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Sample records for glomus intraradices schenk

  1. Interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ( Glomus intraradices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation (Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum) on tomato plants growing in nutrient solution with high concentrations of copper were studied. Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth. In the present study, the effect of copper ...

  2. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal

  3. Differential effects of Pseudomonas mendocina and Glomus intraradices on lettuce plants physiological response and aquaporin PIP2 gene expression under elevated atmospheric CO2 and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria Del Mar; Kohler, Josef; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) can alleviate the effects of water stress in plants, but it is unknown whether these benefits can be maintained at elevated CO2. Therefore, we carried out a study where seedlings of Lactuca sativa were inoculated with the AM fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices N.C. Schenk & G.S. Sm. or the PGPR Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni and subjected to two levels of watering and two levels of atmospheric CO2 to ascertain their effects on plant physiological parameters and gene expression of one PIP aquaporin in roots. The inoculation with PGPR produced the greatest growth in lettuce plants under all assayed treatments as well as the highest foliar potassium concentration and leaf relative water content under elevated [CO2] and drought. However, under such conditions, the PIP2 gene expression remained almost unchanged. G. intraradices increased significantly the AMF colonization, foliar phosphorus concentration and leaf relative water content in plants grown under drought and elevated [CO2]. Under drought and elevated [CO2], the plants inoculated with G. intraradices showed enhanced expression of the PIP2 gene as compared to P. mendocina or control plants. Our results suggest that both microbial inoculation treatments could help to alleviate drought at elevated [CO2]. However, the PIP2 gene expression was increased only by the AMF but not by the PGPR under these conditions.

  4. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionicia Gloria León-Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010. Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction.

  5. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubchak, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in 134 Cs isotope by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phyto remediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization pf plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  6. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchak, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134 Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  7. Phyto-Extraction of Nickel by Linum usitatissimum in Association with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna; Masood, Sajid; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-01-01

    Plants show enhanced phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils particularly in response to fungal inoculation. Present study was conducted to find out the influence of Nickel (Ni) toxicity on plant biomass, growth, chlorophyll content, proline production and metal accumulation by L. usitatissimum (flax) in the presence of Glomus intraradices. Flax seedlings of both inoculated with G. intraradices and non-inoculated were exposed to different concentrations i.e., 250, 350 and 500 ppm of Ni at different time intervals. Analysis of physiological parameters revealed that Ni depressed the growth and photosynthetic activity of plants. However, the inoculation of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae (G. intraradices) partially helped in the alleviation of Ni toxicity as indicated by improved plant growth under Ni stress. Ni uptake of non- mycorrhizal flax plants was increased by 98% as compared to control conditions whereas inoculated plants showed 19% more uptake when compared with the non-inoculated plants. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited increasing capacity to remediate contaminated soils along with improved growth. Thus, AM assisted phytoremediation helps in the accumulation of Ni in plants to reclaim Ni toxic soils. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that the role of flax plants and mycorrhizal fungi is extremely important in phytoremediation.

  8. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  9. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubchak, S.; Bondar, O.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization of plants by AM fungus resulted to significant decrease of radiocaesium content in their aboveground parts, while it didn't have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system. AM fungi can restrict or enhance direct root uptake of radiocaesium as well as its root to shoot translocation. Radiocaesium activity concentration was considerably lower in shoots of mycorrhizal plants as compared to nonmycorrhizal ones grown on different soil types. Plant colonization with the G. intraradices resulted in 50 - 100 % decrease of radiocaesium TF from soil to aboveground biomass and 40 - 70% reduction of its translocation from plant roots to shoots. The studied plants could be potentially cultivated within areas with moderate radiocaesium contamination levels and further used in agricultural purposes. The opposite effect was observed in case of H. annuus (sunflower), where AM colonization led to nearly 10-fold increase of 134 Cs activity in roots and shoots. This hyper-accumulating plant could be used in combination with AM fungi for radiocaesium phytoextraction from the soil. (authors)

  11. Integrated multi-omics analysis supports role of lysophosphatidylcholine and related glycerophospholipids in the Lotus japonicus-Glomus intraradices mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Vinod; Liebisch, Gerhard; Buer, Benjamin; Xue, Li; Gerlach, Nina; Blau, Samira; Schmitz, Jessica; Bucher, Marcel

    2016-02-01

    Interaction of plant roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a complex trait resulting in cooperative interactions among the two symbionts including bidirectional exchange of resources. To study arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) trait variation in the model plant Lotus japonicus, we performed an integrated multi-omics analysis with a focus on plant and fungal phospholipid (PL) metabolism and biological significance of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Our results support the role of LPC as a bioactive compound eliciting cellular and molecular response mechanisms in Lotus. Evidence is provided for large interspecific chemical diversity of LPC species among mycorrhizae with related AMF species. Lipid, gene expression and elemental profiling emphasize the Lotus-Glomus intraradices interaction as distinct from other arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) interactions. In G. intraradices, genes involved in fatty acid (FA) elongation and biosynthesis of unsaturated FAs were enhanced, while in Lotus, FA synthesis genes were up-regulated during AMS. Furthermore, FAS protein localization to mitochondria suggests FA biosynthesis and elongation may also occur in AMF. Our results suggest the existence of interspecific partitioning of PL resources for generation of LPC and novel candidate bioactive PLs in the Lotus-G. intraradices symbiosis. Moreover, the data advocate research with phylogenetically diverse Glomeromycota species for a broader understanding of the molecular underpinnings of AMS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Efecto de la inoculación con Glomus intraradices y de la fertilización nitrogenada en el crecimiento de plantas de fresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Salgado-Barreiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la inoculación del HMA Glomus intraradices en el crecimiento de las plantas de fresa variedad Camino Real, fertirrigadas con 0, 1, 3 y 10 mM de N en forma de NH4 + ó NO3 -. Se realizó un experimento en condiciones de invernadero, en el que se evaluó el porcentaje de colonización, el peso seco de las raíces (PSR y de la parte aérea (PSPA, a los 33 y 48 dias después del establecimiento (dde. El porcentaje de colonización se redujo conforme al incremento de la concentración de NH4 + ó NO3 - en la solución de riego; a los 33 dde, la inoculación de G. intraradices incrementó el PSR y el PSPA en las plantas fertilizadas con NH4 +; y a los 48 dde se observó el mismo efecto en las plantas que recibieron NO3 -. En ambos casos, los valores más altos de biomasa aérea y radical se registraron en las plantas fertirrigadas con bajas concentraciones de N. Estos resultados indican que la inoculación con G. intraradices tiene el potencial de reducir la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados en el cultivo de fresa. Además, el exceso de N inhibe la colonización de HMA sin incrementar el crecimiento de la planta. Así mismo, el efecto de la inoculación de G. intraradices, forma y dosis de fertilizante nitrogenado depende de la fase de crecimiento de la planta.

  13. Differential effects of cadmium and chromium on growth, photosynthetic activity, and metal uptake of Linum usitatissimum in association with Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna; Ali, Naeem; Masood, Sajid; Mukhtar, Tehmeena; Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Rafique, Mazhar; Munis, M Farooq Hussain; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-06-01

    The current study was aimed at analyzing the differential effects of heavy metals (cadmium and chromium) and mycorrhizal fungus; Glomus intraradices on growth, chlorophyll content, proline production, and metal accumulation in flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.). Heavy metal accumulation rate in flax varied from 90 to 95 % for Cd and 61-84 % for Cr at a concentration range of 250 to 500 ppm for both metals in 24 days of experiment. Growth and photosynthetic activity of flax reduced to an average of 21 and 45 %, respectively. However, inoculation of G. intraradices significantly increased the plant biomass even under metal stressed conditions. Additionally, mycorrhizal association also assists the Cd and Cr increased uptake by 23 and 33 %, respectively. Due to metal stress, chlorophyll contents were decreased by 27 and 45 %, while 84 and 71 % increased proline content was observed under Cd and Cr stress, respectively. The present results clearly signify the differential response and potential of flax plant towards heavy metal tolerance and accumulation that can further increase with mycorrhizal fungus.

  14. Interactions between the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices and nontransformed tomato roots of either wild-type or AM-defective phenotypes in monoxenic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bago, Alberto; Cano, Custodia; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Smith, Sally; Dickson, Sandy

    2006-09-01

    Monoxenic symbioses between the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices and two nontransformed tomato root organ cultures (ROCs) were established. Wild-type tomato ROC from cultivar "RioGrande 76R" was employed as a control for mycorrhizal colonization and compared with its mutant line (rmc), which exhibits a highly reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc) phenotype. Structural features of the two root lines were similar when grown either in soil or under in vitro conditions, indicating that neither monoxenic culturing nor the rmc mutation affected root development or behavior. Colonization by G. intraradices in monoxenic culture of the wild-type line was low (<10%) but supported extensive development of extraradical mycelium, branched absorbing structures, and spores. The reduced colonization of rmc under monoxenic conditions (0.6%) was similar to that observed previously in soil. Extraradical development of runner hyphae was low and proportional to internal colonization. Few spores were produced. These results might suggest that carbon transfer may be modified in the rmc mutant. Our results support the usefulness of monoxenically obtained mycorrhizas for investigation of AM colonization and intraradical symbiotic functioning.

  15. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Glomus intraradice on Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in Cultivated Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba zafarian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the most popular and highest symbiotic relationship in plant kingdom. Most plants (about 80% of vascular plant species have at least one type of mycorrhiza. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungies are the most important endomycorhiza fungi that play an important role in agriculture. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradice symbiosis to control Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. growth, a glasshouse experiment was conducted in CRD design with four replications in Shahrekord university in summer 2014. Treatments consisted of four arbuscular mycorrhizal levels (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 and two control treatments of weed free and weed infested treatments, respectively. In this experiment, seeds of speedy tomato cultivar planted in the bed that consisted of coco peat and peat moss were transplanted to the pots. Pots with diameter 20 and height 15 cm were filled with soil in the ratio 4: 1: 1 manure, sand and clay respectively and with 50 mg of Orobanche seeds that were collected in the previous year. It should be noted that the soil combination was disinfected at a temperature of 80OC for 72 h to reduce the potential effects of soil microbial population in reducing Orobanche germination. The fungal inoculation, containing sandy soil fungal body parts and organs fungal root was then added to each pot. Fungi strain was provided from the plant protection clinic located in Hamadan. Also, nutrition of tomato after being transplanted to pots was carried out with foliar application of complete micronutrient of 20-20-20 every 7 days under glasshouse condition. At the end of the season, were measured number of stems, number of nodules on the roots of tomato, time of emergence of orobanche flower on the soil surface, orobanche dry weight and tomato root and shoot dry weight. Statistical analysis of

  16. Medicago truncatula and Glomus intraradices gene expression in cortical cells harboring arbuscules in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

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    Tang Yuhong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most vascular flowering plants have the capacity to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. The symbiosis develops in the roots where AM fungi colonize the root cortex and form arbuscules within the cortical cells. Arbuscules are enveloped in a novel plant membrane and their establishment requires the coordinated cellular activities of both symbiotic partners. The arbuscule-cortical cell interface is the primary functional interface of the symbiosis and is of central importance in nutrient exchange. To determine the molecular events the underlie arbuscule development and function, it is first necessary to identify genes that may play a role in this process. Toward this goal we used the Affymetrix GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array to document the M. truncatula transcript profiles associated with AM symbiosis, and then developed laser microdissection (LM of M. truncatula root cortical cells to enable analyses of gene expression in individual cell types by RT-PCR. Results This approach led to the identification of novel M. truncatula and G. intraradices genes expressed in colonized cortical cells and in arbuscules. Within the arbuscule, expression of genes associated with the urea cycle, amino acid biosynthesis and cellular autophagy was detected. Analysis of gene expression in the colonized cortical cell revealed up-regulation of a lysine motif (LysM-receptor like kinase, members of the GRAS transcription factor family and a symbiosis-specific ammonium transporter that is a likely candidate for mediating ammonium transport in the AM symbiosis. Conclusion Transcript profiling using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array provided new insights into gene expression in M. truncatula roots during AM symbiosis and revealed the existence of several G. intraradices genes on the M. truncatula GeneChip®. A laser microdissection protocol that incorporates low-melting temperature Steedman's wax, was

  17. Evolution of the P-type II ATPase gene family in the fungi and presence of structural genomic changes among isolates of Glomus intraradices

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    Sanders Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P-type II ATPase gene family encodes proteins with an important role in adaptation of the cell to variation in external K+, Ca2+ and Na2+ concentrations. The presence of P-type II gene subfamilies that are specific for certain kingdoms has been reported but was sometimes contradicted by discovery of previously unknown homologous sequences in newly sequenced genomes. Members of this gene family have been sampled in all of the fungal phyla except the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota, which are known to play a key-role in terrestrial ecosystems and to be genetically highly variable within populations. Here we used highly degenerate primers on AMF genomic DNA to increase the sampling of fungal P-Type II ATPases and to test previous predictions about their evolution. In parallel, homologous sequences of the P-type II ATPases have been used to determine the nature and amount of polymorphism that is present at these loci among isolates of Glomus intraradices harvested from the same field. Results In this study, four P-type II ATPase sub-families have been isolated from three AMF species. We show that, contrary to previous predictions, P-type IIC ATPases are present in all basal fungal taxa. Additionally, P-Type IIE ATPases should no longer be considered as exclusive to the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota, since we also demonstrate their presence in the Zygomycota. Finally, a comparison of homologous sequences encoding P-type IID ATPases showed unexpectedly that indel mutations among coding regions, as well as specific gene duplications occur among AMF individuals within the same field. Conclusion On the basis of these results we suggest that the diversification of P-Type IIC and E ATPases followed the diversification of the extant fungal phyla with independent events of gene gains and losses. Consistent with recent findings on the human genome, but at a much smaller geographic scale, we provided evidence

  18. EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN DE azotobacter chroococcum Y glomus intraradices EN EL CRECIMIENTO Y NUTRICIÓN DE PLÁNTULAS DE PAPAYA EN FASE DE VIVERO

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    Maricela Constantino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la etapa y el número de aplicaciones de los biofertilizantes (Azotobacter chroococcum y Glomus intraradices, sobre el crecimiento, biomasa y nutrición de papaya en fase de vivero. También se estudió el efecto de la materia orgánica y su interacción con los biofertilizantes aplicados. Se realizaron 2 experimentos; en el primero se aplicaron 2 inoculaciones, en semillas y después en plántulas, 30 días después de la emergencia. En el segundo se aplicó una inoculación simple en plántulas, 30 días después de la emergencia. Estos experimentos se realizaron utilizando un diseño factorial 5x4 (5 tipos de sustratos x 4 tipos de biofertilizantes. Todos los tratamientos fueron aplicados como inoculantes simples o combinados (A. chroococcum y G. intraradices para un total de 20 tratamientos, con un diseño completamente al azar. La doble inoculación (semilla y plántula promovió un mayor crecimiento y biomasa en el cultivo, en comparación con la inoculación simple (solo en plántulas, cuando se adicionó una dosis intermedia de materia orgánica (25 a 35% y se aplicó G. intraradices como simple inoculante. Sin embargo, la inoculación simple o combinada no modificó el contenido de nutrientes en las plántulas de papaya.

