicity. GM treatment decreased oxidative stress by intricating antioxidative systems such as peroxidases and non-enzymic systems including soluble protein. The DNA damage induced by heavy metals was detected using comet assay, which showed DNA damage in the plants was decreased by the GM treatment.

  15. Comparative uptake kinetics and transport of cadmium and phosphate in Phleum pratense-Glomus deserticolum associations

    Arnold, P.T.; Kapustka, L.A. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States))


    Mycorrhizal plants (timothy grass, Phleum pretense with Glomus deserticolum) were compared to nonmycorrhizal timothy grass to determine the effect of the mycorrhizal condition on the uptake and transport of cadmium. Companion experiments were conducted to ascertain phosphate uptake kinetics of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Divalent cation competition experiments also were employed in this study. Comparisons of the high-affinity uptake mechanisms between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants identified higher levels of phosphate uptake were due to an increase in the number of uptake sites rather than to differences in affinity. The respective values for K[sub m] for high-affinity phosphate uptake were 2.5 [plus minus] 1.3 [mu]MP (mycorrhizal) and 3.4 [plus minus] 1.3 [mu]MP (nonmycorrhizal), but these values were not statistically different at the [alpha] = 0.05 level. High-affinity Cd[sup 2+] uptake differed significantly between mycorrhizal (4.5 [plus minus] 2.8 [mu]M) and nonmycorrhizal (2.8 [plus minus] 1.1 [mu]M) plants. Presence of Ca[sup 2+] at 1.0mM concentration conferred considerable competitive protection in both the mycorrhizal and the nonmycorrhizal conditions. The effect of Ca[sup 2+] was an approximate fourfold increase in the respective K[sub m] values.

  16. Symbiotic role of Glomus mosseae in phytoextraction of lead in vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)].

    Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Barber, Summer; Patel, Mandakini; Das, Padmini


    Lead (Pb) has limited solubility in the soil environment owing to complexation with various soil components. Although total soil Pb concentrations may be high at a given site, the fraction of soluble Pb that plants can extract is very small, which is the major limiting factor for Pb phytoremediation. The symbiotic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae was examined on growth and phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)]. A hydroponic study, Phase I (0, 1, 2, and 4mM Pb) was conducted followed by an incubation pot study, Phase II (0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg kg(-1) Pb) where vetiver plants were colonized with G. mosseae. The results obtained indicate that plants colonized by the AM fungi not only exhibit better growth (increase in plant biomass), but also significantly increase Pb uptake in root and higher translocation to the shoot at all given treatments. Moreover, plants colonized with AM fungi had higher chlorophyll content and reduced levels of low molecular weight thiols, indicating the ability to better tolerate metal-induced stress. Results from this study indicate that vetiver plants in association with AM fungi can be used for improved phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Rose Rizvi


    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  18. Recombination in Glomus intraradices, a supposed ancient asexual arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Sanders Ian R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are important symbionts of most plant species, promoting plant diversity and productivity. This symbiosis is thought to have contributed to the early colonisation of land by plants. Morphological stasis over 400 million years and the lack of an observed sexual stage in any member of the phylum Glomeromycota led to the controversial suggestion of AMF being ancients asexuals. Evidence for recombination in AMF is contradictory. Results We addressed the question of recombination in the AMF Glomus intraradices by sequencing 11 polymorphic nuclear loci in 40 morphologically identical isolates from one field. Phylogenetic relationships among genotypes showed a reticulate network pattern providing a rationale to test for recombination. Five statistical tests predicted multiple recombinant regions in the genome of a core set of isolates. In contrast, five clonal lineages had fixed a large number of differences. Conclusion Our data show that AMF from one field have undergone recombination but that clonal lineages coexist. This finding has important consequences for understanding AMF evolution, co-evolution of AMF and plants and highlights the potential for commercially introduced AMF inoculum recombining with existing local populations. Finally, our results reconcile seemingly contradictory studies on whether AMF are clonal or form recombining populations.

  19. Mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit sequences are homogeneous within isolates of Glomus (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomeromycota).

    Raab, Philipp A; Brennwald, Annemarie; Redecker, Dirk


    Partial sequences of the mtLSU rDNA were obtained from the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus proliferum (isolate DAOM 226389) and G. intraradices (isolates JJ291 and BEG75). The exon sequences of the two species showed regions of strong divergence. There was no evidence of intra-isolate sequence heterogeneity as it is found in variable regions of nuclear ribosomal genes of Glomeromycota. In G. intraradices JJ291, two introns were found in the partial LSU sequence. One of the introns contained an ORF for a putative site-specific homing endonuclease of the LAGLIDADG family. In G. intraradices BEG75, one of the introns was missing and the other had a DNA sequence distinct from JJ291. G. proliferum had no introns in the region sequenced. A PCR primer was designed to amplify the fragment of the mtLSU of a different, distinguishable G. intraradices genotype from colonized roots of a field sample. These mitochondrial gene sequences are the first reported from the phylum Glomeromycota. Our findings indicate that the intra-individual sequence heterogeneity of the Glomeromycota may be a peculiar feature of the nuclear genes. Therefore, mtLSU and its introns have the potential to be highly sensitive genetic markers for these fungi in the future.

  20. Propiconazole inhibits the sterol 14α-demethylase in Glomus irregulare like in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Calonne, Maryline; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj; Campagnac, Estelle; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Fontaine, Joël


    The increasing concentrations impact (0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg L(-1)) of a Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor (SBI) fungicide, propiconazole, was evaluated on development and sterol metabolism of two non-target organisms: mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal transformed chicory roots and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare using monoxenic cultures. In this work, we provide the first evidence of a direct impact of propiconazole on the AMF by disturbing its sterol metabolism. A significant decrease in end-products sterols contents (24-methylcholesterol and in 24-ethylcholesterol) was observed concomitantly to a 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol accumulation indicating the inhibition of a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis pathway, the sterol 14α-demethylase like in phytopathogenic fungi. A decrease in end-product sterol contents in propiconazole-treated roots was also observed suggesting a slowing down of the sterol metabolism in plant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the inhibition of the both AM symbiotic partners development by propiconazole results from their sterol metabolism alterations.

  1. Phyto-Extraction of Nickel by Linum usitatissimum in Association with Glomus intraradices.

    Amna; Masood, Sajid; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed


    Plants show enhanced phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils particularly in response to fungal inoculation. Present study was conducted to find out the influence of Nickel (Ni) toxicity on plant biomass, growth, chlorophyll content, proline production and metal accumulation by L. usitatissimum (flax) in the presence of Glomus intraradices. Flax seedlings of both inoculated with G. intraradices and non-inoculated were exposed to different concentrations i.e., 250, 350 and 500 ppm of Ni at different time intervals. Analysis of physiological parameters revealed that Ni depressed the growth and photosynthetic activity of plants. However, the inoculation of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae (G. intraradices) partially helped in the alleviation of Ni toxicity as indicated by improved plant growth under Ni stress. Ni uptake of non- mycorrhizal flax plants was increased by 98% as compared to control conditions whereas inoculated plants showed 19% more uptake when compared with the non-inoculated plants. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited increasing capacity to remediate contaminated soils along with improved growth. Thus, AM assisted phytoremediation helps in the accumulation of Ni in plants to reclaim Ni toxic soils. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that the role of flax plants and mycorrhizal fungi is extremely important in phytoremediation.

  2. Characterization of expressed genes in the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhiza between Amorpha fruticosa and Glomus mosseae

    Fuqiang Song; Jize Li; Xingxing Zhang


    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) formed between plant roots and fungi is one of the most widespread symbiotic associations in nature. To understand the molecular mechanisms of AM formation, we profiled 30 symbiosis-related genes expressed in Amorpha fruticosa roots colonized by Glomus mosseae and in non-mycorrhizal roots at different stages using differential-display RT-PCR (DDRT-PCR). The expressed genes were confirmed by reverse Northern blotting. Eleven fragments were sequenced and putatively identified by homologous alignment. Of the eleven AM-related genes, five were obtained at the early-stage of plant-fungus interaction and six at the later stage. Three expressed se-quence tag (ESTs) sequences were found to originate from the fungi and eight from the host plant by use of PCR evaluation of gDNA of both plant and fungi. The target genes included an ATP-binding cassette sub-family transporter gene, a transposon-insertion display band, and a photosynthesis-related gene. The results provided information on the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of mycorrhizal sym-biosis between woody plants and AM fungi.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine stress.

    Song, Fuqiang; Li, Jize; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Quan; Chang, Wei; Yang, Fengshan; Geng, Gui


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. In this study effect of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation was investigated. It was observed that the atrazine degradation rates with any addition level in mycorrhizal treatments were all significantly higher than those in non-mycorrhizal treatments. When atrazine was applied at 20 mg kg(-1), the removal efficiency was up to 74.65%. Therefore, G. mosseae can be considered as ideal inhabitants of technical installations to facilitate phytoremediation. Furthermore, a total of 10.4 Gb was used for de novo transcriptome assembly, resulting in a comprehensive data set for the identification of genes corresponding to atrazine stress in the AM association. After comparative analysis with edgeR, a total of 2,060 differential expressed genes were identified, including 570 up-regulated genes and 1490 down-regulated genes. After excluding 'function unknown' and 'general function predictions only' genes, 172 up-regulated genes were obtained. The differentially expressed genes in AM association with and without atrazine stress were associated with molecular processes/other proteins, zinc finger protein, intracellular/extracellular enzymes, structural proteins, anti-stress/anti-disease protein, electron transport-related protein, and plant growth associated protein. Our results not only prove AMF has important ecological significance on atrazine degradation but also provide evidence for the molecular mechanisms of atrazine degradation by AMF.

  4. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto


    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

  5. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in maize as affected by inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae.

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shuzhen; Huang, Honglin; Luo, Lei; Wen, Bei


    Effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) on arsenic (As) accumulation and speciation in maize were investigated by using As spiked soil at the application levels of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1). Inorganic As was the major species in plants, and mycorrhizal inoculation generally decreased concentrations of arsenite [As(III)] in maize roots and concentrations of As(III) and arsenate [As(V)] in the shoots. Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) concentrations (detected in every plant sample) were higher in maize shoots for mycorrhizal than for nonmycorrhizal treatment, but no significant differences were observed for roots. Monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) was only detected in roots with mycorrhizal colonization. The uptake of As(V) was much lower by excised mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal roots, and the differences for the uptake of As(III) were negligible. Arsenate reductase (AR) activity was detected in maize roots, and it was reduced with mycorrhizal inoculation. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected in both maize shoots and roots, and they were suppressed by mycorrhizal inoculation. AM inoculation inhibited the uptake of As(V) and its reduction to As(III), reducing oxidation stress and thereby alleviating As toxicity to the host plant.

  6. Responses of glomus cells to hypoxia and acidosis are uncoupled, reciprocal and linked to ASIC3 expression: selectivity of chemosensory transduction

    Lu, Yongjun; Whiteis, Carol A; Sluka, Kathleen A; Chapleau, Mark W; Abboud, François M


    Carotid body glomus cells are the primary sites of chemotransduction of hypoxaemia and acidosis in peripheral arterial chemoreceptors. They exhibit pronounced morphological heterogeneity. A quantitative assessment of their functional capacity to differentiate between these two major chemical signals has remained undefined. We tested the hypothesis that there is a differential sensory transduction of hypoxia and acidosis at the level of glomus cells. We measured cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in individual glomus cells, isolated in clusters from rat carotid bodies, in response to hypoxia ( mmHg) and to acidosis at pH 6.8. More than two-thirds (68%) were sensitive to both hypoxia and acidosis, 19% were exclusively sensitive to hypoxia and 13% exclusively sensitive to acidosis. Those sensitive to both revealed significant preferential sensitivity to either hypoxia or to acidosis. This uncoupling and reciprocity was recapitulated in a mouse model by altering the expression of the acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) which we had identified earlier in glomus cells. Increased expression of ASIC3 in transgenic mice increased pH sensitivity while reducing cyanide sensitivity. Conversely, deletion of ASIC3 in the knockout mouse reduced pH sensitivity while the relative sensitivity to cyanide or to hypoxia was increased. In this work, we quantify functional differences among glomus cells and show reciprocal sensitivity to acidosis and hypoxia in most glomus cells. We speculate that this selective chemotransduction of glomus cells by either stimulus may result in the activation of different afferents that are preferentially more sensitive to either hypoxia or acidosis, and thus may evoke different and more specific autonomic adjustments to either stimulus. PMID:23165770

  7. Sex-specific responses of Populus deltoides to Glomus intraradices colonization and Cd pollution.

    Chen, Lianghua; Zhang, Danju; Yang, Wanqin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Li; Gao, Shun


    The positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) on the survival, growth and physiology of plants under various stress conditions have been widely recognized. However, whether sex-dependent susceptibility to AM colonization exists, which can induce a differential tolerance between the sexes to stress conditions, is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Glomus intraradices on Cd-stressed males and females of Populus deltoides (spiked with 10 mg Cd per kg dry substrate) in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ultrastructure, and toxin storage and translocation. Exposure to Cd promoted the colonization by G. intraradices in males, but not in females. Generally, females suffered more impairments than males in response to Cd stress, reflected by leaf symptoms, the extent of lipid peroxidation, and integrity of the cellular ultrastructure, whether they were inoculated or not. Inoculation with G. intraradices alleviated the phytotoxic effects of Cd in females by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, decreasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restricting Cd transfer to the shoots. In contrast, these beneficial effects induced by AM were not detected in mycorrhizal males compared to non-mycorrhizal males, based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and cellular ultrastructure. Inoculation with AM promoted Cd accumulation in males but not in females, and caused the sequestration of more toxic Cd in the root systems in both sexes. Therefore, our results suggest that inoculated males of P. deltoides are suitable candidates for phytostabilization in Cd-polluted soils, due to their higher accumulation ability and greater tolerance relative to inoculated females.

  8. Effect of Inoculation with Glomus versiforme on Cadmium Accumulation, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochelatins of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    Tan, Shi-Yun; Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yu-Tao; Li, Shao-Shan; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Jing, Yuan-Xiao


    The plant growth, phosphate acquisition, Cd translocation, phytochelatins (PCs) production and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (ASA) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] were investigated in Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum inoculated with Glomus versiforme BGC GD01C (Gv) in Cd-added soils (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization rates were generally high (from 77% to 94%), and hardly affected by Cd. Gv colonization significantly enhanced P acquisition, growth and total Cd uptakes in both shoots and roots of S. photeinocarpum at all Cd levels. Meanwhile, Gv symbiosis significantly increased Cd concentration in the roots, and decreased Cd concentration in the shoots at all Cd levels, which indicates that Gv could promote phytostabilization by enhancing Cd accumulation in the roots to inhibit its translocation to shoots and the "dilution effects" linked to an increase in plant dry matter yield and a reduced Cd partitioning to shoots. Moreover, the improvement of CAT, POD and APX activities in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants infers that Gv symbiosis helped S. photeinocarpum to relieve oxidative damage to biomolecules in Cd-contaminated soil. The evident decline of MDA content in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants indicates that Gv symbiosis evidently improved antioxidant activities, and the enhancement of PCs production in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants suggests that Gv-inoculated plant may be more efficient to relieve Cd phytotoxicity. Therefore, the possible mechanisms of Cd phytotoxicity alleviation by Gv can be concluded as the decline of Cd concentration in the shoots and the improvement of P acquisition, PCs production and activities of CAT, POD, APX in mycorrhizal plants.

  9. Effect of Inoculation with Glomus versiforme on Cadmium Accumulation, Antioxidant Activities and Phytochelatins of Solanum photeinocarpum.

    Shi-Yun Tan

    Full Text Available The plant growth, phosphate acquisition, Cd translocation, phytochelatins (PCs production and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione (GSH, ascorbate (ASA and malonaldehyde (MDA] were investigated in Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum photeinocarpum inoculated with Glomus versiforme BGC GD01C (Gv in Cd-added soils (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg Cd kg-1 soil. Mycorrhizal colonization rates were generally high (from 77% to 94%, and hardly affected by Cd. Gv colonization significantly enhanced P acquisition, growth and total Cd uptakes in both shoots and roots of S. photeinocarpum at all Cd levels. Meanwhile, Gv symbiosis significantly increased Cd concentration in the roots, and decreased Cd concentration in the shoots at all Cd levels, which indicates that Gv could promote phytostabilization by enhancing Cd accumulation in the roots to inhibit its translocation to shoots and the "dilution effects" linked to an increase in plant dry matter yield and a reduced Cd partitioning to shoots. Moreover, the improvement of CAT, POD and APX activities in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants infers that Gv symbiosis helped S. photeinocarpum to relieve oxidative damage to biomolecules in Cd-contaminated soil. The evident decline of MDA content in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants indicates that Gv symbiosis evidently improved antioxidant activities, and the enhancement of PCs production in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants suggests that Gv-inoculated plant may be more efficient to relieve Cd phytotoxicity. Therefore, the possible mechanisms of Cd phytotoxicity alleviation by Gv can be concluded as the decline of Cd concentration in the shoots and the improvement of P acquisition, PCs production and activities of CAT, POD, APX in mycorrhizal plants.

  10. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    A. K. Gardezi


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  11. Clonal diversity and population genetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) studied by multilocus genotyping of single spores

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren


    characterized by SSCP (single stranded conformation polymorphism) and sequencing.   All spore genotypes were unique suggesting that no recombination was taking place in the populations. There were no overall differences in the distribution of genotypes in the two fields and identical genotypes could be sampled......A nested multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) approach was used for multilocus genotyping of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal populations. This method allowed us to amplify multiple loci from Glomus single spores in a single PCR amplification. Variable introns in the two protein coding genes Gm...

  12. Efectos del losartán sobre el glomus carotídeo en ratas normotensas adultas

    Daniel R. Grana


    Full Text Available Recientemente comunicamos lesiones graves en el glomus carotídeo y los ganglios autonómicos de ratas SHR y sugerimos que este efecto se debía más al aumento de la presión arterial que al envejecimiento. Posteriormente demostramos, en SHR, que el ramipril, en comparación con el atenolol, ejerce un efecto protector sobre estas estructuras más allá de la reducción de la presión arterial. Teniendo en cuenta que no existen trabajos que describan los cambios que origina el bloqueo AT1 sobre la morfología del glomus en ratas normotensas, se realizó el presente estudio con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del losartán sobre esta estructura de ratas Wistar macho tratadas durante 8 meses. Se emplearon 14 ratas de 4 semanas de edad, divididas en grupos control y losartán (10 mg/ kg/día en el agua de bebida. La presión sistólica (PAS se registró al inicio y luego mensualmente. A la edad de 9 meses se sacrificaron las ratas y se extrajeron los glomus carotídeos, se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson y se procesaron para histomorfometría con un analizador de imágenes. El grupo control registró una PAS de 115 ± 8,1, mientras que en el grupo losartán fue de 105 ± 8,3 mm Hg (p = 0,0375. Histomorfométricamente, el grupo tratado mostró un área mayor del glomus con respecto al control (497.931 ± 48.783 versus 59.668 ± 6.196 µm2; p < 0,0001 y una relación pared/luz en las arteriolas glómicas de 0,7 ± 0,1 versus 2,7 ± 0,6, respectivamente (p < 0,0001. El grupo control mostró disminución del área glómica y un aumento de la relación pared/luz, lo cual sugiere que la atrofia de las estructuras estudiadas a través del aumento de la edad se vincula con el aporte nutricio arterial.

  13. Rutaceae sampled from Germany, Malta, and Mallorca (Spain) are associated with AMF clustering with Glomus hoi Berch & Trappe.

    Appelhans, M; Weber, H Chr; Imhof, S


    Six Rutaceae species collected from natural habitats (Malta, Mallorca (Spain), and Tenerife (Spain)) and the Botanical Garden in Marburg were examined with respect to mycorrhizal structures and fungal identity. All species have the same gross colonization pattern of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with distinct intracellular and intercellular phases but show remarkable differences in details, especially in terms of the extent of the intracellular phase. The associated AM fungi, identified using molecular methods, cluster together with Glomus hoi Berch & Trappe, although the plants were collected from very distant locations.

  14. Effect of Bacillus velezensis and Glomus intraradices on Fruit Quality and Growth Parameters in Strawberry Soilless Growing System

    Palencia, Pedro; Martínez, Fátima; Pestana, Maribela; A. Oliveira, Jóse; Correia, Pedro J


    イチゴ栽培品種‘Splendor’と‘Primoris’を用いた養液栽培条件下で,実験開始時の Bacillus velezensis 接種の有無およびアーバスキュラー菌根菌 Glomus intraradices の接種時期による効果を検証した.1 栽培バッグに 10 株植えを 1 反復とし,B....

  15. MR Histoanatomical Distribution of 290 Soft-tissue Tumors

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Gee Won; Kim, Jeung Il; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Won Taek [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was designed too identify the MR histoanatomical distribution of soft-tissue tumors. A total of 290 soft-tissue tumors of 281 patients were analyzed by the use of MR imaging and were pathologically confirmed after surgical resection or a biopsy. There were 120 malignant soft-tissue tumors including tumors of an intermediate malignancy and 170 benign tumors. The histoanatomical locations were divided into three types: 'type I' with superficial layer tumors that involved the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, 'type II' with deep layer tumors that involved the muscle or tendon and 'type III' with soft tissue tumors that involved both the superficial and deep layers. Soft-tissue tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, glomus tumor, angiolipoma, leiomyosarcoma and lymphoma as 'type I' tumors. 'Type II' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included liposarcoma, fibromatosis, papillary endothelial hyperplasia and rhabdomyosarcoma. 'Type III' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 50% included neurofibromatosis. The MR histoanatomical distributions of soft tissue tumors are useful in the differential pathological diagnosis when a soft-tissue tumor has a nonspecific MR appearance.

  16. Glomus halonatum Rose & Trappe (Glomeromycota in South America: comments on the morphological characteristics of the species Glomus halonatum Rose & Trappe (Glomeromycota na América do Sul: comentários sobre a morfologia das espécies

    Bruno Tomio Goto


    Full Text Available Ornamented glomerospores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus were collected from an area of Atlantic Forest in Goiana (Pernambuco, Brazil. The area had been cultivated with Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner [=Coffea robusta (L. Linden] and Bixa orellana L., then left fallow and today is covered by herbaceous raider species. After taxonomic analysis using current descriptive and terminological criteria, the species was identified as Glomus halonatum. A description, illustrations and comments about the species are presented.Glomerosporos ornamentados de um fungo micorrízico arbuscular foram coletados em uma área de Floresta Atlântica em Goiana (Pernambuco, Brasil. A área tinha sido cultivada com Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner [=Coffea robusta (L. Linden] e Bixa orellana L., abandonada, e hoje está coberta por espécies herbáceas invasoras. Após análise taxonômica usando critérios descritivos e terminológicos atuais, a espécie foi identificada como Glomus halonatum. São apresentados descrição, ilustrações e comentários sobre a espécie.

  17. Evaluation of some fungicides on mycorrhizal symbiosis between two Glomus species from commercial inocula and Allium porrum L. seedlings

    Hernandez-Dorrego, A.; Mestre Pares, J.


    This paper reports the effect of twenty-five commonly used fungicides in agriculture on two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in commercial products of ATENS, S.L.: Glomus intra radices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe], forming the symbiosis with leek plants. Systemic fungicides (Aliette, Beltanol, Caddy 10, Forum, Moncut, Ortiva, Previcur, Ridomil Gold MZ, Ridomil Gold SL, Rubigan, Sinthane, Stroby, Swich, Tachigarem, Teldor, Topas 10 EC, Frupica) and non systemic fungicides (Daconil 75%, Ditiver, Euparem, INACOP, Octagon, Parmex, Terrazole and Metaram), started to be applied to soil and leaves at recommended concentrations and frequencies 4 weeks after transplant and AMF inoculation. The effect of the fungicides was assessed by comparing treated and untreated plants that were inoculated with the AMF through quantification of root mycorrhizal colonization. Among the fungicides applied to the soil, Octagon, Ditiver, Parmex and Metaram virtually eliminated the mycorrhizal symbiosis in treated plants, while the mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by the soil treatment with Beltanol, INACOP and Previcur. Three fungicides of foliar recommended application: Rubigan, Frupica, and Sinthane, strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, but Aliette, Forum, Teldor, Swich and Ortiva, did not seem to reduce it substantially. In addition, the work describes the individual effect of each fungicide applied on both, foliage and soil. (Author) 29 refs.

  18. Mycorrhizal association in gametophytes and sporophytes of the fern Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae with Glomus intraradices

    Alicia E Martinez


    Full Text Available Ferns, which are usually colonizing different environments and their roots frequently present mycorrhization, have two adult stages in their life cycle, the sporophytic and the gametophytic phase. This paper describes the experimental mycorrhizal association between Pteris vittata leptosporangiate fern and a strain of Glomus intraradices during the life cycle of the fern, from spore germination to the development of a mature sporophyte. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization pattern of in vitro cultures of G. intraradices along the fern life cycle with those found in nature. For this, mature spores were obtained from fertile P. vittata fronds growing in walls of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Roots were stained and observed under the light microscope for arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Approximately, 75 fern spores were cultured in each pot filled with a sterile substrate and G. intraradices (BAFC N° 51.331 as inoculum on the surface. After germination took place, samples were taken every 15 days until the fern cycle was completed. In order to determine colonization dynamics each sample was observed under optical and confocal microscope after staining. Gametophyte was classified as Adiantum type. Male and female gametangia were limited to the lower face, mycorrhizal colonization started when they were differentiated and took place through the rhizoids. Spores and vesicles were not found in this cycle stage. Paris-type mycorrhizal colonization was established in the midrib and in the embrionary foot. It was colonized by external mycelium. When the first root was developed soil inoculum colonized de novo this structure and Arum-type colonization was observed. This study proves that the type of colonization is determined by the structure of the host, not by the fungus. Both the gametophyte and embryo foot have determined growth and Paris-type colonization, while, sporophyte roots have undetermined growth and Arum

  19. [Subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Stupnik, Silvio; Rafaelli, Claudio; González, Graciela Osorio; Pestalardo, María Luján; Quesada, Matías; Viúdez, Pedro


    The subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are related to mesenchymal tumors and 80% of them are GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors). However, there are also other tumors, such as: leiomyomas, schwannomas, lipomas, glomus tumors, carcinoid tumors, aberrant pancreas and polyps or inflammatory tumors. Diagnosis of submucosal tumors is often performed during routine endoscopic examination, they are frequently located at the stomach and in most cases are clinically evidenced by their complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the elected method for their staging; but other imaging diagnosis methods include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography scan (PET). The differential diagnosis is made by inmunohistochemical techniques, revealing in the GIST the expression of the antigen CD117, and prognostic factors are determined by size and mitotic index. Surgery is the recommended therapeutic, although in small lesions not exceeding 2 cm it has also been suggested the endoscopic resection guided by EUS and a watchful behaviour based on periodical controls in lesions with benignity criteria. The series here exhibited (2 GIST 1 lyposarcoma, 1 schwannoma and 1 inflammatory fibroid polyp) shows that all these tumors were symptomatic; have been diagnosed using endoscopy and recognized by means of histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis after surgery.

  20. Phosphate Transporter Genes as Reliable Gene Markers for the Identification and Discrimination of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Genus Glomus ▿ §

    Sokolski, Serge; Dalpé, Yolande; Piché, Yves


    An inorganic phosphate transporter gene sequence (852-bp section) allowed discrimination between 10 Glomus fungal species represented by 25 strains. It was particularly valuable in differentiating between morphologically similar species with nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences higher than 3%. This gene is proposed as a reliable barcode for the Glomeromycetes. PMID:21193669

  1. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Daniela Novoa M


    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  2. Effect of Glomus versiforme on Mineral Nutritional Contents in Leaves of Citrus under Water Stress Conditions%水分胁迫下Glomus versiforme对柑橘叶片矿质营养元素含量的影响

    吴强盛; 邹英宁


    在盆栽温室条件下研究Clomus versiforme(Karsten)Berch接种对正常水分和水分胁迫下红橘(Citrus tangerine Hort.ex Tanaka)实生苗叶片大量元素和微量元素含量的影响.结果表明:无论在正常水分还是水分胁迫下,菌种处理均显著提高叶片P、K、Fe的含量,对叶片Cu、Ca、Mn含量没有显著影响.Glomus versiforme的感染仅显著提高正常水分下叶片N和zn含量以及水分胁迫下叶片Mg含量.P、K和Fe含量的升高将有利于增强菌根化植株的抗旱性.

  3. Revealing natural relationships among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: culture line BEG47 represents Diversispora epigaea, not Glomus versiforme.

    Arthur Schüssler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms underlying biological phenomena, such as evolutionarily conservative trait inheritance, is predicated on knowledge of the natural relationships among organisms. However, despite their enormous ecological significance, many of the ubiquitous soil inhabiting and plant symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, phylum Glomeromycota are incorrectly classified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we focused on a frequently used model AMF registered as culture BEG47. This fungus is a descendent of the ex-type culture-lineage of Glomus epigaeum, which in 1983 was synonymised with Glomus versiforme. It has since then been used as 'G. versiforme BEG47'. We show by morphological comparisons, based on type material, collected 1860-61, of G. versiforme and on type material and living ex-type cultures of G. epigaeum, that these two AMF species cannot be conspecific, and by molecular phylogenetics that BEG47 is a member of the genus Diversispora. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that experimental works published during the last >25 years on an AMF named 'G. versiforme' or 'BEG47' refer to D. epigaea, a species that is actually evolutionarily separated by hundreds of millions of years from all members of the genera in the Glomerales and thus from most other commonly used AMF 'laboratory strains'. Detailed redescriptions substantiate the renaming of G. epigaeum (BEG47 as D. epigaea, positioning it systematically in the order Diversisporales, thus enabling an evolutionary understanding of genetical, physiological, and ecological traits, relative to those of other AMF. Diversispora epigaea is widely cultured as a laboratory strain of AMF, whereas G. versiforme appears not to have been cultured nor found in the field since its original description.