  19. Inibição da colonização por Bradyrhizobium elkanii mas não por Glomus intraradices em soja pelo ativador de defesa vegetal BTH

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    Hoffmann Lúcia Vieira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O produto BTH controla doenças através da ativação dos mecanismos de resistência de plantas, cujo modo de ação tem sido caracterizado através da identificação de genes ou enzimas ativados durante esta reação. Os mesmos genes e enzimas podem ser ativados como parte da reação das plantas à colonização por microssimbiontes mutualistas. Então, a aplicação de BTH pode inibir também essas simbioses. Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar se BTH tem efeito sobre a colonização de raízes de soja pelos microssimbiontes Glomus intraradices e Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Plantas controle ou inoculadas com o fungo micorrízico ou rizóbio foram tratadas com 20 mL de BTH 25 mg L-1 por meio da aplicação em sementes, via radicular ou via foliar. As plantas que receberam aplicação radicular de BTH tiveram desenvolvimento vegetativo reduzido. A colonização de raízes por B. elkanii foi menor nas plantas que receberam aplicação de BTH via radicular do que naquelas não tratadas ou tratadas por via foliar apenas. A colonização de raízes de soja por G. intraradices não foi afetada por BTH em quaisquer dos modos de aplicação. A aplicação radicular de BTH deve ser evitada na cultura da soja. Não há indício de restrição de aplicação foliar do produto.

  20. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    leaves were maximum in P. Poae + G.I inoculated plants under water deficit condition. In the presence of ... Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are usually in contact ... plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the pathways of its ...

  1. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C.

    2005-01-01

    sativa L.), inoculated or not with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and fertilized with Hewitt solution. Control non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were included. There was four replicates per treatment. After 2 months, plant survival and growth was measured, as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots. PAH in rhizosphere soils was analyzed using ASE and GC-FID. Major and trace elements in plants were analyzed after acid digestion using ICP. AM fungal and bacterial communities present in roots and rhizosphere were also analysed after DNA extraction with a PCR-TGGE technique. Plant survival rate was significantly lower in the soil treated with bio-pile than in untreated soil. Non-inoculated and non fertilized alfalfa biomass was lower with soil treated with bio-pile and thermal desorption than with untreated soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation as well as fertilization significantly improved alfalfa growth in the soil treated with bio-pile. In the soil treated with thermal desorption, shoot and root biomass were significantly higher with mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization. Estimation of root colonization showed that the roots of un-inoculated plants growing on the untreated contaminated soil contained indigenous mycorrhizal fungi. With the soil treated with bio-pile, mycorrhizal colonization of un-inoculated plants was significantly lower, while no colonization was observed in the roots in the soil treated with thermal desorption. Inoculation with a mycorrhizal fungus increased root colonization rate in both treated soils. It also significantly increased the number of rhizobia nodules. Phosphorus concentration in plant roots and shoots was significantly improved by mycorrhizal inoculation in soil treated with thermal desorption. Data on PAH concentration in soils and fungal and bacterial communities will be also presented and discussed

  2. Influence of Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of micronutrient deficiency on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and to assess the role of AMF on growth of sorghum and tomato plants in perlite bed culture. In a pot culture experiment with sterile perlite, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and ...

  3. Effects of the mycorrhizal fungus ¤Glomus intraradices¤ on uranium uptake and accumulation by ¤Medicago truncatula¤ L. from uranium-contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.D.; Jakobsen, I.; Roos, P.

    2005-01-01

    cultivation system facilitating the specific measurement of U uptake by roots, AM roots and extraradical hyphae of AM fungi and the measurement of U partitioning between root and shoot. A soil-filled plastic pot constituted the main root compartment (C-A) which contained a plastic vial filled with U......-contaminated soil amended with 0, 50 or 200 mg KH2PO4-P kg(-1) soil (C-B). The vial was sealed by coarse or fine nylon mesh, permitting the penetration of both roots and hyphae or of just hyphae. Medicago truncatula plants grown in C-A were inoculated with G. intraradices or remained uninoculated. Dry weight...... in C-A, but decreased shoot U concentrations. Root U concentrations and contents were significantly higher when only hyphae could access U inside C-B than when roots could also directly access this U pool. The proportion of plant U content partitioned to shoots was decreased by root exclusion from C...

  4. Co-inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Beans play an important role in the enhancement of the level of nourishment ..... quantities of P to the plants from remote zones (Jansa et al., 2003). Also, the .... metabolic monitoring (NMR), and molecular analyses with in-situ ...

  5. Atypically localized glomus tumors

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    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  6. Amelioration of Pb and Mn toxicity to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices by maize root exudates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Gryndler, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 297-299 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : heavy metals * hyphal growth * Zea mays Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  7. Persistence of heavy metal tolerance of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices under different cultivation regimes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sudová, Radka; Jurkiewicz, A.; Turnau, K.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2007), s. 71-82 ISSN 0334-5114 Grant - others:Genomyca(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01319; FNP(PL) Regle 25/97; FNP(PL) Subin 1996; FNP(PL) Subin 2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * lead * manganese Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2007

  8. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S. Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  9. Carbon economy of sour orange in response to different Glomus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. H.; Drouillard, D. L.; Hodge, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (M) fungal colonization, growth, and nonstructural carbohydrate status of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings were compared at low- and high-phosphorus (P) supply following inoculation with four Glomus isolates: G. intraradices (Gi, FL208), G. etunicatum (Ge, UT316), G. claroideum (Gc, SC186), and Glomus sp. (G329, FL906). Nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings served as controls. At low-P supply, increases in incidence of M colonization, vesicles and accumulation of fungal fatty acid 16:1omega(5)C in roots were most rapid for G329-inoculated seedlings, followed closely by Gi- and Gc-inoculated seedlings. Glomus etunicatum was a less aggressive colonizer and produced lower rates of fungal fatty acid accumulation in seedling roots than the other Glomus species. Nonmycorrhizal and Ge-inoculated seedlings had lower P status and growth rates than seedlings inoculated with Gi or G329. Glomus claroideum increased seedling P status, but growth rate was lower than for seedlings colonized by Gi or G329, suggesting higher belowground costs for Gc colonization. In P-sufficient roots colonized by Gi, Gc, or G329, starch and ketone sugar concentrations were lower than in P-deficient NM and Ge-inoculated plants. Under conditions of high-P supply where mycorrhizae provided no P benefit to the seedlings, colonization by Gc, Gi, and G329 was delayed and reduced compared to that at low-P supply; however, the relative colonization rates among Glomus spp. were similar. Colonization by Ge was not detected in roots until 64 days after inoculation. Compared to NM seedlings, growth rates of mycorrhizal seedlings were reduced by the three aggressive fungi but not by the less aggressive Ge. After 64 days, starch and ketone sugar concentrations were lower in fibrous roots colonized by Gc, Gi, and G329 than in NM roots, indicating greater utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates in roots colonized by the aggressive fungi. After 49 days, colonization by the

  10. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  11. Radiotherapy in glomus jugulare and glomus tympanicum tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Kapp, B.; Bohndorf, W.; Ptok, M.

    1989-01-01

    Glomus jugulare tumors are difficult to manage therapeutically due to their localisation. Operation may be successful in small tumors but can be hazardous in larger lesions mainly because of bleeding and palsy of cranial nerves. In these cases there should be used radiation therapy under the condition that it is planned by use of computed tomography. Moreover reproducibility of radiation treatment set-up is vital. In this way tumor regression may be achieved. Four own illustrative cases are demonstrated. According to the stage of disease a modified treatment strategy is presented which integrates surgical procedures, angiographic embolisation and radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  12. Locally accumulated extractable compounds in mycorrhizal parts of maize roots suppress the growth of hyphae of glomus intraradices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Malcová, Radka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Halada, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2003), s. 125-138 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : fractions * patassium * root extract Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2003

  13. Effects of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on lead uptake by Zea mays L. and Agrostis capillaris L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Vosátka, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2003), s. 55-67 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903; CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * soil contamination * heavy metals Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2003

  14. Original Paper Le champignon arbusculaire Glomus aggregatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le champignon arbusculaire Glomus aggregatum améliore la nutrition minérale de ... Salinity remains a major problem for soil fertility, especially in the Sahelian zone. However, many ...... environmental gradient in the Brazilian semiarid.

  15. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  16. Results of surgical treatment of glomus tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Ersin Turkmen

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Glomus tumors are often diagnosed by their characteristic clinical symptoms; pain, tenderness and cold intolerance. Given the considerably delayed time to diagnosis, glomus tumors should be taken into consideration in the presence of severe finger tip pain of unknown origin. These patients are usually operated for other reasons because of difficulties in diagnosis. After the exploration of the tumors on nail bed, was repaired properly observed. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(3.000: 66-69

  17. Glomus Tumor of Thumb Occurring at Unusual Location

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosis of glomus tumour. Although rare, glomus tumour should be considered as differential diagnosis for fingertip ... Figure 1: Radiograph-anteropsterior and lateral view ... nail bed is carefully dissected from the bone until the tumor.

  18. Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Peritoneum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleato-González, Sandra; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Trujillo-Ariza, Maria Virginia [Department of Radiology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15701 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña) (Spain); Carrera-Álvarez, Juan Jose [Department of Pathology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Choupana s/n, 15701 Santiago de Compostela (A Coruña) (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Glomus tumors are usually benign tumors that occur in the skin and soft tissues of the extremities. Visceral locations, such as stomach, intestines or lung, are extremely rare because glomus bodies are rare or absent in these organs. This report describes our experience in a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a peritoneal malignant glomus tumor. This finding has not been previously reported.

  19. Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Peritoneum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleato-González, Sandra; García-Figueiras, Roberto; Trujillo-Ariza, Maria Virginia; Carrera-Álvarez, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    Glomus tumors are usually benign tumors that occur in the skin and soft tissues of the extremities. Visceral locations, such as stomach, intestines or lung, are extremely rare because glomus bodies are rare or absent in these organs. This report describes our experience in a 47-year-old woman diagnosed with a peritoneal malignant glomus tumor. This finding has not been previously reported

  20. Concomitant Glomus Tumor with CRPS in the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Chan Mi; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong

    2013-07-01

    Glomus tumors are benign tumors that account for 1% to 5% of all soft tissue tumors of the hand and are characterized by a triad of sensitivity to cold, localized tenderness and severe paroxysmal pain. Paroxysmal pain is a symptom common not only in glomus tumors but also in CRPS, and the hand is one of the commonly affected sites in patients with both glomus tumors and CRPS. Therefore, it is not easy to clinically diagnose glomus tumors superimposed on already affected region of CRPS patients. We report a case of glomus tumor concomitantly originating with CRPS at the hand.

  1. Knee glomangioma: a rare location for a glomus tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumor is a rare, benign neoplasm rising from the glomus apparatus of the skin. It occurs most frequently on fingers and toes and accounts for 1.6% of all soft tissue tumors. Clinical diagnosis may prove difficult if the tumor occurs on an extra digital location. We report a case of a vascular-type glomus tumor (glomangioma found in an atypical location, namely the lateral aspect of the knee joint.

  2. Radiotherapy in glomus jugulare and glomus tympanicum tumors. Zur Radiotherapie der Glomus-jugulare-et-tympanicum-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyerabend, T; Richter, E; Kapp, B; Bohndorf, W [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Ptok, M [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke

    1989-09-01

    Glomus jugulare tumors are difficult to manage therapeutically due to their localisation. Operation may be successful in small tumors but can be hazardous in larger lesions mainly because of bleeding and palsy of cranial nerves. In these cases there should be used radiation therapy under the condition that it is planned by use of computed tomography. Moreover reproducibility of radiation treatment set-up is vital. In this way tumor regression may be achieved. Four own illustrative cases are demonstrated. According to the stage of disease a modified treatment strategy is presented which integrates surgical procedures, angiographic embolisation and radiotherapy. (orig.).

  3. Glomus Tumors: Symptom Variations and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Weon Ham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The typical clinical symptoms of glomus tumors are pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to temperature change, and the presence of these clinical findings is helpful in diagnosis. However, the tumors often pose diagnostic difficulty because of variations in presentation and the nonspecific symptoms of glomus tumors. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have reported on the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in diagnosing glomus tumors in patients with unspecific symptoms.Methods The inclusion criteria of this study were: having undergone surgery for subungual glomus tumor of the hand, histopathologic confirmation of glomus tumor, and having undergone preoperative MRI. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The characteristics of the tumors and the presenting symptoms including pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to temperature change were retrospectively reviewed.Results Five out of 21 patients (23% did not show the typical glomus tumor symptom triad because they did not complain of pain provoked by coldness. Nevertheless, preoperative MRI showed well-defined small soft-tissue lesions on T1- and T2-weighted images, which are typical findings of glomus tumors. The tumors were completely resected and confirmed as glomus tumor histopathologically.Conclusions Early occult lesions of glomus tumor in the hand may not be revealed by physical examination because of their barely detectable symptoms. Moreover, subungual lesions may be particularly difficult to evaluate on physical examination. Our cases showed that MRI offers excellent diagnostic information in clinically undiagnosed or misdiagnosed patients. Preoperative MRI can accurately define the character and extent of glomus tumor, even though it is impalpable and invisible.

  4. Glomus Tumors: Symptom Variations and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Weon Ham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe typical clinical symptoms of glomus tumors are pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to temperature change, and the presence of these clinical findings is helpful in diagnosis. However, the tumors often pose diagnostic difficulty because of variations in presentation and the nonspecific symptoms of glomus tumors. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have reported on the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in diagnosing glomus tumors in patients with unspecific symptoms.MethodsThe inclusion criteria of this study were: having undergone surgery for subungual glomus tumor of the hand, histopathologic confirmation of glomus tumor, and having undergone preoperative MRI. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The characteristics of the tumors and the presenting symptoms including pain, tenderness, and sensitivity to temperature change were retrospectively reviewed.ResultsFive out of 21 patients (23% did not show the typical glomus tumor symptom triad because they did not complain of pain provoked by coldness. Nevertheless, preoperative MRI showed well-defined small soft-tissue lesions on T1- and T2-weighted images, which are typical findings of glomus tumors. The tumors were completely resected and confirmed as glomus tumor histopathologically.ConclusionsEarly occult lesions of glomus tumor in the hand may not be revealed by physical examination because of their barely detectable symptoms. Moreover, subungual lesions may be particularly difficult to evaluate on physical examination. Our cases showed that MRI offers excellent diagnostic information in clinically undiagnosed or misdiagnosed patients. Preoperative MRI can accurately define the character and extent of glomus tumor, even though it is impalpable and invisible.

  5. CRECIMIENTO DE Cedrela odorata L. BIOFERTILIZADA CON Rhizophagus intraradices y Azospirillum brasilense EN VIVERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Aguirre-Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cedrela odorata L. es una especie que se distingue por la calidad de su madera. El cedro esta - blecido en campo debe adaptarse a cambios en disponibilidad de recursos; la sobrevivivencia es mayor cuando el sistema radical se asocia con microorganismos que mejoran la nutrición y crecimiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de Rhizophagus intraradi - ces y Azospirillum brasilense sobre el crecimiento de C. odorata y la capacidad de absorción de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P. Las semillas de cedro se sembraron en macetas de acuerdo con los siguientes trata - mientos: testigo, fertilización 15 N -15 P -15 K , R. intraradices , A. brasilense , R. intraradices + A. brasilense , y R. intraradices + A. brasilense + fertilización 15 N -15 P -15 K . Las variables morfológicas y fisiológicas de rendimiento y la colonización radical se registraron cada 28 días, y los contenidos de N y P, al final del experimento (140 días. En general, R. intraradices promovió mayor crecimiento vegetal ( P ≤ 0.05 de los componentes morfológicos y fisiológicos del rendimiento. La altura máxima (97 cm se registró en las plantas con R. intraradices + A. brasilense + fertilización 15 N -15 P -15 K , representando 40 % más altura que el testigo. El N y P incrementaron con la inoculación de los microorganismos solos y combinados.