  4. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels mediate the augmented calcium influx in carotid body glomus cells by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Ahmmed, Gias U; Peng, Ying-Jie; Khan, Shakil A; Nanduri, Jayasri; Kumar, Ganesh K; Fox, Aaron P; Prabhakar, Nanduri R


    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of sleep apnea. A heightened carotid body activity and the resulting chemosensory reflex mediate increased sympathetic nerve activity by CIH. However, the mechanisms underlying heightened carotid body activity by CIH are not known. An elevation of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in glomus cells, the primary oxygen-sensing cells, is an essential step for carotid body activation by hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of CIH on the glomus cell [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia and assessed the underlying mechanisms. Glomus cells were harvested from adult rats or wild-type mice treated with 10 days of either room air (control) or CIH (alternating cycles of 15 s of hypoxia and 5 min of room air; 9 episodes/h; 8 h/day). CIH-treated glomus cells exhibited an enhanced [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia, and this effect was absent in the presence of 2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-[5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)oxo]-pyridin-2-yl]ethyl)acetamide (TTA-A2), a specific inhibitor of T-type Ca(2+) channels, and in voltage-gated calcium channel, type 3.2 (CaV3.2), null glomus cells. CaV3.2 knockout mice exhibited an absence of CIH-induced hypersensitivity of the carotid body. CIH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in glomus cells. A ROS scavenger prevented the exaggerated TTA-A2-sensitive [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia. CIH had no effect on CaV3.2 mRNA levels. CIH augmented Ca(2+) currents and increased CaV3.2 protein in plasma membrane fractions of human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing CaV3.2, and either a ROS scavenger or brefeldin-A, an inhibitor of protein trafficking, prevented these effects. These findings suggest that CIH leads to an augmented Ca(2+) influx via ROS-dependent facilitation of CaV3.2 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  5. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Kishore Kumar


    Full Text Available Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor.

  6. Effects of Glomus intraradices on Growth and Cd Enrichment of Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)%Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集镉的影响



    采用盆栽方法模拟不同镉污染状况,研究接种丛枝菌根真菌(AM)Glomus intraradices对黑麦草生长和富集、运转镉的影响.结果表明,土壤镉水平增加明显提高了黑麦草菌根侵染率,而显著降低了黑麦草的生长量,但对磷浓度无显著影响,表明Glomus intraradices对镉胁迫具有一定的耐性,并对黑麦草的磷营养和生长未表现出促进作用.Glomus intraradices的存在明显促进了黑麦草对镉的富集,菌根形成强化镉在根系的固持作用,减少镉向地上部运转,进而降低黑麦草地上部的镉浓度,减轻了镉对地上部的毒害,表现在根富集系数均大于1,运转系数远远小于1.这一结果对镉污染农田修复以及草坪草和牧草品质的改善都有重要意义.%To investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) on the bioremediation of Cd contaminated soils, pot experiments were conducted to adopt simulating contaminations on sandyloam soil. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal(Clomus in-traradices) on plant growth and Cd enrichment and translocation were determined at three Cd application levels (0,15,45 mg/kg). Cd in soil significantly increased the infection rate of ryegrass by G. Intraradices while decreased dry weight of rye-grass. P concentration of ryegrass plant was not significantly affected by inoculation of AM fungi. These results implied that G. Intraradices had some endurance to Cd contamination in soil, while no promotion on P uptake and the growth of ryegrass. Cd enrichment in ryegrass was stimulated by inoculation with G. Intraradices. AM fungi strengthened the bio-fixing of Cd in root and reduced Cd translocation from root to shoot, thus decreased Cd concentration in shoot, which were explained by the fact that the enrichment coefficient of Cd in root was above 1 while the translocation coefficient was below 1. AM fungus could adjust the distribution proportion of Cd in host plant and protect host plants against heavy metal

  7. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.


    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Effect of Seed Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescence and Glomus esculentum on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield ofTwo Forage Corn Cultivars

    M. Pourebrahimi


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescence strain 93 bacteria and Glomus esculentum fungus on quantitative and qualitative yield of two forage corn cultivars, an RCBD based factorial field experiment with three replications was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of the University of Guilan in 2008. Treatments were considered as phosphorus chemical fertilizer, seed inoculation with Glomus esculentum mycorrhiza fungus, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescence strain 93 bacteria, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescence strain 93 bacteria and Glomus esculentum mycorrhiza fungus, and two corn cultivars (SC704 and SC647. No application of chemical fertilizer and microorganisms was considered as control. Results of ANOVA showed that plant height and leaf area, plant SPAD value, and plant biological yield were affected by cultivar × fertilizer interaction, significantly. The highest plant height (249.30 cm, SPAD value (52.30, and biological yield (251.51 g/plant were related to cultivar SC704 which treated with chemical phosphorous fertilizer or inoculated with bacteria-fungus combination. The maximum plant leaf area was achieved in chemical phosphorous fertilizer followed by application of both bacteria and fungus treatments. Inoculation with both bacteria and fungus also resulted to highest dry matter digestibility (77.37 % and crude protein (12.61 %. However, the highest (54.41 % and lowest (34.38 % crude fiber was related to control and bacteria-fungus combination treatments, respectively. Among two cultivars used in the experiment, SC704 was superior according to examine crop traits. Therefore, it could be expected that inoculating the seeds of SC704 corn cultivar with Pseudomonas fluorescence- Glomus esculentum combination resulted to reduce the use of phosphorus fertilizers and increase in the quality and quantity of forage corn.

  9. Bone tumor

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  10. Ultrastructures of Colletotrichum orbiculare in the Leaves of Cucumber Plants Expressing Induced Systemic Resistance Mediated by Glomus intraradices BEG110.

    Jeun, Yong Chull; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Ki Woo; Kim, Su Jung; Lee, Sang Woo


    The colonization of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices BEG110 in the soil caused a decrease in disease severity in cucumber plants after fungal inoculation with Colletotrichum orbiculare. In order to illustrate the resistance mechanism mediated by G. intraradices BEG110, infection patterns caused by C. orbiculare in the leaves of cucumber plants and the host cellular responses were characterized. These properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy on the leaves of cucumber plants grown in soil colonized with G. intraradices BEG110. In the untreated plants, inter- and intra-cellular fungal hyphae were observed throughout the leaf tissues during both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The cytoplasm of fungal hyphae appeared intact during the biotrophic phase, suggesting no defense response against the fungus. However, several typical resistance responses were observed in the plants when treated with G. intraradices BEG110 including the formation of sheaths around the intracellular hyphae or a thickening of host cell walls. These observations suggest that the resistance mediated by G. intraradices BEG110 most often occurs in the symplast of the host cells rather than in the apoplast. In addition, this resistance is similar to those mediated by biotic inducers such as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  11. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Shamshiri M.H.


    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  12. Influence of ozone and HCl gas on citrus and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatus

    McCool, P.M.; Menge, J.A.; Taylor, O.C.


    One half of Troyer citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x Citrus sinensis) seedlings were grown from seed and inoculated during transplanting with Glomus fasciculatus. Inoculum consisted of soil and roots from sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare) containing hyphae, vesicles, arbuscles, and chlamydospores of G. fasciculatus. At 5, 12, and 16 weeks after inoculation, both inoculated and noninoculated seedlings were exposed to 110-140 mg/m/sup 3/ (73-92 ppm) HCl gas for 20 minutes or to 2 mg/m/sup 3/ (1 ppm) ozone for 4 hours. HCl produced moderate marginal leaf necrosis while ozone produced no visible symptoms. Control and HCl-exposed mycorrhizal seedlings were 28% and 36% taller, respectively, than corresponding nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Exposure to HCl reduced mycorrhizal seedling height by 24% compared to mycorrhizal controls. Ozone exposed mycorrhizal citrus were not significantly taller than non-mycorrhizal citrus but were 37% shorter than mycorrhizal controls. Total biomass of control and HCl-exposed mycorrhizal seedlings were greater than their nonmycorrhizal counterparts but the biomass was not significantly different between ozone-exposed seedlings. Spore production by G. fasciculatus was reduced 50% in ozone-exposed seedlings while spore populations of HCl-exposed seedlings were not statistically different from the controls.

  13. Glomus intraradices Attenuates the Negative Effect of Low Pi Supply on Photosynthesis and Growth of Papaya Maradol Plants

    Nava-Gutiérrez Yolanda


    Full Text Available Low inorganic phosphorus (Pi supply limits the photosynthetic process and hence plants growth and development. Contradictory reports exist in the literature on whether mycorrhyzal association can attenuate the negative effects of low Pi supply on photosynthesis and growth. In the present paper, the effect that low Pi supply may have on photosynthesis and growth of papaya Maradol plants was evaluated in intact plants and in those inoculated with two different strains of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices. Plant growth was significantly reduced as the Pi supply decreased. However, inoculation with any strain of G. intraradices was able to attenuate such effect. Without Pi in the nutrient solution, the mycorrhizal plants had on average 6.1 times and 7.5 higher photosynthesis than non mycorrhizal plants. The chlorophyll fluorescence values were significantly higher in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. These results could be associated to an increased ability of mycorhyzal plants to take up Pi from the substrate, as they had higher Pi content than non-mycorrhizal plants. A high correlation was found between internal Pi content and plant biomass. The lower correlation between Pi content and photosynthesis, suggests that some photosynthates could had been used to maintain the symbiosis.

  14. Use of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices as biological control agent of the nematode Nacobbus aberrans parasitizing tomato

    Nicolás Marro


    Full Text Available The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite that induces gall formation in the roots and causes severe losses to diverse crops. Some populations of this nematode show preference for certain hosts, revealing the existence of "races/groups" with different behaviour and making nematode management difficult. A possible biological control alternative to reduce the damage caused by this species may be the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. In the present work, the effect of Glomus intraradices on tomato plants inoculated with the nematode at transplanting and three weeks later was tested. At 60 days, the following parameters were estimated: percentage of AMF colonization, root and aerial dry weight, number of galls and egg masses, and reproduction factor (RF=final population/initial population of N. aberrans. AMF colonization was higher in the presence of the nematode. The use of AMF favoured tomato biomass and reduced the number of galls and RF on the plants inoculated with the nematode at transplanting.

  15. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung


    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (−62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks. PMID:24728157

  16. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus irregulare, controls the mycotoxin production of Fusarium sambucinum in the pathogenesis of potato.

    Ismail, Youssef; McCormick, Susan; Hijri, Mohamed


    Trichothecenes are an important family of mycotoxins produced by several species of the genus Fusarium. These fungi cause serious disease on infected plants and postharvest storage of crops, and the toxins can cause health problems for humans and animals. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens, and most rely on chemicals, creating therefore subsequent problems of chemical resistance. We tested the impact of the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus irregulare on a trichothecene-producing strain of Fusarium sambucinum isolated from naturally infected potato plants. Using dual in vitro cultures, we showed that G. irregulare inhibited the growth of F. sambucinum and significantly reduced the production of the trichothecene 4, 15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). Furthermore, using G. irregulare-colonized potato plants infected with F. sambucinum, we found that the G. irregulare treatment inhibited the production of DAS in roots and tubers. Thus, in addition to the known beneficial effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant growth, we found that G. irregulare controlled the growth of a virulent fungal pathogen and reduced production of a mycotoxin. This previously undescribed, biological control of Fusarium mycotoxin production by G. irregulare has potential implications for improved potato crop production and food safety.

  17. Effects of Exogenous Putrescine on Mycorrhiza, Root System Architecture, and Physiological Traits of Glomus mosseae-Colonized Trifoliate Orange Seedlings

    Qiang-Sheng WU


    Full Text Available Putresince (Put as one of the important polyamines (PAs has been identified to regulate mycorrhizal development of citrus plants. The present study was to screen an efficient concentration of Put application at the range of 0.05-1 mM on the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata seedlings colonized by Glomus mosseae, in terms of growth, root system architecture, and chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents. Compared to the non-Put treatment, all the Put treatments, especially 0.05 mM Put, significantly increased mycorrhizal colonization of tap root in addition to first, second, and third order lateral roots. The mycorrhizal seedlings treated by 0.05, 0.1, and 1 mM Put showed greater growth (stem diameter, height, leaf number, and fresh mass and root morphological properties ( tap root length, projected and surface areas, and volume and higher numbers of first, second, and third order lateral roots. Bio-molecules like chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents of the seedlings were significantly increased by the Put treatments at 0.05-1 mM. All exogenous Put application at the range of 0.05-1 mM significantly decreased sucrose contents but increased glucose contents of leaves and roots. This study suggests that exogenous Put can significantly improve growth performance and root system architecture, besides changes in physiological traits of AMF seedlings. The 0.05 mM concentration of Put showed the best effects.

  18. Biochar and Glomus caledonium Influence Cd Accumulation of Upland Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Intercropped with Alfred Stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Lam, Cheung Lung; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung


    Both biochar application and mycorrhizal inoculation have been proposed to improve plant growth and alter bioaccumulation of toxic metals. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to investigate growth and Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) in a Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with Glomus caledonium and/or applied with biochar. Compared with the monocultural control, intercropping with stonecrop (IS) decreased kangkong Cd acquisition via rhizosphere competition, and also decreased kangkong yield. Gc inoculation (+M) accelerated growth and Cd acquisition of stonecrop, and hence resulted in further decreases in kangkong Cd acquisition. Regardless of IS and +M, biochar addition (+B) increased kangkong yield via elevating soil available P, and decreased soil Cd phytoavailability and kangkong Cd concentration via increasing soil pH. Compared with the control, the treatment of IS + M + B had a substantially higher kangkong yield (+25.5%) with a lower Cd concentration (-62.7%). Gc generated additive effects on soil alkalinization and Cd stabilization to biochar, causing lower DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations and post-harvest transfer risks.

  19. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae gives contradictory effects on phosphorus and arsenic acquisition by Medicago sativa Linn

    Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Xiao Xueyi [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail:; Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Miao Xie, Z. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Smith, Sally E. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)


    Mycorrhizal fungi may play an important role in protecting plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, little is known about the direct and indirect involvement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in detoxification mechanisms. A compartmented pot cultivation system ('cross-pots') is used here to investigate the roles of AMF Glomus mosseae in plant phosphorus (P) and As acquisition by Medicago sativa, and P-As interactions. The results indicate that fungal colonization dramatically increased plant dry weight by a factor of around 6, and also substantially increased both plant P and As contents (i.e. total uptake). Irrespective of P and As addition levels, AM plants had shoot and root P concentrations 2 fold higher, but As concentrations significantly lower, than corresponding uninoculated controls. The decreased shoot As concentrations were largely due to 'dilution effects' that resulted from stimulated growth of AM plants and reduced As partitioning to shoots. The study provides further evidence for the protective effects of AMF on host plants against As contamination, and have uncovered key aspects of underlying mechanisms. The possible application of AMF in remediation practices is discussed.

  20. The effects of triclosan on spore germination and hyphal growth of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.

    Twanabasu, Bishnu R; Stevens, Kevin J; Venables, Barney J


    The effect of triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol; TCS), on spore germination, hyphal growth, and hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices spores was evaluated at exposure concentrations of 0.4 and 4.0 μg/L in a static renewal exposure system. To determine if potential effects were mycotoxic or a consequence of impaired signaling between a host plant and the fungal symbiont, spores were incubated with and without the addition of a root exudate. Exposed spores were harvested at days 7, 14, and 21. AM spore germination, hyphal growth, and hyphal branching were significantly lower in both TCS concentrations compared to controls in non-root exudate treatments suggesting direct mycotoxic effects of TCS on AM development. Greater hyphal growth and hyphal branching in controls and 0.4μg/L TCS treatments with root exudate compared to non-root exudate treatments demonstrated growth stimulation by signaling chemicals present in the root exudate. This stimulatory effect was absent in the 4.0 μg/L TCS treatments indicating a direct effect on plant signaling compounds or plant signal response.

  1. Effect of fly ash on VAM formation and growth response of pulse crops infested with Glomus aggregatum in sterile soil

    Reddy, C.N.; Garampalli, H.R. [Gulbarga University, Gulbarga (India). Dept. of P.G. Studies and Research in Botany


    The effect of flyash amendment at 3 concentrations (10%, 20% and 30%) on the infectivity and efficacy of Glomus aggregatum was studied by conducting a pot culture experiment with sterile low fertile soil using pigeon pea (Cajanus cagan (L.) Millsp.) Cv. Maruti and Chick pea (Cicer ariteinum L.) Cv. Annigeri, the two pulse crop cultivars of this region. It is evident from the present investigation that the percent vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza, VAM colonization in both the crops significantly decreased with the increase of flyash content in the soil. The formation of VAM fungal structures (vesicles and arbuscules) inside the host root was also found completely suppressed at higher concentrations of flyash. The effectiveness of G. aggregatum under the influence of flyash was found significantly affected as compared to control, when judged by the growth response of pigeon pea. However in chickpea VAM association could slightly increase the growth over its control. Flyash amendment alone also has shown positive influence on the growth of both the crops over their controls (without VAM association). This influence of flyash amendment together with the usefulness of VAM fungi, as bioremediation agents can be exploited suitably in reclamation of waste lands and soils overburdened with flyash. 40 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N


    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0 × 2.0 to 5.0 × 5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field.

  3. Symbiosis-related pea genes modulate fungal and plant gene expression during the arbuscule stage of mycorrhiza with Glomus intraradices.

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Seddas-Dozolme, Pascale M A; Arnould, Christine; Tollot, Marie; van Tuinen, Diederik; Borisov, Alexey; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne


    The arbuscular mycorrhiza association results from a successful interaction between genomes of the plant and fungal symbiotic partners. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inactivation of late-stage symbiosis-related pea genes on symbiosis-associated fungal and plant molecular responses in order to gain insight into their role in the functional mycorrhizal association. The expression of a subset of ten fungal and eight plant genes, previously reported to be activated during mycorrhiza development, was compared in Glomus intraradices-inoculated wild-type and isogenic genotypes of pea mutated for the PsSym36, PsSym33, and PsSym40 genes where arbuscule formation is inhibited or fungal turnover modulated, respectively. Microdissection was used to corroborate arbuscule-related fungal gene expression. Molecular responses varied between pea genotypes and with fungal development. Most of the fungal genes were downregulated when arbuscule formation was defective, and several were upregulated with more rapid fungal development. Some of the plant genes were also affected by inactivation of the PsSym36, PsSym33, and PsSym40 loci, but in a more time-dependent way during root colonization by G. intraradices. Results indicate a role of the late-stage symbiosis-related pea genes not only in mycorrhiza development but also in the symbiotic functioning of arbuscule-containing cells.

  4. An STE12 gene identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices restores infectivity of a hemibiotrophic plant pathogen.

    Tollot, Marie; Wong Sak Hoi, Joanne; van Tuinen, Diederik; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Dumas, Bernard; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Seddas, Pascale M A


    Mechanisms of root penetration by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are unknown and investigations are hampered by the lack of transformation systems for these unculturable obligate biotrophs. Early steps of host infection by hemibiotrophic fungal phytopathogens, sharing common features with those of AM fungal colonization, depend on the transcription factor STE12. Using degenerated primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full-length cDNA of an STE12-like gene, GintSTE, from Glomus intraradices and profiled GintSTE expression by real-time and in situ RT-PCR. GintSTE activity and function were investigated by heterologous complementation of a yeast ste12Delta mutant and a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum clste12Delta mutant. * Sequence data indicate that GintSTE is similar to STE12 from hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, especially Colletotrichum spp. Introduction of GintSTE into a noninvasive mutant of C. lindemuthianum restored fungal infectivity of plant tissues. GintSTE expression was specifically localized in extraradicular fungal structures and was up-regulated when G. intraradices penetrated roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula as compared with an incompatible mutant. Results suggest a possible role for GintSTE in early steps of root penetration by AM fungi, and that pathogenic and symbiotic fungi may share common regulatory mechanisms for invasion of plant tissues.

  5. Multitrophic interactions among Western Corn Rootworm, Glomus intraradices and microbial communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize plants

    Flavia eDematheis


    Full Text Available The complex interactions among the maize pest Western Corn Rootworm (WCR, Glomus intraradices (GI - recently renamed Rhizophagus intraradices and the microbial communities in both rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize have been investigated in view of new pest control strategies. In a greenhouse experiment, different maize treatments were established: C (control plants, W (plants inoculated with WCR, G (plants inoculated with GI, GW (plants inoculated with GI and WCR. After 20 days of WCR root feeding, larval fitness was measured. Dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs in soil and maize endorhiza were analysed by cloning of 18S rRNA gene fragments of AMFs, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ITS and 16S rRNA gene fragments, PCR amplified from total community DNA, respectively. GI reduced significantly WCR larval development and affected the naturally occurring endophytic AMFs and bacteria. WCR root feeding influenced the endophytic bacteria as well.GI can be used in integrated pest management programs, rendering WCR larvae more susceptible to predation by natural enemies. The mechanisms behind the interaction between GI and WCR remain unknown. However, our data suggested that GI might act indirectly via plant-mediated mechanisms influencing the endophytic microbial communities.

  6. Multitrophic interactions among Western Corn Rootworm, Glomus intraradices and microbial communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize.

    Dematheis, Flavia; Kurtz, Benedikt; Vidal, Stefan; Smalla, Kornelia


    The complex interactions among the maize pest Western Corn Rootworm (WCR), Glomus intraradices (GI-recently renamed Rhizophagus intraradices) and the microbial communities in both rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize have been investigated in view of new pest control strategies. In a greenhouse experiment, different maize treatments were established: C (control plants), W (plants inoculated with WCR), G (plants inoculated with GI), GW (plants inoculated with GI and WCR). After 20 days of WCR root feeding, larval fitness was measured. Dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and maize endorhiza were analyzed by cloning of 18S rRNA gene fragments of AMF, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from total community DNA, respectively. GI reduced significantly WCR larval development and affected the naturally occurring endorhiza AMF and bacteria. WCR root feeding influenced the endorhiza bacteria as well. GI can be used in integrated pest management programs, rendering WCR larvae more susceptible to predation by natural enemies. The mechanisms behind the interaction between GI and WCR remain unknown. However, our data suggested that GI might act indirectly via plant-mediated mechanisms influencing the endorhiza microbial communities.

  7. Effect of Glomus versiforme inoculation on reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine leaves exposed to water stress

    WU Qiangsheng; ZOU Yingning; XIA Renxue


    In a potted greenhouse experiment,Citrus tangerine Hort.ex Tanaka was inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus,Glomus versiforme (Karsten)Berch,or non-AM fungus as control.Arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-AM seedlings were grown tmder well-watered or water-stressed conditions after 97 days of acclimation.The reactive oxygen metabolism of C.tangerine leaves was studied in order to elucidate whether AM symbiosis affects enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.The results showed that water stress caused a decrement of 33% for the colonization of G.versiforme on C.tangerine roots.Under well-watered and water-stressed conditions,G.versiforme inoculation increased the leaf phosphorus (P) content by 45% and 27%,and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents by 25% and 21%,and 16% and 16%,respectively,compared with the control.Inoculation with G.versiforme enhanced the activities of leaf superoxide dismutase,peroxidase,catalase and ascorbate peroxidase,and increased the contents of leaf soluble protein,ascorbate and total ascorbate notably,regardless of soil moisture conditions.Under water-stressed conditions,G.versiforme inoculation decreased the leaf superoxide anion radical (O2-) content by 31%.It is concluded that drought resistance of C.tangerine leaves is enhanced due to the improvement of reactive oxygen metabolism after G.versiforme inoculation.

  8. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor of the kidney: a clinicopathological analysis of five cases

    任国平; 余心如; 黎永祥; 史时芳; 王丽君; 叶惠惠


    Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a kind of rare renal neoplasm that was first described by Robertson in 1967.1 This tumor typically is found in young adults, and patients usually have hypertension, hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemia secondary to tumor renin secretion .1-8 To our knowledge, only about 70 cases have been reported including no more than 8 cases in China. Because of its rarity, the clinicopathological features of the tumor have not been clearly established. In this article, 5 cases of JGCT were reported, in order to give a better understanding of its morphological and immunohistochemical profiles. In addition, the immunophenotypical findings of JGCT were compared with 5 cutaneous glomus tumors and 5 hemangiopericytomas, which shared morphological features with JGCT.


    宋勇春; 李晓林; 冯固


    In order to study the role of VAMF(Vesicule Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus) hyphae in absorbing phosphorus from organic phosphorus sources, a experiment was carried out in pots under controlled condition. There were three compartments in the test pots,and the root compartment was separated from the hyphal compartment by a nylon net with 30 μm mesh. In the mycorrhizal control, the root compartment was separated from the hyphal compartment by 0.45 μm membrane. Red clover was grown in the root compartments inoculated or uninoculated with VAM fungus Glomus versiforme. Different organic phosphorus sources were added uniformly in the hyphal compartments except the control treatments, and no phosphorus was applied. The results showed that mycorrizal infection significantly increased phosphorus uptake of red clover from different phosphorus sources and greatly promoted the growth of plants. Inorganic phosphorus(KH2PO4) had much better effect on growth and P uptake of plants than organic phosphorus, but no significant differences were found from all inoculated treatments. The results clearly demonstrated the efficiency of VAM hyphal in utilization of organic phosphorus by red clover. Plants inoculated with Glomus versiforme were effective in hydrolysis of organic phosphorus and confirmed the important direct contribution of VAM hyphae to plant P nutrition. Tab 3, Ref 10%以红三叶草为材料,利用三室隔网培养方法,研究接种菌根真菌Glmous versiforme对土壤有机磷及外加有机磷化合物植酸钠(Na-Phytate)、核糖核酸(RNA)和卵磷脂(Lecithin)的利用效率.植株生长7 wk后收获测定植株干物重、含磷量和根系菌根侵染率.结果表明:接种菌根真菌能明显增加植株干物重、含磷量和吸磷总量.与各有机磷处理相比,无机磷(KH2PO4)处理生长效应最好.施用有机磷化合物各处理与CK相比均明显促进了植株生长,但不同有机磷处理之间没有显著差异.在植株吸磷

  10. Protective effects of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum on soil and Viburnum tinus plants irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions.

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Vicente-Sánchez, Javier; Martín, Félix Fernández; Bañón, Sebastián; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús


    Currently, irrigation using recycled water is increasing, especially in semiarid environments, but a potential problem of using reclaimed wastewater is its elevated salt levels. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects produced by the salinity. In this work, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: Control, C, with EC plant) with EC 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period (11 weeks) and with EC 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period (25 weeks), was evaluated for laurustinus (Viburnum tinus) plants under field conditions. This plant is a popular shrub very used for gardening. Chemical properties of soil as well as physiological behavior, leaf nutrition, and esthetic value of plants were evaluated. Due to the high salinity from wastewater at 6 dS m(-1), laurustinus plants decreased their stem water potential values and, to a lesser extent, the stomatal conductance. Also, the visual quality of the plants was diminished. The inoculated AMF satisfactorily colonized the laurustinus roots and enhanced the structure of the soil by increasing the glomalin and carbon contents. Furthermore, G. iranicum var. tenuihypharum inoculation decreased Na and Cl content, stimulated flowering and improved the stem water potential of the plants irrigated with both types of reclaimed water. The AMF also had a positive effect as a consequence of stimulation of plant physiological parameters, such as the stem water potential and stomatal conductance. Effective AMF associations that avoid excessive salinity could provide wastewater reuse options, especially when the plants grow in soils.

  11. [Mechanism of tomato plants enhanced disease resistance against early blight primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme].

    Song, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Rui-long; Wei, Xiao-chen; Lu, Yong-jian; Tang, Zhao-yang; Wu, Guo-zhao; Su, Yi-juan; Zeng, Ren-sen


    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can not only improve host plants nutrient absorption, but also enhance their disease resistance. Taking the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedlings preinoculated with axbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus versiforme as test materials, this paper studied their protective enzyme activities and defense-related genes expression, and their resistance against a fungal pathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer which causes early blight. The seedlings pre-inoculated with AMF and later inoculated with A. solani showed significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in leaves. The leaf SOD activity of the dually inoculated plants reached the maximum 18 h after pathogen inoculation, being 28.6%, 79.2% and 82.8% higher than that of the plants with G. versiforme inoculation alone, pathogen inoculation alone, and non-inoculation, and the Leaf POD activity reached the maximum 65 h after pathogen inoculation, being 762%, 18.3%, and 1710% higher, respectively. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed that dual inoculation with C. versiforme and A. solani strongly induced the expression of three defense-related genes. The transcript levels of pathogen-related protein (PR1), basic type beta-1,3-glucanase (PR-2), and chitinase (PR-3) in leaves were 9.67-, 8.54-, and 13.4-fold higher, as compared with the non-inoculation control, respectively. Bioassay showed that the disease incidence and disease index of the seedlings pre-inoculated with C. versiforme were reduced by 36.3% and 61.4%, respectively, as compared with the non-mycorrhizal control plants. These findings indicated that mycorrhizal colonization could induce stronger and quicker defense responses of host tomato plants, and priming could be an important mechanism of the enhanced disease resistance of mycorrhizal tomato plants.

  12. Biological management of gray mold in pot roses by co-inoculation of thebiocontrol agent Ulocladium atrum and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae

    Møller, Kaare; Kristensen, Kristian; Yohalem, David


    In pursuit of a biological disease and stress management strategy for ornamentals, a three-factorial experiment was performed to examine the effects of plant darkness stress, Ulocladium atrum and Glomus mosseae on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea and plant vigour in potted roses. While darkness...... stress significantly enhanced gray mold, U. atrum negated the stress effect, reducing disease incidence to comparable levels in both stressed and non-stressed plants. G. mosseae interacted positively with U. atrum under non-stress conditions and negatively in darkness. G. mosseae significantly reduced...... and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for gray mold protection seems promising...

  13. Plant growth and metal distribution in tissues of Prosopis juliflora-velutina grown on chromium contaminated soil in the presence of Glomus deserticola

    Arias, Jack A.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Viveros, Marian N.; Ren, Minghua; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S.; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been known to increase metal uptake in plants. In this study, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina) inoculated with Glomus deserticola or amended with EDTA were grown for 30 days in soil containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at 0, 40, 80, and 160 mg kg−1. Total amylase activity (TAA) was monitored as a stress indicator. Element concentrations and distribution in tissue were determined using ICP-OES, electron scanning microprobe, and TEM. Inoculated Cr(VI) treated pla...

  14. Effect of phosphorus and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas (Pisum sativum) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren


    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... in the growth medium. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increased P uptake and the P concentration in the plant but reduced disease development in peas. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by densitometry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase specific to A.euteiches was used...


    I. de la Providencia; Fernández, F.; Pérez, E.; Yakelín Rodríguez; Kalyanne Fernández; Blanca de la Noval; María de los A. Hernández


    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo hallar el esquema de inmunización adecuado para obtener un antisuero policlonal contra Glomus clarum. Se realizaron tres esquemas de inmunización utilizando como antígenos: (i) esporas intactas de HFMA desinfectadas, (ii) fragmentos de pared obtenidos por ultrasonicación y (iii) proteínas totales. Provenientes de cada uno de los esquemas se obtuvieron antisueros policlonales, que fueron enfrentados a los antígenos anteriormente descritos y a otros género...

  16. Mecanismos de adaptación de maíz asociado a Glomus spp. en suelos con bajo fósforo disponible

    Roveda Gabriel


    Full Text Available

    La deficiencia de fósforo es uno de los mayores limitantes para la productividad agrícola en el trópico. Esta investigación está orientada a estudiar los mecanismos de adaptación de maíz asociado a Glomus spp. La investigación se realizó bajo condiciones controladas en los laboratorios del Corpoica. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con seis tratamientos y seis repeticiones: tres tratamientos con 1, 40 y 100 mg·kg-1 de P en el suelo y los anteriores niveles de P más Glomus spp. Los resultados experimentales confirman una disminución en área foliar y materia seca relacionadas con bajo P en suelo, 20 días de la emergencia. Como mecanismos de adaptación a las deficiencias de P, las plántulas traslocan carbohidratos a la raíz en detrimento de las hojas, esto modifica el balance de la materia seca. Este mecanismo fue evidente a 10 días después del estrés. Plantas asociadas a Glomus mayores tasas de crecimiento, nutrición mineral (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S y concentración de azúcares en tejido, debido al papel P en la síntesis de carbohidratos. Plantas micorrizadas aumentaron los niveles de proteínas en tejido, con 1 y 40 mg·kg- 1 de P en suelo. Los resultados sugieren queGlomus spp. contribuye con la síntesis de proteínas de estrés en planta, por déficit de P en el suelo. El estrés conduce a la expresión diferencial de la información genética, produciendo cambios en la síntesis de nuevas proteínas, llamadas micorrizinas, las cuales posiblemente dotan a las plantas con la capacidad de adaptación al estrés.

  17. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Thangavel Selvaraj


    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.


    I. de la Providencia


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo hallar el esquema de inmunización adecuado para obtener un antisuero policlonal contra Glomus clarum. Se realizaron tres esquemas de inmunización utilizando como antígenos: (i esporas intactas de HFMA desinfectadas, (ii fragmentos de pared obtenidos por ultrasonicación y (iii proteínas totales. Provenientes de cada uno de los esquemas se obtuvieron antisueros policlonales, que fueron enfrentados a los antígenos anteriormente descritos y a otros géneros de Glomales así como bacterias fitopatógenas, a partir de la técnica inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. El tercer esquema de inmunización mostró los mejores resultados y se obtuvo una adecuada especificidad con la cepa Glomus clarum, presentando un título de 1/500. No se presentó reacción cruzada con otras especies de Glomales.


    Laura Esther Rojas-Martínez


    Full Text Available Background: Glomus manihotis y Acaulospora lacunosa are fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizae; mutually beneficial symbiotic associations between fungi and specialized roots. This root-fungus formation performs various functions in association with plants. Previous research has shown that they can provide biological substitutes for mineral fertilizers. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Glomus manihotis (GL and Acaulospora lacunosa (ACU in pepper plants grown in soils with high levels of P. Methods: The Phillips and Hayman method was used for the determination of the percentage of infection. Other variables were: height, total fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, weight and number of fruit, percentage of infection and foliage nutrient content. Results: Plants inoculated with (GL recorded an infection rate of 70.3 %, inoculated with (ACU had 45 % and the inoculated treatment (GL / ACU 28%. The infection had a positive effect in the majority agronomic variables analyzed in plants inoculated with (GL and (ACU, but not in the mixed treatment (GL / ACU which was very similar to control. In terms of the content of nutrients in foliage, there were no significant differences in treatments NPK, but there were significant differences in the mobile few nutrients such as Zn, Cu and Fe, favoring plants inoculated with (ACU. Conclusions: These results suggest that inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi in conditions of high phosphorus levels may be an effective adjuvant in the optimal development of a plant, long as they determine the effective specific fungus under these conditions.

  20. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.


    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  1. Wilms Tumor

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  2. Effects of the mycorrhizal fungus ¤Glomus intraradices¤ on uranium uptake and accumulation by ¤Medicago truncatula¤ L. from uranium-contaminated soil

    Chen, B.D.; Jakobsen, I.; Roos, P.


    Phytostabilization strategies may be suitable to reduce the dispersion of uranium (U) and the overall environmental risks of U-contaminated soils. The role of Glomus intraradices, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, in such phytostabilization of U was investigated with a compartmented plant...

  3. Pituitary Tumors

    ... institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to brain tumors, including pituitary tumors, in their laboratories at ... institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to brain tumors, including pituitary tumors, in their laboratories at ...

  4. Low concentration of copper inhibits colonization of soil by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and changes the microbial community structure

    Hagerberg, David; Manique, Nina; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed


    Common agricultural practices result in accumulation of copper in agricultural soils worldwide. The effect of bioavailable copper ([Cu]bio) on colonization of soil by the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and other soil microorganisms was investigated in microcosms containing copper-amended soil...... colonization of the root-free compartment was evaluated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis (WCFA) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The WCFA analysis showed that the AM fungus soil colonization was severely inhibited by Cu with a 50% reduction of mycorrhizal growth at 0.26 μg g−1 [Cu......]bio. The growth of other main microbial groups was not significantly affected by copper. However, ARDRA analysis showed a very strong effect of copper on the bacterial community composition probably caused by an increased proportion of Cu-resistant bacteria. Our results suggest that problems with plant yield may...

  5. Endoproteolytic activities in pea roots inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and/orAphanomyces euteiches in relation to bioprotection

    Slezack, S; DUMAS-GAUDOT, E; Rosendahl, Søren;


    was observed which was correlated with the amount of pathogen occurring in roots. Qualitative differences were seen among the endoproteolytic activities detected in roots inoculated with zoospores or mycelium. The constitutive as well as mycorrhizal and pathogen-induced activities were further characterized......Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses are known to play a role in increased resistance of plants against soilborne pathogens. Mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet well understood. This work investigates possible roles of endoproteolytic activities in bioprotection of Pisum sativum...... roots by Glomus mosseae against Aphanomyces euteiches. First, it is demonstrated that bioprotection occurs only in pre-mycorrhizal plants. Second, endoproteolytic activities were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively during AM symbiosis, in plants infected with either zoospores or mycelium of A...

  6. Uptake of atrazine and cadmium from soil by maize (Zea mays L.) in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum.

    Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen; Chen, Bao-Dong; Wu, Naiying; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Christy, Peter


    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum on the uptake of atrazine (ATR) and cadmium (Cd) from soil by maize (Zea mays L.). Mycorrhizal colonization led to an increase in the accumulation of Cd and ATR in maize roots but a decrease in the shoots. Atrazine alleviated the adverse effects of Cd on maize growth, and this was more pronounced in the inoculated plants. An increase in Cd accumulation by maize roots was observed when ATR was also present. After harvest, the residual ATR concentration in the soil decreased markedly. With mycorrhizal inoculation the amount of residual ATR decreased more in the bulk soil but less in the rhizosphere soil compared to the noninoculated controls. Cadmium application significantly decreased the ATR residual concentrations in both the rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of inoculation treatment.

  7. Overlaps in the Transcriptional Profiles of Medicago truncatula Roots Inoculated with Two Different Glomus Fungi Provide Insights into the Genetic Program Activated during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1[w

    Hohnjec, Natalija; Vieweg, Martin F.; Pühler, Alfred; Becker, Anke; Küster, Helge


    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiotic association between plants and fungal microsymbionts that supports plant development under nutrient-limiting and various stress conditions. In this study, we focused on the overlapping genetic program activated by two commonly studied microsymbionts in addition to identifying AM-related genes. We thus applied 16,086 probe microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the model legume Medicago truncatula during interactions with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices and specified a total of 201 plant genes as significantly coinduced at least 2-fold, with more than 160 being reported as AM induced for the first time. Several hundred genes were additionally up-regulated during a sole interaction, indicating that the plant genetic program activated in AM to some extent depends on the colonizing microsymbiont. Genes induced during both interactions specified AM-related nitrate, ion, and sugar transporters, enzymes involved in secondary metabolism, proteases, and Kunitz-type protease inhibitors. Furthermore, coinduced genes encoded receptor kinases and other components of signal transduction pathways as well as AM-induced transcriptional regulators, thus reflecting changes in signaling. By the use of reporter gene expression, we demonstrated that one member of the AM-induced gene family encoding blue copper binding proteins (MtBcp1) was both specifically and strongly up-regulated in arbuscule-containing regions of mycorrhizal roots. A comparison of the AM expression profiles to those of nitrogen-fixing root nodules suggested only a limited overlap between the genetic programs orchestrating root endosymbioses. PMID:15778460

  8. Forestación de un terreno decapitado con Robinia pseudoacacia inoculada con Rhizobium spp. y Glomus deserticola Afforestation of a desurfaced field with Robinia pseudoacacia inoculated with Rhizobium spp. and Glomus deserticola

    Alejandro E Ferrari


    Full Text Available Los terrenos decapitados constituyen un caso extremo de degradación de suelos aptos para agricultura, con graves consecuencias ambientales. El propósito de este trabajo fue ensayar los efectos de la inoculación de acacia blanca (Robinia pseudoacacia L. con una cepa efectiva de Rhizobium y un hongo de micorrizas arbusculares (Glomus deserticola en la supervivencia y crecimiento temprano de plantas trasplantadas a un terreno decapitado de Balcarce, comparando con fresno como árbol no fijador de nitrógeno. La supervivencia inicial fue muy buena (mayor del 77%, especialmente para los fresnos y las acacias inoculadas, las cuales mostraron significativamente mayor supervivencia al estrés por sequía que las acacias control. Todas las plantas se mostraron igualmente tolerantes al ataque de liebres y al estrés por heladas tardías. Durante el primer año las acacias inoculadas crecieron más rápido que las no inoculadas. En el segundo año las alturas se equipararon en parte, probablemente por la colonización de las acacias control con rizobios o micorrizas naturales del suelo. De todos modos, las acacias inoculadas siempre mostraron valores mayores de los distintos parámetros de desarrollo (altura total, diámetro de la copa y cantidad de ramificaciones que las plantas control, tanto en los sectores poco decapitados como en los más severamente degradados. En conclusión, la doble inoculación previa de acacia blanca mejoró la supervivencia inicial, aumentó tolerancia a la sequía y el crecimiento en 2 años y medio desde la plantación. Esta práctica de manejo sería entonces muy recomendable para reducir el período de vivero en la producción de árboles, así como lograr ejemplares más resistentes y mejor adaptados para proyectos de recuperación de suelos degradados.Many agricultural lands in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina have traditionally been desurfaced for the manufacture of bricks and other building materials. The desurfaced

  9. Wilms Tumor

    ... Wilms tumor is 1 pound at diagnosis. Some children also may have nausea, stomach pain, high blood pressure (hypertension), blood in the urine, loss of appetite, or fever. Even though Wilms tumors often are ...

  10. Hypothalamic tumor

    Complications of brain surgery may include: Bleeding Brain damage Death (rarely) Infection Seizures can result from the tumor or from any surgical procedure on the brain. Hydrocephalus can occur with some tumors and ...

  11. Urogenital tumors

    Weller, R.E.


    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Brain Tumors

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  13. Odontogenic Tumors



    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  14. Co-Inoculation Effects of Thiobacillus thiooxidans Bacteria and Mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. on Maize Nutrition at Different Levels of Sulfur

    A. Gholami


    . Inoculation withthesefungihas increased the yield of numerous field-grown crops. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of thiobacillus bacteria and sulfur application on soil pH, and also their interactions with mycorrhizal fungi in order to improve nutrients uptake and grain yield of maize under alkaline soil condition. Materials and Methods: Treatments arranged as factorial experiment were based on RCBD with three replications. Treatments consisted of mycorrhizal inoculation: inoculated (m1 and non-inoculated (m0, thiobacillus in two levels of inoculated (t1 and non-inoculated (t0 and three levels of sulfur (S0: 0 kg.ha-1, S1: 250 kg.ha-1 and S2: 500 kg.ha-1. Four-row plots were prepared with row width and intra-row space of 60 and 20 cm, respectively. Seeds of maize (Zea Mays, Sc:647 were surface sterilized in a 10% (v/v solution of hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, were rinsed with sterile distilled water. Before sowing, 300 kg of urea per hectare were applied according to the results of soil analysis. In order to facilitate oxidation of sulfur to sulfate form, , S was applied and thoroughly mixed into top 30 cm of soil 30 days before sowing. One week before sowing, thiobacillus (Thiobacillus thiooxidans was inoculated. Inoculum of AM fungus Glomus intraradices, were added to soil just before planting at about 2 centimeters below seed sowing dept. To measure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal colonization, root plants collected one week before harvesting, cleared in 10% KOH at 80˚C for 2 h, and then acidified in 1% HCL for 60 min. Then the cleared roots were stained in a solution of Trypan blue. For nutrient analysis, the following procedure was applied. Zn, Fe, S, and P were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-atomic emission spectrometry apparatus. For this purpose, ash of seed samples was prepared at 500-550 degree of Celsius and then 5 ml of HCl 37% was added and with dionized water to reach to 50 ml. Kjeldahl method was used to determine nitrogen. Analysis of variance

  15. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  16. Crescimento, parâmetros biofísicos e aspectos anatômicos de plantas jovens de seringueira inoculadas com fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus clarum Growth, biophysical parameters and anatomical aspects of young rubber tree plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus clarum

    Patrícia Fabian de Araújo Diniz


    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos são reconhecidamente benéficos quando em associação às plantas por favorecerem seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Apesar de pouco comum para a seringueira, a inoculação artificial de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs tem se mostrado uma alternativa para a redução no uso de fertilizantes e pesticidas nas culturas, bem como para a formação de mudas, visando obtenção de porta-enxertos precoces e bem nutridos. O estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da inoculação do FMA Glomus clarum no crescimento e características biofísicas e anatômicas de plantas jovens de seringueira. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas inoculadas com o fungo Glomus clarum adubadas com 50 ppm de fósforo (mic+50P, plantas não inoculadas adubadas com 50 ppm de fósforo (s/mic+50P e plantas não inoculadas adubadas com 500 ppm de fósforo (s/mic+500P. Constatou-se que as plantas micorrizadas apresentaram altura e diâmetro dos caules, matéria seca da parte aérea, densidade estomática e área foliar, semelhantes às plantas s/mic+500P. Maior acúmulo de matéria seca de raiz, maior taxa de transpiração, menor resistência estomática e menor temperatura foliar foram observadas para as plantas micorrizadas. As análises anatômicas das raízes evidenciam a ocorrência de alterações no tecido vascular, com aumento no número de pólos de xilema das raízes das plantas micorrizadas.Mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial when associated with plants because they favor growth and develop. Although infrequent, artificial inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF has become an alternative to reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides in crops, as well as for the formation of seedlings, to obtain precocious and well fed rootstocks. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inoculation of AMF Glomus clarum on growth and biophysical and anatomical characteristics of young rubber trees. The treatments consist of plants

  17. Pindborg tumor

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.


    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  18. Pindborg tumor

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal


    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  19. Cadmium effects on populations of root nuclei in two pea genotypes inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae.

    Repetto, Ombretta; Massa, Nadia; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Berta, Graziella


    Plants possess a broad range of strategies to cope with cadmium (Cd) stress, including the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. In cell responses towards Cd, the contribution of changes in ploidy levels is still unclear. We used flow cytometry to investigate if nuclear ploidy changes are involved in response mechanisms toward Cd and to analyze the effect of the symbiotic status on populations of nuclei. The impact of Cd was investigated in roots of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes differing in their Cd-sensitivity (Cd-sensitive VIR4788 and Cd-tolerant VIR7128). In pea seedlings grown under hydropony, 25 and 250 microM Cd concentrations lead to an increase in 4 C together with a decrease in 2 C nuclei. The same genotypes, grown in soil/sand substrate, were inoculated or not with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae BEG12 and treated or not with Cd at transplanting (Cd1) or 2 weeks after (Cd2). The Cd2 increased the proportion of 6 and 8 C nuclei in the mycorrhizal VIR4788 and in the non-mycorrhizal VIR7128 genotypes. Thus, changes in ploidy levels reflect pea responses towards Cd, which are modulated by the symbiotic interaction. The Cd-induced increase in ploidy may account for changes in DNA transcription and/or translation.

  20. Influence of different mineral nitrogen sources (NO3(-)-N vs. NH4(+)-N) on arbuscular mycorrhiza development and N transfer in a Glomus intraradices-cowpea symbiosis.

    Ngwene, Benard; Gabriel, Elke; George, Eckhard


    Labeled nitrogen ((15)N) was applied to a soil-based substrate in order to study the uptake of N by Glomus intraradices extraradical mycelium (ERM) from different mineral N (NO(3)(-) vs. NH(4)(+)) sources and the subsequent transfer to cowpea plants. Fungal compartments (FCs) were placed within the plant growth substrate to simulate soil patches containing root-inaccessible, but mycorrhiza-accessible, N. The fungus was able to take up both N-forms, NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). However, the amount of N transferred from the FC to the plant was higher when NO(3)(-) was applied to the FC. In contrast, analysis of ERM harvested from the FC showed a higher (15)N enrichment when the FC was supplied with (15)NH(4)(+) compared with (15)NO(3)(-). The (15)N shoot/root ratio of plants supplied with (15)NO(3)(-) was much higher than that of plants supplied with (15)NH(4)(+), indicative of a faster transfer of (15)NO(3)(-) from the root to the shoot and a higher accumulation of (15)NH (4)(+) in the root and/or intraradical mycelium. It is concluded that hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus may absorb NH(4)(+) preferentially over NO(3)(-) but that export of N from the hyphae to the root and shoot may be greater following NO(3)(-) uptake. The need for NH(4)(+) to be assimilated into organically bound N prior to transport into the plant is discussed.

  1. A Versatile Monosaccharide Transporter That Operates in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus sp Is Crucial for the Symbiotic Relationship with Plants[C][W

    Helber, Nicole; Wippel, Kathrin; Sauer, Norbert; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Hause, Bettina; Requena, Natalia


    For more than 400 million years, plants have maintained a mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This evolutionary success can be traced to the role of these fungi in providing plants with mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate. In return, photosynthates are given to the fungus, which support its obligate biotrophic lifestyle. Although the mechanisms involved in phosphate transfer have been extensively studied, less is known about the reciprocal transfer of carbon. Here, we present the high-affinity Monosaccharide Transporter2 (MST2) from Glomus sp with a broad substrate spectrum that functions at several symbiotic root locations. Plant cell wall sugars can efficiently outcompete the Glc uptake capacity of MST2, suggesting they can serve as alternative carbon sources. MST2 expression closely correlates with that of the mycorrhiza-specific Phosphate Transporter4 (PT4). Furthermore, reduction of MST2 expression using host-induced gene silencing resulted in impaired mycorrhiza formation, malformed arbuscules, and reduced PT4 expression. These findings highlight the symbiotic role of MST2 and support the hypothesis that the exchange of carbon for phosphate is tightly linked. Unexpectedly, we found that the external mycelium of AM fungi is able to take up sugars in a proton-dependent manner. These results imply that the sugar uptake system operating in this symbiosis is more complex than previously anticipated. PMID:21972259

  2. Suppression of Allene Oxide Cyclase in Hairy Roots of Medicago truncatula Reduces Jasmonate Levels and the Degree of Mycorrhization with Glomus intraradices1[w

    Isayenkov, Stanislav; Mrosk, Cornelia; Stenzel, Irene; Strack, Dieter; Hause, Bettina


    During the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices, an endogenous increase in jasmonic acid (JA) occurs. Two full-length cDNAs coding for the JA-biosynthetic enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC) from M. truncatula, designated as MtAOC1 and MtAOC2, were cloned and characterized. The AOC protein was localized in plastids and found to occur constitutively in all vascular tissues of M. truncatula. In leaves and roots, MtAOCs are expressed upon JA application. Enhanced expression was also observed during mycorrhization with G. intraradices. A partial suppression of MtAOC expression was achieved in roots following transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring the MtAOC1 cDNA in the antisense direction under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. In comparison to samples transformed with 35S∷uidA, roots with suppressed MtAOC1 expression exhibited lower JA levels and a remarkable delay in the process of colonization with G. intraradices. Both the mycorrhization rate, quantified by fungal rRNA, and the arbuscule formation, analyzed by the expression level of the AM-specific gene MtPT4, were affected. Staining of fungal material in roots with suppressed MtAOC1 revealed a decreased number of arbuscules, but these did not exhibit an altered structure. Our results indicate a crucial role for JA in the establishment of AM symbiosis. PMID:16244141

  3. Suppression of allene oxide cyclase in hairy roots of Medicago truncatula reduces jasmonate levels and the degree of mycorrhization with Glomus intraradices.

    Isayenkov, Stanislav; Mrosk, Cornelia; Stenzel, Irene; Strack, Dieter; Hause, Bettina


    During the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices, an endogenous increase in jasmonic acid (JA) occurs. Two full-length cDNAs coding for the JA-biosynthetic enzyme allene oxide cyclase (AOC) from M. truncatula, designated as MtAOC1 and MtAOC2, were cloned and characterized. The AOC protein was localized in plastids and found to occur constitutively in all vascular tissues of M. truncatula. In leaves and roots, MtAOCs are expressed upon JA application. Enhanced expression was also observed during mycorrhization with G. intraradices. A partial suppression of MtAOC expression was achieved in roots following transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring the MtAOC1 cDNA in the antisense direction under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. In comparison to samples transformed with 35SuidA, roots with suppressed MtAOC1 expression exhibited lower JA levels and a remarkable delay in the process of colonization with G. intraradices. Both the mycorrhization rate, quantified by fungal rRNA, and the arbuscule formation, analyzed by the expression level of the AM-specific gene MtPT4, were affected. Staining of fungal material in roots with suppressed MtAOC1 revealed a decreased number of arbuscules, but these did not exhibit an altered structure. Our results indicate a crucial role for JA in the establishment of AM symbiosis.

  4. Glomus caroticus, environment, time parameters of cardiac and pathogenic mechanisms of formation of somatogenic depression and mixed encephalopathies on the methodological grounds of non-invasive hemogram analyzer

    Anatoly N. Malykhin


    Full Text Available Aims The aim is to determine interaction of risk factors (volume of ingested food and exogenous alcohol and their effects on thermal regulation of a body due to the changed activity of biochemical reactions of neuromediator regulatory systems, related to the synthesis of endogenous alcohol. Materials and methods Based on study of neurological status, biochemical and instrumental methods of precordial mapping, urine specific gravity and thermometry of five biologically active points, 1200 males were examined for pathogenic mechanisms of endogenous alcohol synthesis and formation of time parameters of cardiac and clinical manifestation of somatogenic depression, metabolic syndrome and alcohol abuse with formation of encephalopathies. Results The amount of endogenous alcohol determines disorders in the bradykininacetylcholine and dopamine-noradrenalin systems and formation of clinical syndromes in the continuum of somatogeny-psychogeny (according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10. Conclusion Changes in thermal regulation were accompanied with changes of functional mechanisms of Glomus Caroticus, affecting erythrocyte and its receptors, related to atomic oxygen and hydrogen in atmosphere, with formation of relevant pH values of arterial and venous blood, amount of endogenous alcohol.

  5. Effect of P Availability on Temporal Dynamics of Carbon Allocation and Glomus intraradices High-Affinity P Transporter Gene Induction in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Hansson, Maria C.; Burleigh, Stephen H.


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi depend on a C supply from the plant host and simultaneously provide phosphorus to the colonized plant. We therefore evaluated the influence of external P on C allocation in monoxenic Daucus carota-Glomus intraradices cultures in an AM symbiosis. Fungal hyphae proliferated from a solid minimal medium containing colonized roots into a C-free liquid minimal medium with high or low P availability. Roots and hyphae were harvested periodically, and the flow of C from roots to fungus was measured by isotope labeling. We also measured induction of a G. intraradices high-affinity P transporter to estimate fungal P demand. The prevailing hypothesis is that high P availability reduces mycorrhizal fungal growth, but we found that C flow to the fungus was initially highest at the high P level. Only at later harvests, after 100 days of in vitro culture, were C flow and fungal growth limited at high P availability. Thus, AM fungi can benefit initially from P-enriched environments in terms of plant C allocation. As expected, the P transporter induction was significantly greater at low P availability and greatest in very young mycelia. We found no direct link between C flow to the fungus and the P transporter transcription level, which indicates that a good C supply is not essential for induction of the high-affinity P transporter. We describe a mechanism by which P regulates symbiotic C allocation, and we discuss how this mechanism may have evolved in a competitive environment. PMID:16751522

  6. Influence of salinity on the in vitro development of Glomus intraradices and on the in vivo physiological and molecular responses of mycorrhizal lettuce plants.

    Jahromi, Farzad; Aroca, Ricardo; Porcel, Rosa; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel


    Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects in the coming years. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to improve plant tolerance to abiotic environmental factors such as salinity, but they can be themselves negatively affected by salinity. In this study, the first in vitro experiment analyzed the effects of 0, 50, or 100 mM NaCl on the development and sporulation of Glomus intraradices. In the second experiment, the effects of mycorrhization on the expression of key plant genes expected to be affected by salinity was evaluated. Results showed that the assayed isolate G. intraradices DAOM 197198 can be regarded as a moderately salt-tolerant AMF because it did not significantly decrease hyphal development or formation of branching absorbing structures at 50 mM NaCl. Results also showed that plants colonized by G. intraradices grew more than nonmycorrhizal plants. This effect was concomitant with a higher relative water content in AM plants, lower proline content, and expression of Lsp5cs gene (mainly at 50 mM NaCl), lower expression of the stress marker gene Lslea gene, and lower content of abscisic acid in roots of mycorrhizal plants as compared to nonmycorrhizal plants, which suggest that the AM fungus decreased salt stress injury. In addition, under salinity, AM symbiosis enhanced the expression of LsPIP1. Such enhanced gene expression could contribute to regulating root water permeability to better tolerate the osmotic stress generated by salinity.

  7. Synergy between Glomus fasciculatum and a beneficial Pseudomonas in reducing root diseases and improving yield and forskolin content in Coleus forskohlii Briq. under organic field conditions.

    Singh, Rakshapal; Soni, Sumit K; Kalra, Alok


    Root rot and wilt, caused by a complex involving Fusarium chlamydosporum (Frag. and Cif.) and Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith), are serious diseases affecting the cultivation of Coleus forskohlii, a crop with economic potential as a source of the medicinal compound forskolin. The present 2-year field experiments were conducted with two bioinoculants (a native Pseudomonas monteilii strain and the exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum) alone and in combination under organic field conditions in order to evaluate their potential in controlling root rot and wilt. Combined inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly increased plant height, plant spread, and number of branches; reduced disease incidence; and increased tuber dry mass of C. forskohlii, compared to vermicompost controls not receiving any bioinoculants. Increase in tuber yields was accompanied by an increase in plant N, P, and K uptake. Co-inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly improved the percent AM root colonization and spore numbers retrieved from soil. This suggests P. monteilii to be a mycorrhiza helper bacterium which could be useful in organic agriculture. The forskolin content of tubers was significantly increased by the inoculation treatments of P. monteilii, G. fasciculatum, and P. monteilii + G. fasciculatum.

  8. Effects on Glomus mosseae Root Colonization by Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus brasilensis Strains as Related to Soil P-Availability in Winter Wheat

    Veronica Arthurson


    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of inoculating winter wheat (Triticum aestivum with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR of the genus Paenibacillus under phosphate P-limited soil conditions in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF Glomus mosseae. Four P. polymyxa strains and one P. brasilensis strain were compared at two cell concentrations (106 and 108 cells g−1 seeds of inoculation, and surface sterilized AMF spores were added to pots. Mycorrhizal root colonization, plant growth, and plant uptake of phosphorus were analyzed. Bacterial phosphate solubilization was examined separately in vitro. Most P. polymyxa strains, isolated from wheat, had dramatic effects per se on root growth and root P-content. No treatment gave significant effect on shoot growth. AMF root colonization levels and total plant uptake of P were much stimulated by the addition of most P. polymyxa strains. The AM fungus alone and the P. brasilensis, alone or in combination with the fungus, did not affect total plant P-levels. Our results indicate that practical application of inoculation with plant host-specific rhizobacteria (i.e., P. polymyxa could positively influence uptake of phosphorus in P-deficient soils by wheat plants, provided that suitable AM fungi (e.g., G. mosseae are present.

  9. Biodegradation of phenanthrene, spatial distribution of bacterial populations and dioxygenase expression in the mycorrhizosphere of Lolium perenne inoculated with Glomus mosseae.

    Corgié, S C; Fons, F; Beguiristain, T; Leyval, C


    Interactions between the plant and its microbial communities in the rhizosphere control microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation processes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence plant survival and PAH degradation in polluted soil. This work was aimed at studying the contribution of the mycorrhizosphere to PAH biodegradation in the presence of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., cv. Barclay) inoculated with Glomus mosseae (BEG 69) by taking into account the structure and activity of bacterial communities, PAH degrading culturable bacteria as a function of the distance from roots. Ryegrass was grown in compartmentalized systems designed to harvest successive sections of rhizosphere in lateral compartments polluted or not with phenanthrene (PHE). Colonization of roots by G. mosseae (BEG 69) modified the structure and density of bacterial populations in the mycorrhizosphere, compared to the rhizosphere of non-mycorrhizal plants. G. mosseae increased the density of culturable heterotrophic and PAH degrading bacteria beyond the immediate rhizosphere in the presence of PHE, and increased the density of PAH degraders in the absence of the pollutant. Biodegradation was not significantly increased in the mycorrhizosphere, compared to control non-mycorrhizal plants, where PHE biodegradation already reached 92% after 6 weeks. However, dioxygenase transcriptional activity was found to be higher in the immediate mycorrhizosphere in the presence of G. mosseae (BEG 69).

  10. Plant growth and metal distribution in tissues of Prosopis juliflora-velutina grown on chromium contaminated soil in the presence of Glomus deserticola.

    Arias, Jack A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Ellzey, Joanne T; Viveros, Marian N; Ren, Minghua; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been known to increase metal uptake in plants. In this study, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina) inoculated with Glomus deserticola or amended with EDTA were grown for 30 days in soil containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at 0, 40, 80, and 160 mg kg(-1). Total amylase activity (TAA) was monitored as a stress indicator. Element concentrations and distribution in tissue were determined using ICP-OES, electron scanning microprobe, and TEM. Inoculated Cr(VI) treated plants had 21% and 30% more Cr than uninoculated and EDTA treated roots, respectively, at 80 mg Cr kg(-1) treatment. In the case of Cr(III), EDTA produced the highest Cr accumulation in roots. TAA was higher in inoculated plants grown with Cr(III) at 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) and Cr(VI) at 40 and 160 mg kg(-1). The X-ray mapping showed higher metal concentrations in the vascular system of inoculated plants and the TEM micrographs demonstrated the presence of G. deserticola in roots.