  6. Mycorrhizal Glomus spp. vary in their effects on the dynamics and turnover of fine alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, A.; Waly, N.; Chunhui, M.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots in the soil profile has important implications related to water and nutrient uptake. The Objective of this study was to compare the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the fine root dynamics of Medicago sativa L. cv. Sanditi. We used minirhizotrons to observe changes in fine root length density (FRLD, mm/cm2) and fine root surface area density (FRSAD, mm2/cm2) during the growing season. Fine root P concentrations and turnover rate were also measured. The colonization rate of fine roots varied depending on the AMF species. Colonization rates were highest when roots were inoculated with Glomus mosseae and lowest when roots were inoculated G. intraradices. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased both FRLD and FRSAD. G. versiforme increased FRLD and FRSAD most, whereas G. mosseae had the least effect. Inoculation with AMF also decreased fine root turnover rates. Inoculation with a mixture of AMF species increased fine root turnover and P concentrations more than inoculation with a single AMF species. Fine root length density increased to a maximum on Aug. 6 and then decreased. In comparison, FRSAD exhibited two peaks during the growing season. Overall, the Results indicated that inoculation with AMF can significantly promote fine root growth and P uptake by alfalfa growing on soil with low P availability. The AMF may preserve fine root function late in the growing season. (author)

  7. Unusual imaging presentation of spinal glomus tumor: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Jau-Ching

    2017-01-01

    A glomangioma, also known as a glomus tumor, is a benign lesion and had rare occurrence of spine region. In this study, we presented a spinal glomus tumor with an unusual radiological presentation, which is different from osteolytic intraosseous patterns illustrated before. A 26-year-old male with compressive myelopathy caused by epidural intraspinal lesion over T11 level. Radiological presentation revealed reactive sclerotic change over the body and lamina was found on the same level in comp...

  8. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was 36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  9. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi (glomus intraradices) on survival of Salmonella and E.coli 0157:H7 in soil and translocation into romaine lettuce roots and shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern agriculture practices disrupt the natural symbiotic relationship that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have with most vegetable plants, which may affect translocation of human pathogens into the plant and/or survival in the soil. AM-fungi are frequently utilized in organic farming to improv...

  10. Synergistic effect of Glomus intraradices and Frankia spp. on the growth and stress recovery of Alnus glutinosa in an alkaline anthropogenic sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliveira, R. S.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2005), s. 1462-1470 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycorrhiza * actonorhiza * alkaline sediment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2005

  11. Low concentration of copper inhibits colonization of soil by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and radically changes the microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerberg, David; Manique, Nina; Brandt, Kristian K.

    2011-01-01

    . To avoid indirect effects through the plant, copper was only added to root-free microcosm compartments. [Cu]bio was measured using a Pseudomonas fluorescens biosensor strain. In the range of 0–1.5 μg g−1 [Cu]bio, a log–log linear relationship between added copper and [Cu]bio was found. Microbial...... colonization of the root-free compartment was evaluated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis (WCFA) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The WCFA analysis showed that the AM fungus soil colonization was severely inhibited by Cu with a 50% reduction of mycorrhizal growth at 0.26 μg g−1 [Cu......]bio. The growth of other main microbial groups was not significantly affected by copper. However, ARDRA analysis showed a very strong effect of copper on the bacterial community composition probably caused by an increased proportion of Cu-resistant bacteria. Our results suggest that problems with plant yield may...

  12. The effect of EDDS chelate and inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on the efficacy of lead phytoextraction by two tobacco clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sudová, Radka; Pavlíková, D.; Macek, Tomáš; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2007), s. 163-173 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : fytostabilization * soil contamination * arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  13. Genetic diversity and host plant preferences revealed by simple sequence repeat and mitochondrial markers in a population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croll, D.; Wille, L.; Gamper, H.A.; Mathimaran, N.; Lammers, P.J.; Corradi, N.; Sanders, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important symbionts of plants that improve plant nutrient acquisition and promote plant diversity. Although within-species genetic differences among AMF have been shown to differentially affect plant growth, very little is actually known about the degree of

  14. Intraradical Dynamics of Two Coexisting Isolates of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus intraradices Sensu Lato as Estimated by Real-Time PCR of Mitochondrial DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Janoušková, Martina; Caklová, Petra; Vosátka, Miroslav; Štorchová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 10 (2012), s. 3630-3637 ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0838 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : real-time PCR * mitochondrial DNA * coexistence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.678, year: 2012

  15. Effect of Glomus intraradices isolated from Pb-contaninated soil on Pb uptake by Agrostis capillaris is changed by its cultivation i a metal-free substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2003), s. 155-165 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk OC 838.10; GA ČR GA526/99/P032; GA ČR GA526/99/0895 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * heavy metal tolerance * lead contamination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2003

  16. A Rare Case of Malignant Glomus Tumor of the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Singh Bali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare neoplasms that usually occur on the hands in a subungual location, or sometimes in palms, wrists or soles of the feet. They are described as purple/pink tiny painful lesions with a triad of pain, local point tenderness, and cold hypersensitivity. They are almost always benign, but rare malignant variants have been reported. They have also been reported to be present at unusual locations, like the lung, stomach, or liver. Gastrointestinal glomus tumors are extremely rare tumors and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Most that have been reported were usually benign in nature. A rare esophageal glomangioma, mimicking a papilloma, was reported in 2006. We report a case of glomangiosarcoma (malignant glomus tumor in a 49-year-old female, who presented with symptoms of dysphagia including some spasm and hoarseness and subjective unintentional weight loss. On endoscopic exam, she was found to have a distal esophageal mass with malignant features. Radiologically, the mass had a size of about 8 cm on the CT scan without evidence of metastases. Pathology and immunostaining of the biopsy showed features resembling a malignant glomus tumor. She underwent an endoscopic and laparoscopic staging of the tumor along with ultrasound. Based on the laparoscopic findings, which were consistent with the preoperative diagnosis, she was scheduled for an esophagectomy. Histopathology and immunophenotypic features of the excised mass were consistent with a diagnosis of malignant glomus tumor.

  17. Glomus tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1: genetic, functional and clinical evidence of a novel association

    OpenAIRE

    Brems, Hilde; Park, Caroline; Maertens, Ophélia; Pemov, Alexander; Messiaen, Ludwine; Upadhyaya, Meena; Claes, Kathleen; Beert, Eline; Peeters, Kristel; Mautner, Victor; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Yao, Lawrence; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Sciot, Raf; Smet, Luc De

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Glomus tumors are small, benign but painful tumors that originate from the glomus body, a thermoregulatory shunt concentrated in the fingers and toes. We report eleven individuals with NF1 who harbored 20 glomus tumors of the fingers and one in the toe; five individuals had multiple glomus tumors. We hypothesized that bi-allelic inactivation of NF1 underlies the pathogenesi...

  18. Cistanche tubulosa (schenk) r. wight an important medicinal plant occurring in sand dunes of Karak, N.W.F.P., Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilahi, I.; Iqbal, Z.; Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    2010-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight of the family Orobanchaceae has been found growing as a parasite for the first time on Capparis decidua L (Capparidaceae). It is reported for the first time from District Karak (N.W.F.P.) Pakistan. It was also found growing on Calligonum polygonoides L (Polygonaceae), Calotropis procera L. (Asclepiadaceae) and Tamarix indica Willd (Tamaricaceae). The seed germinates on the host root which is near the soil surface and produces haustoria which then penetrate into the deeper layers of the root i.e. to the centre of metaxylem to tap the nutrition from the host, where it is parenchymatous in nature. The nature and habit of both the host and parasite are described in detail. (author)

  19. Performance of Glomus clarum and Tithonia diversifolia compost in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screen house experiments were conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan, on a sandy loam soil in two years, to assess the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus clarum) and compost (sunflower) on the growth and yield of tomato plants. The experimental design was laid out in a ...

  20. Glomus tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1: genetic, functional, and clinical evidence of a novel association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Hilde; Park, Caroline; Maertens, Ophélia; Pemov, Alexander; Messiaen, Ludwine; Messia, Ludwine; Upadhyaya, Meena; Claes, Kathleen; Beert, Eline; Peeters, Kristel; Mautner, Victor; Sloan, Jennifer L; Yao, Lawrence; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Sciot, Raf; De Smet, Luc; Legius, Eric; Stewart, Douglas R

    2009-09-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Glomus tumors are small, benign but painful tumors that originate from the glomus body, a thermoregulatory shunt concentrated in the fingers and toes. We report 11 individuals with NF1 who harbored 20 glomus tumors of the fingers and 1 in the toe; 5 individuals had multiple glomus tumors. We hypothesized that biallelic inactivation of NF1 underlies the pathogenesis of these tumors. In 12 NF1-associated glomus tumors, we used cell culture and laser capture microdissection to isolate DNA. We also analyzed two sporadic (not NF1-associated) glomus tumors. Genetic analysis showed germ line and somatic NF1 mutations in seven tumors. RAS mitogen-activated protein kinase hyperactivation was observed in cultured NF1(-/-) glomus cells, reflecting a lack of inhibition of the pathway by functional neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1. No abnormalities in NF1 or RAS mitogen-activated protein kinase activation were found in sporadic glomus tumors. By comparative genomic hybridization, we observed amplification of the 3'-end of CRTAC1 and a deletion of the 5'-end of WASF1 in two NF1-associated glomus tumors. For the first time, we show that loss of neurofibromin function is crucial in the pathogenesis of glomus tumors in NF1. Glomus tumors of the fingers or toes should be considered as part of the tumor spectrum of NF1.

  1. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed

  2. Glomus jugulare tumor with intra- and extracranial extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisako, Toshitaka; Goya, Tomokazu; Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    A case of glomus jugulare tumor with intra- and extracranial extension is described. The patient was a 63-year-old woman who complained of gait and memory disturbances. On admission neurological examination revealed recent memory disturbance, left deafness, left XI, XIIth cranial nerve palsies, and slight ataxic gait. Roentgenogram of the skull showed an enlarged left jugular foramen with bone erosion. Plain X-ray computerized tomography scan (X-CT) indicated obstructive hydrocephalus and X-CT with contrast enhancement revealed a mass lesion in the left posterior cranial fossa extending through enlarged left jugular foramen to the extracranial space toward the level of C 2 . Cerebral angiography demonstrated a large mass with blood supply from branches of left external carotid and vertebral arteries. The tumor stain was not remarkable. Left internal jugular vein was completely obstructed at the level of the second cervical vertebral body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly showed the tumor extending from the anterolateral portion to the second cervical vertebral body through the enlarged jugular foramen to the posterior cranial fossa. Brain stem and cerebellar hemisphere which were markedly compressed by the mass were clearly visualized. At first a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was made and four weeks later subtotal removal of the tumor was undertaken. Histopathology of tumor specimen showed typical glomus jugulare tumor. MRI was considered to be very useful for the diagnosis and treatment of the glomus jugulare tumor with intra- and extracranial extension. (author)

  3. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  4. Patch clamp study of mouse glomus cells using a whole carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Lande, Boris; Kitajima, Toshimitsu; Hori, Yuichi; Shirahata, Machiko

    2004-03-04

    Some electrophysiological characteristics of mouse glomus cells (DBA/2J strain) were investigated using an undissociated carotid body. The carotid body with major carotid arteries was placed in a recording chamber, and glomus cells were visualized with a water immersion lens combined with an infrared differential interference video camera. Patch clamp experiments revealed that voltage-gated outward current, but not inward current, was easily observed in glomus cells. Pharmacological experiments and the kinetics of the current suggest that outward current is via delayed rectifier, A type, and large conductance calcium-activated K channels. Furthermore, K current was reversibly attenuated by mild hypoxia. The results suggest electrophysiological similarities of glomus cells among the cat, the rat, and the DBA/2J mouse. The method appears useful for physiological experiments.

  5. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  6. Interaction of Heterodera glycines and Glomus mosseae on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C; Winkler, H E; Wilson, G W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on Heterodera glycines-soybean interactions were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soybean cultivars that were either resistant or susceptible to H. glycines were exposed to initial nematode population densities (Pi) of 0, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 eggs and infective juveniles. Soybean growth, nematode reproduction, and AM fungal colonization were determined after 35 (experiment I) and 83 (experiment II) days. Soybean shoot and root weights were reduced an average 29% across H. glycines Pi but were 36% greater overall in the presence of G. mosseae. Analyses of variance indicated that root colonization and stimulation of soybean growth by G. mosseae were inhibited at high H. glycines Pi, while the combined effects of the nematode and fungus on soybean growth were best described as additive in linear regression models. No evidence for increased nematode tolerance of mycorrhizal soybean plants was observed. Nematode population densities and reproduction were lower on a nematode-resistant soybean cultivar than on a susceptible cultivar, but reproduction was comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Root colonization by G. mosseae was reduced at high nematode Pi. The results suggest that nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a more likely consequence of interactions between H. glycines and AM fungi on soybean than is nematode suppression by the fungus.

  7. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-07

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil.

  8. Effect of phosphate and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas ( Pisum sativum ) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... to measure the activity of the pathogen in roots. The enzyme activity increased with disease severity and disease incidence, except in plants supplemented with P at the highest level, where a peak in activity was seen 12 days after inoculation with the pathogen, followed by a decrease in activity...

  9. Estudio de la interacción entre el hongo formado de micorrizas arbusculares "Glomus intraradices" Schenck y Smith y el hongo patógeno "Armillaria mellea (Vahl:fr)" P.Kuhn en vid

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales García, Amaia Miren

    2009-01-01

    El síndrome de replante es consecuencia de una explotación continua y repetida del terreno en el que los problemas de estrés, principalmente de origen patogénico, juegan un papel importante. En los viñedos españoles, el hongo Armillaria mellea que produce la podredumbre blanca de raíz, está considerado como una de sus principales causas. Existen pocas medidas de control disponibles, puesto que no hay portainjertos comerciales que confieran resistencia frente a A. mellea, y la fumigación del s...

  10. Radiation therapy for glomus tumors of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Igna, Celso; Antunes, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of glomic tumors has been controversial since its first description. It can be done with surgery, radiotherapy or just expectation. Aim: the objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of radiotherapy.Study Design: clinical with transversal cohort. Material and method: it was made a retrospective review in the charts of the patients with glomus jugular tumors treated with radiotherapy. Disease control was determined by (1) no progression of symptoms or cranial nerve dysfunction or (2) no progression of the lesion in radiological follow-up. It was also evaluated the follow-up period and the sequelae of the treatment. Results: twelve patients were included, 8 of then women. The follow-up period was from 3 to 35 years, with a media of 11,6 years. The main symptoms were: hearing loss, pulsate tinnitus, dizziness and vertigo. The signs were pulsate retrotympanic mass, facial palsy and cofosis. The tumors were staged using Fischs classification. The radiotherapy was performed with linear accelerator with dose ranging from 4500-5500 in 4-6 weeks. In the follow-up period were possible to identify sequelaes like dermatitis, meatal stenosis, cofosis and facial palsy. Discussion: the signs and symptoms were the same found in the medical literature. The type and dosages of the radiotherapy were also the same of others reports. All patients had improvement of the symptoms and only one was not considered as having disease controlled. Complications were, in general, minor complications, with exception of the cofosis and facial palsy. Conclusion: radiotherapy is a viable alternative to treatment of these tumors because their good response and low level of complications. It should be considered specially in advanced tumors where a surgical procedure could bring a high level of morbidity. (author)

  11. Flavonoids released naturally from alfalfa promote development of symbiotic glomus spores in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S M; Phillips, D A

    1991-05-01

    Because flavonoids from legumes induce transcription of nodulation genes in symbiotic rhizobial bacteria, it is reasonable to test whether these compounds alter the development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi that infect those plants. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, the dominant flavonoid released naturally from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds, promoted spore germination of Glomus etunicatum and Glomus macrocarpum in vitro. Quercetin produced the maximum increases in spore germination, hyphal elongation, and hyphal branching in G. etunicatum at 1 to 2.5 muM concentrations. Two flavonoids exuded from alfalfa roots, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone and 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone, also enhanced spore germination of this fungal species. Formononetin, an isoflavone that is released from stressed alfalfa roots, inhibited germination of both Glomus species. These in vitro results suggest that plant flavonoids may facilitate or regulate the development of VAM symbioses and offer new hope for developing pure, plant-free cultures of VAM fungi.