  11. Increased Salinity Tolerance of Cowpea Plants by Dual Inoculation of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus clarum and a Nitrogen-fixer Azospirillum brasilense.

    Rabie, G H; Aboul-Nasr, M B; Al-Humiany, A


    Pot greenhouse experiments were carried out to attempt to increase the salinity tolerance of one of the most popular legume of the world; cowpea; by using dual inoculation of an Am fungus Glomus clarum and a nitrogen-fixer Azospirillum brasilense. The effect of these beneficial microbes, as single- or dual inoculation-treatments, was assessed in sterilized loamy sand soil at five NaCl levels (0.0~7.2 ds/m) in irrigating water. The results of this study revealed that percentage of mycorrhizal infection, plant height, dry weight, nodule number, protein content, nitrogenase and phosphatase activities, as well as nutrient elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg were significantly decreased by increasing salinity level in non-mycorrhized plants in absence of NFB. Plants inoculated with NFB showed higher nodule numbers, protein content, nitrogen concentration and nitrogenase activities than those of non-inoculated at all salinity levels. Mycorrhized plants exhibited better improvement in all measurements than that of non-mycorrhized ones at all salinity levels, especially, in the presence of NFB. The concentration of Na(+) was significantly accumulated in cowpea plants by rising salinity except in shoots of mycorrhizal plants which had K(+)/Na(+) ratios higher than other treatments. This study indicated that dual inoculation with Am fungi and N-fixer Azospirillum can support both needs for N and P, excess of NaCl and will be useful in terms of soil recovery in saline area.

  12. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H


    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures.

  13. Ear Tumors

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... the Ears, Nose, and Throat Additional Content Medical News Ear Tumors ... NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  14. Pituitary tumor

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  15. Wilms' Tumor

    ... team and have training in child development, recreation, psychology or social work. If your child must remain ... conditions/wilms-tumor/basics/definition/CON-20043492 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  16. Tumor Grade

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  17. Pituitary Tumors

    ... impairment, and behavioral changes. Tumors can also either produce excessive amounts of hormone or limit how much hormone is produced. The hormones most commonly affected include: growth hormone (regulates body height and structure), prolactin (controls ...

  18. Ependymal tumors.

    Moynihan, Timothy J


    Ependymal tumors are rare malignancies that arise from the cells that line the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Although they are more common in children, adults may also be effected by ependymal tumors. Prognosis is dependent on tumor location, histology, especially for myxopapillary tumors that tend to occur in the lumbar spine, extent of surgical resection, and stage of disease. Standard therapy consists of complete resection when feasible. The exact role of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with radiographically confirmed complete resection is poorly defined. Patients with known residual disease may benefit from local radiation therapy, but the extent of radiation field and total dose are controversial. Even in patients treated with involved field radiotherapy, most relapses occur within the original tumor bed, thus local control remains the biggest obstacle to effective therapy. Chemotherapy has little impact against this tumor and has no role in the adjuvant setting, outside of a well designed clinical trial, with the possible exception of children younger than 5 years in an effort to delay radiation. A minority of patients may respond to one of several chemotherapy regimens at the time of recurrence, but the impact of this therapy is limited. Newer treatment strategies are needed.

  19. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults.

    al-Mefty, O; Kersh, J E; Routh, A; Smith, R R


    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors (two of these also had pituitary dysfunction). One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered "safe" treatment for benign brain tumors.

  20. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (USA))


    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  1. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    ... Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System Purchase WHO Blue Book NBTS Official Statement Questions and ... Privacy Copyright Site Search Search term Submit Submit Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr

  2. Produção de mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., inoculadas com o fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus clarum, em substrato agro-industrial



    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento de mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., produzidas em blocos prensados, confeccionados com resíduos agro-industriais, e inoculadas com o fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, sendo 2 tratamentos microbiológicos: controle e FMA; e 2 sistemas de produção de mudas: blocos prensados (nova metodologia e tubetes plásticos (tradicional, com 5 repetições. O substrato utilizado para a confecção dos blocos prensados e enchimento dos tubetes foi constituído por uma mistura de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e torta de filtro (3:1 v/v. O FMA proporcionou aumentos significativos na produção de matéria seca, conteúdo de N e P da parte aérea da goiabeira, apenas no sistema de produção das mudas em blocos prensados. Mudas produzidas e inoculadas em blocos prensados mostraram um aumento de 88% na matéria seca da parte aérea, 82% e 89% para os conteúdos de nitrogênio e fósforo da parte aérea, respectivamente, em relação ao tratamento-controle.

  3. Efeito de Glomus etunicatum e fósforo no crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas em semeadura direta

    Flores-Aylas Waldo Wilfredo


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da disponibilidade de P no solo, da micorriza formada por Glomus etunicatum e de Mycoform, um estimulante desta última, no crescimento e competição inicial de seis espécies arbóreas semeadas diretamente. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação com as espécies Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Guazuma ulmifolia (mutamba, Senna multijuga (cássia-verrugosa, Solanum granuloso-leprosum (gravitinga, Schinus terebenthifolius (aroeira e Trema micrantha (trema, em solo com níveis de P na solução considerados muito baixo, baixo e alto, com inoculação ou não do fungo micorrízico arbuscular G. etunicatum, além do tratamento G. etunicatum + Mycoform. O crescimento das mudas respondeu à inoculação em P muito baixo e baixo. As mudas apresentaram moderada dependência das micorrizas, não respondendo ao G. etunicatum em P alto. Gravitinga morreu em P muito baixo, mas foi dominante com P baixo e alto. Fedegoso foi dominante com P muito baixo, mostrando-se adaptado à baixa fertilidade. G. etunicatum influenciou a dominância das espécies, auxiliando as menos competitivas e gerando maior equilíbrio. Mycoform influenciou pouco o crescimento, nutrição e competição. O crescimento de espécies pioneiras semeadas diretamente é favorecido pela elevação do P e pelas micorrizas, as quais também favorecem o equilíbrio entre espécies.

  4. Microarray analysis and functional tests suggest the involvement of expansins in the early stages of symbiosis of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Dermatsev, Vladimir; Weingarten-Baror, Carmiya; Resnick, Nathalie; Gadkar, Vijay; Wininger, Smadar; Kolotilin, Igor; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Zilberstein, Avia; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis occurs between fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota and most terrestrial plants. However, little is known about the molecular symbiotic signalling between AM fungi (AMFs) and non-leguminous plant species. We sought to further elucidate the molecular events occurring in tomato, a non-leguminous host plant, during the early, pre-symbiotic stage of AM symbiosis, i.e. immediately before and after contact between the AMF (Glomus intraradices) and the host. We adopted a semi-synchronized AMF root infection protocol, followed by genomic-scale, microarray-based, gene expression profiling at several defined time points during pre-symbiotic AM stages. The microarray results suggested differences in the number of differentially expressed genes and in the differential regulation of several functional groups of genes at the different time points examined. The microarray results were validated and one of the genes induced during contact between AMF and tomato, the expansin-like EXLB1, was functionally analysed. Expansins, encoded by a large multigene family, facilitate plant cell expansion. However, no biological or biochemical function has yet been established for plant-originated expansin-like proteins. EXLB1 transcripts were localized early during the association to cells that may perceive the fungal signal, and later during the association in close proximity to sites of AMF hypha-root colonization. Moreover, in transgenic roots, we demonstrated that a reduction in the steady-state level of EXLB1 transcript was correlated with a reduced rate of infection, reduced arbuscule expansion and reduced AMF spore formation.

  5. The effects of endogenous mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. on plant growth and yield of grafted cucumber (Cucumis sativum l under common commercial greenhouse conditions



    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM fungi on plant growth and yield of grafted cucumber seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a plastic greenhouse located in Shipol, Mitrovica municipality of Kosovo.Graded seeds of cucumber (cv. Ekron F1, and graded seeds of a rootstock (cv. Nimbus F1; C. maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne, were sown in polysterol trays. Three types of grafted seedlings; self-grafted (SEG, splice grafted (SG and root pruned splice grafted (RPSG were simultaneously produced in equal number as inoculated and non- inoculated with endogenous mycorrhiza. The combined effects of grafting methods and endogenous mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. application on the growth parameters during the nursery period as well as growth rate and yield after transplanting were tested under common commercial conditions. The different grafting methods of cucumber seedlings on C. maxima x C. moschata (SG versus RPSG have significant effects on seedlings growth parameters. Despite of commonly higher relative growth rate of RPSG seedlings till the transplanting time, SG seedlings have a significantly higher total plant dry weight (W. No difference was found regarding leaf dry weight (LW, while a significantly larger leaf area was found for RPSG seedlings. No effect of AM fungi presence was found regarding the growth parameters of grafted cucumber seedlings during the nursery stage, but the presence of AM fungi has significantly improved the growth rate of each grafting method after transplanting, as also increased the total harvested yield. The highest yield was recorded by AM inoculated RPSG seedlings.

  6. The interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on "in vitro" spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization

    Bressan Wellington


    Full Text Available The effects of P and N amendment and its interactions on spore germination, root growth and colonized root length by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (INVAM S329 was studied "in vitro" in RiT - DNA transformed roots of Anthylis vulneraria sub sp. Sampaiana (Kidney vetch. Three N media concentrations (5, 10 and 50 mg/l at P constant level (2 mg/l and three P media concentrations (2, 10 and 20 mg/l at N constant level (5 mg/l were utilized as a treatment. Bécard & Fortin medium was used as a basal medium for root growth and colonized root length, and water/agar (0.8% media was the control for spore germination. Spore germination of G. etunicatum at low P level was reduced by N addition in relation to the control media, and at low N level addition of P stimulated spore germination. Total root length was stimulated by N addtion at low P level, but no significant difference (p£0.05 was observed between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. P addition at low N level media also stimulated total root growth, and a significant difference (p£0.05 was observed among P concentrations. Colonized root length by G. etunicatum increased significantly (p£0.05 with P additions at low N levels. Under low P level no significant differences was found between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. These results demonstrate that the interaction between P and N affect differently spore germination, root growth and colonized root lenght.

  7. Suppression of the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum by mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus intraradices in root-free soil

    Green; Larsen; Olsson; Jensen; Jakobsen


    Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent against several fungal soilborne plant pathogens. However, possible adverse effects of this fungus on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might be a drawback in its use in plant protection. The objective of the present work was to examine the interaction between Glomus intraradices and T. harzianum in soil. The use of a compartmented growth system with root-free soil compartments enabled us to study fungal interactions without the interfering effects of roots. Growth of the fungi was monitored by measuring hyphal length and population densities, while specific fatty acid signatures were used as indicators of living fungal biomass. Hyphal 33P transport and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity were used to monitor activity of G. intraradices and a GUS-transformed strain of T. harzianum, respectively. As growth and metabolism of T. harzianum are requirements for antagonism, the impact of wheat bran, added as an organic nutrient source for T. harzianum, was investigated. The presence of T. harzianum in root-free soil reduced root colonization by G. intraradices. The external hyphal length density of G. intraradices was reduced by the presence of T. harzianum in combination with wheat bran, but the living hyphal biomass, measured as the content of a membrane fatty acid, was not reduced. Hyphal 33P transport by G. intraradices also was not affected by T. harzianum. This suggests that T. harzianum exploited the dead mycelium but not the living biomass of G. intraradices. The presence of external mycelium of G. intraradices suppressed T. harzianum population development and GUS activity. Stimulation of the hyphal biomass of G. intraradices by organic amendment suggests that nutrient competition is a likely means of interaction. In conclusion, it seemed that growth of and phosphorus uptake by the external mycelium of G. intraradices were not affected by the antagonistic fungus T. harzianum; in contrast, T. harzianum was adversely

  8. Enhancement of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities and Salt Tolerance of Euhalophyte Suaeda salsa Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae

    LI Tao1; LIU Run-Jin; HE Xin-Hua; WANG Bao-Shan


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-mediated plant physiological activities could contribute to plant salt tolerance.However,the biochemical mechanism by which AM fungi enhance salt tolerance of halophytic plants is unclear.A pot experiment was conducted to determine whether salt tolerance of the C3 halophyte Suaeda salsa was enhanced by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae.When 60-day-old S.salsa seedlings were subjected to 400 mmol L-1 NaC1 stress for 35 days,plant height,number of leaves and branches,shoot and root biomass,and root length of G.mosseae-colonized seedlings were significantly greater than those of the nonmycorrizal seedlings.Leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at all sampling times (weekly for 35 days after salt stress was initiated) and leaf catalase (CAT) activity at 2 and 3 weeks after salt stress was initiated were also significantly enhanced in G.mosseae-colonized S.salsa seedlings,while the content of leaf malondialdehyde (MDA),a product of membrane lipid peroxidation,was significantly reduced,indicating an alleviation of oxidative damage.The corresponding leaf isoenzymes of SOD (Fe-SOD,Cu/Zn-SOD1,and Cu/Zn-SOD2) and CAT (CAT1 and CAT2) were also significantly increased in the mycorrhizal seedlings after 14 days of 400 mmol L-1 NaC1 stress.Our results suggested that G.mosseae increased salt tolerance by increasing SOD and CAT activities and forming SOD and CAT isoforms in S.salsa seedlings.

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer enhances growth and nutrient uptake of Medicago sativa inoculated with Glomus tortuosum grown in Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Liu, Mohan; Sun, Jian; Li, Yang; Xiao, Yan


    This study aimed to explore whether nitrogen availability could influence mycorrhizal function and their associations with host plants in Cd-contaminated acidic soils or not. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation (non-mycorrhizal inoculation (NM), Glomus aggregatum (Ga), G. tortuosum (Gt) and G. versiforme (Gv)) and inorganic N amendment on the growth, nutrient and Cd uptake of Medicago sativa grown in Cd-contaminated acidic soils (10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil). AMF inoculations significantly increased the shoot and total biomass and decreased the shoot Cd concentration in comparison to plants uninoculated. N addition increased markedly concentration and content of N and decreased those of P in plants at all inoculation treatments. Shoot K, Na and Mg concentration in plants inoculated with Ga and Gv were decreased by N addition, whereas shoot K, Na, Ca and Mg concentration in plants inoculated with Gt were not negatively affected. It was observed that N addition only increased mycorrhizal colonization, shoot biomass, shoot K, Ca and Mg content of plants inoculated with Gt. Irrespective of N addition, plants with Gt inoculation got the maximum shoot and root P concentration and content, as well as P/Cd concentration molar ratio among all inoculation treatment. Neither AMF nor N fertilizer contributed to the decrease of soil exchangeable Cd and increase of soil pH. These results suggested that N fertilizer only elevated plant performance of alfalfa with Gt inoculation grown in acidic soil, by diluting Cd concentration and alleviating of nutrient deficiency, especially P.

  10. Efecto de la inoculación con Glomus intraradices y de la fertilización nitrogenada en el crecimiento de plantas de fresa

    C.S. Salgado-Barreiro


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la inoculación del HMA Glomus intraradices en el crecimiento de las plantas de fresa variedad Camino Real, fertirrigadas con 0, 1, 3 y 10 mM de N en forma de NH4 + ó NO3 -. Se realizó un experimento en condiciones de invernadero, en el que se evaluó el porcentaje de colonización, el peso seco de las raíces (PSR y de la parte aérea (PSPA, a los 33 y 48 dias después del establecimiento (dde. El porcentaje de colonización se redujo conforme al incremento de la concentración de NH4 + ó NO3 - en la solución de riego; a los 33 dde, la inoculación de G. intraradices incrementó el PSR y el PSPA en las plantas fertilizadas con NH4 +; y a los 48 dde se observó el mismo efecto en las plantas que recibieron NO3 -. En ambos casos, los valores más altos de biomasa aérea y radical se registraron en las plantas fertirrigadas con bajas concentraciones de N. Estos resultados indican que la inoculación con G. intraradices tiene el potencial de reducir la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados en el cultivo de fresa. Además, el exceso de N inhibe la colonización de HMA sin incrementar el crecimiento de la planta. Así mismo, el efecto de la inoculación de G. intraradices, forma y dosis de fertilizante nitrogenado depende de la fase de crecimiento de la planta.

  11. Minute synovial sarcomas of the hands and feet: a clinicopathologic study of 21 tumors less than 1 cm.

    Michal, Michal; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C; Lasota, Jerzy; Fetsch, John F; Lichy, Jack; Miettinen, Markku


    Synovial sarcoma, one of the most common types of soft tissue sarcomas, usually presents in the proximal or middle portions of the extremities, often as a large mass with an aggressive clinical behavior. Gland-forming biphasic and spindle cell fibrous monophasic tumors are the most common subtypes. In this study, we evaluated 21 minute synovial sarcomas, hands and feet. These tumors occurred in 14 females and 7 males with a median age of 29 years (range, 8-60 years). Clinically, all tumors were thought to be benign processes such as a ganglion cyst or glomus tumor, and on microscopic examination, they were also often initially misinterpreted as benign lesions such as nerve sheath or (myo) fibroblastic tumors. Histologically, 7 tumors were biphasic and 14 were monophasic spindle cell variants. Microscopic calcifications were present in 8 cases and were prominent in 3 tumors. All monophasic tumors tested had elements positive for EMA, and all but one had reactivity for a keratin cocktail. S-100 protein-positive neuroma-like neural proliferations were commonly present in the monophasic but not in biphasic tumors. SYT-SSX fusion transcripts were demonstrated in 5 cases studied by polymerase chain reaction assay. All tumors were enucleated, followed by local reexcision of the site, and often combined with postoperative radiation. Three patients had amputation of the involved digit or metatarsal. Four patients had local recurrences, 2 of which were successfully treated; 2 of these patients were lost to follow-up. Despite some variation in treatment, all 12 patients with complete follow-up were alive and well, 2 to 32.2 years after surgery (median, 14.7 years), including 2 patients who received neither amputation nor postoperative radiation. Minute synovial sarcomas of hands and feet are clinically favorable tumors if completely excised; there is some evidence to suggest that they may be managed more conservatively than larger tumors. These tumors should be recognized as

  12. Combinação entre turfa vermelha e areia na obtenção de substrato-inóculo do fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus clarum Combination of red peat and sand for obtaining substrate-inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus clarum

    Samar Velho da Silveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo com o presente estudo foi verificar a influência de diferentes proporções de turfa vermelha e areia na composição do substrato sobre a colonização radicular por fungos micorríozicos arbusculares (FMA e no desenvolvimento vegetativo de aveia branca. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e os tratamentos foram constituídos a partir de combinações de turfa vermelha (T e areia (A: 100%A; 25%T+75%A; 50%T+50%A; 75%T+25%A; 100%T. Dez sementes de aveia foram semeadas por vaso plástico preto (350ml de volume, contendo 5 gramas de inóculo de Glomus clarum. Quarenta e três dias após a semeadura da aveia, foram realizadas avaliações de desenvolvimento vegetativo e colonização micorrízica do sistema radicular das plantas, através da presença de estruturas, como hifas, arbúsculos e vesículas. Substratos com maior quantidade de turfa induziram maior desenvolvimento da parte aérea e maior qualidade de raízes (QR, em termos de volume de raízes. Entretanto, a presença da turfa acima de 50% no substrato diminuiu a percentagem de colonização micorrízica da aveia. A similaridade verificada entre as curvas de regressões de percentagem de colonização e Água Facilmente Disponível, com mesmo ponto de máximo, sugerem que a quantidade de mesoporos resultante da combinação turfa/areia influencia na resposta dos FMA, a melhor resposta é obtida em mistura com 32,5% de turfa vermelha.The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different proportions of red peat and sand in the substrate on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and the consequent growth of white oats. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and the treatments consisted of combinations of read peat (T and sand (A: 100%A; 25%T+75%A; 50%T+50%A; 75%T+25%A; 100%T. Ten oat seeds were sown per container (350ml volume containing 5 grams of Glomus clarum inoculum. Forty-three days after sowing, vegetative development


    Lorelí Mirabal; Ortega, E.; Rosa Rodés; Fernández, F.


    Los hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA) son endosimbiontes obligados, presentes en muchos ecosistemas naturales y agrícolas, con gran responsabilidad en la integridad fisiológica de la planta. Esta investigación se basa en la realización de diferentes aislamientos de Glomus clarum, proveniente de cultivos puros del cepario del INCA. Se aislaron y purificaron 25 cepas bacterianas endospóricas, a las cuales se les realizaron varias pruebas morfológicas y bioquímicas, siendo muy interesante...

  14. Factors affecting "in vitro" plant development and root colonization of sweet potato by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd Fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento da planta e a colonização radicular "in vitro", da batata doce por Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.

    Wellington Bressan


    Full Text Available Nutrients media (Murashige & Skoog, Hoagland & Arnon and White's media supplemented or not with sucrose and substrates (vermiculite, agar and natrosol were tested for their effects on plant development and root colonization of micropropagated sweet potato, cv. White Star, by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (isolate INVAM FL S329. Addition of sucrose (3% did not affect plant development. However, hyphal growth and root colonization were depressed. Contrasting responses to media nutrient concentration were observed for plant height, root colonization, and hyphal growth. The highest concentration of nutrients in Murashige & Skoog medium improved plant development, but this medium decreased hypha growth and inhibited root colonization. Plants growing in vermiculite substrate had higher (p£0.05 development and mycorrhizal root colonization than those growing in agar or natrosol. The results indicate that colonization of micropropagated sweet potato by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is affected by media composition and type of substrate.Os meios de Murashige e Skoog, Hoagland, Arnon e White, suplementados ou não com sacorose, e tendo como substratos vermiculita, ágar ou natrosol foram utilizados para avaliar seus efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento da batata doce, c.v. White Star, e sua colonização por Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd. (isolado INVAM FL S329. A adição de sacorose (3% ao meio não afetou o desenvolvimento da planta, porém reduziu o crescimento das hifas de G. etunicatum e a colonização das raízes. A concentração de nutrientes dos meios utilizados mostrou efeitos contrastantes entre altura da planta, crescimento das hifas e colonização das raízes por G. etunicatum. A alta concentração de nutrientes no meio Murashige e Skoog estimulou o crescimento das plantas, reduziu o desenvolvimento das hifas e inibiu a colonização das raízes pelo fungo micorrízico. Plantas desenvolvidas em vermiculita mostraram maior

  15. Testicular tumors

    Giovanni Rosti


    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors of the testes represent a unique paradigm of diseases which can be cured even in extremely advanced phase. Unfortunately, this makes them unique among adult solid tumors. Seminoma and non seminoma are relatively rare with approximatively 25,000 patients in Europe per year, but numbers are increasing world wide. Different strategies are needed depending on stage and prognostic scores. Seminoma is extremely sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, while all germ cell tumors show a very good response to chemotherapy. Clinical stage I seminoma is currently treated with radiation, single course carboplatin or surveillance policy. Clinical stage I non seminoma can also be approached with different strategies such as retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, observation or one-two courses of standard chemotherapy. Stage II seminoma may be treated with either radiation or chemotherapy, while for all advanced stages chemotherapy is mandatory. Since the mid-eighties PEB (Cisplatin, Etoposide and Bleomycin is the regimen of choice and no other schedule has proved superior in terms of efficacy. Surgery on the residual disease is crucial to the whole strategy and should be performed or attempted in all cases. Consequently, the correct treatment strategy for these tumors does not depend only on the ability of a single physician, but on a skilled team specialized in this particular tumor. Second line therapies (VeIP, PEI, TIP can cure 25%–40% of patients, but improved strategies for resistant tumors are desperately needed. High-dose chemotherapy has shown very good results in some studies while being less impressive in others. In any case, it should remain an option for relapsing patients and could be used in some cases of upfront chemotherapy in patients with slow marker decline, but this should only be considered in referring centers.

  16. Tumor thrombus

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh


    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......), but most other major branches of the venous vasculature was represented, and some patients had thrombi in several vessels. FDG uptake was linear in 7 patients, linear with a dilated vessel in 6 patients, and focal in 7 patients. The mean SUVmax of the primary tumors was 10.3 (range, 2.6-31.2; median, 6...

  17. Hamartoma angiomatoso écrino: um tumor doloroso Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a painful tumor

    Michelle Larissa Zini Lise


    Full Text Available O hamartoma angiomatoso écrino (HAE é lesão benigna, em geral, congênita. Apresenta-se na maioria dos casos como nódulo ou placa cor da pele ou eritematosa associada ou não à hiperidrose focal e dor. Localiza-se preferencialmente nos membros inferiores, próximo aos joelhos ou nos artelhos, mas lesões na face, região cervical, sacra e tronco foram descritas. O principal diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito com o tumor glômico. Em geral, o HAE tem evolução benigna, havendo relatos de remissão espontânea da dor, sem necessidade de remoção. Contudo, foram descritos casos em que a dor levou à exérese da lesão e mesmo à amputação do membro afetado. Os autores relatam um caso de hamartoma angiomatoso écrino de aparecimento tardio, com sintomatologia exuberante e de difícil tratamento.Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH is a benign lesion usually present at birth. In most cases it presents as a flesh-colored or erythematous nodule or patch. It may or may not be associated with focal hyperhydrosis and pain. It is most commonly located in the lower extremities, near the knee or on the toes, but lesions on the face, sacral and cervical region and trunk have been described. The main differential diagnosis should be made with a glomus tumor. In general, EAH shows benign behavior, and spontaneous remission of pain has been described. Cases have been reported in which the pain led to excision and even to amputation of the affected member. The authors present a case of late onset EAH, with exuberant symptoms, which was difficult to treat.

  18. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico


    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  19. Evolution of the P-type II ATPase gene family in the fungi and presence of structural genomic changes among isolates of Glomus intraradices

    Sanders Ian R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P-type II ATPase gene family encodes proteins with an important role in adaptation of the cell to variation in external K+, Ca2+ and Na2+ concentrations. The presence of P-type II gene subfamilies that are specific for certain kingdoms has been reported but was sometimes contradicted by discovery of previously unknown homologous sequences in newly sequenced genomes. Members of this gene family have been sampled in all of the fungal phyla except the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota, which are known to play a key-role in terrestrial ecosystems and to be genetically highly variable within populations. Here we used highly degenerate primers on AMF genomic DNA to increase the sampling of fungal P-Type II ATPases and to test previous predictions about their evolution. In parallel, homologous sequences of the P-type II ATPases have been used to determine the nature and amount of polymorphism that is present at these loci among isolates of Glomus intraradices harvested from the same field. Results In this study, four P-type II ATPase sub-families have been isolated from three AMF species. We show that, contrary to previous predictions, P-type IIC ATPases are present in all basal fungal taxa. Additionally, P-Type IIE ATPases should no longer be considered as exclusive to the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota, since we also demonstrate their presence in the Zygomycota. Finally, a comparison of homologous sequences encoding P-type IID ATPases showed unexpectedly that indel mutations among coding regions, as well as specific gene duplications occur among AMF individuals within the same field. Conclusion On the basis of these results we suggest that the diversification of P-Type IIC and E ATPases followed the diversification of the extant fungal phyla with independent events of gene gains and losses. Consistent with recent findings on the human genome, but at a much smaller geographic scale, we provided evidence

  20. Effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on [Ca2+]i responses to FCCP and acetate in carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits.

    Sato, M


    The effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on the responses of cytosolic concentrations of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) to acidic stimuli, a protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and an organic acid acetate, were examined in clusters of cultured carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits using fura-2 microfluorometry. Application of FCCP (1 microM) induced an increase in [Ca2+]i (mean +/- S.E.M., 108 +/- 14%). After withdrawal of the protonophore the increased [Ca2+]i returned slowly to a resting level. The [Ca2+]i response was attenuated by an inorganic Ca2+ channel antagonist Ni2+ (2 mM) by 81 +/- 4%, and by an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel antagonist D600 (10 microM) by 53 +/- 13%. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ eliminated the [Ca2+]i response in 71% of the tested cells (n = 17), and depressed it by 68 +/- 6% in the rest. Recovery following stimulation with FCCP in the absence of Ca2+ reversibly produced a rapid and large rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP. The magnitude of a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP (285 +/- 28%, P < 0.05) was larger than that of an increase in [Ca2+]i induced by FCCP in the presence of Ca2+ and had a correlation with the intensity of the suppression of the [Ca2+]i response by Ca2+ removal. A [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP was inhibited mostly by D600. Similarly, recovery following exposure to acetate in the absence of Ca2+ caused a rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/acetate which was sensitive to D600. The magnitude of the [Ca2+]i rise was larger than that of a change in [Ca2+]i caused by acetate in the presence of Ca2+. These results suggest that FCCP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was, in most cells, due to Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and, in some cells, due to both Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ pool. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ might modify [Ca2+]i responses to acidic stimuli, causing [Ca2+]i

  1. Influence of Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices fungi ...


    addition, fungi treatments had no significant effect on dry weights of root and shoot of tomato plants. In ... to an enhanced maximum net photosynthetic rate. Variation in the ... factors of mycorrhizal fungi with three variations (G. etunicatum, G.

  2. Understanding Brain Tumors

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  3. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  4. Brain tumor - children

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  5. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  6. Pediatric brain tumors

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  7. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay


    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  8. Fungos micorrízicos nativos e Glomus clarun no rendimento de trevo vesiculoso cultivado em condições naturais e modificadas pela calagem e aplicação de fósforo Glomus clarun and native mycorrhizal fungi on yield of Trifolium spp. cultivated under natural and modified soil contitions with addition by phosphorus and liming

    Antonio Carlos dos Santos Pessoa


    Full Text Available Em experimento desenvolvido na casa de vegetação na UFSM-RS, avaliou-se o efeito da introdução de fungos micorrizicos arbusculares (fMA Glomus clarum e nativos no rendimento de massa seca (MS e absorção de P pelo trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium spp. e verificou-se a compatibilidade entre a espécie introduzida e os fMA nativos ocorrentes no solo estudado. Os tratamentos/oram constituídos defatorial 4x2x2 com quatro níveis de fMA: G. clarum, fungos nativos, mistura de ambas as populações e controle sem inoculação de fMA: com dois valores de pH: 4,4 e 5,4 e com dois níveis de fósforo disponível (Mehlich l: 6 e ISmg/kg de solo. A introdução de G. clarum isoladamente ou em conjunto com fMA nativos, na condição de pH 4,4, e em baixa disponibilidade de P, aumentou o rendimento de MS e absorção de P. Em disponibilidade intermediária de P (l5mg/kg de solo e pH 5,4 não ocorreu diferença entre os tratamentos inoculados com fMA, mas destes ocorreu diferença para o tratamento sem inoculação, evidenciando a dependência do trevo pela micorrizaçâo. Tratamentos inoculados com G. clarum apresentaram maiores rendimentos de MS, absorção de P, colonização micorrizica e esporulação, mostrando que a introdução dessa espécie pode ser viável quando espécies nativas não são eficientes para a cultura ou tornam-se ineficientes quando a fertilidade do solo é modificada por aplicação de P e/ou calagem.The experiment v/as conducted under greenhouse condition at the University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The objectives were to evaluate the introduction of arbuscular mycorrhizalfúngi (AMF Glomus clarum and natives fungi on the phosphorus uptake and dry matter (DM production from Trifolium spp. and Io verify lhe compatibilily between introduced specie and lhe nativo AMF occurence in lhe studied soil. The treatments was constituled of 4x2x2 factorial withfour AMF leveis: G. clarum, AMf native, mixture of both populations of AMF

  9. Contribución de fósforo al mejoramiento de calidad en Lilium y la relación con Glomus fasciculatum y Bacillus subtilis Phosphorus contribution to improving quality in Lilium and its relationship with Glomus fasciculatum and Bacillus subtilis

    Martín Rubí Arriaga


    Full Text Available Lilium sp. se ubica entre las especies de mayor importancia en la producción de flores de corte en México, pero su cultivo se basa en la utilización de cantidades importantes de fertilizantes químicos, por lo que es deseable minimizar el impacto sobre el ecosistema sin disminuir la calidad del producto. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar los efectos principales y las interacciones de fósforo, Glomus fasciculatum y Bacillus subtilis, sobre la calidad comercial de flores de Lilium híbrido oriental Showwinner en condiciones de invernadero. En dos ciclos consecutivos entre 2007 y 2008 se estudiaron 12 tratamientos bajo un arreglo factorial 2*3*2 aplicando análisis de varianza, comparación de medias de tratamientos con la prueba de la diferencia mínima significativa (DMS, p= 0.05 y análisis de componentes principales. G. fasciculatum, 22 µgml-1 de fósforo y B. subtilis tuvieron correlación positiva con peso seco de raíz, altura de la planta, peso seco deltallo, ancho de pétalo, diámetro de la flor, peso seco de la flor, vida de la flor, período de floración y concentración en los tallos de zinc (Zn, cobre (Cu, potasio (K, nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y calcio (Ca. Estos resultados muestran que los microorganismos rizósfericos utilizados, pueden interactuar positivamente para promover el crecimiento y el desarrollo de la planta y mejorar la calidad de Lilium sp. con 22 µg ml-1 de fósforo.Lilium sp. is among the most important species in the production of cut-flowers in Mexico, but its cultivation is based on the use of significant amounts of chemical fertilizers, so it is desirable to minimize the impact on the ecosystem without compromising the product quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the main effects and interactions of phosphorus, Glomus fasciculatum and Bacillus subtilis, on the commercial quality of flowers of Lilium oriental hybrid Showwinner under greenhouse conditions. In two consecutive cycles

  10. Histological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy vs mucosal cutting biopsy

    Ikehara, Hisatomo; Li, Zhaoliang; Watari, Jiro; Taki, Masato; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Ohda, Yoshio; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Ikuo; Hirota, Seiichi; Miwa, Hiroto


    AIM: To compare the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) without cytology and mucosal cutting biopsy (MCB) in the histological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumor (SMT). METHODS: We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield, feasibility, and safety of EUS-FNAB and those of MCB based on endoscopic submucosal dissection. The cases of 20 consecutive patients with gastric SMT ≥ 1 cm in diameter. who underwent both EUS-FNAB and MCB were investigated. RESULTS: The histological diagnoses were gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 7), leiomyoma (n = 6), schwannoma (n = 2), aberrant pancreas (n = 2), and one case each of glomus tumor, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and no-diagnosis. The tumors’ mean size was 23.6 mm. Histological diagnosis was made in 65.0% of the EUS-FNABs and 60.0% of the MCBs, a nonsignificant difference. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic yield concerning the tumor location or tumor size between the two methods. However, diagnostic specimens were significantly more frequently obtained in lesions with intraluminal growth than in those with extraluminal growth by the MCB method (P = 0.01). All four SMTs with extraluminal growth were diagnosed only by EUS-FNAB (P = 0.03). No complications were found in either method. CONCLUSION: MCB may be chosen as an alternative diagnostic modality in tumors showing the intraluminal growth pattern regardless of tumor size, whereas EUS-FNAB should be performed for SMTs with extraluminal growth. PMID:26468338

  11. 一种永生化的大鼠颈动脉血管球细胞系的生化特性%The neurochemical properties of an immortalized glomus cell line from the carotid body of rat



    目的 神经干细胞在帕金森病的治疗中有十分巨大的潜在价值,然而,神经干细胞含有多种神经细胞成分,目前选择性分离纯化其中的多巴胺能神经元尚不完全成熟.在这里我们报告一种来自颈动脉体的克隆细胞系.方法 我们用逆转录病毒转导SV40 T抗原和Cre/lox P到大鼠颈动脉血管球细胞使其永生化,然后这些原癌基因被腺病毒转导的Cre重组酶切除.结果 克隆的血管球细胞表达高水平的酪氨酸羟化酶免疫反应性物质并且选择性地释放多巴胺.这些克隆细胞几乎不表达多巴胺转运体(DAT)而且抵抗多巴胺和MPTP介导的神经毒性.结论 克隆的血管球细胞可能为帕金森病的治疗提供一种新的方法.%Objective Embryonic stem cells (ES) are potentially useful for treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, ES cells contain a mixed population of neurons, and selective enrichment of dopaminergic components remains difficult. Here, we report that a dopaminergic clonal cell line developed from carotid body. Methods Glomus cells of the rat carotid body were conditionally immortalized by retroviral transfer of the SV40 T antigen and Cre/lox P elements. The oncogene was subsequently removed adenoviral delivery of the Cre recombinase. Results Cloned glomus cells expressed high levels of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity and selectively released dopamine in culture. Remarkably, they expressed little dopamine transporter DAT, and were resistant to dopamine- and MPTP-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusion Immortalized glomus cell line might provide an alternative way to the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Management of three carotid body tumors and review of the topic

    Torres-Morientes LM


    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Carotid paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from the carotid body paraganglia. They grow slowly and only big tumours come to cause neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiological findings, and curative treatment is radical surgery. Supported by clinical reports we review the ethiology, clinical presentation and treatments options, along with possible complications. Case reports: We present three cases of carotid paragangliomas. The first case is a 61yo man referred from another center after the incidental finding of a left carotid paraganglioma on a radiological test. The second case is a 57yo patient with a long lasting right lateral neck tumor. In both cases the lesions were resected with the pathological diagnosis of carotid glomus. The third case is a 80yo patient with a large left carotid paraganglioma in whom observation was decided. Discussion: Carotid paragangliomas are a rare benign disease originated in the carotid body. They are included in the cervico-facial paragangliomas. The most frequent presentation is a painless slow-growing mass. The treatment of choice is a radical surgery after embolization. Conclusions: Carotid paragangliomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical tumors; imaging assessment is essential. Preoperative embolization to decrease the potential for intraoperative bleeding is imperative in the surgical management of paragangliomas.

  13. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...... presents an overview of the cell-specific biogenesis of CCK peptides, and a description of the CCK expression in tumors and of the cholecystokininoma syndrome. Finally, assays for the diagnosis of CCK-producing tumors are reviewed....


    Lorelí Mirabal


    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA son endosimbiontes obligados, presentes en muchos ecosistemas naturales y agrícolas, con gran responsabilidad en la integridad fisiológica de la planta. Esta investigación se basa en la realización de diferentes aislamientos de Glomus clarum, proveniente de cultivos puros del cepario del INCA. Se aislaron y purificaron 25 cepas bacterianas endospóricas, a las cuales se les realizaron varias pruebas morfológicas y bioquímicas, siendo muy interesantes la aerobiosis y la capacidad nitrofijadora. Tres cepas bacterianas aisladas tienen características coincidentes con el endófito diazótrofo Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus. Además, se estableció un método efectivo para la desinfección total de la pared externa de las esporas de HMA.

  15. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor


    Feb 3, 2015 ... Key words: Bronchial carcinoid tumor, diagnosis, outcome, treatment, West .... They can present with carcinoid syndrome, Cushing's ... 2012 reported BCT as a rare differential of pulmonary ... Management of carcinoid tumors.

  16. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  17. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  18. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  19. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  20. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the United States are diagnosed with Merkel cell skin cancer each year. Almost all people diagnosed with the ...

  1. Contaminação do solo com antraceno e creosoto e o crescimento vegetal e a colonização micorrízica pelo Glomus etunicatum Soil contamination with anthracene and creosote: impact on plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus etunicatum

    Alessandra Monteiro de Paula


    Full Text Available A contaminação do solo por compostos orgânicos, especialmente os hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs de petróleo, é um problema crescente e que traz graves conseqüências ambientais. Para avaliar os impactos causados por esses compostos, torna-se necessário conhecer seus efeitos sobre as plantas e a microbiota rizosférica associada. No presente estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos de antraceno e creosoto no crescimento e na colonização micorrízica de Brachiaria brizantha e Pueraria phaseoloides. Antraceno e creosoto foram aplicados a um solo infestado com o fungo micorrízico Glomus etunicatum, sendo: antraceno nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 solo; e creosoto nas concentrações de 0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 3 g kg-1 solo. O solo com os tratamentos foi colocado em tubetes (290 cm³ e semeado com as plantas-teste, as quais foram cultivadas por seis semanas. Verificou-se que o antraceno não afetou o crescimento da puerária e teve pequeno estímulo no crescimento da braquiária na dose mais baixa, enquanto o creosoto reduziu o crescimento da braquiária e não teve efeito na puerária. Entretanto, ambos os contaminantes inibiram a colonização micorrízica da puerária, atingindo redução de cerca de 90 % em relação ao controle. Em concentrações bem inferiores às encontradas em solos contaminados, a colonização micorrízica foi inibida em 50 %, ficando evidente o potencial de impacto desses poluentes na relação planta-fungo micorrízico. Na braquiária não foi encontrada colonização micorrízica. Fica evidenciada a resposta diferenciada das duas espécies estudadas aos contaminantes e o acentuado efeito negativo destes sobre a colonização micorrízica. A puerária, por ter se mostrado insensível aos HAPs, nas concentrações estudadas, apresenta potencial para aplicação na fitorremediação de áreas impactadas por esses contaminantes.Soil contamination by organic compounds, especially by the petroleum

  2. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Nila; F.Moeloek


    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  3. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Endocrine Tumor Endocrine Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Endocrine Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  4. 接种摩西球囊霉对盐胁迫条件下盐地碱蓬叶片SOD和CAT活性的影响%Effects of Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus mosseae on SOD and CAT Activity in Suaeda salsa Seedlings under Salt Stress

    李涛; 段迪; 杨青; 王宝山


    [Objective] Under salt stress condition, effects of inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Clomus mosseae on SOD and CAT activity in Suaeda salsa seedlings under salt stress were studied. [Method] There were 2 NaCl levels, namely 0 and 400 mmol/L and each NaCl contained 2 treat-ments, one is inoculated by Glomus mosseae and the other is control. The growths of Suaeda salsa, SOD and CAT activities as well as MDA content in leav-es was determined. [Result] Under salt stress condition, Glomus mosseae could increase the growths of Suaeda salsa, SOD and CAT activities in leaves and decreased MDA content in leaves. [Conclusion] It preliminarily demonstrated that Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi could increase salt resistance of Suaecla salsa by increasing the activities of SOD and CAT as well as alleviating membrane injury.

  5. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie


    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  6. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    McNeill, Katharine A


    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  7. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)


    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  8. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors


    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, t...

  9. 不同磷水平下摩西球囊霉对小麦幼苗生长的影响%Effects of Glomus mosseae on the growth of wheat seedlings under different phosphorus concentration

    曹翠玲; 杨建红; 范淑君; 李学俊


    在沙培条件下采用双因素正交设计,单孢子接种、套袋密闭培养方法,探究了在低磷(1 μmol/L)和高磷(400 μmol/L)条件下小麦幼苗根系接种球囊霉属的摩西球囊霉孢子后,对小麦农艺形态、生理指标及干物质累积的影响.结果表明:在低磷条件下接种摩西球囊霉后,小麦株高比对照增加13%,根系干重增加26%,地上部增加29%,植株干重增加34%;不论高磷还是低磷水平,接种摩西球囊霉后小麦叶片水势均低于对照水平;幼苗根系活力分别比对照提高了196%(1μmol/L P)和89%(400 μmol/L P),叶绿素含量升高;根系和叶片可溶性蛋白含量均高出对照.因此,小麦和摩西球囊霉真菌能形成较好的共生互惠体系.%In order to investigate the influence of inoculation of Glomus mosseae on the wheat growth under low phosphorus level (1 jimol/L) and high phosphorus level (400 ftmol/L), a single-spore inoculation method was used, and during training sunbags was used to cover the whole pot in order to avoid the influence caused by other fungi. Hie wheat was cultvated in sand supplied with Hogland solution containing different P concentration, and wheat seedlings were inoculated with the spore of Glomus mosseae. The results showed that: compared with the uninoculated wheat, the inoculation increasd the height, root dry weight and plant dry weight of wheat seedings. Whether high phosphorus level or low phosphorus level, inoculated with C. Mosseae fungi, the water potetial of leaf was lower than that of uninoculation; the root activity was increased by 196% (1 /nmol/L P) and 89% (400 ftmol/L); and content of chlorophyll was added; and content of soluble protein was increased clearly in root and leaf. Our conclusion was that wheat and C. Mosseae fungi could form good symbiont.

  10. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis. [Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck; Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))


    Translocation of {sup 14}C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. {times} Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the {sup 14}C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems.

  11. 丛枝菌根真菌的钙调素基因在共生过程中的作用%The Roles of Calmodulin Gene of Glomus intraradices in Symbiosis Process

    熊珊珊; 赵斌


    通过对丛枝菌根真菌(Glomus intraradices)中分离得到的钙调素基因序列进行分析,并利用实时荧光定量PCR(Real time PCR)研究该基因在共生体形成早期不同时间段的差异表达,以及在菌根共生体形成后,经胁迫处理,观察钙调素基因的表达量变化.荧光定量PCR结果表明,丛枝菌根真菌在与植物的共生过程中,存在钙离子激增现象,表明钙调素基因在共生早期的钙离子信号转导方面具有调控作用,而且在菌根真菌共生早期的菌丝生长过程中钙调素的调控作用可能与肌球蛋白的辅助有关.

  12. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  13. Tumor suppressor ARF

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles


    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  14. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Cancer Foundation joins the PBTF Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  15. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  16. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    ... and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do not produce hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary ...

  17. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E


    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  18. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk


    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  19. Rhabdoid Tumor Mimicking Hemangioma

    Assen, Yvette J.; Madern, Gerard C.; de Laat, Peter C. J.; den Hollander, Jan C.; Oranje, Arnold P.


    We report a young boy with a malignant tumor, which remained unrecognized for 8 months because it was assumed to be a hemangioma. The presentation of a rhabdoid tumor mimicking hemangioma is very rare. It was reported only on two earlier occasions. Rhabdoid tumors are one of the most aggressive type

  20. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  1. Rhabdoid Tumor Mimicking Hemangioma

    Assen, Yvette J.; Madern, Gerard C.; de Laat, Peter C. J.; den Hollander, Jan C.; Oranje, Arnold P.


    We report a young boy with a malignant tumor, which remained unrecognized for 8 months because it was assumed to be a hemangioma. The presentation of a rhabdoid tumor mimicking hemangioma is very rare. It was reported only on two earlier occasions. Rhabdoid tumors are one of the most aggressive

  2. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)

    Singh, Neeraj; Sahai, Sharad; Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita


    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare entity and represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Dr. J J Pindborg (1958) first described four cases of this unusual lesion; subsequently Shafer et al coined the term Pindborg tumor. This lesion is a locally aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue. It occurs most commonly in 4th-5th-6th decade of life and bears no gender predilection. A case of CEOT in a 50-year-old male arising in the left body region is described. PMID:22639521

  3. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Tambet eTeesalu


    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  4. Tumors in invertebrates

    F Tascedda


    Full Text Available Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathology, which can create misunderstandings in some occasions.

  5. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  6. Tumor interstitial fluid

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.


    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...

  7. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Zhi-yi Sha


    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  8. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J


    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  9. Inibição da colonização por Bradyrhizobium elkanii mas não por Glomus intraradices em soja pelo ativador de defesa vegetal BTH

    Hoffmann Lúcia Vieira


    Full Text Available O produto BTH controla doenças através da ativação dos mecanismos de resistência de plantas, cujo modo de ação tem sido caracterizado através da identificação de genes ou enzimas ativados durante esta reação. Os mesmos genes e enzimas podem ser ativados como parte da reação das plantas à colonização por microssimbiontes mutualistas. Então, a aplicação de BTH pode inibir também essas simbioses. Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar se BTH tem efeito sobre a colonização de raízes de soja pelos microssimbiontes Glomus intraradices e Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Plantas controle ou inoculadas com o fungo micorrízico ou rizóbio foram tratadas com 20 mL de BTH 25 mg L-1 por meio da aplicação em sementes, via radicular ou via foliar. As plantas que receberam aplicação radicular de BTH tiveram desenvolvimento vegetativo reduzido. A colonização de raízes por B. elkanii foi menor nas plantas que receberam aplicação de BTH via radicular do que naquelas não tratadas ou tratadas por via foliar apenas. A colonização de raízes de soja por G. intraradices não foi afetada por BTH em quaisquer dos modos de aplicação. A aplicação radicular de BTH deve ser evitada na cultura da soja. Não há indício de restrição de aplicação foliar do produto.


    Maricela Constantino


    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la etapa y el número de aplicaciones de los biofertilizantes (Azotobacter chroococcum y Glomus intraradices, sobre el crecimiento, biomasa y nutrición de papaya en fase de vivero. También se estudió el efecto de la materia orgánica y su interacción con los biofertilizantes aplicados. Se realizaron 2 experimentos; en el primero se aplicaron 2 inoculaciones, en semillas y después en plántulas, 30 días después de la emergencia. En el segundo se aplicó una inoculación simple en plántulas, 30 días después de la emergencia. Estos experimentos se realizaron utilizando un diseño factorial 5x4 (5 tipos de sustratos x 4 tipos de biofertilizantes. Todos los tratamientos fueron aplicados como inoculantes simples o combinados (A. chroococcum y G. intraradices para un total de 20 tratamientos, con un diseño completamente al azar. La doble inoculación (semilla y plántula promovió un mayor crecimiento y biomasa en el cultivo, en comparación con la inoculación simple (solo en plántulas, cuando se adicionó una dosis intermedia de materia orgánica (25 a 35% y se aplicó G. intraradices como simple inoculante. Sin embargo, la inoculación simple o combinada no modificó el contenido de nutrientes en las plántulas de papaya.

  11. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Unak Perihan


    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  12. Uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Seifirad, Soroush; Abbasi Dezfouli, Golbahar; Abbasi, Neda; Zare Mehrjardi, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are fairly rare in uterus. A case of uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 32-year-old Iranian woman is presented. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain and fever and underwent emergency exploratory surgery with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection. Posterior wall of the uterus was necrotic and ruptured and a huge tumor disrupted the uterine body. The tumor was strongly positive for CD99, NSE, and chromogranin; No reaction was seen for CD10, CD45 and myogenin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor and the second report of uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor from Iran.

  13. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Singhaniya Shikha


    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  14. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor

    Ippili Kaushal


    Full Text Available Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are found in the olfactory bulb and olfactory nasal mucosa. They resemble Schwann cells on light and electron microscopy, however, immunohistochemical staining can distinguish between the two. There are less than 30 cases of olfactory groove schwannomas reported in the literature while there is only one reported case of OEC tumor. We report an OEC tumor in a 42-year-old male and discuss the pathology and origin of this rare tumor.


    Tapia M.,Mauricio; Orellana H.,Ricardo; Cisterna C,Patricio; Gazitúa P,Raimundo; Sepúlveda A.,Rodrigo


    Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de tumores anexiales en el embarazo, la histología tumoral y los resultados perinatales. Pacientes y método: Análisis retrospectivo de 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor anexial y embarazo atendidas en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital San Juan de Dios entre febrero de 2001 a julio de 2004. Resultados: La asociación tumor anexial y embarazo fue 1 en 424 embarazos. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el cistoadenoma seroso (19,2%). La cirugía no alter...

  16. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    Sorenmo, Karin


    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  17. Tumor cell metabolism

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores


    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  18. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor

    K Vasudevan


    Full Text Available Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed.

  19. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Julio Vázquez Palanco


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  20. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P


    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  1. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  2. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    M V Vimal


    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  3. [Prognosis in tumor diagnosis].

    Bruns, G


    This essay on prognosis in tumor diagnosis pathology resp. tumor etiology, cancerogenesis and molecular oncology is the authors personal opinion. Generally tumor diagnosis improves with progress in histo- and cytological methods for example in tumors of the APUD-system and precancerous lesions especially of the breast. Fundamental principle of developed tumor diagnosis is the knowledge of malignant transformation. Its profits favours the etiology in cancerogenesis and e.g. non Hodgkin lymphomas (Burkitt lymphoma, adult T-cell lymphoma) and to result from new methods in molecular biology and viral genetics (DNS-hybridizing, -recombination and gene technology). With the beginning century a stepwise fitted diagnosis of malignant lymphomas is evident up to monoclonal dedifferentiated lymphoid cells and their multifarious phenotypical markers. This concept may be of general significance in tumor diagnosis already indicated in prelymphomas. Finally the present prognosis of tumor diagnosis is evaluated by contents, tasks and strategies of its corresponding research lines in clinical and experimental tumor pathology resp. its organization.

  4. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R


    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  5. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P


    carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs......, particularly of low-grade TC and AC. Locoregional or radiotargeted therapies should be considered for metastatic disease. Systemic chemotherapy is used for progressive PCs, although cytotoxic regimens have demonstrated limited effects with etoposide and platinum combination the most commonly used, however...

  6. Familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

    Elston, Marianne S; McDonald, Kerrie L; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Robinson, Bruce G


    The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

  7. Merkel cell tumor.

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H


    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  8. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors Tumores carcinoides digestivos

    M. J. Varas Lorenzo


    Full Text Available Objective: carcinoid tumors (CTs represent the commonest neuroendocrine tumors. Those in the gastrointestinal tract are diagnosed in surgical specimens, clinically, and using imaging techniques (endoscopy, echoendoscopy, CT, Octreoscan, etc.. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a personal series of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, and to compare it to those in the literature. Patients and methods: the medical records of 40 Caucasian patients with over 50 gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors (including multiple cases who were seen for a period of 16 years (1994-2009 were reviewed. Results: mean age at presentation was 52 years, 50% were females, and mean tumor size was 9.9 mm. Most were gastroduodenal (42.5% or rectal (30%, and were treated endoscopically. Metastases and carcinoid syndrome (CS were seen in 5% of patients. Survival at study endpoint was 85%. Conclusions: age and gender were consistent with the literature. There was an increase in gastroduodenal (multifocal and rectal carcinoids, likely because the series was essentially endoscopical in nature (bias. There was a lower rate of CS and higher survival, likely due to earlier diagnosis and treatment.Objetivo: los tumores carcinoides (TC son los tumores neuroendocrinos más frecuentes. Los digestivos se diagnostican en las piezas quirúrgicas, en la clínica, y mediante los métodos de imagen (endoscopia, ecoendoscopia, TAC y Octreoscan, etc.. El objetivo de este trabajo retrospectivo fue revisar una serie personal de tumores carcinoides digestivos y compararla con la literatura. Pacientes y métodos: se revisaron las historias clínicas de 40 pacientes de raza blanca con más de 50 tumores carcinoides digestivos, algunos múltiples, observados durante 16 años (1994-2009. Resultados: la edad media de presentación fue 52 años, 50% mujeres, con un tamaño medio del tumor de 9,9 mm. La mayoría eran gastroduodenales (42,5% y rectales (30% y fueron tratados por vía endosc

  9. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco


    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, ...

  10. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai


    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  11. The management of parotid tumors

    Guang Yan Yu


    @@ The majority of salivary gland tumors are of epithelial origin. Parotid gland is the most common location of the tumors. Surgery is the main modality for the management of parotid tumors. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy etc are the auxiliary modalities.

  12. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    ... Tumors Treatment Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pituitary Tumors Go to Health Professional ... by many other glands in the body. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  13. Epilepsy and brain tumors



    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  14. Laryngeal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

    Girardi, Fábio M; Fontana, Ciro W; Kroef, Ricardo G; Barra, Marinez B; Detânico, Felipe O; Herter, Nilton T


    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor seldom involves the larynx, as only about 50 to 60 cases have been described in the literature. Even though these tumors are often not aggressive, they have the potential for invasion and local recurrence. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man who was admitted to an emergency department with signs of upper airway obstruction secondary to an obstructive mass. Histology identified the mass as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the subglottis. The patient underwent an emergency tracheotomy followed by a partial laryngectomy. During 14 months of follow-up, he remained free of active disease.

  15. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.


    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  16. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Nikhil A Sangle


    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.


    宋文哲; 宋燕; 叶剑桥; 邱东涛


    As a new member of IAP (inhibitors of apoptosis protein) family, survivin has potent anti-apoptotic activities, and involves in the mitosis and angiogenesis. Researches have demonstrated that surviving is a tumor-specific anti-apoptotic factor, expressed in fetal tissues, and common human cancers, while not in normal, terminally differentiated adult tissues. The overexpression of survivin in tumor tissues is correlated with poor prognosis of the patients. Survivin can be used as a prognostic factor and a new target in tumor targeting therapy.

  18. Myoepithelial Tumors: An Update.

    Jo, Vickie Y


    Primary myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue are uncommon, and have been increasingly characterized by clinicopathologic and genetic means. Tumors are classified as mixed tumor/chondroid syringoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma, and they share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features with their salivary gland counterparts. However, soft tissue myoepithelial tumors are classified as malignant based on the presence of cytologic atypia, in contrast to the criterion of invasive growth in salivary gland sites. This review discusses the clinicopathologic and morphologic characteristics, distinct variants, and currently known genetic alterations of myoepithelial neoplasms of soft tissue, skin, and bone.

  19. Unravelling the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization on arsenic tolerance in Medicago: Glomus mosseae is more effective than G. intraradices, associated with lower expression of root epidermal Pi transporter genes.

    Helle Martha Christophersen


    Full Text Available We used medic (Medicago truncatula to investigate effects of inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and application of arsenate (AsV and phosphate (Pi on mechanisms underlying increased tolerance (in terms of growth of AM plants to AsV. We tested the hypotheses that 1 inoculation with AM fungi results in down-regulation of MtPht1;1 and MtPht1;2 genes (encoding high-affinity Pi- and AsV-uptake systems in the direct root epidermal pathway and up-regulation of the AM-induced MtPht1;4 (responsible for transfer of Pi from the arbuscular interface to cortical cells, and 2 these changes are involved in decreased As uptake relative to P uptake and hence increased As tolerance. We also measured expression of MtMT4, a Pi starvation-inducible gene, other genes encoding Pi-uptake systems (MtPht 1;5 and MtPht1;6 and arsenate reductase (MtACR and phytochelatin synthase (MtPCS, to gain insights into broader aspects of P transfers in AM plants and possible detoxification mechanisms.Medic responded slightly to AM colonization in terms of growth in the absence of As, but positively in P uptake. Both growth and P responses in AM plants were positive when As was applied, indicating As tolerance relative to non-mycorrhizal (NM plants. All AM plants showed high expression of MtPT4 and those inoculated with Glomus mosseae showed higher selectivity against As (shown by P/As molar ratios and much lower expression of MtPht1;1 (and to some extent MtPht1;2 than G. intraradices-inoculated or NM plants. Results are consistent with increased P/As selectivity in AM plants (particularly those inoculated with G. mosseae as a consequence of high P uptake but little or no As uptake via the AM pathway. However, the extent to which selectivity is dependent on down-regulation of direct Pi and AsV uptake through epidermal cells is still not clear. Marked up-regulation of a PCS gene and an ACR gene in AM plants may also be involved and require further investigatio


    Ailemys Curbelo


    Full Text Available El uso de biofertilizantes es un método más seguro en relación con el empleo de fertilizantes de síntesis química, pues contribuye a la preservación del suelo y el medio ambiente. Esta línea de trabajo ha sido desarrollada por el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, mediante la obtención de los biofertilizantes EcoMic® y LicoMic®, cepa Glomus hoi like, lo que implica la realización de ensayos de toxicidad predictivos, con el fin de anular o minimizar la aplicación de compuestos, cuya proporción riesgo/beneficio los haga indeseables para la sociedad. Dentro de las pruebas in vivo descritas para la evaluación genotóxica, se encuentra el ensayo de anormalidades de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratón. Para la evaluación del potencial genotóxico de estos dos biofertilizantes, se realizó dicho ensayo empleándose ratones de la sublínea Cenp:NMRI, tratados con tres niveles de dosis (20, 40 y 80 esporas.mL-1 de cada producto, además de un control negativo (solución Ringer en EcoMic® y solución osmoprotectora en LicoMic® y uno positivo (Acrilamida 20 en ambos casos. Los resultados de ambos experimentos muestran que las dosis evaluadas no provocan un incremento significativo del porcentaje de espermatozoides anómalos con respecto al control negativo. Así mismo, no se muestra significación estadística en la disminución de la cantidad de espermatozoides con respecto al control negativo. Se concluye que los biofertilizantes evaluados no provocan efectos genotóxicos ni citotóxicos sobre las células germinales de los ratones tratados.

  1. Influence of Glomus Mosseae Inoculation on Plant Growth and Organic Phosphorus Utilization in Intercropping Soybeans%接种AMF对间作大豆生长及有机磷利用的影响

    付先恒; 岳献荣; 夏运生; 谷林静; 张乃明; 董萍; 刘大会


    为了研究接种丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)与间作种植模式对红壤上间作大豆磷素吸收利用及生长的影响,通过三室隔网盆栽模拟试验研究了分室磷[不添加磷(P0)、有机磷(OP50)添加和根室不接种(NM)、根室接种丛枝菌根真菌Glomus mosseae(GM)]对大豆生长及磷素利用的影响.结果表明:在OP50处理下,无论何种种植模式,不接种处理下根长均显著高于接种处理,无论接种与否,单作处理下大豆根长均高于间作处理.在OP50处理下,接种GM处理地上部分生物量均明显高于不接种处理,在P0处理下地上部分生物量具有相同趋势.间作处理下,分室添加磷与不添加磷时,GM处理的植株生物量较NM处理分别提高了27.52%和48.76%.单作处理下,分室添加磷与不添加磷时,GM处理的植株生物量较NM处理分别提高了28.49%和27.65%.大豆植株根系磷含量在单作-GM-OP50组合处理下最高.在接种GM处理下,无论是否添加磷,间作大豆根系磷吸收效率均显著高于单作处理.因此,综合菌根侵染率、生物量、磷含量以及磷吸收效率等指标,接种GM和分室添加50 mg· kg-1有机磷处理能更有效地促进间作大豆的生长及磷素的吸收.