  12. A Primary Pulmonary Glomus Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ariizumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a glomus tumor originating from the lung is reported. A 43-year-old female had undergone resection of a right lung tumor following a clinical diagnosis of carcinoid, sclerosing hemangioma, or other sarcoma. Histologically, the tumor comprised uniform small round to oval cells with centrally located nucleus, a clear cytoplasm, and apparent cell borders. The tumor also showed a focally hemangiopericytomatous pattern with irregularly branching or dilated vessels. Electron microscopy revealed smooth muscle differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunostaining further revealed that the tumor cells expressed smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, muscle specific actin (HHF-35, but not cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, or chromogranin A. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary glomus tumor was established. Glomus tumors of the lung are very rare and only 21 cases have been reported to date. The histological features of the present tumor and the relevant literature are discussed.

  13. Differential effects of two strains of Rhizophagus intraradices on dry biomass and essential oil yield and composition in Calamintha nepeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana P Colombo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effects of two geographically different strains of Rhizophagus intraradices (M3 and GA5 on the total biomass and essential oil (EO yield and composition of Calamintha nepeta, with or without phosphorus (P fertilization, under greenhouse conditions.The plant biomass was not significantly affected by any of the treatments, showing higher values in control plants. Strains had a differential response in their root colonization rates: M3 reduced these parameters while GA5 did not modify them. Both strains affected EO yield in absence of P fertilization: M3 promoted EO yield in C. nepeta plants and GA5 resulted in negative effects. The percentage composition of EO was not significantly modified by either strain or P fertilization. M3 strain could be a potential fungal bioinoculant for production and commercialization of C. nepeta in the aromatic plant market.

  14. [Glomus tumour of the lung: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Del Valle, Javier Alonso; Murillo-Echeverri, Victoria Eugenia; Gaviria-Velásquez, Alejandro; Celis-Mejía, Diego Miguel; Matute-Turizo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Glomus tumours are neoplasms arising from cells of the neuromyoarterial glomus bodies, which almost always occur in a subungual location. A lung location is extremely rare, with few cases reported in the literature. The case is presented of a 33 year-old male, with non-productive cough, dyspnoea at rest, intermittent fever, and mild pain in rib cage. A chest radiograph showed a consolidation in the left lung, and computed tomography revealed a lesion in the hilum that extended to the bronchus of the lingula obstructing, and causing post-obstructive pneumonia. A biopsy was obtained by rigid bronchoscopy biopsy, which showed a well circumscribed tumour constituted by intermediate-sized cells, and abundant cytoplasm that are arranged in a pattern surrounding numerous thin-walled blood vessels, with no pleomorphism, significant mitotic activity or necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse positivity with smooth muscle actin, vimentin, caldesmon; focal reactivity with desmin and CD117, CD34 highlights the vascular pattern. Ki67 proliferation rate was 1%. Synaptophysin, EMA and cytokeratin cocktail were negative, making the diagnosis of glomus tumour. Glomus tumours are rare neoplasms that usually appear in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, where it is common to find glomus bodies. Occasionally glomus tumours can occur in extra-cutaneous sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, bone and respiratory system, with this case being a new case of rare lung location. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Subungual Hypervascular Soft Tissue Chondroma Mimicking a Glomus Tumor: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Chun; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue chondroma, or extraskeletal chondroma, is a relatively rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that occurs most frequently in the hands and feet - a subungual location is quite rare. The authors describe a subungual soft tissue chondroma in a 25-year-old man that was visualized as a hypervascular mass on color Doppler ultrasonography and initially misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor

  16. Subungual Hypervascular Soft Tissue Chondroma Mimicking a Glomus Tumor: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Chun; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae [Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Soft tissue chondroma, or extraskeletal chondroma, is a relatively rare, benign cartilaginous tumor that occurs most frequently in the hands and feet - a subungual location is quite rare. The authors describe a subungual soft tissue chondroma in a 25-year-old man that was visualized as a hypervascular mass on color Doppler ultrasonography and initially misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor

  17. Hyphal Growth from Spores of the Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus Caledonius: Effect of Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hepper, C.M.; Jakobsen, Iver

    1983-01-01

    Hyphal growth from spores of Glomus caledonius (Nicol. and Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdemann was stimulated by cystine, glycine and lysine at optimum concentrations of 4.6, 556 and 825 mg l−1 respectively. When all three amino acids were supplied together in water agar, five times more growth...

  18. Research and transference of the ICES over Malargue, Mendoza, uranium bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, A.; Barbero, N.; Castano-Ganan, A.R; Ramires, A.; Ojeda, C.; Meza, Juan C.; Lopez, S.; Salgan, Laura; Diaz Isenrath, G.

    2009-01-01

    'Helianthus-Glomus' system (Stage 4). To date, there has been progress in the planting of 'Helianthus annus' (step 1) and genotype of 'Glomus intraradices' for 'Helianthus annus' inoculated with 60% effectiveness in the union, namely AJ557008 D2VII (Schenk and Smith) (Stage 2). (author)

  19. The safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Glomus jugulare is a slowly growing, locally destructive tumor located in the skull base with difficult surgical access. The operative approach is, complicated by the fact that lesions may be both intra and extradural with engulfment of critical neurovascular structures. The tumor is frequently highly vascular, thus tumor resection entails a great deal of morbidity and not infrequent mortality. At timeslarge residual tumors are left behind. To decrease the morbidity associated with surgical resection of glomus jugulare, gamma knife surgery (GKS) was performed as an alternative in 13 patients to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods A retrospective review of 13 residual or unresectable glomus jagulare treated with GKS between 2004 and 2008.. Of these, 11 patients underwent GKS as the primary management and one case each was treated for postoperative residual disease and postembolization. The radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin ranged between 12-15 Gy. Results Post- gamma knife surgery and during the follow-up period twelve patients demonstrated neurological stability while clinical improvement was achieved in 5 patients. One case developed transient partial 7th nerve palsy that responded to medical treatment. In all patients radiographic MRI follow-up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in two cases and remained stable (local tumor control) in eleven patients. Conclusions Gamma knife surgery provids tumor control with a lowering of risk of developing a new cranial nerve injury in early follow-up period. This procedure can be safely used as a primary management tool in patients with glomus jugulare tumors, or in patients with recurrent tumors in this location. If long-term results with GKS are equally effective it will emerge as a good alternative to surgical resection. PMID:20819207

  20. Presentation of a glomus carotid tumor as carotid sinus syndrome with syncopal episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickschas, A.; Harmann, B.; Herzog, T.; Marienhagen, J.

    1987-01-01

    An 80 year old patient was referred to neurology for clarification of her episodes of syncope. A set of radiological examinations indicated a diagnosis of paraganglion of the left carotid bifurcation. Using this case, an attempt is made to provide recommendations concerning the order of step-wise visualization techniques of clarifying glomus carotid tumors. This unusual case also provides an impetus for considering the physiology and pathogenesis of different forms of carotid sinus syndrome. (orig.) [de

  1. Subungual onychomycosis due to Aspergillus niger mimicking a glomus tumor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yumi; Nakamura, Tomoki; Hagi, Tomohito; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Sudo, Akihiro

    2017-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, while non-dermatophytes including Aspergillus spp. are causes of nail onychomycosis. Aspergillus niger is not common as a cause of nail onychomycosis. In the current study we present a 60-year-old woman with subungual onychomycosis due to Aspergillus niger mimicking a glomus tumor. Physical examination revealed right thumb had a black color of nail bed. Localized tenderness and severe pain were observed. However, the cold sensitivity test, Loves pin test and Hildreths test were negative. On radiograph, bone erosion was found in a part of distal phalanx at the right thumb. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a mass at the subungual space, which exhibited low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The differential diagnosis included glomus tumor and infection. The histological findings demonstrated dichotomous septate hyphae. The culture was positive for Aspergillus niger . The results suggested that when physical examination is not typical for a glomus tumor, other diseases may be considered. Additionally, frozen section diagnosis may be useful.

  2. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdin, A.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Fontaine, J.; Grandmougin-Ferjani, A.; Durand, R.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  3. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, A.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Fontaine, J.; Grandmougin-Ferjani, A.; Durand, R. [Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Lab. de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, 62 - Calais (France)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  4. Co-Inoculation Effects of Thiobacillus thiooxidans Bacteria and Mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. on Maize Nutrition at Different Levels of Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholami

    2016-02-01

    . Inoculation withthesefungihas increased the yield of numerous field-grown crops. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of thiobacillus bacteria and sulfur application on soil pH, and also their interactions with mycorrhizal fungi in order to improve nutrients uptake and grain yield of maize under alkaline soil condition. Materials and Methods: Treatments arranged as factorial experiment were based on RCBD with three replications. Treatments consisted of mycorrhizal inoculation: inoculated (m1 and non-inoculated (m0, thiobacillus in two levels of inoculated (t1 and non-inoculated (t0 and three levels of sulfur (S0: 0 kg.ha-1, S1: 250 kg.ha-1 and S2: 500 kg.ha-1. Four-row plots were prepared with row width and intra-row space of 60 and 20 cm, respectively. Seeds of maize (Zea Mays, Sc:647 were surface sterilized in a 10% (v/v solution of hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, were rinsed with sterile distilled water. Before sowing, 300 kg of urea per hectare were applied according to the results of soil analysis. In order to facilitate oxidation of sulfur to sulfate form, , S was applied and thoroughly mixed into top 30 cm of soil 30 days before sowing. One week before sowing, thiobacillus (Thiobacillus thiooxidans was inoculated. Inoculum of AM fungus Glomus intraradices, were added to soil just before planting at about 2 centimeters below seed sowing dept. To measure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal colonization, root plants collected one week before harvesting, cleared in 10% KOH at 80˚C for 2 h, and then acidified in 1% HCL for 60 min. Then the cleared roots were stained in a solution of Trypan blue. For nutrient analysis, the following procedure was applied. Zn, Fe, S, and P were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-atomic emission spectrometry apparatus. For this purpose, ash of seed samples was prepared at 500-550 degree of Celsius and then 5 ml of HCl 37% was added and with dionized water to reach to 50 ml. Kjeldahl method was used to determine nitrogen. Analysis of variance

  5. Glucose sensing by carotid body glomus cells: potential implications in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eGao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is a key chemoreceptor organ in which glomus cells sense changes in blood O2, CO2, and pH levels. CB glomus cells have also been found to detect hypoglycemia in both non-primate mammals and humans. O2 and low-glucose responses share a common final pathway involving membrane depolarization, extracellular calcium influx, increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, and neurotransmitter secretion, which stimulates afferent sensory fibers to evoke sympathoadrenal activation. On the other hand, hypoxia and low glucose induce separate signal transduction pathways. Unlike O2 sensing, the response of the CB to low glucose is not altered by rotenone, with the low glucose-activated background cationic current unaffected by hypoxia. Responses of the CB to hypoglycemia and hypoxia can be potentiated by each other. The counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia by the CB is essential for the brain, an organ that is particularly sensitive to low glucose. CB glucose sensing could be altered in diabetic patients, particularly those under insulin treatment, as well as in other medical conditions such as sleep apnea or obstructive pulmonary diseases, where chronic hypoxemia presents with plastic modifications in CB structure and function. The current review will focus on the following main aspects: 1 the CB as a low glucose sensor in both in vitro and in vivo models; 2 molecular and ionic mechanisms of low glucose sensing by glomus cells, 3 the interplay between low glucose and O2 sensing in CB, and 4 the role of CB low glucose sensing in the pathophysiology of cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases, and how this may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  6. Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery of the jugulotympanic glomus tumor: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscak, Roman; Urgosik, Dusan; Chytka, Tomas; Simonova, Gabriela; Novotny, Josef; Vymazal, Josef; Guseynova, Khumar; Vladyka, Vilibald

    2014-12-01

    Glomus tumors usually display indolent behavior, and the effectiveness of radiation in stopping their growth can be assessed after long-term follow-up. Currently only midterm results of radiosurgery are available, so the authors included patients treated by Gamma Knife at least 10 years ago in this study to obtain a perspective of long-term results. During the period from 1992 to 2003, the Gamma Knife was used to treat 46 patients with glomus tumors. The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 79 years (median 56 years). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment in 17 patients (37%). Open surgery preceded radiosurgery in 46% of cases, embolization in 17%, and fractionated radiotherapy in 4%. The volume of the tumor ranged from 0.2 to 24.3 cm(3) (median 3.6 cm(3)). The minimal dose to the tumor margin ranged between 10 and 30 Gy (median 20 Gy). One patient was lost for follow-up after radiosurgery. Clinical follow-up was available in 45 patients and 44 patients were followed with MRI in a follow-up period that ranged from 12 to 217 months (median 118 months). Neurological deficits improved in 19 (42%) of 45 patients and deteriorated in 2 patients (4%). Tumor size decreased in 34 (77%) of 44 patients with imaging follow-up, while an increase in volume was observed in 1 patient (2%) 182 months after radiosurgery and Gamma Knife treatment was repeated. One patient underwent another Gamma Knife treatment for secondary induced meningioma close to the glomus tumor 98 months after initial radiosurgical treatment. Seven patients died 22-96 months after radiosurgery (median 48 months), all for unrelated reasons. Radiosurgery has proved to be a safe treatment with a low morbidity rate and a reliable long-term antiproliferative effect.

  7. Glomus Tumor of the Neck Detected With 99mTc EDDA HYNIC-TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Neva; Bogović-Crnčić, Tatjana; Grbac-Ivanković, Svjetlana; Valković-Zujić, Petra

    2017-10-01

    A 54-year-old woman was referred to thyroid evaluation because of a lump on the left side of the neck. Ultrasound exam did not show any thyroid abnormality, but highly perfused nodule at the left common carotid artery bifurcation was found. Because of the specific location, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with Tc EDDA HYNIC-TOC was performed, starting with perfusion images and followed with SPECT/CT imaging at 2 and 4 hours. Well-perfused nodule with intensive accumulation and no other visible pathology in the body raised suspicion of a glomus tumor, consistent with MR exam performed later. Subsequent surgical removal confirmed carotid paraganglioma.

  8. METODOLOGÍA PARA LA GERMINACIÓN DE ESPORAS DE Glomus mosseae

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanne Fernández; F. Fernández; R. Rivera; V. Olalde

    2005-01-01

    La germinación es uno de los procesos más importantes durante el ciclo de vida de los hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA), de la cual va a depender, en gran medida, el éxito del establecimiento de la simbiosis. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del CO2 sobre la velocidad y homogeneidad de la germinación de esporas del HMA Glomus mosseae en condiciones in vitro. Con la finalidad de dar respuesta al objetivo propuesto, se realizó un experimento bajo un Diseño Complet...

  9. Clonal diversity and population genetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) studied by multilocus genotyping of single spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) approach was used for multilocus genotyping of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal populations. This method allowed us to amplify multiple loci from Glomus single spores in a single PCR amplification. Variable introns in the two protein coding genes Gm......FOX2 and GmTOR2 were applied as codominant genetic markers together with the LSU rDNA.   Genetic structure of Glomus spp. populations from an organically and a conventionally cultured field were compared by hierarchical sampling of spores from four plots in each field. Multilocus genotypes were...

  10. Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszkowski, Janusz; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François

    2006-05-01

    Two new ectocarpic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, Glomus drummondii and G. walkeri (Glomeromycota), found in maritime sand dunes of northern Poland and those adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea are described and illustrated. Mature spores of G. drummondii are pastel yellow to maize yellow, globose to subglobose, (58-)71(-85) micromdiam, or ovoid, 50-80x63-98 microm. Their wall consists of three layers: an evanescent, hyaline, short-lived outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, pastel yellow to maize yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. Spores of G. walkeri are white to pale yellow, globose to subglobose, (55-)81(-95) micromdiam, or ovoid, 60-90x75-115 microm, and have a spore wall composed of three layers: a semi-permanent, hyaline outermost layer, a laminate, smooth, white to pale yellow middle layer, and a flexible, smooth, hyaline innermost layer. In Melzer's reagent, only the inner- and outermost layers stain reddish white to greyish rose in G. drummondii and G. walkeri, respectively. Both species form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in one-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata as the host plant. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and parts of the LSU of the nrDNA of spores placed both species in Glomus Group B sensu Schüssler et al. [Schüssler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C, 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycolological Research 105: 1413-1421.].

  11. A search for glomuferrin: a potential siderophore of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the genus Glomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Günther

    2017-08-01

    Most fungi are known to synthesize siderophores under iron limitation. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) have so far not been reported to produce siderophores, although their metabolism is iron-dependent. In an approach to isolate siderophores from AM fungi, we have grown plants of Tagetes patula nana in the presence of spores from AM fungi of the genus Glomus (G. etunicatum, G. mossae & unidentified Glomus sp.) symbiotically under iron limitation and sterile conditions. A siderophore was isolated from infected roots after 2-3 weeks of growth in pots containing low-iron sand with Hoagland solution. HPLC analysis of the root cell lysate revealed a peak at a retention time of 6.7 min which showed iron-binding properties in a chrome azurol S test. The compound was isolated by preparative HPLC and the structure was determined by high resolution electrospray FTICR-MS and GC/MS analysis of the hydrolysis products. From an observed absolute mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 401.11925 [M+H] + with a relative mass error of ∆ = 0.47 ppm an elemental composition of C 16 H 21 N 2 O 10 [M+H] + was derived, suggesting a molecular weight of 400 Da for glomuferrin. Corresponnding ion masses of m/z 423.10 and m/z 439.06 were asigned to the Na-adduct and K-adduct respectively. A mass of 455.03836 confirmed an Fe- complex with an elemental composition of C 16 H 19 N 2 O 10 Fe (∆ = 0.15 ppm). GC/MS analysis of the HCl lysate (6 N HCL, 12 h) revealed 1,4 butanediamine. Thus the proposed structure of the isolated siderophore from Glomus species consisted of 1,4 butanediamine amidically linked to two dehydrated citrate residues, similar to the previously identified bis-amidorhizoferrin. Thus, the isolated siderophore (glomuferrin) is a member of the rhizoferrin family previously isolated from fungi of the Mucorales (Zygomycetes).

  12. Spores of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae host yeasts that solubilize phosphate and accumulate polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal Alonso, Loreli; Kleiner, Diethelm; Ortega, Eduardo

    2008-04-01

    The present paper reports the presence of bacteria and yeasts tightly associated with spores of an isolate of Glomus mosseae. Healthy spores were surface disinfected by combining chloramine-T 5%, Tween-40, and cephalexin 2.5 g L(-1) (CTCf). Macerates of these spores were incubated on agar media, microorganisms were isolated, and two yeasts were characterized (EndoGm1, EndoGm11). Both yeasts were able to solubilize low-soluble P sources (Ca and Fe phosphates) and accumulate polyphosphates (polyPs). Sequence analysis of 18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid showed that the yeasts belong to the genera Rhodotorula or Rhodosporidium (EndoGm1) and Cryptococcus (EndoGm11). Results from inoculation experiments showed an effect of the spore-associated yeasts on the root growth of rice, suggesting potential tripartite interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and plants.

  13. Actinomicetos mineralizadores de fosfato involucrados en la interacción radical de Glomus sp. - trébol blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milena G\\u00F3mez-Vargas

    2011-01-01

    sp. (cepa MCR24 con la técnica del p-nitrofenil fosfato. Thermobifi da sp. (cepa MCR24 presentó la menor actividad. La inoculación de solo actinomicetos presentó valores mayores de fósforo inorgánico en suelo, mientras que la concentración de fósforo a nivel foliar fue mayor cuando había co-inoculación actinomiceto-Glomus sp., a excepción de la cepa Thermobifi da sp. (cepa MCR24. La co-inoculación con los actinomicetos y Glomus sp. estimuló la producción de biomasa y el porcentaje de colonización. Se determinó la capacidad para mineralizar fósforo orgánico por los actinomicetos al asociarse con Glomus sp. de forma sinérgica y benéfi ca tanto para la planta como para la micorriza. Se realizó el análisis de la varianza y prueba de "t" ALS (P<0,05 para comparar los promedios entre los tratamientos. Se determinó el grado de relación entre el porcentaje de micorrización y el peso seco de las plantas mediante "r" Coeficiente de Correlación, donde las plantas con los microorganismos presentaron una micorrización mayor del 70%.

  14. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of glomus jugulare tumors. Local control, toxicity, symptomatology, and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G.; Sitter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For glomus jugulare tumors, the goal of treatment is microsurgical excision. To minimize postoperative neurologic deficits, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was performed as an alternative treatment option. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) could be a further alternative. This study aims at the assessment of local control, side effects, and quality of life (QoL). Patients and Methods: Between 1999-2005, 17 patients were treated with SRT. 11/17 underwent previous operations. 6/17 received primary SRT. Treatment was delivered by a linear accelerator with 6-MV photons. Median cumulative dose was 57.0 Gy. Local control, radiologic regression, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated half-yearly by clinical examination and MRI scans. QoL was assessed by Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: Median follow-up was 40 months. Freedom from progression and overall survival for 5 years were 100% and 93.8%. Radiologic regression was seen in 5/16 cases, 11/16 patients were stable. Median tumor shrinkage was 17.9% (p = 0.14). Severe acute toxicity (grade 3-4) or any late toxicity was never seen. Main symptoms improved in 9/16 patients, 7/16 were stable. QoL was not affected in patients receiving primary SRT. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with less side effects, especially in cases of large tumors, morbidity, or recurrences after incomplete resections. (orig.)

  15. [Effect of Glomus versiforme and Trichoderma harzianum on growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Chen, Mei-Lan; Yang, Guang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Peng-Ying; Chen, Min

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Glomus versiforme and Trichodema harzianum on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza continuous cropping under field conditions. The field plot experiment was conducted, these active components in the plant were analyzed by HPLC, the root diseases incidence rate of S. miltiorrhiza determined by observation and counting, and relative parameters were measured. The data was statistically processed. The result showed that inoculation of G. versiforme and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum significantly decreased the root diseases incidence rate of S. miltiorrhiza, and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum was better than other treatments. All treatments improved accumulation of active ingredients in root. Inoculation of G. versiforme and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum significantly increased the content of salvianolic acid B and cryptotanshinone of root (P harzianum and combined inoculation of G. versiforme with T. harzianum significantly enhanced the content of tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A) of the root (P harzianum can effectively reduce the root diseases incidence of continuous cropping S. miltiorrhiza, and improve the quality of S. miltiorrhiza.

  16. Relationships between mycorrhizas and antioxidant enzymes in citrus (citrus tangerina) seedlings inoculated with glomus mosseae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Wu, Q.S.

    2014-01-01

    A potted experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Glomus mosseae, on growth performance and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of citrus (Citrus tangerina) seedlings. After five months of AMF inoculation, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles, but not arbuscules and entry points, increased with the increase of inoculated mycorrhizal dosages among 5-40 g (32 spores/g dosage). Mycorrhizal inoculation with 10-40 g dosages significantly increased plant growth traits, including plant height, stem diameter, and shoot, root and total fresh weights. Higher leaf chlorophyll content was found in all the mycorrhizal plants, compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with G. mosseae markedly decreased SOD and CAT activities of leaf and root, except an increase of either root CAT with the 20 g mycorrhizal treatment or root SOD with the 20 and 40 g mycorrhizal treatments. In addition, mycorrhizal colonization and vesicles significantly positively correlated with root SOD and without root CAT. We also discussed the relationships between mycorrhizal effects on antioxidant enzymes and growth environment of host plants. (author)

  17. Ammonia Assimilation in Zea mays L. Infected with a Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus fasciculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, J. B.; Stewart, G. R.

    1993-03-01

    To investigate nitrogen assimilation and translocation in Zea mays L. colonized by the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum (Thax. sensu Gerd.), we measured key enzyme activities, 15N incorporation into free amino acids, and 15N translocation from roots to shoots. Glutamine synthetase and nitrate reductase activities were increased in both roots and shoots compared with control plants, and glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in roots only. In the presence of [15N]ammonium, glutamine amide was the most heavily labeled product. More label was incorporated into amino acids in VAM plants. The kinetics of 15N labeling and effects of methionine sulfoximine on distribution of 15N-labeled products were entirely consistent with the operation of the glutamate synthase cycle. No evidence was found for ammonium assimilation via glutamate dehydrogenase. 15N translocation from roots to shoots through the xylem was higher in VAM plants compared with control plants. These results establish that, in maize, VAM fungi increase ammonium assimilation, glutamine production, and xylem nitrogen translocation. Unlike some ectomycorrhizal fungi, VAM fungi do not appear to alter the pathway of ammonium assimilation in roots of their hosts.

  18. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  19. Microsurgical Resection of Glomus Jugulare Tumors With Facial Nerve Reconstruction: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, Duarte N C; de Oliveira, Jean Gonçalves; Borba, Luis A B

    2018-05-08

    Paragangliomas are tumors originating from the paraganglionic system (autonomic nervous system), mostly found at the region around the jugular bulb, for which reason they are also termed glomus jugulare tumors (GJT). Although these lesions appear to be histologically benign, clinically they present with great morbidity, especially due to invasion of nearby structures such as the lower cranial nerves. These are challenging tumors, as they need complex approaches and great knowledge of the skull base. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman, operated by the senior author, with a 1-year history of tinnitus, vertigo, and progressive hearing loss, that evolved with facial nerve palsy (House-Brackmann IV) 2 months before surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans demonstrated a typical lesion with intense flow voids at the jugular foramen region with invasion of the petrous and tympanic bone, carotid canal, and middle ear, and extending to the infratemporal fossa (type C2 of Fisch's classification for GJT). During the procedure the mastoid part of the facial nerve was identified involved by tumor and needed to be resected. We also describe the technique for nerve reconstruction, using an interposition graft from the great auricular nerve, harvested at the beginning of the surgery. We achieved total tumor resection with a remarkable postoperative course. The patient also presented with facial function after 6 months. The patient consented with publication of her images.

  20. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: a single-center series of 75 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ramez; Ammori, Mohannad B; Yianni, John; Grainger, Alison; Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Glomus jugulare tumors are rare indolent tumors that frequently involve the lower cranial nerves (CNs). Complete resection can be difficult and associated with lower CN injury. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has established its role as a noninvasive alternative treatment option for these often formidable lesions. The authors aimed to review their experience at the National Centre for Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Sheffield, United Kingdom, specifically the long-term tumor control rate and complications of GKRS for these lesions. METHODS Clinical and radiological data were retrospectively reviewed for patients treated between March 1994 and December 2010. Data were available for 75 patients harboring 76 tumors. The tumors in 3 patients were treated in 2 stages. Familial and/or hereditary history was noted in 12 patients, 2 of whom had catecholamine-secreting and/or active tumors. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment modality in 47 patients (63%). The median age at the time of treatment was 55 years. The median tumor volume was 7 cm 3 , and the median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 18 Gy (range 12-25 Gy). The median duration of radiological follow-up was 51.5 months (range 12-230 months), and the median clinical follow-up was 38.5 months (range 6-223 months). RESULTS The overall tumor control rate was 93.4% with low CN morbidity. Improvement of preexisting deficits was noted in 15 patients (20%). A stationary clinical course and no progression of symptoms were noted in 48 patients (64%). Twelve patients (16%) had new symptoms or progression of their preexisting symptoms. The Kaplan-Meier actuarial tumor control rate was 92.2% at 5 years and 86.3% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife radiosurgery offers a risk-versus-benefit treatment option with very low CN morbidity and stable long-term results.

  1. Gamma knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: therapeutic advantages of minimalism in the skull base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manish S; Gupta, A; Kale, S S; Agrawal, D; Mahapatra, A K; Sharma, B S

    2008-01-01

    Glomus jugulare (GJ) tumors are paragangliomas found in the region of the jugular foramen. Surgery with/without embolization and conventional radiotherapy has been the traditional management option. To analyze the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) as a primary or an adjunctive form of therapy. A retrospective analysis of patients who received GKS at a tertiary neurosurgical center was performed. Of the 1601 patients who underwent GKS from 1997 to 2006, 24 patients with GJ underwent 25 procedures. The average age of the cohort was 46.6 years (range, 22-76 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. The most common neurological deficit was IX, X, XI cranial nerve paresis (15/24). Fifteen patients received primary GKS. Mean tumor size was 8.7 cc (range 1.1-17.2 cc). The coverage achieved was 93.1% (range 90-97%) using a mean tumor margin dose of 16.4 Gy (range 12-25 Gy) at a mean isodose of 49.5% (range 45-50%). Thirteen patients (six primary and seven secondary) were available for follow-up at a median interval of 24 months (range seven to 48 months). The average tumor size was 7.9 cc (range 1.1-17.2 cc). Using a mean tumor margin dose of 16.3 Gy (range 12-20 Gy) 93.6% coverage (range 91-97%) was achieved. Six patients improved clinically. A single patient developed transient trigeminal neuralgia. Magnetic resonance imaging follow-up was available for 10 patients; seven recorded a decrease in size. There was no tumor progression. Gamma knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective primary and secondary modality of treatment for GJ.

  2. Inoculum density of Glomus mosseae and growth of onion plants in unsterilized bituminous coal spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of inoculum, density (number of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) propagules g/sup -1/ of inoculum) on the growth of onions (Allium cepa L.) infected by Glomus mosseae (Nicol and Gerd). Gerdemann and Trappe, Comb nov in unsterilized coal spoil containing indigenous VAM fungi, including G. mosseae, was investigated. The amount of onion roots converted to mycorrhizas by inoculant fungus, estimated by a gridline intersect method, increased with inoculum density (..gamma..0.62, P0.05) until a plateau was reached. Onion growth responses also increased significantly (P<0.05) with the amount of VAM inoculum present in the coal spoil. The initial linear relationship between inoculum propagules (MPN estimates), percent colonization of onion roots and onion shoot dry weight became quadratic as the number of infection propagules increased. VAM infection had no significant effect on root:shoot ratios. Similarly there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between the inoculum density, VAM-colonized root mass and the onion root:shoot fresh weight ratios. The amount of the windswept bituminous coal spoil bound to VAM (presumably because of VAM external hyphae) also increased as inoculum density increased (..gamma..0.63, P<0.05). There was a stronger correlation (ga0.85, P<0.05) between the amount of spoil adhered per plant and the root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ indicating that root effects were primarily responsible for increasing spoil adherence. There were negative correlations (P<0.05) between root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ (..gamma..-0.68), inoculum density (..gamma..-0.589), percent root elngth infected (..gamma..-0.73) and the amount of spoil adhered g/sup -1/ root fresh wt. The possible exploitation of VAM in revegetation of bituminous coal spoil is discussed. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Synchronous subungual glomus tumors in the same finger Tumores glômicos subungueais sincrônicos no mesmo dedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Di Chiacchio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The glomus tumor is an uncommon benign neoplasm of glomus cells. In the majority of the cases it is presented as a solitary painful papule in the subungual region. We report a rare case of a patient with two individual synchronous glomus tumors under the nail bed of the same finger.O tumor glômico é uma neoplasia benigna de células glômicas. Na maioria dos casos se apresenta como uma pápula solitária dolorosa na região subungueal. Relatamos o caso raro de um paciente com dois tumores glômicos sincrônicos sob o leito ungueal do mesmo dedo.