  2. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Jaehong Kim


    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  3. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor

    Gao Jinbo


    Full Text Available Abstract Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  4. Benign Liver Tumors

    ... A Life After Diagnosis Support for Chronic Illness Corporate Partnerships Interview with Kristen Hanks Liver Lowdown July ... Disease , Liver Transplant , Liver Cancer , Liver Tumor , Liver Failure Help Fight Liver Disease We rely upon donations ...


    biology and natural history of a high grade malig- nancy and a ... tumors arise in the gastrointestinal tract and collectively, they are ... jaundice, intra-abdominal mass and bleeding. Patients ... tion of the primary lesion and definition of the extent.

  6. [Radiation induced tumors].

    Gutiérrez Bayard, L; Delgado López, L; Tirado Bejarano, C; Gómez Puerto, A; García Fernández, J L


    Radiations at cellular level produce different effects, depending on type of radiation and irradiated tissue. The radiation-induced cancers are associated to non-letals genetics mutations, and to classify like radiation induced tumors is necessary that appear in the treatment volume, a long latency period (years), histolo-different to the primary lesion, enough doses quantitatively and that exists a greater incidence in the irradiated populations. The genetics mutations affect at tumoral suppressors gen(Gen RB I, p53, BRCA I, BRCA 2) and repressors gen (hMSH 2, hMLH I,...), they could be longer and multifocals mutations, and produce lack of cellular control and a greater predisposition to develop tumors and a probable risk of increment of radiosensitivity. We present some of the more representatives studies about radiation-induced tumors.

  7. Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia

    Johnson Thomas


    Full Text Available Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH is a rare cause of hypoglycemia. It is characterized by increased glucose utilization by tissues mediated by a tumor resulting in hypoglycemia. NICTH is usually seen in large mesenchymal tumors including tumors involving the GI tract. Here we will discuss a case, its pathophysiology, and recent advances in the management of NICTH. Our patient was diagnosed with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. He continued to be hypoglycemic even after starting continuous tube feeds and D5W. General workup for hypoglycemia was negative and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II was in the normal range. Hypoglycemia secondary to “big” IGF II was considered, and patient was started on steroids. His hypoglycemia resolved within a day of treatment with steroids. Initially patient had hypoglycemia unawareness, which he regained after maintaining euglycemia for 48 hours.

  8. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  9. Brain Tumors and Fatigue

    ... can help calm the mind. Meditation, guided imagery, music therapy, and yoga are just a few worth investigating. Home Donor and Privacy Policies Find Resources Disclaimer Donate Subscribe Login American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste ...

  10. [Metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumors].

    Bouledrak, K; Walter, T; Souquet, P J; Lombard-Bohas, C


    Bronchial carcinoids are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms and represent 1 to 2 % of all lung tumors. In early stage of disease, the mainstay and only curative treatment is surgery. Bronchial carcinoids are generally regarded as low-grade carcinomas and metastatic dissemination is unusual. The management of the metastatic stage is not currently standardized due to a lack of relevant studies. As bronchial carcinoids and in particular their metastatic forms are rare, we apply treatment strategies that have been evaluated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, bronchial carcinoids have their own characteristic. A specific therapeutic feature of these metastatic tumors is that they require a dual approach: both anti-secretory for the carcinoid syndrome, and anti-tumoral.

  11. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N


    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  12. Overview of Heart Tumors

    ... develop in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericardium). Tumors in the pericardium may squeeze (constrict) the heart, preventing it from ... Heart wall Fibroma Hemangioma Rhabdomyoma Outside surface Lipoma Pericardium (outer sac covering heart) Pericardial cyst Base of ...


    Luigi eTornillo


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  14. Brain Tumor Surgery

    ... Meningitis Brain swelling Stroke Excess fluid in the brain Coma Death Recovery Time Recovery time depends on: The procedure performed. The part of the brain where the tumor is/was located. The areas ...

  15. Tracheal and bronchial tumors.

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Brandigi, Elisa; Paraboschi, Irene; Khen-Dunlop, Nazhia; Hervieux, Erik; Muller, Cecile; Mattioli, Girolamo; Sarnacki, Sabine; Torre, Michele


    Although primary tracheobronchial tumors are extremely rare in children, recurrent respiratory symptoms resistant to conventional therapy require further investigations to exclude possible malignant obstructive causes. As the matter of fact, early diagnosis may allow minimally invasive surgeries, improving the standard of living and the globally survival rate. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of diagnosis and management of tracheobronchial tumors in the early age, since only few reports are reported in the worldwide literature.

  16. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R


    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  17. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N


    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  18. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    R.C. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  19. Tumores cartilaginosos da laringe

    Thomé Robert


    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores cartilaginosos da laringe são raros, sendo a cartilagem cricóide a mais acometida. A raridade desses tumores tem como conseqüência experiência limitada e, portanto, o conhecimento a respeito destas neoplasias apresenta pontos obscuros. Objetivo: Apresentar os resultados cirúrgicos bem como o seguimento a longo prazo de 6 pacientes com tumores cartilaginosos da laringe, 4 condrossarcomas de baixa malignidade e 2 condromas. Forma de estudo: Retrospectivo não randomizado. Material e método: Cinco dos tumores acometiam a cartilagem cricóide e 1 a tireóide. Os pacientes foram submetidos a laringectomia parcial (4 e total (2, com seguimento de 6 a 30 anos (média-19,5 anos. Resultados: Nenhum dos pacientes apresentou metástase ou morte relacionada ao tumor. A sobrevida alcançada por 5 anos foi de 100% e a por 20 anos, 67%, sendo a comorbidade responsável por tal decréscimo. Conclusões: Nossos resultados reforçam o conceito de que a laringectomia conservadora seja a modalidade ideal de tratamento, reservando a ressecção total para tumores extensos ou casos de recorrência. Há indícios de que 5 anos pode não ser tempo suficiente para observar recorrência no condrossarcoma de baixo grau de malignidade.

  20. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd


    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  1. Tumor del cuerpo carotídeo: Presentación de un caso por ecografía y resonancia magnética Carotid body tumor: A case presentation with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Marcelo Cabrini


    Full Text Available El tumor de cuerpo carotídeo, que se origina en los quimiorreceptores de dicha estructura, representa hasta el 50% de los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello. En forma frecuente, constituye un hallazgo incidental (asintomático, aunque en algunos casos los pacientes pueden consultar por una masa indolora, ronquera, paresia lingual y/o disfagia. Sus características imagenológicas permiten una aproximación diagnóstica no invasiva con altos índices de sensibilidad y especificidad, por lo que su conocimiento facilita la conducta clínico-terapéutica. Se presenta un caso clínico que resulta particularmente elocuente para la práctica diaria, ya que la paciente tiene antecedentes quirúrgicos por patología tiroidea maligna, hecho que precisa una aproximación diagnóstica estricta para su correcto seguimiento.The carotid body tumor, which arises from its chief cells (glomus type 1, is the most common paraganglioma of the head and neck (up to 50%. This tumor is in most cases clinically silent and is detected incidentally at imaging study during evaluation of patients with unrelated symptoms such as painless, slowly growing lateral neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, and paresia or atrophy of the tongue. According to its appearance, precise non-invasive imaging techniques may allow the radiologist to reach the correct diagnosis and treatment. The following case report is particularly useful for daily practice; the patient has surgical history of tiroid neoplasm which requires a thorough diagnosis, in order to determine an accurate follow-up.

  2. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    H. Segers (Heidi)


    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years,

  3. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana


    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  4. Brain tumors in infants

    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi


    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  5. Metastatic Brain Tumors

    Ersin Haciyakupoglu


    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor is secondary spread to the central nervous system of primer systemic cancers originating from tissues other than the central nervous system. In adults; there are metastases respectively from lungs, breasts, malign melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, colon and thyroid cancers. 30-60% of lung cancers metastasis to the brain. In children there are quite a few cerebral metastases. Most commonly leukemia, lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and germ cell tumors metastasis to the brain. %50 of malign melanoma, lung, breast and colon cancers intend to make multipl metastases but renal cell cancers intend to make solitary metastasis.While lung cancers metastasis to brain in 6-9 months after the definitive diagnosis, renal cancers in 1 year, colon cancers in 2 years, breast cancers and malign melanoma in 3 years metastasis to brain. In 6% of cases there are cerebral metastasis while there isn’t a symptom of a primary tumor. For treatment corticosteroids, surgery, Radiotherapy(RT, Chemotherapy(CT and Stereotactic Radiosurgery(SRS can be implemented. Small cell lung cancers, lymphoma, germ cell tumors are sensitive to RT and CT. Non small cell lung cancers, renal, colon cancers and malign melanoma are radioresistant. The purposes in the surgery of the metastatic brain tumors are; total resection of tumors without neurologic deficits, decreasing the intracranial pressure and decreasing the dose of postoperative radiotherapy. Key Words: Metastatic brain tumors, Stereotactic radiosurgery, Malign melanoma, Lung cancers, Renal cell carcinoma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 191-202

  6. Tumores neonatales bucomaxilofaciales Neonatal buccomaxillofacial tumors

    Zoila del S. López Díaz


    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo, lineal y retrospectivo por un período de 10 años, de 11 recién nacidos (edad 0-30 días, quienes al nacer presentan en la región bucomaxilofacial un tumor que les ocasiona de manera determinante compromiso para la ventilación y/o alimentación, por lo que se hace necesario realizarles a todos de manera inmediata, tratamiento quirúrgico para preservarles la vida. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, color de la piel, diagnóstico, tumoraciones que se presentaron con mayor frecuencia, compromiso para la ventilación y/o alimentación, procederes y mortalidad. Los datos se recogieron en una planilla confeccionada al efecto, lo que permitió establecer resultados y confeccionar tablas. Se concluye que en nuestro estudio este tipo de tumoración afectó con mayor frecuencia al sexo femenino y a niños de piel blanca; y el tipo de tumoración observada con mayor frecuencia fueron las malformaciones vasculares de tipo linfático (linfangiomas gigantes o higromas quísticos, así como y los teratomas bucofaríngeos, con una mortalidad de alrededor del 27,3 % en estas edades neonatales.A descriptive, lineal and retrospective study of 11 newborn infants aged 0-30 days was conducted. They presented a tumor in the buccomaxillofacial region that compromised their ventilation and/or nutrition, which made necessary to immediately perform surgery to preserve their lives. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, colour of the skin, diagnosis, the most common tumours, compromise for ventilation and/or nutrition, procedures and mortality. Data were collected in a form that allowed to establish results and to make tables. It was concluded that this type of tumor affected mostly females and white children. The most commonly observed tumors were vascular lymphatic malformations (giant lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas, as well as buccopharyngeal teratomas, with a mortality around 27.3 % at these neonatal ages.

  7. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    Segers, Heidi


    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years, and 90% of the patients are diagnosed before the age of 7 years. Above the age of 18 years, Wilms tumor is rare, representing less than 1% of all adult renal tumors. Most pediatric Wilms tumor patien...

  8. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)


    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  9. Thermoradiotherapy of malignant tumors

    Hatano, Kazuo; Itami, Jun; Arimizu, Noboru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Uno, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shiina, Takeki; Mikuriya, Shuuichi; Yamada, Tsunehisa


    From October 1986 to June 1989, 79 patients with malignant tumors were treated by radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia at National Medical Center Hospital. Seventy two patients (male: 48, female: 23) were evaluable. Average age was 62.4 years old (ranged 20-81 years old). Irradiation was delivered twice to fifth weekly in tumor doses of 50 to 60 Gy (TDF 82-122). We used 3 types of hyperthermic equipment, Thermotron RF8, BSD 1000 System and Endoradiotherm 100A. Hyperthermia was initiated within 30 minutes following irradiation, most of the patients being treated with adequate equipment, 41-44degC, for 60-70 minutes every 72 hours. Fifteen of 71 patients (20.8%) showed a complete response and 36 patients (50%) showed a partial response, so effective rate was 70.8% of all. In superficial tumors, 4 of 21 patients (21.5%) showed a complete response and 8 of 21 patients showed a partial response, effective rate was 63.2% of all. In deep seated tumor, 10 of 46 patients (21.7%) showed a complete response and 25 of all patients showed a partial response, so effective rate was 76.1% of all. Five patients were heated following only intra-tumor injection of OK-432 and its effective rate was 75%. We think that this modality of therapy will be effective in cases which heating area had been irradiated over tolerable doses. CR rate of superficial tumors according to intra-tumor center temperature tends to higher in the cases of higher tumor temperature. In deep seated tumor, 11 patients (23.9%) had reached over 43degC, 29 patients (63.0%) heated 41-43degC, 6 patients (13.0%) heated under 41degC and CR rate of each group were 36.4%, 17.2%, 16.7%, respectively. We think that thermotherapy with irradiation is an effective therapy in the treatment of malignancies but the improvement of heating equipment will be expected. (author).

  10. CNS Tumors in Neurofibromatosis.

    Campian, Jian; Gutmann, David H


    Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2. Although children with NF1 are at risk for developing low-grade gliomas of the optic pathway and brainstem, individuals with NF2 typically manifest low-grade tumors affecting the cranial nerves (vestibular schwannomas), meninges (meningiomas), and spinal cord (ependymomas). With the identification of the NF1 and NF2 genes, molecularly targeted therapies are beginning to emerge, as a result of a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying NF1 and NF2 protein function. As we enter into an era of precision oncology, a more comprehensive awareness of the factors that increase the risk of developing CNS cancers in affected individuals, coupled with a greater appreciation of the cellular and molecular determinants that maintain tumor growth, will undoubtedly yield more effective therapies for these cancer predisposition syndromes.

  11. Extraovarian granulosa cell tumor

    Paul Prabir


    Full Text Available Extraovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT is a very uncommon tumor, assumed to arise from the ectopic gonadal tissue along the embryonal route of the genital ridge. One such rare case of extraovarian GCT was encountered in a 58-year-old female who presented with a large intraabdominal lump. Computerized tomography revealed one large retroperitoneal mass measuring 15cm x 16cm and another mesenteric mass of 8cm x 5cm size. The patient had a history of hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy 20 years ago for uterine leiomyoma. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration smears revealed cytological features suggestive of GCT. Histopathological examination of the excised masses showed features of adult-type GCT. Because metastatic epithelial tumors, particularly from the ovaries, may show identical morphology, immunostains for inhibin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA were performed. The tumor showed positivity for inhibin while EMA was negative thus confirming the diagnosis of GCT. As this patient had no previous history of GCT and was oophorectomized 20 years ago, the tumor was considered as extraovarian. A diagnosis of extraovarian GCT should be carried out after excluding any previous history of GCT of the ovary. Immunostains help to differentiate GCTs from other neoplasms.

  12. Endolymphatic sac tumor : a rare cerebellopontine angle tumor.

    Joseph B


    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST are rare papillary tumors of the temporal bone. Previously named as aggressive papillary middle ear tumors, they have recently been shown to arise from the endolymphatic sac. They are a rare in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA. We present a case of an ELST who presented as a CPA tumor with hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt initially. On exploration of the CP angle, the tumor was found to be extremely vascular. He was re-explored following embolization, and a subtotal excision of the tumor was done. Extensive petrous bone infiltration and vascularity of the tumor makes total excision almost impossible with high risk of cranial nerve deficits, excessive blood loss and CSF leak. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular CPA tumors which erode the petrous temporal bone. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  13. Upper urinary tract tumors

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd


    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  14. Benign notochordal cell tumors.

    Martínez Gamarra, C; Bernabéu Taboada, D; Pozo Kreilinger, J J; Tapia Viñé, M


    Benign notochordal cell tumors (TBCN) are lesions with notochordal differentiation which affect the axial skeleton. They are characterized by asymptomatic or non-specific symptomatology and are radiologically unnoticed because of their small size, or because they are mistaken with other benign bone lesions, such as vertebral hemangiomas. When they are large, or symptomatic, can be differential diagnosis with metastases, primary bone tumors and chordomas. We present a case of a TBCN in a 50-year-old woman, with a sacral lesion seen in MRI. A CT-guided biopsy was scheduled to analyze the lesion, finding that the tumor was not clearly recognizable on CT, so the anatomical references of MRI were used to select the appropriate plane. The planning of the approach and the radio-pathological correlation were determinant to reach the definitive diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou


    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  16. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C. [LIMOS UMR 7137 CNRS-UHP Nancy - Faculty of Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)


    (Medicago sativa L.), inoculated or not with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and fertilized with Hewitt solution. Control non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were included. There was four replicates per treatment. After 2 months, plant survival and growth was measured, as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots. PAH in rhizosphere soils was analyzed using ASE and GC-FID. Major and trace elements in plants were analyzed after acid digestion using ICP. AM fungal and bacterial communities present in roots and rhizosphere were also analysed after DNA extraction with a PCR-TGGE technique. Plant survival rate was significantly lower in the soil treated with bio-pile than in untreated soil. Non-inoculated and non fertilized alfalfa biomass was lower with soil treated with bio-pile and thermal desorption than with untreated soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation as well as fertilization significantly improved alfalfa growth in the soil treated with bio-pile. In the soil treated with thermal desorption, shoot and root biomass were significantly higher with mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization. Estimation of root colonization showed that the roots of un-inoculated plants growing on the untreated contaminated soil contained indigenous mycorrhizal fungi. With the soil treated with bio-pile, mycorrhizal colonization of un-inoculated plants was significantly lower, while no colonization was observed in the roots in the soil treated with thermal desorption. Inoculation with a mycorrhizal fungus increased root colonization rate in both treated soils. It also significantly increased the number of rhizobia nodules. Phosphorus concentration in plant roots and shoots was significantly improved by mycorrhizal inoculation in soil treated with thermal desorption. Data on PAH concentration in soils and fungal and bacterial communities will be also presented and discussed.

  17. Effects of Inoculations ofGlomus mosseae and/or Rhizobium on Potted Bean Growth%AM真菌与根瘤菌接种对菜豆生长的影响

    李雅慧; 盖京苹; 陈清; 李志芳


    Under greenhouse condition,common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris Linn.)‘Taiguowujindidou’ was sowed in pots to estimate the effects of different inoculation ways on bean’s plant growth,nodulation,total pod weight of single plant,AM colonization rate,nitrogen and phosphorus contents and absorption of bean plant. When seeding,the beans were inoculated with Glomusmosseae(AM),rhizobia(RH),Glomus mosseae and rhizobia(AM+RH),and the beans without inoculation were taken as the control(CK). The results indicated that dual inoculation(AM+RH) could obviously promote the plant growth of beans. Compared with inoculation with Glomusmosseae(AM),rhizobia(RH)and none(CK),the plant total dry weight of the beans inoculated with AM+RH increased 34.3%, 82.3% and 57.9%, respectively. Besides,the dual inoculation could increase the total pod weight of single plant and promote bean’s absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus. The phosphorus absorption of total plant was increased by 42.1%, 314.8% and 325.4%, respectively than that by AM,RH and CK. While,the nitrogen absorption of total plant was increased by 36.8%,45.1% and 43.4%, respectively than that by AM,RH and CK. The Glomusmosseae and rhizobia had synergistic effect on common bean,and the Glomusmosseae could effectively improve bean’s resistance, reduce the yellow leaf ratio, and thus decrease the occurrence of diseases.%以泰国无筋地豆为试材,在温室盆栽的条件下,分别单接种丛枝菌根真菌(AM)、单接种根瘤菌(RH)、双接种丛枝菌根真菌和根瘤菌(AM+RH),以不接种为对照(CK),研究不同接种方式对菜豆植株生长、结瘤、单株总荚质量、AM菌根侵染率、植株氮磷含量及吸收量、单株黄叶率等的影响。结果表明:双接种AM+RH能显著促进菜豆植株的生长,植株总干质量比单接种AM、单接种RH和CK分别增加34.3%、82.3%和57.9%;双接种AM+RH可提高菜豆单株总荚质量,促进菜豆植株对氮、磷元

  18. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Nathan Roberts


    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  19. Ghost Cell Tumors.

    Sheikh, Jason; Cohen, Molly D; Ramer, Naomi; Payami, Ali


    Ghost cell tumors are a family of lesions that range in presentation from cyst to solid neoplasm and in behavior from benign to locally aggressive or metastatic. All are characterized by the presence of ameloblastic epithelium, ghost cells, and calcifications. This report presents the cases of a 14-year-old girl with a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a 65-year-old woman with a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) with dysplastic changes, a rare locally invasive tumor of odontogenic epithelium. The first patient presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph displayed a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion. An incisional biopsy yielded a diagnosis of CCOT. Decompression of the mass was completed; after 3 months, it was enucleated and immediately grafted with bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest. The second patient presented with a 3-month history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph depicted a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion with saucerization of the buccal mandibular cortex. An incisional biopsy examination suggested a diagnosis of DGCT because of the presence of ghost cells, dentinoid, and islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Excision of the mass with peripheral ostectomy was completed. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted.

  20. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    Doan, Nhu Thi Quynh; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt; Sehgal, Pankaj


    substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been...

  1. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise


    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  2. Radioembolization of liver tumors

    van den Hoven, AF


    Radioembolization is a therapy during which radioactive microspheres are administered through a microcatheter placed in the hepatic arterial vasculature in order to irradiate liver tumors from within. In the past decennium, this treatment has evolved as a safe and effective treatment option for pati

  3. Tumor ablations in IMRI

    Roberto Blanco Sequeiros


    @@ IntroductionMagnetic resonance imaging based guidance control and monitoring of minimally invasive intervention has developed from a hypothetical concept to a practical possibility. Magnetic-resonance-guided interstitial therapy in principle is defined as a treatment technique for ablating deepseated tumors in the human body.

  4. Intracardiac tumor causing

    Christopher P. Jordan


    Full Text Available The following report describes the case of newborn girl with an asymptomatic systolic murmur, which on imaging revealed a nearly obstructive mass in the left-ventricular outflow tract. The mass was resected and found to be consistent with a rhabdomyoma. Here, we describe the pathologic and clinical characteristics of this tumor.

  5. [2 infrequent vulvar tumors].

    Aguilar, G; Benavides, A; Villanueva, M E


    Two cases of malignant vulvar tumors are presented: a malignant Melanoma and a case of Carcinoma of the Bartholin Gland. Both were diagnosticated during 1993 in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda Hospital. Clinical and anatomophatological aspects are studied.

  6. NO, Immunosuppression and Tumor Immmunotherapy

    Hegardt, Pontus


    This study aims at clarifying the role of NO in the immunosuppression induced by in vivo tumor growth and by tumor immunotherapy, and determining whether the inhibition of NO production can be used as an adjuvant in tumor immunotherapy. We have shown previously that tumor cells, glioma (N32) and colon carcinoma (H1D2), when genetically engineered to express such immune stimulatory cytokines as IFN-g and IL-18, induce strong anti-tumor immune response, in immunized tumor-free rats, whereas onl...

  7. Rare and Challenging Tumor Entity: Phyllodes Tumor of the Prostate

    Andreas Bannowsky


    Full Text Available Cystic epithelial-stromal tumors of the prostate are rare, with 82 cases reported in literature. These cases have been published under a variety of diagnoses, including phyllodes tumor and prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential as well as a malignant tumor called “prostatic stromal sarcoma”. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with the histological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in transurethral resection specimen.

  8. Rare and Challenging Tumor Entity: Phyllodes Tumor of the Prostate

    Andreas Bannowsky; Andreas Probst; Helmut Dunker; Tillmann Loch


    Cystic epithelial-stromal tumors of the prostate are rare, with 82 cases reported in literature. These cases have been published under a variety of diagnoses, including phyllodes tumor and prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential as well as a malignant tumor called “prostatic stromal sarcoma”. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with the histological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in transurethral resection specimen.

  9. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Hooshang Lahooti


    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the ...

  10. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Živković Nenad


    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  11. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    Davies, Karen


    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  12. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Microglobulin, Serum, Urine, or CSF Related tests: Albumin , Tumor Markers , CSF Analysis All content on Lab Tests Online ...

  13. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    Davies, Karen


    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  14. Primary tumors of the patella

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Kai; Lu, Ming


    The patella is an uncommon location for cancerous occurrence and development. The majority of tumors of the patella are benign, with a significant incidence of giant cell tumors and chondroblastoma...

  15. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  16. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Juliette Martin; Jean-Frangois Dufour


    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Radiological review of pleural tumors

    Binit Sureka


    Full Text Available Tumors of the pleura are not uncommon and diagnosis is clinched by combined imaging and clinical correlation. Malignant tumors are more common than benign tumors. Initial imaging modalities are chest radiography and Computed Tomography (CT. Further characterization may be required using Ultrasoundgraphy (USG, Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI and PET-CT. Biopsy remains gold standard. This article highlights various common and uncommon tumors of pleura and characteristic imaging findings.

  18. Bednar Tumor: An Uncommon Entity

    Gayathri P Amonkar; Asha Rupani; Ajay Shah; Ramesh Deshpande


    Bednar tumor is an uncommon variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Also known as pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, this tumor is of intermediate grade. It is seen in adults and has a predisposition to affect the shoulder region. We report a rare case of Bednar tumor in a 40-year-old female patient. The diagnosis of Bednar tumor must be considered while reporting pigmented subcutaneous spindle cell lesions.

  19. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu


    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  20. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E


    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors.

  1. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    Lorger, Mihaela [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, St. James’s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)


    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context.

  2. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    Sertoli-stromal cell tumor; Arrhenoblastoma; Androblastoma; Ovarian cancer - Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor ... The exact cause of this tumor is not known. Changes (mutations) in genes may play a role. SLCT occur most often in young women 20 to 30 ...

  3. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard


    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  4. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z


    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

  5. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard


    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  6. Metastasis and circulating tumor cells

    Dalum, van G.; Holland, L.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.


    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulati

  7. [Retroperitoneal Tumor: Neurofibroma.

    Lada, Paul Eduardo; Marriot, Daniela; Sanchez Tasonne, Carlos; Sanchez, Martin; Caballero, Fabian; Massa, Martin


    The neurofibroma is a benign tumor that grows from the sheath of the peripheral nerves, which is often localized on superficial tissues, especially in isolated forms. The neurofibromas can be of two types, localized or diffuse, the last one closely related to Von Recklinghausen disease or NF-1. We described a 37 years old male e patient, 37 years without symptoms, and the computed tomography scan (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in proximity to the right kidney, the psoas muscle, the spine and compressing the cava vein, but cannot be accurately determinate the invasion of these structures. We review the differential diagnosis, therapeutic and the management of this disease in this clinical case.

  8. [Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor)].

    Stavrou, G A; Donati, M; Faiss, S; Jenner, R M; Niehaus, K J; Oldhafer, K J


    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumors are a rare entity arising from the extrahepatic bile duct bifurcation. Considering the close anatomical relationship of the bile duct bifurcation with the portal vein bifurcation and hepatic arteries, surgical treatment is demanding. With an incidence of only 2-4 cases/100,000 population/year patients should be referred to a specialized center. The tumors are usually poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas growing diffusely along the duct and also the perineural sheath. Only radical surgery offers a curative option and currently surgical strategy usually consists of en bloc resection of the bile duct, extended liver resection and portal vein resection. Proximal and lateral safety margin R0 resections are technically very demanding procedures because of the local anatomy.

  9. Retroperitoneal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Bapsy Poonamalle P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a neoplasm of unknown etiology occurring at various sites. By definition, it is composed of spindle cells (myofibroblasts with variable inflammatory component, hence the name is IMT. Case presentation The present case is of a 46 years old woman presented with a history of flank pain, abdominal mass and intermittent hematuria for last 6 months. The initial diagnosis was kept as renal cell carcinoma. Finally, it turned out to be a case of retroperitoneal IMT. The patient was managed by complete surgical resection of the tumor. Conclusion IMT is a rare neoplasm of uncertain biological potential. Complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of the treatment.

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Sangeeta Palaskar


    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

  11. Pediatric Suprasellar Tumors.

    McCrea, Heather J; George, Emilie; Settler, Allison; Schwartz, Theodore H; Greenfield, Jeffrey P


    The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct, present similar clinical and surgical challenges as a result of their common anatomic location. These lesions are in close proximity to or may invade the optic nerve and chiasm, pituitary gland and infundibulum, hypothalamus, and third ventricle, leading to presenting features including visual field loss, impairment in visual acuity, endocrine dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Though many suprasellar lesions are relatively benign in pathology, treatment may be complicated by high surgical morbidity resulting from damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Here we review the most frequent pediatric lesions occurring in the suprasellar region: craniopharyngioma, chiasmatic glioma, germ cell tumor, Rathke cleft and arachnoid cysts, pituitary adenoma, and histiocytosis. This review outlines both common presenting features and differentiating aspects of these lesions. It also includes classic radiographic presentations and treatment considerations for each lesion.

  12. Tumor-Induced Hyperlipidemia Contributes to Tumor Growth

    Jianfeng Huang


    Full Text Available The known link between obesity and cancer suggests an important interaction between the host lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis. Here, we used a syngeneic tumor graft model to demonstrate that tumor development influences the host lipid metabolism. BCR-Abl-transformed precursor B cell tumors induced hyperlipidemia by stimulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production and blunting VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL turnover. To assess whether tumor progression was dependent on tumor-induced hyperlipidemia, we utilized the VLDL production-deficient mouse model, carboxylesterase3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH knockout mice. In Ces3/Tgh−/− tumor-bearing mice, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were attenuated. Importantly tumor weight was reduced in Ces3/Tgh−/− mice. Mechanistically, reduced tumor growth in Ces3/Tgh−/− mice was attributed to reversal of tumor-induced PCSK9-mediated degradation of hepatic LDLR and decrease of LDL turnover. Our data demonstrate that tumor-induced hyperlipidemia encompasses a feed-forward loop that reprograms hepatic lipoprotein homeostasis in part by providing LDL cholesterol to support tumor growth.