  4. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  5. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshiri M.H.; Fattahi. M.

    2014-01-01

    The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ( Glomus mosseae ) in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m -1) for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots a...

  6. Efectos del losartán sobre el glomus carotídeo en ratas normotensas adultas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Grana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente comunicamos lesiones graves en el glomus carotídeo y los ganglios autonómicos de ratas SHR y sugerimos que este efecto se debía más al aumento de la presión arterial que al envejecimiento. Posteriormente demostramos, en SHR, que el ramipril, en comparación con el atenolol, ejerce un efecto protector sobre estas estructuras más allá de la reducción de la presión arterial. Teniendo en cuenta que no existen trabajos que describan los cambios que origina el bloqueo AT1 sobre la morfología del glomus en ratas normotensas, se realizó el presente estudio con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del losartán sobre esta estructura de ratas Wistar macho tratadas durante 8 meses. Se emplearon 14 ratas de 4 semanas de edad, divididas en grupos control y losartán (10 mg/ kg/día en el agua de bebida. La presión sistólica (PAS se registró al inicio y luego mensualmente. A la edad de 9 meses se sacrificaron las ratas y se extrajeron los glomus carotídeos, se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson y se procesaron para histomorfometría con un analizador de imágenes. El grupo control registró una PAS de 115 ± 8,1, mientras que en el grupo losartán fue de 105 ± 8,3 mm Hg (p = 0,0375. Histomorfométricamente, el grupo tratado mostró un área mayor del glomus con respecto al control (497.931 ± 48.783 versus 59.668 ± 6.196 µm2; p < 0,0001 y una relación pared/luz en las arteriolas glómicas de 0,7 ± 0,1 versus 2,7 ± 0,6, respectivamente (p < 0,0001. El grupo control mostró disminución del área glómica y un aumento de la relación pared/luz, lo cual sugiere que la atrofia de las estructuras estudiadas a través del aumento de la edad se vincula con el aporte nutricio arterial.

  7. Glomus halonatum Rose & Trappe (Glomeromycota in South America: comments on the morphological characteristics of the species Glomus halonatum Rose & Trappe (Glomeromycota na América do Sul: comentários sobre a morfologia das espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tomio Goto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornamented glomerospores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus were collected from an area of Atlantic Forest in Goiana (Pernambuco, Brazil. The area had been cultivated with Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner [=Coffea robusta (L. Linden] and Bixa orellana L., then left fallow and today is covered by herbaceous raider species. After taxonomic analysis using current descriptive and terminological criteria, the species was identified as Glomus halonatum. A description, illustrations and comments about the species are presented.Glomerosporos ornamentados de um fungo micorrízico arbuscular foram coletados em uma área de Floresta Atlântica em Goiana (Pernambuco, Brasil. A área tinha sido cultivada com Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner [=Coffea robusta (L. Linden] e Bixa orellana L., abandonada, e hoje está coberta por espécies herbáceas invasoras. Após análise taxonômica usando critérios descritivos e terminológicos atuais, a espécie foi identificada como Glomus halonatum. São apresentados descrição, ilustrações e comentários sobre a espécie.

  8. Evaluation of some fungicides on mycorrhizal symbiosis between two Glomus species from commercial inocula and Allium porrum L. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Dorrego, A.; Mestre Pares, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the effect of twenty-five commonly used fungicides in agriculture on two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in commercial products of ATENS, S.L.: Glomus intra radices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe], forming the symbiosis with leek plants. Systemic fungicides (Aliette, Beltanol, Caddy 10, Forum, Moncut, Ortiva, Previcur, Ridomil Gold MZ, Ridomil Gold SL, Rubigan, Sinthane, Stroby, Swich, Tachigarem, Teldor, Topas 10 EC, Frupica) and non systemic fungicides (Daconil 75%, Ditiver, Euparem, INACOP, Octagon, Parmex, Terrazole and Metaram), started to be applied to soil and leaves at recommended concentrations and frequencies 4 weeks after transplant and AMF inoculation. The effect of the fungicides was assessed by comparing treated and untreated plants that were inoculated with the AMF through quantification of root mycorrhizal colonization. Among the fungicides applied to the soil, Octagon, Ditiver, Parmex and Metaram virtually eliminated the mycorrhizal symbiosis in treated plants, while the mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by the soil treatment with Beltanol, INACOP and Previcur. Three fungicides of foliar recommended application: Rubigan, Frupica, and Sinthane, strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, but Aliette, Forum, Teldor, Swich and Ortiva, did not seem to reduce it substantially. In addition, the work describes the individual effect of each fungicide applied on both, foliage and soil. (Author) 29 refs.

  9. Biological management of gray mold in pot roses by co-inoculation of thebiocontrol agent Ulocladium atrum and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kaare; Kristensen, Kristian; Yohalem, David

    2009-01-01

    In pursuit of a biological disease and stress management strategy for ornamentals, a three-factorial experiment was performed to examine the effects of plant darkness stress, Ulocladium atrum and Glomus mosseae on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea and plant vigour in potted roses. While darkness...

  10. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  11. Efeito de Glomus etunicatum e fósforo no crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas em semeadura direta Effects of Glomus etunicatum and phosphorus on initial growth of woody species at direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Wilfredo Flores-Aylas

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da disponibilidade de P no solo, da micorriza formada por Glomus etunicatum e de Mycoform, um estimulante desta última, no crescimento e competição inicial de seis espécies arbóreas semeadas diretamente. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação com as espécies Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Guazuma ulmifolia (mutamba, Senna multijuga (cássia-verrugosa, Solanum granuloso-leprosum (gravitinga, Schinus terebenthifolius (aroeira e Trema micrantha (trema, em solo com níveis de P na solução considerados muito baixo, baixo e alto, com inoculação ou não do fungo micorrízico arbuscular G. etunicatum, além do tratamento G. etunicatum + Mycoform. O crescimento das mudas respondeu à inoculação em P muito baixo e baixo. As mudas apresentaram moderada dependência das micorrizas, não respondendo ao G. etunicatum em P alto. Gravitinga morreu em P muito baixo, mas foi dominante com P baixo e alto. Fedegoso foi dominante com P muito baixo, mostrando-se adaptado à baixa fertilidade. G. etunicatum influenciou a dominância das espécies, auxiliando as menos competitivas e gerando maior equilíbrio. Mycoform influenciou pouco o crescimento, nutrição e competição. O crescimento de espécies pioneiras semeadas diretamente é favorecido pela elevação do P e pelas micorrizas, as quais também favorecem o equilíbrio entre espécies.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil P availability, mycorrhiza and a mycorrhiza stimulatory product (Mycoform upon growth and initial competition of six sown woody species, in the greenhouse. The species Senna macranthera, Guazuma ulmifolia, Senna multijuga, Solanum granuloso-leprosum, Schinus terebenthifolius and Trema micrantha were sown together in a soil with very low, low and high levels of P in soil solution combined with inoculation treatments of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum, G. etunicatum + Mycoform and a

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-03-01

    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0 × 2.0 to 5.0 × 5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Two Biochemical Markers for Salt Stress in Three Pistachio Rootstocks Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshiri M.H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of the methylglyoxal and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of three pistachio rootstocks, cv. Sarakha, Abareqi and Bane baghi, pre-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae in response to salt stress was studied during a greenhouse experiment in 2013. Six months old pistachio seedlings were exposed to four salinity levels of irrigation water (EC of 0.5 as control, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 for 70 days. Methylglyoxal and proline of the roots and leaves were increased by increasing salt stress. The highest concentrations of proline in leaves and roots were recorded in Abareqi rootstock while the lowest concentration was observed in Sarakhs. In general, a negative relationship was obtained between proline and methylglyoxal concentrations in both tissues especially at two highest levels of salinity. A very strong relationship between salinity and measured biochemical markers were found. The level of both biomarkers were reduced in both tissues and in all rootstocks as the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Root colonization percentage was declined as the effect of salinity in Abareqi and Bane baghi and not in Sarakhs.

  14. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae gives contradictory effects on phosphorus and arsenic acquisition by Medicago sativa Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Xiao Xueyi [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.en; Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Miao Xie, Z. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Smith, Sally E. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi may play an important role in protecting plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, little is known about the direct and indirect involvement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in detoxification mechanisms. A compartmented pot cultivation system ('cross-pots') is used here to investigate the roles of AMF Glomus mosseae in plant phosphorus (P) and As acquisition by Medicago sativa, and P-As interactions. The results indicate that fungal colonization dramatically increased plant dry weight by a factor of around 6, and also substantially increased both plant P and As contents (i.e. total uptake). Irrespective of P and As addition levels, AM plants had shoot and root P concentrations 2 fold higher, but As concentrations significantly lower, than corresponding uninoculated controls. The decreased shoot As concentrations were largely due to 'dilution effects' that resulted from stimulated growth of AM plants and reduced As partitioning to shoots. The study provides further evidence for the protective effects of AMF on host plants against As contamination, and have uncovered key aspects of underlying mechanisms. The possible application of AMF in remediation practices is discussed.

  15. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae gives contradictory effects on phosphorus and arsenic acquisition by Medicago sativa Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baodong; Xiao Xueyi; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Miao Xie, Z.; Smith, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi may play an important role in protecting plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, little is known about the direct and indirect involvement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in detoxification mechanisms. A compartmented pot cultivation system ('cross-pots') is used here to investigate the roles of AMF Glomus mosseae in plant phosphorus (P) and As acquisition by Medicago sativa, and P-As interactions. The results indicate that fungal colonization dramatically increased plant dry weight by a factor of around 6, and also substantially increased both plant P and As contents (i.e. total uptake). Irrespective of P and As addition levels, AM plants had shoot and root P concentrations 2 fold higher, but As concentrations significantly lower, than corresponding uninoculated controls. The decreased shoot As concentrations were largely due to 'dilution effects' that resulted from stimulated growth of AM plants and reduced As partitioning to shoots. The study provides further evidence for the protective effects of AMF on host plants against As contamination, and have uncovered key aspects of underlying mechanisms. The possible application of AMF in remediation practices is discussed

  16. Glomus mosseae enhances root growth and Cu and Pb acquisition of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijun; Zhang, Xuhong; Yang, Xiaojin

    2014-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the roles of Glomus mosseae in Cu and Pb acquisition by upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the interactions between Cu and Pb. The soil was treated with three Cu levels (0, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1)) and three Pb levels (0, 300, and 600 mg kg(-1)). All treatments were designed with (+M) or without (-M) G. mosseae inoculation in a randomized block design. The addition of Cu and Pb significantly decreased root mycorrhizal colonization. Compared with -M, +M significantly increased root biomass in almost all treatments, and also significantly increased shoot biomass in the Pb(0)Cu(200), Pb(300)Cu(0), and all Pb(600) treatments. AM fungi enhanced plant Cu acquisition, but decreased plant Cu concentrations with all Cu plus Pb treatments, except for shoot in the Cu(200)Pb(600) treatment. Irrespective of Cu and Pb levels, +M plants had higher Pb uptakes than -M plants, but had lower root Pb and higher shoot Pb concentrations than those of -M plants. Another interpretation for the higher shoot Pb concentration in +M plants relied on Cu-Pb interactions. The study provided further evidences for the protective effects of AM fungi on upland rice against Cu and Pb contamination, and uncovered the phenomenon that Cu addition could promote Pb uptake and Pb partitioning to shoot. The possible mechanisms by which AM fungi can alleviate the toxicity induced by Cu and Pb are also discussed.

  17. Biostimulation of inoculation with Glomus proliferum and application of humic acid in the in vitro growth of Lunularia cruciata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pinheiro Nobre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of the liverwort Lunularia cruciata, inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF Glomus proliferum (15 spores per Petri dish, in Strullu-Romand Variant (SRV medium modified and enriched with humic acid (HA at different concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg C L−1, as well as the sporulation of the AMF. We assessed the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR at inoculation, as well as at 7, 14, 21, 28, 43, 52 and 60 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas we assessed sporulation at 25, 43, 60 and 70 DAI. The main determinant of L. cruciata growth was the presence of AMF. With and without G. proliferum inoculation, respectively, the AGR peaked at 39 and 42 DAI, and the RGR was 0.0474 and 0.0387 cm² cm−2 d−1. Doses of 20 and 80 mg C L−1 of HA had a positive influence on the growth of L. cruciata. With and without HA, respectively, the AGR peaked at 38 and 39 DAI, and the RGR was 0.0484 and 0.0422 cm² cm−2 d−1. The sporulation of G. proliferum, which was as high as 199 spores plate−1, was influenced by HA, especially at 20 and 80 mg C L−1.

  18. Sugar beet waste and its component ferulic acid inhibits external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Egsgaard, Helge

    2011-01-01

    and absent in ASB. We compared the effects of the water extracts of SB and ASB and ferulic acid upon the growth of Glomus intraradices in in vitro monoxenic cultures. Hyphal growth of the AM fungus G. intraradices was extremely reduced in ferulic acid and SB treatments. Moreover, AM hyphae appeared...

  19. Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

    2004-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions.

  20. Radiation therapy for glomus tumors of the temporal bone; Tratamento radioterapico dos tumores glomicos do osso temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Igna, Celso; Antunes, Marcelo B [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia da Cabeca e Pescoco; Dall' Igna, Daniela Pernigotti [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    The treatment of glomic tumors has been controversial since its first description. It can be done with surgery, radiotherapy or just expectation. Aim: the objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of radiotherapy.Study Design: clinical with transversal cohort. Material and method: it was made a retrospective review in the charts of the patients with glomus jugular tumors treated with radiotherapy. Disease control was determined by (1) no progression of symptoms or cranial nerve dysfunction or (2) no progression of the lesion in radiological follow-up. It was also evaluated the follow-up period and the sequelae of the treatment. Results: twelve patients were included, 8 of then women. The follow-up period was from 3 to 35 years, with a media of 11,6 years. The main symptoms were: hearing loss, pulsate tinnitus, dizziness and vertigo. The signs were pulsate retrotympanic mass, facial palsy and cofosis. The tumors were staged using Fischs classification. The radiotherapy was performed with linear accelerator with dose ranging from 4500-5500 in 4-6 weeks. In the follow-up period were possible to identify sequelaes like dermatitis, meatal stenosis, cofosis and facial palsy. Discussion: the signs and symptoms were the same found in the medical literature. The type and dosages of the radiotherapy were also the same of others reports. All patients had improvement of the symptoms and only one was not considered as having disease controlled. Complications were, in general, minor complications, with exception of the cofosis and facial palsy. Conclusion: radiotherapy is a viable alternative to treatment of these tumors because their good response and low level of complications. It should be considered specially in advanced tumors where a surgical procedure could bring a high level of morbidity. (author)

  1. Lack of global population genetic differentiation in thearbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae suggestsa recent range expansion which may have coincided withthe spread of agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; McGee, Peter; Morton, Joseph B

    2009-01-01

    ; second, the distribution is a result of human-mediated dispersal related to agriculture and finally, the morphologically defined species may encompass several local endemic species. To test these hypotheses, three genes were sequenced from 82 isolates of G. mosseae originating from six continents......The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae is commonly found in agricultural fields. The cosmopolitan species is found in Africa, Europe, America, Asia and Australia. Three hypotheses may explain this worldwide distribution: First, speciation occurred before the continents separated 120 Ma...

  2. Mecanismos de adaptación de maíz asociado a Glomus spp. en suelos con bajo fósforo disponible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roveda Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La deficiencia de fósforo es uno de los mayores limitantes para la productividad agrícola en el trópico. Esta investigación está orientada a estudiar los mecanismos de adaptación de maíz asociado a Glomus spp. La investigación se realizó bajo condiciones controladas en los laboratorios del Corpoica. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con seis tratamientos y seis repeticiones: tres tratamientos con 1, 40 y 100 mg·kg-1 de P en el suelo y los anteriores niveles de P más Glomus spp. Los resultados experimentales confirman una disminución en área foliar y materia seca relacionadas con bajo P en suelo, 20 días de la emergencia. Como mecanismos de adaptación a las deficiencias de P, las plántulas traslocan carbohidratos a la raíz en detrimento de las hojas, esto modifica el balance de la materia seca. Este mecanismo fue evidente a 10 días después del estrés. Plantas asociadas a Glomus mayores tasas de crecimiento, nutrición mineral (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S y concentración de azúcares en tejido, debido al papel P en la síntesis de carbohidratos. Plantas micorrizadas aumentaron los niveles de proteínas en tejido, con 1 y 40 mg·kg- 1 de P en suelo. Los resultados sugieren queGlomus spp. contribuye con la síntesis de proteínas de estrés en planta, por déficit de P en el suelo. El estrés conduce a la expresión diferencial de la información genética, produciendo cambios en la síntesis de nuevas proteínas, llamadas micorrizinas, las cuales posiblemente dotan a las plantas con la capacidad de adaptación al estrés.

  3. Plant growth and metal distribution in tissues of Prosopis juliflora-velutina grown on chromium contaminated soil in the presence of Glomus deserticola

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Jack A.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Viveros, Marian N.; Ren, Minghua; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S.; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2010-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been known to increase metal uptake in plants. In this study, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina) inoculated with Glomus deserticola or amended with EDTA were grown for 30 days in soil containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at 0, 40, 80, and 160 mg kg−1. Total amylase activity (TAA) was monitored as a stress indicator. Element concentrations and distribution in tissue were determined using ICP-OES, electron scanning microprobe, and TEM. Inoculated Cr(VI) treated pla...

  4. RESPUESTA DEL CULTIVO DE PIMENTÓN (CAPSICUM ANNUUM A LA INOCULACIÓN CON GLOMUS MANIHOTIS Y ACAULOSPORA LACUNOSA EN SUELO CON NIVELES ALTO DE FOSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Esther Rojas-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomus manihotis y Acaulospora lacunosa are fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizae; mutually beneficial symbiotic associations between fungi and specialized roots. This root-fungus formation performs various functions in association with plants. Previous research has shown that they can provide biological substitutes for mineral fertilizers. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Glomus manihotis (GL and Acaulospora lacunosa (ACU in pepper plants grown in soils with high levels of P. Methods: The Phillips and Hayman method was used for the determination of the percentage of infection. Other variables were: height, total fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, weight and number of fruit, percentage of infection and foliage nutrient content. Results: Plants inoculated with (GL recorded an infection rate of 70.3 %, inoculated with (ACU had 45 % and the inoculated treatment (GL / ACU 28%. The infection had a positive effect in the majority agronomic variables analyzed in plants inoculated with (GL and (ACU, but not in the mixed treatment (GL / ACU which was very similar to control. In terms of the content of nutrients in foliage, there were no significant differences in treatments NPK, but there were significant differences in the mobile few nutrients such as Zn, Cu and Fe, favoring plants inoculated with (ACU. Conclusions: These results suggest that inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi in conditions of high phosphorus levels may be an effective adjuvant in the optimal development of a plant, long as they determine the effective specific fungus under these conditions.

  5. Long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic gamma knife surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of glomus jagulare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M; Hassan, Hamdy T

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to report and confirm long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic Gamma Knife Surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of 40 glomus jagulare tumors patients. Retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes of 40 GJTs consecutive patients treated with GKS as primary sole treatment at International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo-Egypt from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2014,with mean follow-up period of 84 months (range 36-156 months), mean tumor volume was 6.5 cc, and mean peripheral radiation dose of 15 Gy, to mean isodose curve of 38%. The most common neurological deficit at initial evaluation was bulbar symptoms in 24 patients, followed by pulsatile tinnitus in 22, deterioration of hearing in 20 patients. The overall clinical control achieved in 92.5% of patients, while actuarial tumor size control rate post- GKS was 97.5% at 3 years, 97% at 5 years and 92% at 10 years of follow-up period. Gamma knife surgery could be used effectively and safely as a primary sole treatment tool in the management of glomus jugulare tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  7. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  8. 颈静脉球内侧壁的临床解剖研究%Applied anatomy of medial wall of the glomus jugulare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田广永; 段永畅; 石小田; 于巧莲; 彭志强; 黄美贤; 徐达传

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颈静脉球内侧壁的解剖学特点,为颈静脉球部位的外科手术提供理论指导。方法显微镜下解剖15具经福尔马林固定乳胶灌注的成人头颅标本颈静脉球部位,观察颈静脉球内侧壁部位的结构特点及神经走行关系;在5具干颅骨标本上观察颈静脉球内侧壁的骨性标志。 结果 颈静脉孔内口、颞骨颈静脉突、枕骨颈静脉突、硬脑膜及经该部位穿行的Ⅸ、Ⅹ、Ⅺ颅神经共同构成了颈静脉球内侧壁;在颈静脉球内侧壁自前上往后下做一弧形斜线,斜线的前下位置为神经部,为神经纤维束穿行部位;后上部位为静脉部位,颈静脉球壁与颞骨岩部及硬脑膜紧贴;舌咽神经走行在前上位置,多数有岩下窦的开口将之与迷走神经分隔,中间有条索状的纤维组织分隔。迷走神经和副神经在颈静脉球内侧壁走行关系密切,本组有26侧(86.67%)舌咽神经与迷走神经之间有硬脑膜间隔,4侧(13.33%)硬脑膜间隔不明显。迷走神经和副神经无明显间隔穿人颈静脉球内侧壁,多数迷走神经与副神经容易区分;舌下神经经舌下神经管走行在颈静脉球内侧壁的下方。结论颈静脉孔内口、颞骨岩部的部分骨质、枕骨的部分骨质、后组颅神经、硬脑膜及静脉壁共同组成颈静脉球的内侧壁,了解该部位的解剖学特点能够对颈静脉球部位手术提供理论指导,减少手术并发症。%Objective To study the anatomical features of medial wall of the glomus jugulare to provide the theoretical direction for surgery of the glomus jugulare. Methods Fifteen (30 sides)formalin-fixed adult cadaveric specimens were dissected under the operating microscope, and their structural features of the medial wall of the glomus jugulare and their anastomosis of nerves were observed; and 5 dry skull specimen were also employed to observe the bone landmark of medial wall of the

  9. LA INOCULACIÓN CON Glomus fasciculatum EN EL CRECIMIENTO DE CUATRO ESPECIES FORESTALES EN VIVERO Y CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó para conocer la respuesta de 4 especies forestales a la aplicación del Glomus fasciculatum en vivero y campo. En la fase de vivero se evalúo diámetro basal, altura total, peso seco del follaje y radicular, absorción de nutrimentos en el follaje y el sistema radicular. En campo se cuantificó altura total, diámetro, y absorción de nutrimentos en el follaje. Los resultados mostraron que en vivero los mayores incrementos promedio, en los tratamientos inoculados, los registró el ronrón (Astronium graveolens, la teca (Tectona grandis y el amarillón (Terminalia amazonia, con 48,9, 35,2 y 30,6%, respectivamente; mientras que en melina (Gmelina arborea el incremento fue de 16,9%. El mayor incremento se registró en el peso seco del follaje y en el radicular con 30,8 y 63%, respectivamente. En la absorción de nutrimentos el ronrón mostró diferencias en Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn y Fe, tanto en el follaje como en el sistema radicular; sin embargo, melina fue la especie que registró las concentraciones de nutrimentos superiores, aunque no significativas; las demás especies no registraron diferencias significativas. En el campo, en las plantas inoculadas, solamente melina reflejó diferencias significativas en diámetro y altura total, con un incremento de 37,9 y 31,7%, respectivamente. La absorción de nutrimentos de melina, amarillón y ronrón fue en promedio 32,2, 19,8 y 6,6%, respectivamente, con una mayor absorción en Ca, Mn, K y Fe. La mortalidad en vivero fue nula, mientras que en el campo, varió de acuerdo con la especie y el tratamiento. El aumento en el crecimiento de las 4 especies fue la tendencia común, a excepción de teca, que en el campo no mostró resultados positivos.

  10. Role of mycorrhizal fungi and salicylic acid in salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most researchers showed that inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi and using salicylic acid increase tolerance of plants due to salinity. In this study, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi, including Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and salicylic acid (0.2 mM) on tolerance of green basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) to salinity ...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two native Algerian mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices) were tested for their effect on the growth of micropropagated olive tree (Olea europaea L.). The effect of inoculation of plantlets with G. mosseae was also compared with chemical fertilization using osmocote. Specific molecular techniques ...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    quality olive plants. To study the potential of the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to stimulate the growth of micropropagated olive plants and to compare their ... phosphate, 15% potassium oxide, 2% magnesium oxide, 4.5% sulphur, 0.02% ..... Our results indicate the feasibility of G. mosseae and.

  13. Glomus etunicatum root inoculation and foliar application of acetyl salicylic acid induced nacl tolerance by regulation of nacl and lenhx1 gene expression and improved photosynthetic performance in tomato seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazanfar, B.; Chihui, C.; Liu, H.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress hampers plant growth and cause significant yield losses thus induction of salinity stress tolerance in crop plants is one of major goals of agriculture research. Arbuscular mycorhizae fungi Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid were tested for induction of NaCl stress tolerance in tomato seedlings, cultivar No. 4. The seedlings were inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and exogenously sprayed with acetyl salicylic acid (0.30 mM) followed by salinity stress (150 mM). It was observed that both Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid (singly or in combination) were significantly effective to minimize the injurious effects of salinity by improving root morphological parameters (length, diameter, surface area, volume and number of tips, nodes, bifurcations and connections), photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthesis Pn, stomatal conductance Gs) and chlorophyll contents compared to sole salinity treatment. The bio-inoculant Glomus etunicatum and chemical ameliorator acetyl salicylic acid also notably improved vegetative (fresh and dry weights) and reproductive growth (percent seedlings with flower buds and opened flowers, number of flower buds and opened flowers per seedling) of the plants as compared to the sole salinity treatment. The studied salt responsive genes (LeNHX1 and NaCl) were also regulated to different extents in seedling roots and leaves which was consistent with enhanced salinity stress tolerance. From these observations it is suggested that the individual or synergetic use of the AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and acetyl salicylic acid can be useful for tomato cultivation in the marginally salinity effected soils and warrants further investigations. (author)

  14. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus spp on Wheat (Triticumaestivum Yield and Yield Components with Regard to Irrigation Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Habibi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Decrease in water quality affected by salinization of the water resources due to the drought is one of the limiting factors of plant production. Using mycorrhizal fungi is an important approach to deal with damaging effects during stress conditions. The symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM with the host plant and hence, the production of a very extensive network of hypha, enhances nutrient acquisition and improves water uptake in the host plant. The specialized network of hypha raises the uptake and translocation of nutrients to the plant, whereas it inhibits high uptake of Na and Cl and their transport to plant shoots compared with plant roots. Hence, AM can alleviate the stress of salinity on plant growth and increases their tolerance to the stresses. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on yield and yield components of wheat, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in research farm of Shahid Chamran Ahvaz University. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design arranged in split factorial with three replications. The factors were water salinity (water quality including filtered water (EC ≥ 1 dS m-1, tap water (EC = 1/7-3 ds m-1, tap water plus NaCl and filtered water plus NaCl (EC = 8 ds m-1. Soil sterilization included sterilized and non-sterilized soil and mycorrhizal inoculation were in five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated with ‌Glomusmosseae, G. intraradices, G. geosporum and mixture of them. Yield and yield components were measured at crop maturity and colonization percentage of root was determined at flowering stage. Root colonization by AM was determined through preparing root samples at 1 g in each experimental unit, and roots were stained using the Gridline- Intersect Method. The harvest index and mycorrhizal dependency were also measured. Salinity levels determined approximate the threshold of wheat –tolerate- salinity before the results would rather

  15. Protection of olive planting stocks against parasitism of root-knot nematodes by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Pablo; Nico, Andrés I.; Azcón González de Aguilar, Concepción; Río Rincón, C. del; Calvet, Cinta; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects were investigated, under controlled conditions, of single and joint inoculation of olive planting stocks cvs Arbequina and Picual with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae or Glomus viscosum, and the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica, on plant performance and nematode infection. Establishment of the fungal symbiosis significantly increased growth of olive plants by 88·9% within a range of 11·9–214·0%, ...

  16. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: szzhang@mail.rcees.ac.cn; Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Chen Baodong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Bell, J. Nigel B. [Center for Environmental Policy, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in shoot decreased in mycorrhizal compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. No atrazine derivatives were detected in the soil, either with or without mycorrhizal colonization. However, atrazine metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), were detected in plant roots and the AM colonization enhanced the metabolism. After plant harvest atrazine concentrations decreased markedly in the soils compared to the initial concentrations. The decreases were the most in rhizosphere soil and then near-rhizosphere soil and the least in bulk soil. Mycorrhizal treatment enhanced atrazine dissipation in the near-rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of atrazine application rates. - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increases the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize.

  17. Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on growth and metal uptake by four plant species in copper mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.D.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Duan, J.; Xiao, X.Y.; Smith, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in encouraging revegetation of copper (Cu) mine tailings. Two native plant species, Coreopsis drummondii and Pteris vittata, together with a turf grass, Lolium perenne and a leguminous plant Trifolium repens associated with and without AMF Glomus mosseae were grown in Cu mine tailings to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition and metal uptake. Results indicated that symbiotic associations were successfully established between G. mosseae and all plants tested, and mycorrhizal colonization markedly increased plant dry matter yield except for L. perenne. The beneficial impacts of mycorrhizal colonization on plant growth could be largely explained by both improved P nutrition and decreased shoot Cu, As and Cd concentrations. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of local plant species in combination with AMF for ecological restoration of metalliferous mine tailings. - This study demonstrated that AM associations can encourage plant survival in Cu mine tailings

  18. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae can enhance arsenic tolerance in Medicago truncatula by increasing plant phosphorus status and restricting arsenate uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pengliang; Christie, Peter; Liu Yu; Zhang Junling; Li Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment examined the biomass and As uptake of Medicago truncatula colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae in low-P soil experimentally contaminated with different levels of arsenate. The biomass of G. mosseae external mycelium was unaffected by the highest addition level of As studied (200 mg kg -1 ) but shoot and root biomass declined in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, indicating that the AM fungus was more tolerant than M. truncatula to arsenate. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased shoot and root dry weights by enhancing host plant P nutrition and lowering shoot and root As concentrations compared with uninoculated plants. The AM fungus may have been highly tolerant to As and conferred enhanced tolerance to arsenate on the host plant by enhancing P nutrition and restricting root As uptake. - G. mosseae was more tolerant than M. truncatula to As and may have conferred enhanced host tolerance by restricting root As uptake and enhancing P nutrition

  19. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Honglin; Zhang Shuzhen; Shan Xiaoquan; Chen Baodong; Zhu Yongguan; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in shoot decreased in mycorrhizal compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. No atrazine derivatives were detected in the soil, either with or without mycorrhizal colonization. However, atrazine metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), were detected in plant roots and the AM colonization enhanced the metabolism. After plant harvest atrazine concentrations decreased markedly in the soils compared to the initial concentrations. The decreases were the most in rhizosphere soil and then near-rhizosphere soil and the least in bulk soil. Mycorrhizal treatment enhanced atrazine dissipation in the near-rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of atrazine application rates. - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increases the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize

  20. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae can enhance arsenic tolerance in Medicago truncatula by increasing plant phosphorus status and restricting arsenate uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengliang [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Liu Yu [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhang Junling [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: junlingz@cau.edu.cn; Li Xiaolin [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A pot experiment examined the biomass and As uptake of Medicago truncatula colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae in low-P soil experimentally contaminated with different levels of arsenate. The biomass of G. mosseae external mycelium was unaffected by the highest addition level of As studied (200 mg kg{sup -1}) but shoot and root biomass declined in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, indicating that the AM fungus was more tolerant than M. truncatula to arsenate. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased shoot and root dry weights by enhancing host plant P nutrition and lowering shoot and root As concentrations compared with uninoculated plants. The AM fungus may have been highly tolerant to As and conferred enhanced tolerance to arsenate on the host plant by enhancing P nutrition and restricting root As uptake. - G. mosseae was more tolerant than M. truncatula to As and may have conferred enhanced host tolerance by restricting root As uptake and enhancing P nutrition.