  13. Neurons and tumor suppressors.

    Zochodne, Douglas W


    Neurons choose growth pathways with half hearted reluctance, behavior that may be appropriate to maintain fixed long lasting connections but not to regenerate them. We now recognize that intrinsic brakes on regrowth are widely expressed in these hesitant neurons and include classical tumor suppressor molecules. Here, we review how two brakes, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and retinoblastoma emerge as new and exciting knockdown targets to enhance neuron plasticity and improve outcome from damage or disease.

  14. Neurons and Tumor Suppressors

    Douglas W Zochodne


    Neurons choose growth pathways with half hearted reluctance, behavior that may be appropriate to maintain fixed long lasting connections but not to regenerate them. We now recognize that intrinsic brakes on regrowth are widely expressed in these hesitant neurons and include classical tumor suppressor molecules. Here, we review how two brakes, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and retinoblastoma emerge as new and exciting knockdown targets to e...

  15. TRUS Findings of Prostate Tumor or Tumor Like Lesions

    Lee, Hak Jong; Jang, Jung Min; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors or tumor-like lesions in the prostate raise questions concerning their histogenesis and they may have prognoses dissimilar to those of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Several neoplasms involving the prostate have been described and characterized in recent years. In addition to adenocarcinoma, they include mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine cancer, lymphoma, spindle cell neoplasm, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mimicking malignancy. In addition, infectious conditions such as tuberculosis and some stages of prostatic abscess can also mimic prostate tumors. Radiologic findings overlap and have limited roles in the diagnoses of these entities. However, knowledge of these variable tumors and tumor-like conditions is helpful when making accurate radiologic diagnoses, which have important clinical implications for treatment and prognosis. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and available pathologic images of unusual tumors and tumor- like lesions are demonstrated in this article

  16. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S


    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

  17. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina


    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  18. Renal neuroendocrine tumors

    Brian R Lane


    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC are exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathologic features of renal NETs diagnosed at a single institution were reviewed along with all reported cases in the worldwide literature. Results: Eighty renal NETs have been described, including nine from our institution. Differentiation between renal NETs and the more common renal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma can be difficult since clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features overlap. Immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, can be particularly helpful in this regard. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing, may secrete hormones, and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. Nephrectomy can be curative for clinically localized NETs, but multimodality treatment is indicated for advanced disease. Conclusions: A spectrum of NETs can rarely occur in the kidney. Renal carcinoids have a variable clinical course; SCC and LCNEC are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Diagnosis of NETs, especially LCNEC, requires awareness of their rare occurrence and prudent use of immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers.

  19. [Resection of Klatskin tumors].

    Seehofer, D; Kamphues, C; Neuhaus, P


    Curative treatment of Klatskin tumors by radical surgical procedures with surgical preparation distant to the tumor region results in 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. This requires mandatory en bloc liver resection and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct often together with vascular resection. Nevertheless, the ideal safety margin of 0.5-1 cm remote from the macroscopic tumor extensions cannot be achieved in all cases. Based on hilar anatomy the probability of an adequate safety margin is higher using extended right hemihepatectomy together with portal vein resection compared to left hemihepatectomy. However, due to severe atrophy of the left liver lobe solely left-sided hepatectomy is feasible in some patients. In cases of eligibility for both procedures right hemihepatectomy is preferentially used due to the higher oncological radicality if sufficient liver function is present. Postoperative hepatic insufficiency and bile leakage after demanding biliary reconstruction, often with several small orifices, contribute to the postoperative complication rate of this complex surgical disease pattern.

  20. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment.

    Mankad, Rekha; Herrmann, Joerg


    Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001-0.03% in most autopsy series). They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1) thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2) cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3) primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  1. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Pedro Oliveira


    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  2. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment

    Rekha Mankad MD


    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001–0.03% in most autopsy series. They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1 thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2 cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3 primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  3. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Bo-Syong Pan


    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  4. [Intraductal papillary mucinous pancreas tumor].

    Maev, I V; Kaziulin, A N; Kucheriavyĭ, Iu A


    Data of the literature on the epidemiology, patogenesis, diagnosis, peculiarities of the symptoms and the treatment of the intraduct papillar pancreatic tumor, are analyzed in this review. These tumors are rare, there are up to 1% of the exocrine pancreatic tumors. Intraduct proliferation of the mucin producing cells, that are disposed as papillars is typical of these tumors. There are the symptoms of the acute or chronic pancreatitis, sometimes the diagnosis of this tumor is accidental. The main diagnostic methods are ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are the main methods to reveal the intraduct growth. The surgical treatment is necessary for these patients.

  5. Cellular Potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion and tumor evolution

    A. Szabó (Andras); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)


    htmlabstractDespite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated

  6. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia


    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  7. TumorHoPe: a database of tumor homing peptides.

    Pallavi Kapoor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer is responsible for millions of immature deaths every year and is an economical burden on developing countries. One of the major challenges in the present era is to design drugs that can specifically target tumor cells not normal cells. In this context, tumor homing peptides have drawn much attention. These peptides are playing a vital role in delivering drugs in tumor tissues with high specificity. In order to provide service to scientific community, we have developed a database of tumor homing peptides called TumorHoPe. DESCRIPTION: TumorHoPe is a manually curated database of experimentally validated tumor homing peptides that specifically recognize tumor cells and tumor associated microenvironment, i.e., angiogenesis. These peptides were collected and compiled from published papers, patents and databases. Current release of TumorHoPe contains 744 peptides. Each entry provides comprehensive information of a peptide that includes its sequence, target tumor, target cell, techniques of identification, peptide receptor, etc. In addition, we have derived various types of information from these peptide sequences that include secondary/tertiary structure, amino acid composition, and physicochemical properties of peptides. Peptides in this database have been found to target different types of tumors that include breast, lung, prostate, melanoma, colon, etc. These peptides have some common motifs including RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp and NGR (Asn-Gly-Arg motifs, which specifically recognize tumor angiogenic markers. TumorHoPe has been integrated with many web-based tools like simple/complex search, database browsing and peptide mapping. These tools allow a user to search tumor homing peptides based on their amino acid composition, charge, polarity, hydrophobicity, etc. CONCLUSION: TumorHoPe is a unique database of its kind, which provides comprehensive information about experimentally validated tumor homing peptides and their target cells. This

  8. [Surgical therapy of proximal extrahepatic bile duct tumors (Klatskin tumors)].

    Timm, S; Gassel, H-J; Thiede, A


    Due to their anatomical position, the tendency of early infiltrative growth and their poor prognosis without treatment, klatskin tumors are challenging concerning diagnosis and therapy. In contrast to other tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, for which exact diagnostic and stage dependent therapeutic guidelines could be formulated, clear recommendations for klatskin tumors are missing. Thus, survival rates after local resection, e. g. resection of the bile duct bifurcation alone, show high rates of R1/2 resection and early tumor recurrence. With an additional hepatic resection formally curative resections and long-term survival can be improved. Extended liver resections including the portal vein provide the highest rates of R0 resections for hilar carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile duct. Survival rates after liver transplantation for klatskin tumors are not yet convincing. Promising first results have been reported for the combination of neoadjuvant treatment and liver transplantation and might show future perspectives for the treatment of klatskin tumors.

  9. Breast Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Histopathologist's Perspective

    Ewe Seng Ch'ng


    Full Text Available Much progress has been made since the conceptualization of tumor angiogenesis—the induction of growth of new blood vessels by tumor—as a salient feature of clinically significant primary or metastatic cancers. From a practicing histopathologist's point of view, we appraise the application of this concept in breast cancer with particular reference to the evaluation of proangiogenic factors and the assessment of new microvessels in histopathological examination. Recently, much focus has also been centered on the active roles played by tumor-associated macrophages in relation to tumor angiogenesis. We review the literature; many data supporting this facet of tumor angiogenesis were derived from the breast cancer models. We scrutinize the large body of clinical evidence exploring the link between the tumor-associated macrophages and breast tumor angiogenesis and discuss particularly the methodology and limitations of incorporating such an assessment in histopathological examination.

  10. Angiogenesis and tumor

    Kamran Mansouri


    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from existing ones, plays an important role in the physiologic circumstances such as embryonic development, placenta formation, and wound healing. It is also crucial to progress of pathogenic processes of a variety of disorders, including tumor growth and metastasis. In general, angiogenesis process is a multi-factorial and highly structured sequence of cellular events comprising migration, proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and finally vascular formation, maturation and remodeling.Thereby, angiogenesis inhibition as a helping agent to conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation has attracted the scientists’ attentions studying in this field.

  11. Imaging in Pediatric Infratentorial Tumors

    S. Hajiahmadi


    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors are the second cause of malignancies in childhood following leukemia. The overall incidence varies between 1:20000 and 1:100000 in different series. They are the most common solid tumors that occur in childhood .The most important diagnostic feature of an intracranial mass is its location. They can be supratentorial or infratentorial. With the exception of the first year of life, infratentorial brain tumors are more frequent than supratentorial tumors in the first decade of life. In particular, these are cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, brain stem gliomas and ependymomas of the fourth ventricle. .Posterior fossa tumors also are readily identified with both CT and MRI. Spectroscopy in the analysis of brain tumors has recently come on the scene but may be of limited practical value when it comes to differentiating tumors. However, CT and especially MRI are the primary imaging modalities for the investigation of brain tumors. Sonography can be used in the neonates. With modern imaging, it is relatively easy to detect the presence of a tumor in most patients. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging features of various infratentorial brain tumors to make a clue for differentiation them by these features.

  12. Mechanisms of Metastatic Tumor Dormancy

    Mary Osisami


    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis can occur years after an apparent cure due to a phenomenon known as metastatic tumor dormancy; in which tumor masses or individual tumor cells are growth restricted for extended periods of time. This period of dormancy is induced and maintained by several mechanisms, including: (1 Tumor microenvironment factors such as cytokine expression, immunosurveillance and angiogenesis; (2 Metastasis suppressor gene activity; and (3 Cancer therapeutics. Disseminated tumor cells (DTC are the key cells that result in dormant tumors. However, many challenges exist towards isolating DTCs for mechanistic studies. The main DTC that may represent the dormant cell is the cancer stem cells (CSC as they have a slow proliferation rate. In addition to limited knowledge regarding induction of tumor dormancy, there are large gaps in knowledge regarding how tumors escape from dormancy. Emerging research into cancer stem cells, immunotherapy, and metastasis suppressor genes, may lead to new approaches for targeted anti-metastatic therapy to prevent dormancy escape. Overall, an enhanced understanding of tumor dormancy is critical for better targeting and treatment of patients to prevent cancer recurrence.

  13. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Casadei, R., E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)


    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  14. What is a pediatric tumor?

    Mora J


    Full Text Available Jaume Mora1,21Department of Oncology, 2Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Working together with medical oncologists, the question of whether a Ewing sarcoma in a 25-year-old is a pediatric tumor comes up repeatedly. Like Ewing's, some tumors present characteristically at ages that cross over what has been set as the definition of pediatrics (15 years, 18 years, or 21 years?. Pediatric oncology textbooks, surprisingly, do not address the subject of defining a pediatric tumor. They all begin with an epidemiology chapter defining the types of tumors appearing at distinct stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Describing the epidemiology of tumors in relation to age, it becomes clear that the disease is related to the phenomenon of aging. The question, however, remains: is there a biological definition of what pediatric age is? And if so, will tumors occurring during this period of life have anything to do with such biological definition? With the aim of finding an objective definition, the fundamental concepts of what defines "pediatrics" was reviewed and then the major features of tumors arising during development were analyzed. The tumors were explored from the perspective of a host immersed in the normal process of growth and development. This physiological process, from pluripotential and undifferentiated cells, makes possible the differentiation, maturation, organization, and function of tissues, organs, and apparatus. A biological definition of pediatric tumors and the infancy–childhood–puberty classification of developmental tumors according to the infancy–childhood–puberty model of normal human development are proposed.Keywords: growth and development, pediatric tumor, infant, childhood and adolescence, pubertal tumors

  15. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Bojana Gligorijevic


    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  16. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Hooshang Lahooti


    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efifcacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  17. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Hooshang Lahooti


    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs and dendritic cells (DCs are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  18. A rare tumor of the lung: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Hammas Nawal


    Full Text Available Abstract Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign lesion whose tumor origin is now proven. It represents 0.7% of all lung tumors. We report the case of a three-year-old child who suffered from a chronic cough with recurrent respiratory infections. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed the presence of a left lower lobe lung mass. After pneumonectomy, histological examination combined with immunohistochemical study discovered an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here:


    Sayyed Tarannum, Garje Dattatray H


    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. In the relatively near term, nanomedicine can address many important medical problems by using nanoscale-structured materials and simple nanodevices that can be manufactured today, including the interaction of nanostructured materials with biological systems. The authors predict that technology-assisted medicine and robotics in particular, will have a significant impact over the next few decades. Robots will augment the surgeon’s motor performance, diagnosis capability, and senses with haptics (feel, augmented reality (sight, and ultrasound (sound. Robotic devices have been used in cardiac surgery, urology, fetal surgery, pediatrics, neurosurgery, orthopedics, and many other medical disciplines. In this article, we present the Nanorobot drug delivery to brain tumor, paying special attention to the transformation trends of organizations, and the integration of robots in brain tumor and underscoring potential repercussions which may deserve more attention and further research.

  20. Tumor triquilemal proliferante

    Fulin Yu-Tseng


    Full Text Available El tumor triquilemal proliferante es una dermatosis tumoral poco frecuente y derivada de la capa externa de la raíz del folículo piloso. Generalmente, es de características benignas, tiende a ser recidivante y se han reportado casos de transformaciones malignas en la bibliografía mundial. El caso trata de una paciente femenina de 59 años, con una neoformación exofítica nodular lobulada de crecimiento lento en piel cabelluda, de 5 años de evolución, con recidivas después de 3 cirugías. No se documentó compromiso óseo ni cerebral en los estudios de gabinete. La biopsia mostró proliferación de nidos de células escamosas en dermis, separados por bandas de tejido fibroso de la epidermis. El abordaje quirúrgico es el tratamiento de elección de esta patología.

  1. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  2. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders


    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...

  3. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N


    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach.

  4. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications.

    Lucchini, R; Monacelli, M; Santoprete, S; Triola, R; Conti, C; Pecoriello, R; Favoriti, P; Di Patrizi, M S; Barillaro, I; Boccolini, A; Avenia, S; D'Ajello, M; Sanguinetti, A; Avenia, N


    Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice.

  5. Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth


    Neuronal progenitors and tumor cells possess propensity to proliferate and to migrate. Glutamate regulates proliferation and migration of neurons during development, but it is not known whether it influences proliferation and migration of tumor cells. We demonstrate that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of human tumor cells. Colon adenocarcinoma, astrocytoma, and breast and lung carcinoma cells were most sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the N...

  6. Self-scaling tumor growth

    Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We study the statistical properties of the star-shaped approximation of in vitro tumor profiles. The emphasis is on the two-point correlation structure of the radii of the tumor as a function of time and angle. In particular, we show that spatial two-point correlators follow a cosine law....... Based on this similarity, we provide a Lévy based model that captures the correlation structure of the radii of the star-shaped tumor profiles....

  7. Glutathione Levels in Human Tumors

    Gamcsik, Michael P.; Kasibhatla, Mohit S.; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Colvin, O. Michael


    This review summarizes clinical studies in which glutathione was measured in tumor tissue from patients with brain, breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, head and neck and lung cancer. Glutathione tends to be elevated in breast, ovarian, head and neck and lung cancer and lower in brain and liver tumors compared to disease-free tissue. Cervical, colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers show both higher and lower levels of tumor glutathione. Some studies show an inverse relationship between patient survival and tumor glutathione. Based on this survey, we recommend approaches that may improve the clinical value of glutathione as a biomarker. PMID:22900535

  8. Tumors of the lacrimal gland

    Von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Heegaard, Steffen


    Tumors of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide spectrum, of which the most common demonstrate epithelial and lymphoid differentiation. The diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors depends primarily on histological evaluation, as do the choice of treatment and prognosis. For some lacrimal gland neoplasms......, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, the outlook is grave. Optimal treatment for several lacrimal gland tumors is also a matter of controversy. However, recent progress has been made in the molecular and genetic understanding of tumorigenesis for such lesions. This article presents an overview of the histopathology...... of lacrimal gland tumors, together with their epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies....

  9. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K


    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...

  10. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Ashis Patnaik


    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  11. Surgical Treatment in Uveal Tumors

    Kaan Gündüz


    Full Text Available Surgical treatment in uveal tumors can be done via iridectomy, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy (PLSU and endoresection. Iridectomy is done in iris tumors without angle and ciliary body involvement. PLSU is performed in tumors with ciliary body and choroidal involvement. For this operation, a partial thickness scleral flap is dissected, the intraocular tumor is excised, and the flap is sutured back in position. PLSU surgery is done in iridociliary and ciliary body tumors with less than 3 clock hours of iris and ciliary body involvement and in choroidal tumors with a base diameter less than 15 mm. However, it can be employed in any size tumor for biopsy purposes. Potential complications of PLSU surgery include vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. Endoresection is a technique whereby the intraocular tumor is excised using vitrectomy techniques. The rationale for performing endoresection is based on the fact that irradiated uveal melanomas may be associated with exudation and neovascular glaucoma and removing the dead tumor tissue may contribute to better visual outcome. There are some centers where endoresection is done without prior radiotherapy. Allegedly, avoidance of radiation retinopathy and papillopathy are the main advantages of using endoresection without prior radiotherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 29-34

  12. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard


    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...

  13. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    John H. Sampson


    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  14. Pediatric Mediastinal Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions.

    Singh, Achint K; Sargar, Kiran; Restrepo, Carlos S


    This article reviews the imaging findings of pediatric mediastinal tumors and tumor-like lesions. The classification of the mediastinum is discussed with normal imaging appearance of the thymus in pediatric age group followed by a discussion on multiple mediastinal lesions in different compartments with emphasis on their imaging characteristics.

  15. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors


    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  16. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    Gong-Jun; Tan; Zheng-Ke; Peng; Jin-Ping; Lu; Fa-Qing; Tang


    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed.

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor

    Manlio Mencoboni


    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which may be found everywhere in the body. It is now distinguished into two forms, pleural and extrapleural, which morphologically resemble each other. Abdomi­nal localizations are quite rare, with 10 cases only reported in bladder; rarely they can be source of paraneoplastic syndromes (i.e., hypoglycemia secondary to insulin-like growth factor. In April 2006 a 74-year-old white male presented with chills, diaphoresis and acute abdominal pain with hematuria. At admission in emergency he underwent an abdominal X-ray (no pathological findings and an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, which revealed a pelvic hyperechogenic neoformation measuring approximately 10¥8¥7 cm, compressing the bladder. Blood chemistry at admission revealed only a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis (WBC 16600, N 80%, L 11%, elevated fibrinogen and ESR, and hypoglycemia (38 mg/dL. Macro­scopic hematuria was evident, while urinocolture was negative. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvic region revealed a large round neoformation dislocating the bladder, with an evident contrast-enhanced periphery and a central necrotic area. Continuous infusion of glucose 5% solution was necessary in order to maintain blood glucose levels above 50 mg/dL. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of an ovoidal mass coated by adipose tissue, with well delimited margins; histological findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT. Hypoglycemia resolved completely with removal of the growth. In this case report we describe a SFT growing in the bladder, a quite rare localization, which presented a unique hypoglycemia. In contrast to the majority of cases reported in the literature, the behavior of this SFT was not aggressive, and, since the patient is still alive, surgical resection was considered conclusive.

  18. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E


    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. ©2014 AACR.

  19. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole


    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  20. Tumors STING adaptive antitumor immunity.

    Bronte, Vincenzo


    Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of cancer patients, but the molecular basis for tumor immunogenicity is unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Deng et al. (2014) and Woo et al. (2014) provide evidence suggesting that dendritic cells detect DNA from tumor cells via the STING-mediated, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway.

  1. Tumors of the optic nerve

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen


    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... tumor-specific histologic features are given. Finally, treatment modalities and prognosis are discussed....

  2. Management of salivary gland tumors

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D.; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A.


    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be >= 5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiatio

  3. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.


    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  4. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor: CT findings

    Kim, Chang Soo; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Cha, Seong Sook; Han, Sang Suk; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje College, Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a neoplasm of young individuals that occurs predominantly in the supratentorial compartment. Authors experienced three cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. On the brain CT scans, all three cases reveal the large, irregular, hyperdense mass lesions with calcifications and cystic or necrotic areas, and show dense heterogeneous contrast enhancement.

  6. [Intraoperative staging of colorectal tumors].

    Abdurakhmonov, Iu B; Mel'nikov, O R; Egorenkov, V V; Moiseenko, V M


    The effectiveness of intraoperative staging of tumor by sentinel node staining with lymphotropic dyes was evaluated in 60 patients with colorectal tumors (colon carcinoma -39, rectal cancer- 21). High sensitivity (84.6% and 87.5%, respectively) and specificity (100% and 100%, respectively) for regional lymph node assessment were identified for both colonic and rectal cancer.




    Full Text Available Untuk meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup penderita kanker ovarium, dilakukan upaya untukmemprediksi keganasan tumor tersebut sebelum dilakukan pembedahan, karena adanya perbedaanpenanganan pada tumor jinak dan kanker ovarium. Terdapat berbagai modalitas untuk mendeteksikeganasan tumor ovarium prabedah. Mulai dari pemeriksaan klinis melalui anamnesis danpemeriksaan fisik, serta pemeriksaan penunjang seperti petanda tumor dan ultrasonografi. Untukmeningkatkan akurasi dalam mendeteksi keganasan tumor ovarium prabedah, dibuat berbagai sistemskoring. Indeks keganasan Sudaryanto, memakai batasan total skor e” 3 menunjukkan risiko keganasantinggi, sedangkan total skor < 3 menunjukkan risiko keganasan rendah. Melalui pemeriksaan USG,dibuat sistem skoring morfologi berdasarkan struktur permukaan dalam tumor, ketebalan dinding,septa, dan echogenitas tumor yang disebut indeks morfologi Sassone-Timor Tritsch. Denganmenggunakan batas skor 9, ditetapkan skor < 9 menunjukkan prediksi jinak dan skor e” 9 menunjukkanprediksi ganas. Batasan ini memiliki sensitifitas 94%, spesifisitas 87%, nilai duga positif 60%, dannilai duga negatif 93,6%. Metode lainnya adalah Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI. RMI mengintegrasikanstatus menopause penderita, temuan USG, dan kadar CA 125 serum. Nilai cut-off 200 digunakanuntuk membedakan tumor ovarium yang jinak dan ganas serta mempunyai sensitifitas 87% danspesifisitas 97%. The Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA merupakan upaya koreksi RMIdengan menambahkan biomarker human protein epididymis 4 (HE4 dan menghilangkan USG. Untukmemprediksi kanker ovarium tipe epitel, ROMA mempunyai sensitifitas dan spesifisitas masingmasingsebesar 89% dan 83%. Jadi, terdapat berbagai modalitas untuk memprediksi keganasantumorovarium dengan akurasi berbeda-beda. Penerapannya disesuaikan dengan sarana dan prasaranayangtersedia sesuai dengan kondisi tempat pelayanan kesehatan.

  8. Tumor microenvironment and therapeutic response.

    Wu, Ting; Dai, Yun


    The tumor microenvironment significantly influences therapeutic response and clinical outcome. Microenvironment-mediated drug resistance can be induced by soluble factors secreted by tumor or stromal cells. The adhesion of tumor cells to stromal fibroblasts or to components of the extracellular matrix can also blunt therapeutic response. Microenvironment-targeted therapy strategies include inhibition of the extracellular ligand-receptor interactions and downstream pathways. Immune cells can both improve and obstruct therapeutic efficacy and may vary in their activation status within the tumor microenvironment; thus, re-programme of the immune response would be substantially more beneficial. The development of rational drug combinations that can simultaneously target tumor cells and the microenvironment may represent a solution to overcome therapeutic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I


    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used.

  10. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Jong-Suk Lee


    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  11. Pathogenesis and progression of fibroepithelial breast tumors

    Kuijper, Arno


    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor are fibroepithelial breast tumors. These tumors are biphasic, i.e. they are composed of stroma and epithelium. The behavior of fibroadenomas is benign, whereas phyllodes tumors can recur and even metastasize. Classification criteria for both tumors show considerable

  12. The history of tumor virology.

    Javier, Ronald T; Butel, Janet S


    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses--EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses--human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century.

  13. Improving drug delivery to solid tumors: priming the tumor microenvironment.

    Khawar, Iftikhar Ali; Kim, Jung Ho; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong


    Malignant transformation and growth of the tumor mass tend to induce changes in the surrounding microenvironment. Abnormality of the tumor microenvironment provides a driving force leading not only to tumor progression, including invasion and metastasis, but also to acquisition of drug resistance, including pharmacokinetic (drug delivery-related) and pharmacodynamic (sensitivity-related) resistance. Drug delivery systems exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting moieties were expected to be able to cope with delivery-related drug resistance. However, recent evidence supports a considerable barrier role of tumors via various mechanisms, which results in imperfect or inefficient EPR and/or targeting effect. The components of the tumor microenvironment such as abnormal tumor vascular system, deregulated composition of the extracellular matrix, and interstitial hypertension (elevated interstitial fluid pressure) collectively or cooperatively hinder the drug distribution, which is prerequisite to the efficacy of nanoparticles and small-molecule drugs used in cancer medicine. Hence, the abnormal tumor microenvironment has recently been suggested to be a promising target for the improvement of drug delivery to improve therapeutic efficacy. Strategies to modulate the abnormal tumor microenvironment, referred to here as "solid tumor priming" (vascular normalization and/or solid stress alleviation leading to improvement in blood perfusion and convective molecular movement), have shown promising results in the enhancement of drug delivery and anticancer efficacy. These strategies may provide a novel avenue for the development of new chemotherapeutics and combination chemotherapeutic regimens as well as reassessment of previously ineffective agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Type of Uterine Trophoblastic Tumor: Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor

    Langdi Fan; Zhanhong Wang; Xiurong Wang; Yingge Xing


    OBJECTIVE To describe a case of a patient with an epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and review the literature regarding this new type of uterine trophoblastic tumor which is being reported with increasing frequency.There have been only 42 cases described in the world literature.METHODS Routine sections of the tumor were prepared and stained with H&E. Using the SP method, immunohistochemical staining, for AE1/AE3,hPL, PLAP, and α-inhibin antigens was conducted.RESULTS The patient was a 34 years old female who had delivered 12 years previously. She presented with amenorrhea for three months and vaginal irregular bleeding for 2 months. Her serum hCG level was 2,240 IU/L. After diagnostic curettage, an ETT was identified, and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) performed.On microscopic examination it was found that the tumor was composed of chorionic-type intermediate- trophoblastic cells. The tumor cell nests were distributed in a geographical pattern. Some cells were filled with an eosinophilic hyalinized degenerative material. Study of the immunophenotype of the tumor showed that AE1/AE3, hPL, hCG, and α-inhibin were positively expressed.CONCLUSION This is the 4th case report of an ETT in China. The tumor was identified as a new type of trophoblastic tumor combined with a focal chorioepithelioid carcinoma, a condition that is extremely rare. It consists of chorionic-type intermediate-trophoblastic cells, and is considered to have a Iowgrade of malignancy. ETT should be differentiated from a placenta-site trophoblastic tumor, placenta-site nodule, chorioepithelioid carcinoma, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. IMRT in hypopharyngeal tumors

    Studer, G.; Luetolf, U.M.; Davis, J.B.; Glanzmann, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Background and purpose: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) data on hypopharyngeal cancer (HC) are scant. In this study, the authors report on early results in an own HC patient cohort treated with IMRT. A more favorable outcome as compared to historical data on conventional radiation techniques was expected. Patients and methods: 29 consecutive HC patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) IMRT between 01/2002 and 07/2005 (mean follow-up 16 months, range 4-44 months). Doses of 60-71 Gy with 2.0-2.2 Gy/fraction were applied. 26/29 patients were definitively irradiated, 86% received simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. 60% presented with locally advanced disease (T3/4 Nx, Tx N2c/3). Mean primary tumor volume measured 36.2 cm{sup 3} (4-170 cm{sup 3}), mean nodal volume 16.6 cm{sup 3} (0-97 cm{sup 3}). Results: 2-year actuarial local, nodal, distant control, and overall disease-free survival were 90%, 93%, 93%, and 90%, respectively. In 2/4 patients with persistent disease (nodal in one, primary in three), salvage surgery was performed. The mean dose to the spinal cord (extension of > 5-15 mm) was 26 Gy (12-38 Gy); the mean maximum (point) dose was 44.4 Gy (26-58.9 Gy). One grade (G) 3 dysphagia and two G4 reactions (laryngeal fibrosis, dysphagia), both following the schedule with 2.2 Gy per fraction, have been observed so far. Larynx preservation was achieved in 25/26 of the definitively irradiated patients (one underwent a salvage laryngectomy); 23 had no or minimal dysphagia (G0-1). Conclusion: excellent early disease control and high patient satisfaction with swallowing function in HC following SIB IMRT were observed; these results need to be confirmed based on a longer follow-up period. In order to avoid G4 reactions, SIB doses of < 2.2 Gy/fraction are recommended for large tumors involving laryngeal structures. (orig.)

  16. Initiative action of tumor-associated macrophage during tumor metastasis

    Saroj Singh


    In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAMs recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. We describe the interplay between Th17 cells and other immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, and we assess both the potential antitumorigenic and pro-tumorigenic activities of Th17 cells and their associated cytokines. Understanding the nature of Th17 cell responses in the tumor microenvironment will be important for the design of more efficacious cancer immunotherapies. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy.

  17. SIRT1, Is It a Tumor Promoter or Tumor Suppressor?

    Chu-Xia Deng


    Full Text Available SIRT1 has been considered as a tumor promoter because of its increased expression in some types of cancers and its role in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor suppression and DNA damage repair. However, recent studies demonstrated that SIRT1 levels are reduced in some other types of cancers, and that SIRT1 deficiency results in genetic instability and tumorigenesis, while overexpression of SIRT1 attenuates cancer formation in mice heterozygous for tumor suppressor p53 or APC. Here, I review these recent findings and discuss the possibility that activation of SIRT1 both extends lifespan and inhibits cancer formation.

  18. Tumor cerebral e gravidez Brain tumors and pregnancy

    José Carlos Lynch


    Full Text Available O diagnóstico de um tumor cerebral durante a gravidez é um fato raro que coloca a mãe e o concepto em risco de vida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a melhor forma de conduzir uma paciente grávida portadora de um tumor cerebral. MÉTODO: Realizamos análise retrospectiva dos prontuários e imagens de seis pacientes grávidas portadoras de tumor cerebral. RESULTADOS: Vários tipos histológicos de tumor cerebral podem estar associados à gravidez. O meningioma é o mais freqüente. Nessa série não observamos óbito cirúrgico materno. Em duas pacientes, o parto ocorreu antes da craniotomia e em outras quatro o parto foi realizado após a neurocirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: O momento mais adequado para a realização da craniotomia para remoção tumoral irá depender da gravidade do quadro neurológico, do tipo histológico presumível da lesão, e da idade gestacional do embrião.BACKGROUND: Despite not being a common fact, the occurrence of brain tumors during pregnancy poses a risk to both the mother and infant. AIM: To identify the best medical procedure to be followed for a pregnant patient harboring a brain tumor. METHOD: The records of 6 patients with brain tumors, diagnosed during pregnancy were examined. RESULTS: Several types of brain tumors have been associated with pregnancy, but the meningioma is, by far, the most frequent. It seems that pregnancy aggravates the clinical course of intracranial tumors. There were no operative mortality in these series. In 2 patients the labor occurred before the craniotomy and in others, the delivery occurred after the surgery. CONCLUSION: The best moment to recommend the craniotomy and the neurosurgical removal of the tumor will depend of the mother’s neurological condition, the tumor histological type as well as the gestational age.

  19. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors (Aggressive Fibromatoses)

    ... Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment ... tissue. Because of this, they are also called aggressive fibromatoses. The tumors ... erratic behavior makes treatment challenging. Treatment for a tumor depends ...

  20. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    Adrenal tumor - Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ... or cancerous (malignant). Noncancerous tumors that can cause ... Adrenal adenomas Micronodular hyperplasia Cancerous tumors that ...

  1. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Symptoms of Functioning Tumors The symptoms of functioning tumors ...

  2. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli


    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  3. Laser therapy in ocular tumors

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.


    The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  4. [Orbital tumor emergencies in childhood].

    Morax, S; Desjardins, L


    Emergencies in childhood orbital tumorals are rare. The absolute emergency involves malignant primary orbital tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma or secondary malignant tumors (metastatic neuroblastoma, leukemia), involving a vital prognosis requiring prompt diagnosis. Delayed emergencies are usually vascular lesions. Among these lesions, immature orbital hemangioma, with a good prognosis, must be distinguished from orbital adnexal lymphangiomas, which are less frequent but can lead to dramatic cosmetic and functional disorders. In rare cases, they can be responsible for sudden, painful proptosis, due to orbital hemorrhage, with a risk of optic nerve compression, requiring emergency surgical treatment. Neurogenous lesions, either isolated, such as in gliomas, or associated with a systemic disease, such as Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, threaten the functional prognosis. Diagnosis of pediatric orbital tumors is based on a good clinical examination, precise imaging investigations, and evaluation of the locoregional extension of the tumor. Biopsy is required in emergency situations, when rhabdomyosarcoma is suspected, in order to start the chemotherapy. However, the biopsy can be superfluous, and even useless or dangerous, when clinical and imaging investigations are sufficient to provide a diagnosis of capillary hemangioma, lymphangioma, or metastatic tumor from an abdominal malignancy. Treatment is closely related to the etiopathogenesis of the tumor. The outcomes are vital, functional and cosmetic. They may require orbital surgery (biopsy, tumoral resection, orbital decompression in case of a compressive hemorrhage), systemic corticotherapy (as in immature adnexal hemangioma), radiation, and chemotherapy (rhabdomyosarcoma, secondary malignant tumor). These diseases require a pediatric ophthalmological medical center specializing in orbital surgery, with close collaboration of multiple specialists such as onco-pediatricians and neurosurgeons.

  5. [Phyllodes tumor: diagnosis and treatment].

    Uribe, A; Bravo, G; Uribe, A; Viada, R; Capetillo, M; Villarroel, T


    We reviewed 1.178 benign tumors treated between 1981/93 among which 39 appeared with a Phylodes Tumors diagnosis, disregarding 5 of them because they did not have a precise description and histologic classification, studying 34 proved cases which represented 2.89% of all benign tumors; if we add 89% cancers in these years, we have 2.074 and the relation becomes 1.64% of the total. We found 22 benign phylodes (64.7%) 7 border line (20.5%) and 5 malignant (14.8%) whose clinic, histologic and evolutive characteristics are presented in this paper.

  6. Solid tumor cytogenetics: current perspectives.

    Nanjangud, Gouri; Amarillo, Ina; Rao, P Nagesh


    Conventional cytogenetics in conjunction with Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) continues to remain an important and integral component in the diagnosis and management of solid tumors. The ability to effectively detect the vast majority of clinically relevant chromosomal aberrations with a rapid-to-acceptable turnaround time makes them the most cost-effective screening/detection tool currently available in modern pathology. In this review, we describe a representative set of solid tumors in which chromosomal analysis and/or FISH plays a significant role in the routine clinical management of solid tumors.

  7. Intraosseous calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor

    Kler Shikha


    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst was first reported by Gorlin et al . in 1962. It had been classified as a neoplasm related to the odontogenic apparatus because of its histological complexity and morphological diversity until it was renamed as a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor by the WHO, in 2005. Here we describe a case of mandibular calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 75-year-old male, which was present since five years, with a history of occurrence after the extraction of teeth in the involved region. The lesion was surgically removed and a histopathological examination revealed a cystic tumor with predominance of ghost cells and some amount of dentinoid tissue.

  8. Uncommon liver tumors

    Wu, Chia-Hung; Chiu, Nai-Chi; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Kuo, Yu; Yu, Sz-Shian; Weng, Ching-Yao; Liu, Chien-An; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chiou, Yi-You


    Abstract Background: Beside hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis, and cholangiocarcinoma, the imaging findings of other relatively uncommon hepatic lesions are less discussed in the literature. Imaging diagnosis of these lesions is a daily challenge. In this article, we review the imaging characteristics of these neoplasms. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2014, 4746 patients underwent liver biopsy or hepatic surgical resection in our hospital. We reviewed the pathological database retrospectively. Imaging of these lesions was reviewed. Results: Imaging findings of uncommon hepatic lesions vary. We discuss the typical imaging characteristics with literature review. Clinical and pathological correlations are also described. Primary hepatic lymphoma consists only of 1% of the extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is defined as the one involving only the liver and perihepatic lymph nodes within 6 months after diagnosis. Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) shares some overlapping imaging characteristics with both HCC and cholangiocarcinoma because of being an admixture of them. Angiosarcoma is the most common hepatic mesenchymal tumor and is hypervascular in nature. Inflammatory pseudotumor is often heterogeneous on ultrasonography and with enhanced septations and rims in the portovenous phase after contrast medium. Angiomyolipoma (AML) typically presents with macroscopic fat components with low signal on fat-saturated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and presence of drainage vessels. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is thought of as a counterpart to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Most of the IPNBs secrete mucin and cause disproportional dilatation of the bile ducts. Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) contains proteinaceous and colloidal components without ductal communication and characterizes with hyperintensity on T1-weighted imaging. Other extremely rare lesions, including epithelioid

  9. Primary tracheobronchial tumors in children.

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Torre, Michele


    Primary tracheobronchial tumors are rare lesions that can be benign or malignant, with different location along the airway tree. Symptoms may include wheezing, chronic pneumonia, asthma, chest pain, recurrent cough, atelectasis, haemoptysis, and weight loss. Due to the heterogeneity of symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and the airway involvement can lead progressively to a bronchial or tracheal obstruction. Due to the rarity of primary tracheobronchial tumors in children, there are not any oncological guidelines on pre-operative work-up, treatment, and follow-up. Only few reports and multicentric studies are reported. In most cases, surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. Brachytherapy, endoscopic treatment, and chemotherapy are rarely described. In this article we present an overview on these rare tumors, including pathological aspects, clinical presentation, imaging assessment, and endoscopic or open surgical treatments. We discuss different surgical approaches, according with tumor location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain tumor survivors speak out.

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie


    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population.

  11. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    ... system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes ... in “ How are gastrointestinal stromal tumors diagnosed? ” Other gastrointestinal tract cancers It is important to understand that GISTs ...

  12. Tumoral calcinosis mimicking recurrent osteosarcoma

    Petscavage, Jonelle M; Richardson, Michael L


    We report a case of a tumoral calcinosis mimicking the appearance of recurrent osteosarcoma of the left femur and tibia in a 29-year-old woman with a history of osteosarcoma and chronic renal failure...

  13. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Infantile pericardial round cell tumor

    K H Sridevi


    Full Text Available Cardiac malignancies presenting in infancy are rare. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare occurrence in this age group. No case of intrapericardial DSRCT has been reported in the literature in infants.

  15. How Are Pituitary Tumors Diagnosed?

    ... secreting tumor. Levels of related hormones, such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, are often checked as well. Thyrotropin-secreting adenoma Tests to measure blood levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones can usually identify people with a thyrotropin- ...

  16. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    ... ovarian germ cell tumor are swelling of the abdomen or vaginal bleeding after menopause. Ovarian germ cell ... if you have either of the following: Swollen abdomen without weight gain in other parts of the ...

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other ... breathe is impaired, such as current or former cigarette smokers. When part of the tumor persists after ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: desmoid tumor

    ... The most common symptom of desmoid tumors is pain. Other signs and symptoms, which are often caused ... occur during a person's lifetime, called somatic mutations. A somatic mutation in one copy of ...

  19. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Mohammed E. A. Shayoub


    Full Text Available Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  20. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)


    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  1. Tracking Tumor Evolution through Mathematics.

    Leslie, Mitch


    A recent study suggests that many cancers undergo neutral evolution, with all key mutations present at the start of malignancy. New mutations acquired along the way don't confer any advantages on tumor cells.

  2. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy for Wilms Tumor

    Andolfi C; Randi B; Ruggeri G.; Lima M.


    Wilms tumor is the most frequent primary renal malignancy in children. The surgical resection is traditionally performed through laparotomy. The advent of laparoscopic surgery for benign renal lesions has led the surgeon to use a minimal invasive approach for the nephroblastoma. We describe a 9-months-old girl who presented with a left renal mass. A laparoscopic resection of the tumor with left radical nephroureterectomy was performed. The specimens were removed in an endoscopic bag through a...

  3. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy.

    Schelling, Johannes; Schröder, Annette; Stein, Raimund; Rösch, Wolfgang H


    A renal ossifying tumor of infancy is a rare event with few cases having been published, and the etiology has not yet been established. We report on two new cases of this unusual neoplasm. A 2-year-old boy presented with intermittent painless gross hematuria. After several diagnostic procedures, an open pyelolithotomy was performed and the histological diagnosis of renal tumor of infancy was finally made. The history of the second case is very similar. An 8-week-old infant presented with gross hematuria. As in the first case, an open pyelolithotomy was performed and a tumor entirely covered with blood clots was found in the renal pelvis and completely removed. A histological diagnosis of renal ossifying tumor of infancy was made. Using the literature available, the histological criteria and biological behavior are discussed, together with the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for this tumor. In infants with gross hematuria and a calcified (non-)invasive mass in the pelvi-calceal system, renal ossifying tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis. MRI or CT scan offers a good diagnostic guide.

  4. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors.

    Chuan-Yu, Sun; Yat-Faat, Ho; Wei-Hong, Ding; Yuan-Cheng, Gou; Qing-Feng, Hu; Ke, Xu; Bin, Gu; Guo-Wei, Xia


    Objective. To evaluate the indication and the clinical value of laparoscopic adrenalectomy of different types of adrenal tumor. Methods. From 2009 to 2014, a total of 110 patients were diagnosed with adrenal benign tumor by CT scan and we performed laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The laparoscopic approach has been the procedure of choice for surgery of benign adrenal tumors, and the upper limit of tumor size was thought to be 6 cm. Results. 109 of 110 cases were successful; only one was converted to open surgery due to bleeding. The average operating time and intraoperative blood loss of pheochromocytoma were significantly more than the benign tumors (P < 0.05). After 3 months of follow-up, the preoperative symptoms were relieved and there was no recurrence. Conclusions. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has the advantages of minimal invasion, less blood loss, fewer complications, quicker recovery, and shorter hospital stay. The full preparation before operation can decrease the average operating time and intraoperative blood loss of pheochromocytomas. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered as the first choice treatment for the resection of adrenal benign tumor.

  5. Unraveling tumor grading and genomic landscape in lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Rindi, Guido; Scarpa, Aldo


    Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations

  6. Posterior Fossa Tumor in Children

    Seyed Mahmoud TABATABAEI


    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Tabatabaei SM, Seddighi A, Seddighi AS. Posterior Fossa Tumor in Children. Iran. J. Child. Neurol 2012;6(2: 19-24. Objective Primary brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms of childhood, representing 20% of all pediatric tumors. The best current estimates place the incidence between 2.76 and 4.28/100,000 children per year. Compared with brain tumors in adults, a much higher percentage of pediatric brain tumors arise in the posterior fossa. Infratentorial tumors comprise as many as two thirds of all pediatric brain tumors in some large series. Tumor types that most often occur in the posterior fossa include medulloblastoma, ependymoma, cerebellar astrocytoma and brainstem glioma. Materials & Methods All pediatric cases of posterior fossa tumor that were considered for surgery from 1981 to 2011 were selected and the demographic data including age, gender and tumor characteristics along with the location and pathological diagnosis were recorded. The surgical outcomes were assessed according to pathological diagnosis. Results Our series consisted of 84 patients (52 males, 32 females. Cerebellar symptoms were the most common cause of presentation (80.9% followed by headache (73.8% and vomiting (38.1%. The most common histology was medulloblastoma (42.8% followed by cerebellar astrocytoma (28.6%, ependymoma (14.3%, brainstem glioma (7.2% and miscellaneous pathologies (e.g., dermoid,  andtuberculoma (7.2%. Conclusion The diagnosis of brain tumors in the general pediatric population remains challenging. Most symptomatic children require several visits to a physician before the correct diagnosis is made. These patients are often misdiagnosed for gastrointestinal disorders. Greater understanding of the clinical presentation of these tumors and judicious use of modern neuroimaging techniques should lead to more efficacious therapies.References 1. Mehta V, Chapman A, McNeely PD, Walling S, Howes WJ. Latency between

  7. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    Dahui Qin


    Full Text Available Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing.

  8. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade


    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  9. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned. ...

  10. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.


    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  11. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  12. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail:; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)


    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  13. Focus on treatment of lung carcinoid tumor

    Noel-Savina E


    Full Text Available Elise Noel-Savina,1 Renaud Descourt2 1Pulmonary Service, 2Thoracic Oncology Service, Hospital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU – Brest, Brest, France Abstract: Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine bronchopulmonary tumors with a low-grade malignancy, and an atypical carcinoid is an intermediate form of these tumors. There is a lack of knowledge on the optimal treatment for these tumors. The surgical treatment of choice consists of a lobectomy supplemented by dissection. The benefit of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is unclear. Targeted therapy could be used in this condition, but there is a lack of research recommending it. Keywords: carcinoid tumor, neuroendocrine tumor, bronchopulmonary tumor, treatment

  14. Mediastinal tumors. Report of 29 operated patients.

    Antonio Ríos Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is the unique possibility of cure of survival with life quality for patients with tumor or mediastinal mass. Objective: To describe the results of surgical procedures in patients with mediastinal tumor. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study of 29 patients operated after being diagnosed with mediastinal tumor in a period of 17 years (1986-2002. Studied variables were: tumor´s locus in the mediastinum, tumor nature, histological diagnosis and strategies regarding surgical approach. Findings: There was a prevalence of benign tumors (81,8% and the most frequent locus was anterior mediastinum. Conclusions: These findings agree with previous studies, mainly regarding tumors´ locus and nature.

  15. The ING tumor suppressor genes: status in human tumors.

    Guérillon, Claire; Bigot, Nicolas; Pedeux, Rémy


    ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterized as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by microRNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers.

  16. Testicular tumors with tumor thrombosis within the inferior vena cava: Two case reports

    Park, Ji Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lim, Joo Won; Park, Seong Jin [Kyung Hee Univ. Hospital/College of Medicine/Kyung Hee Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Testicular tumors are almost all malignant tumors and can develop in younger age groups. Testicular tumors are mostly curable, with reported cases of tumor thrombosis within the inferior vena cava being rare. Two patients, aged 35 years and 37 years old complaining of testicular pain and lower abdominal pain were diagnosed with testicular tumors by ultrasound. In addition, tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava was diagnosed concomitantly at the time of the diagnosis by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we report testicular tumors accompanied by tumor thrombus, which is an extremely rare finding, with limited reports available. Pathologic diagnoses were seminoma and mixed germ cell tumors, respectively.

  17. Recurrence of Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor: A Rare Pancreatic Tumor

    Chandra Punch


    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP is a rare disease of young females that does not usually recur after resection. Here we report a case of an elderly female with history of SPTP ten years ago who presented with anorexia and a palpable left lower quadrant abdominal mass. Imaging revealed metastatic disease and US-guided biopsy of the liver confirmed the diagnosis of SPTP. Due to her advanced age and comorbidities, she elected to undergo hospice care. The objective of this case report is to increase awareness of this tumor and its possibility of recurrence, necessitating further guidelines for follow-up.

  18. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Anja von Au


    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  19. Tumor ablation with irreversible electroporation.

    Bassim Al-Sakere

    Full Text Available We report the first successful use of irreversible electroporation for the minimally invasive treatment of aggressive cutaneous tumors implanted in mice. Irreversible electroporation is a newly developed non-thermal tissue ablation technique in which certain short duration electrical fields are used to permanently permeabilize the cell membrane, presumably through the formation of nanoscale defects in the cell membrane. Mathematical models of the electrical and thermal fields that develop during the application of the pulses were used to design an efficient treatment protocol with minimal heating of the tissue. Tumor regression was confirmed by histological studies which also revealed that it occurred as a direct result of irreversible cell membrane permeabilization. Parametric studies show that the successful outcome of the procedure is related to the applied electric field strength, the total pulse duration as well as the temporal mode of delivery of the pulses. Our best results were obtained using plate electrodes to deliver across the tumor 80 pulses of 100 micros at 0.3 Hz with an electrical field magnitude of 2500 V/cm. These conditions induced complete regression in 12 out of 13 treated tumors, (92%, in the absence of tissue heating. Irreversible electroporation is thus a new effective modality for non-thermal tumor ablation.

  20. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor

    Novković Dobrivoje


    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. Case report. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. Conclusion. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Max Wilms and his tumor.

    Raffensperger, John


    The most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children is named for Max Wilms, a German surgeon. How did this eponym come about? There were excellent reviews of this lesion before Wilms, a second year surgical assistant, published "Die Mischgeschwulste Der Niere" or The Mixed Tumors of the Kidney in 1899. At thirty two years of age, he demonstrated a masterful knowledge of pathology and embryology. Wilms' career was cut short when he became septic after operating on a prisoner of war during WWI. The survival rate for children with Wilms tumor was dismal until William Ladd, at the Boston Children's hospital introduced rational surgical treatment. By mid century, Robert Gross achieved a 47% survival rate with surgery combined with postoperative radiation. Sydney Farber treated Wilms tumors with Actinomycin-d and opened the door to cancer chemotherapy. With protocols developed by the National Wilms Tumor Study Group, the survival rate of children with Wilms tumors reached 90% by the end of the twentieth century.

  2. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

    Mohammadali Attari


    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with left-sided body hypoesthesia since last 3 months and a 25-year-old with severe headache of 1 month duration were operated under craniotomy for brain tumors resection. An awake craniotomy was planned to allow maximum tumor intraoperative testing for resection and neurologic morbidity avoidance. The method of anesthesia should offer sufficient analgesia, hemodynamic stability, sedation, respiratory function, and also awake and cooperative patient for different neurological test. Airway management is the most important part of anesthesia during awake craniotomy. Tumor surgery with awake craniotomy is a safe technique that allows maximal resection of lesions in close relationship to eloquent cortex and has a low risk of neurological deficit.

  3. Askin's Tumor: A Dual Case Study

    Bikash Shrestha


    Full Text Available Askin's tumor is a rare tumor arising from the chest wall. It is a subset of Ewing sarcoma characterized histologically by the presence of small round blue cells. It is a highly malignant tumor with guarded prognosis, which is dependent upon the extension of tumor at the time of diagnosis. A dual paper of Askin's tumors in young boys is being presented here.

  4. Glomangioma of the knee with no response to sclerotherapy

    Mahboubeh Rahmani, MD


    This case demonstrates that glomus tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions which recur after sclerotherapy even in locations not typically associated with glomus tumors such as the knee. This possibility supports the benefit of surgical excision in refractory vascular lesions to support both diagnosis and more definitive treatment.

  5. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

    Samir Zaki Kotb


    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  6. Cellular Potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion and tumor evolution

    András eSzabó


    Full Text Available Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype.What phenotypes can make a cell successful in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely-used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM, a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation,or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell- and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processesin tumor development.

  7. Cellular potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor evolution.

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M H


    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell "successful" in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development.

  8. AM真菌摩西球囊霉对2种花生叶斑病的生防及促生作用%Biocontrol Effects of AM Fungus Glomus mosseae on Two Peanut Leaf Spots and its Growth-promoting Effects on Peanut

    鄢洪海; 张茹琴; 安佰国


    为了研究丛枝菌根(Arbuscular mycorrhiza,AM)真菌对2种花生叶部病害黑斑病(Cercosporium personatuma)和网斑病(Phoma arachidicola)的生物防治作用以及对花生生长的促进作用,为开发绿色菌肥奠定基础,在盆栽条件下对花生品种‘花育22号’接种AM真菌摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae),在自然发病情况下,测定摩西球囊霉接种对花生黑斑病和网斑病的防治效果以及对花生株高、分枝、果荚数、果荚干重、地上部干重、地下部干重等生长指标的影响.结果表明,接种AM真菌摩西球囊霉使花生株高、分枝、荚果数、荚果干重、地上部干重等生长指标显著地增加;对花生黑斑病防治效果为5.4%,对网斑病防治效果为10.2%.AM通过促进花生生长而补偿了病害造成的损失是其抗病机制之一.表明分离的摩西球囊霉是一株具有促进花生生长,对2种叶部病害具有一定生防作用的AM菌株.%In order to study biocontrol effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) on two leaf spots, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) black spot (Cercosporium personatuma) and peanut net blotch {Phoma arachidicola), the growth-promoting effects of AM fungus on peanut, and as a result, laying a foundation for the development of green manure, peanut cultivar ' Huayu 22' inoculated with AM fungus Glomus mosseae in a pot experiment, under natural infection conditions, biocontrol effects of G. Mosseae on peanut black spot and peanut net blotch, growth indices including plant height, the numbers of branches or pods, dry mass of pods, aboveground or underground dry mass of peanut were investigated. The results indicated that, inoculation peanut with G. Mosseae significantly improved plant height, the numbers of branches or pods, dry mass of pods, aboveground dry mass of peanut, and induced systemic acquired resistance to the two leaf spots. Control effect on peanut black spot was 5.4%, whereas on net peanut blotch was 10.2%. One of

  9. Tumors of the orbit; Orbitatumoren

    Mueller-Forell, Wibke [Klinikum der Univ. Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie


    This short review will present an overview not only of the findings in imaging, but the main clinical symptoms of the different orbital space occupying lesions, (not only different tumors, but even tumor-like lesions), as those should be included in differential diagnostic consideration. This should lead to a targeted diagnostic procedure in the individual patient. Basic knowledge of orbital anatomy is as important as the knowledge of the pros and contra's of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which should influence the examination protocol. Imaging findings of the most important tumors/lesions of the globe, the intraconal and extraconal space as well as of the optic nerve are presented with different examples (without any demand of completeness). (orig.)

  10. Immunological treatment of liver tumors

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Fabio Grizzi; Cynthia A Jumper; Everardo Cobos; Paul L Hermonat; Eldo E Frezza


    Although multiple options for the treatment of liver tumors have often been described in the past, including liver resection, radiofrequency ablation with or without hepatic pump insertion, laparoscopic liver resection and the use of chemotherapy, the potential of immunotherapy and gene manipulation is still largely unexplored.Immunological therapy by gene manipulation is based on the interaction between virus-based gene delivery systems and dendritic cells. Using viruses as vectors, it is possible to transduce dendritic cells with genes encoding tumor-associated antigens, thus inducing strong humoral and cellular immunity against the antigens themselves.Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of destroying healthy cells, thus causing severe side-effects. We need more precisely targeted therapies capable of killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Our goal is to establish a new treatment for solid liver tumors based on the concept of cytoreduction,and propose an innovative algorithm.

  11. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Judy Sue Crabtree


    Full Text Available Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems like Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts, and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required.

  12. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Justin Scott Lee


    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  13. Tumores Epiteliales Laringo-Traqueales.

    Muñoz Cariñanos, Antonio


    Se comienza con un estudio de la historia de este tipo de tumores en la medicina, la incidencia en la población y su comparación en España con otros países del área europea, y también en las provincias de España. Estudio de los tipos histológicos de los diversos tumores que son causa del trabajo de esta tesis.   Un apartado importante de la misma es el estudio de los conocimientos actuales sobre la patogénesis del c&aacu...

  14. Contemporary treatment of renal tumors

    Nisen, Harry; Järvinen, Petrus; Fovaeus, Magnus


    questions on renal tumor management and surgical education was designed and sent to 91 institutions performing renal tumor surgery in 2015. The response rate was 68% (62 hospitals), including 28 academic, 25 central and nine district hospitals. Hospital volume was defined as low (LVH: ...% thermoablations. For RN and PN, the percentages of open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches were 47%, 40%, 13% and 47%, 20%, 33%, respectively. The mean complication rate (Clavien–Dindo 3–5) was 4.9%, and 30 day mortality (TDM) was 0.5%. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days. Training with a simulator...

  15. Small intestinal tophus mimicking tumor

    Pragya Katoch


    Full Text Available A 72 year old male with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and previous gouty arthritis presented with weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Ultrasound and CT scanning of the abdomen revealed a circumscribed tumor mass of the jejunum, 3.7 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination of the resected jejunum revealed the tumor to be a gouty tophus. To the best of our knowledge, three cases of tophi in the large intestine have previously been reported but none in the small intestine.

  16. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy for Wilms Tumor

    Andolfi C


    Full Text Available Wilms tumor is the most frequent primary renal malignancy in children. The surgical resection is traditionally performed through laparotomy. The advent of laparoscopic surgery for benign renal lesions has led the surgeon to use a minimal invasive approach for the nephroblastoma. We describe a 9-months-old girl who presented with a left renal mass. A laparoscopic resection of the tumor with left radical nephroureterectomy was performed. The specimens were removed in an endoscopic bag through a low suprapubic incision. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery. Minimally invasive techniques may be considered for resection of nephroblastoma if oncologic principles are carefully followed.

  17. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue

    Shan-Yin Tsai


    Full Text Available Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis.

  18. Unarmed, tumor-specific monoclonal antibody effectively treats brain tumors

    Sampson, John H.; Crotty, Laura E.; Lee, Samson; Archer, Gary E.; Ashley, David M.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Hale, Laura P.; Small, Clayton; Dranoff, Glenn; Friedman, Allan H.; Friedman, Henry S.; Bigner, Darell D.


    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often amplified and rearranged structurally in tumors of the brain, breast, lung, and ovary. The most common mutation, EGFRvIII, is characterized by an in-frame deletion of 801 base pairs, resulting in the generation of a novel tumor-specific epitope at the fusion junction. A murine homologue of the human EGFRvIII mutation was created, and an IgG2a murine mAb, Y10, was generated that recognizes the human and murine equivalents of this tumor-specific antigen. In vitro, Y10 was found to inhibit DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation and to induce autonomous, complement-mediated, and antibodydependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Systemic treatment with i.p. Y10 of s.c. B16 melanomas transfected to express stably the murine EGFRvIII led to long-term survival in all mice treated (n = 20; P < 0.001). Similar therapy with i.p. Y10 failed to increase median survival of mice with EGFRvIII-expressing B16 melanomas in the brain; however, treatment with a single intratumoral injection of Y10 increased median survival by an average 286%, with 26% long-term survivors (n = 117; P < 0.001). The mechanism of action of Y10 in vivo was shown to be independent of complement, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes through in vivo complement and cell subset depletions. Treatment with Y10 in Fc receptor knockout mice demonstrated the mechanism of Y10 to be Fc receptor-dependent. These data indicate that an unarmed, tumor-specific mAb may be an effective immunotherapy against human tumors and potentially other pathologic processes in the “immunologically privileged” central nervous system. PMID:10852962

  19. Molecular Profiling of Odontogenic Tumors - Pilot Study

    Gültekin Sibel Elif


    Full Text Available Background/Aim: In the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors which arise from the rests of the dental apparatus in the jaw, several molecular pathways have been shown to play critical roles such as genetic alterations in the hedgehog, BRAF/Ras/MAPK, epidermal growth factor receptor. Next generation genomic sequencing has identified gene mutations in many different tumors. Materials and Methods: Here we report four types of odontogenic tumor including six cases in which five had mutation according to next generation sequencing analysis from archival paraffin blocks that diagnosed previously as ameloblastoma (solid, amloblastoma (unicystic-mural, ameloblastic fibroma, squamous odontogenic tumor, and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. Results: All ameloblastomatic tumors were shown BRAF mutation and adenomatoid odontogenic tumors were KRAS mutation. Conclusion: This evidence may highlight the poorly understood pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors. Further comparisons need to be made with other benign and malignant odontogenic tumors so that unique odontogenic features may be found.

  20. Localization of spinal tumors by MRI

    Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sakamoto, Yuji; Kojima, Ryutaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Bussaka, Hiromasa


    Exact localization of the spinal tumors is particularly important for differential diagnosis and surgery. Therefore, it was attempted to evauate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in localizing the spinal tumors exactly. Nineteen cases of spinal cord tumors, being localized in the intradural extramedullary, extradural and both intradural and extradural spaces, were studied with MRI. Intradural extramedullary tumors showed small CSF spaces just below and above the tumor which were demonstrated as CSF intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images. Although extradural tumors did not show CSF spaces, there was extradural sign or dural density between the tumor and the spinal cord. Intradural and extradural tumors were outlined as having both characteristics. Signal intensities of the spinal tumors were not characteristic for specific histology. Gd-DTPA was quite useful for accurate localization of the tumors. In comparison with myelography, MRI was superior to myelography in extradural tumors and equally useful for intradural and extradural tumors, but it was less diagnostic in intradural extramedullary tumors. In general, MRI was quite useful in localizing the spinal tumors exactly and the accuracy of MRI was quite high. In the near future this technique will replace myelography and other radiologic methods.