  1. Synergistic and individual effect of glomus etunicatum root colonization and acetyl salicylic acid on root activity and architecture of tomato plants under moderate nacl stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanzanfar, B.; Cheng, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, A. R.; Hanqiang, L.; Haiyan, D.; Fang, C.

    2015-01-01

    A pot based experiment in plastic tunnel was conducted to investigate the changes in root morphology and root activity of the tomato plants grown under moderate NaCl stress (100 mM), pretreated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus AMF (Glomus etunicatum) root colonization and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) as salinity ameliorative agents. The results revealed that both AMF and ASA treatments significantly enhanced the fresh root weight and root morphological parameters; net length, surface area, volume, mean diameter, nodal count and number of tips to different extents as compared to those of sole salinity treatment at 90 days after transplantation. Both treatments; AMF alone and in combination with ASA significantly enhanced the root activity level in terms of triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction (2.37 and 2.40 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/ respectively) as compared to the sole salinity treatment (0.40 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/ ) as well as the salt free control (1.69 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/) On the other hand, ASA treatment alone also uplifted root activity (1.53 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/ ) which was significantly higher than that of sole salt treatment. It was inferred that under moderate saline conditions (100 mM NaCl), AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and ASA (individually or in combination) confer protective effect on plant growth by enhanced root activity and improved root architecture. Therefore, synergistic use of AMF (G. etunicatum) and ASA can be eco-friendly and economically feasible option for tomato production in marginally salt affected lands and suggests further investigations. (author)

  2. Forestación de un terreno decapitado con Robinia pseudoacacia inoculada con Rhizobium spp. y Glomus deserticola Afforestation of a desurfaced field with Robinia pseudoacacia inoculated with Rhizobium spp. and Glomus deserticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E Ferrari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los terrenos decapitados constituyen un caso extremo de degradación de suelos aptos para agricultura, con graves consecuencias ambientales. El propósito de este trabajo fue ensayar los efectos de la inoculación de acacia blanca (Robinia pseudoacacia L. con una cepa efectiva de Rhizobium y un hongo de micorrizas arbusculares (Glomus deserticola en la supervivencia y crecimiento temprano de plantas trasplantadas a un terreno decapitado de Balcarce, comparando con fresno como árbol no fijador de nitrógeno. La supervivencia inicial fue muy buena (mayor del 77%, especialmente para los fresnos y las acacias inoculadas, las cuales mostraron significativamente mayor supervivencia al estrés por sequía que las acacias control. Todas las plantas se mostraron igualmente tolerantes al ataque de liebres y al estrés por heladas tardías. Durante el primer año las acacias inoculadas crecieron más rápido que las no inoculadas. En el segundo año las alturas se equipararon en parte, probablemente por la colonización de las acacias control con rizobios o micorrizas naturales del suelo. De todos modos, las acacias inoculadas siempre mostraron valores mayores de los distintos parámetros de desarrollo (altura total, diámetro de la copa y cantidad de ramificaciones que las plantas control, tanto en los sectores poco decapitados como en los más severamente degradados. En conclusión, la doble inoculación previa de acacia blanca mejoró la supervivencia inicial, aumentó tolerancia a la sequía y el crecimiento en 2 años y medio desde la plantación. Esta práctica de manejo sería entonces muy recomendable para reducir el período de vivero en la producción de árboles, así como lograr ejemplares más resistentes y mejor adaptados para proyectos de recuperación de suelos degradados.Many agricultural lands in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina have traditionally been desurfaced for the manufacture of bricks and other building materials. The desurfaced

  3. Crescimento, parâmetros biofísicos e aspectos anatômicos de plantas jovens de seringueira inoculadas com fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus clarum Growth, biophysical parameters and anatomical aspects of young rubber tree plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus clarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fabian de Araújo Diniz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos são reconhecidamente benéficos quando em associação às plantas por favorecerem seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. Apesar de pouco comum para a seringueira, a inoculação artificial de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs tem se mostrado uma alternativa para a redução no uso de fertilizantes e pesticidas nas culturas, bem como para a formação de mudas, visando obtenção de porta-enxertos precoces e bem nutridos. O estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da inoculação do FMA Glomus clarum no crescimento e características biofísicas e anatômicas de plantas jovens de seringueira. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas inoculadas com o fungo Glomus clarum adubadas com 50 ppm de fósforo (mic+50P, plantas não inoculadas adubadas com 50 ppm de fósforo (s/mic+50P e plantas não inoculadas adubadas com 500 ppm de fósforo (s/mic+500P. Constatou-se que as plantas micorrizadas apresentaram altura e diâmetro dos caules, matéria seca da parte aérea, densidade estomática e área foliar, semelhantes às plantas s/mic+500P. Maior acúmulo de matéria seca de raiz, maior taxa de transpiração, menor resistência estomática e menor temperatura foliar foram observadas para as plantas micorrizadas. As análises anatômicas das raízes evidenciam a ocorrência de alterações no tecido vascular, com aumento no número de pólos de xilema das raízes das plantas micorrizadas.Mycorrhizal fungi are beneficial when associated with plants because they favor growth and develop. Although infrequent, artificial inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF has become an alternative to reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides in crops, as well as for the formation of seedlings, to obtain precocious and well fed rootstocks. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inoculation of AMF Glomus clarum on growth and biophysical and anatomical characteristics of young rubber trees. The treatments consist of plants

  4. Application of Aspergillus niger-treated agrowaste residue and Glomus mosseae for improving growth and nutrition of Trifolium repens in a Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Vassilev, N; Barea, J M; Azcón, R

    2005-04-06

    The microbial transformation of sugar beet (SB) agrowaste with or without rock-phosphate (RP) has utility for the improvement of plant growth in a Cd (5 microg g-1) artificially contaminated soil, particularly when the soil is co-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae isolated from a Cd-polluted area. Under such Cd-polluted conditions, the limited growth, mineral nutrition, symbiotic developments (nodulation and AM-colonization) and soil enzymatic activities were stimulated using SB or SB+RP as soil amendments and G. mosseae as inoculant. G. mosseae enhanced plant establishment in a higher extent in amended soil; it is probably due to the interactive effect increasing the potential fertility of such compounds and its ability for decreasing Cd transfer from soil to plant. The amount of Cd transferred from soil solution to biomass of AM-colonized plants ranged from 0.09 microg Cd g-1 (in SB+RP-amended soil) to 0.6 microg Cd g-1 (in non-amended soil). Nodule formation was more sensitive to Cd than AM-colonization, and both symbioses were stimulated in amended soils. Not only AM-colonization but also amendments were critical for plant growth and nutrition in Cd-polluted soil. The high effectiveness of AM inoculum increasing nutrients and decreasing Cd in amended soil indicated the positive interaction of these treatments in increasing plant tolerance to Cd contamination.

  5. Effects on Glomus mosseae Root Colonization by Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus brasilensis Strains as Related to Soil P-Availability in Winter Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurson, V; Granhall, U; Derlund, L; Hjort, K; Muleta, D

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of inoculating winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) of the genus Paenibacillus under phosphate P-limited soil conditions in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae. Four P. polymyxa strains and one P. brasilensis strain were compared at two cell concentrations (10 6 and 10 8 cells g -1 seeds) of inoculation, and surface sterilized AMF spores were added to pots. Mycorrhizal root colonization, plant growth, and plant uptake of phosphorus were analyzed. Bacterial phosphate solubilization was examined separately in vitro. Most P. polymyxa strains, isolated from wheat, had dramatic effects per se on root growth and root P-content. No treatment gave significant effect on shoot growth. AMF root colonization levels and total plant uptake of P were much stimulated by the addition of most P. polymyxa strains. The AM fungus alone and the P. brasilensis, alone or in combination with the fungus, did not affect total plant P-levels. Our results indicate that practical application of inoculation with plant host-specific rhizobacteria (i.e., P. polymyxa) could positively influence uptake of phosphorus in P-

  6. Desvascularización preoperatoria de tumor del glomus mediante colocación de stent cubierto en la carótida externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Garrido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLos tumores del glomus carotídeo se caracterizan por su vascularización importante y sumanejo preoperatorio puede incluir la embolización percutánea previa a la resección quirúrgica.Esta técnica disminuye la hemorragia y el tamaño del tumor y hace menos riesgosala disección, con reducción de la morbimortalidad. Una técnica alternativa es la interrupciónde la irrigación del tumor mediante la colocación de un stent cubierto en la carótidaexterna, que es la vía principal de irrigación. Esta técnica es útil en especial en tumoresgrandes y evita el riesgo de embolia intracraneal cuando se emplean coils para realizar laembolización. En esta presentación se describe el caso de una paciente de 31 años tratadade esta manera; se le colocó el stent y 24 horas después se realizó la resección del tumor.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2010;78:252-254.

  7. Growth, respiration and nutrient acquisition by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and its host plant Plantago lanceolata in cooled soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, T; Hodge, A; Fitter, A H

    2012-04-01

    Although plant phosphate uptake is reduced by low soil temperature, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are responsible for P uptake in many plants. We investigated growth and carbon allocation of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae and a host plant (Plantago lanceolata) under reduced soil temperature. Plants were grown in compartmented microcosm units to determine the impact on both fungus and roots of a constant 2.7 °C reduction in soil temperature for 16 d. C allocation was measured using two (13)CO(2) pulse labels. Although root growth was reduced by cooling, AM colonization, growth and respiration of the extraradical mycelium (ERM) and allocation of assimilated (13)C to the ERM were all unaffected; the frequency of arbuscules increased. In contrast, root respiration and (13)C content and plant P and Zn content were all reduced by cooling. Cooling had less effect on N and K, and none on Ca and Mg content. The AM fungus G. mosseae was more able to sustain activity in cooled soil than were the roots of P. lanceolata, and so enhanced plant P content under a realistic degree of soil cooling that reduced plant growth. AM fungi may therefore be an effective means to promote plant nutrition under low soil temperatures. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Diagnóstico do tumor glômico pela dermatoscopia do leito e da matriz ungueal Diagnosis of glomus tumor by nail bed and matrix dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Sena Nogueir Maehara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A cirurgia é o tratamento definitivo para os tumores glômicos. Algumas vezes, esse procedimento pode representar um desafio, pois, apesar de ser um tumor bem delimitado, a sua visualização pode ser difícil. O uso da dermatoscopia do leito e da matriz ungueal facilita o diagnóstico e auxilia a localização e delimitação do tumor. Trata-se de método simples e de baixo custo que não implica risco adicional ao paciente que irá se submeter a um procedimento cirúrgico.Surgery is the best treatment for glomus tumors. Sometimes this can be a challenging procedure because, despite being a well-defined tumor, its visualization can be difficult. The use of nail bed and matrix dermoscopy facilitates the diagnosis and aids in the localization and demarcation of the tumor. It is a simple and low-cost procedure that does not involve additional risks to the patient who will undergo surgery.

  9. Glomus caroticus, environment, time parameters of cardiac and pathogenic mechanisms of formation of somatogenic depression and mixed encephalopathies on the methodological grounds of non-invasive hemogram analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly N. Malykhin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims The aim is to determine interaction of risk factors (volume of ingested food and exogenous alcohol and their effects on thermal regulation of a body due to the changed activity of biochemical reactions of neuromediator regulatory systems, related to the synthesis of endogenous alcohol. Materials and methods Based on study of neurological status, biochemical and instrumental methods of precordial mapping, urine specific gravity and thermometry of five biologically active points, 1200 males were examined for pathogenic mechanisms of endogenous alcohol synthesis and formation of time parameters of cardiac and clinical manifestation of somatogenic depression, metabolic syndrome and alcohol abuse with formation of encephalopathies. Results The amount of endogenous alcohol determines disorders in the bradykininacetylcholine and dopamine-noradrenalin systems and formation of clinical syndromes in the continuum of somatogeny-psychogeny (according to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10. Conclusion Changes in thermal regulation were accompanied with changes of functional mechanisms of Glomus Caroticus, affecting erythrocyte and its receptors, related to atomic oxygen and hydrogen in atmosphere, with formation of relevant pH values of arterial and venous blood, amount of endogenous alcohol.

  10. Plant growth and metal distribution in tissues of Prosopis juliflora-velutina grown on chromium contaminated soil in the presence of Glomus deserticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jack A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Ellzey, Joanne T; Viveros, Marian N; Ren, Minghua; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2010-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been known to increase metal uptake in plants. In this study, mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina) inoculated with Glomus deserticola or amended with EDTA were grown for 30 days in soil containing Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at 0, 40, 80, and 160 mg kg(-1). Total amylase activity (TAA) was monitored as a stress indicator. Element concentrations and distribution in tissue were determined using ICP-OES, electron scanning microprobe, and TEM. Inoculated Cr(VI) treated plants had 21% and 30% more Cr than uninoculated and EDTA treated roots, respectively, at 80 mg Cr kg(-1) treatment. In the case of Cr(III), EDTA produced the highest Cr accumulation in roots. TAA was higher in inoculated plants grown with Cr(III) at 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) and Cr(VI) at 40 and 160 mg kg(-1). The X-ray mapping showed higher metal concentrations in the vascular system of inoculated plants and the TEM micrographs demonstrated the presence of G. deserticola in roots.

  11. Response of mycorrhizal grapevine to Armillaria mellea inoculation: disease development and polyamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, A. (Amaia); Aguirreolea, J. (Jone); Santa-Maria, E. (Eva); Camprubi, A. (Amalia); Calvet, C. (Cinta)

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted with the vine rootstock Richter 110 (Vitis berlandieri Planch. x Vitis rupestris L.) in order to assess whether the colonisation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) can delay the disease development in plants inoculated with the root-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) Kummer, and to elucidate if the levels of polyamines (PAs) are modified in response to G. intraradices, A. mellea or by the dual infection. Four treatments were consi...

  12. The interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on "in vitro" spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Wellington

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and N amendment and its interactions on spore germination, root growth and colonized root length by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (INVAM S329 was studied "in vitro" in RiT - DNA transformed roots of Anthylis vulneraria sub sp. Sampaiana (Kidney vetch. Three N media concentrations (5, 10 and 50 mg/l at P constant level (2 mg/l and three P media concentrations (2, 10 and 20 mg/l at N constant level (5 mg/l were utilized as a treatment. Bécard & Fortin medium was used as a basal medium for root growth and colonized root length, and water/agar (0.8% media was the control for spore germination. Spore germination of G. etunicatum at low P level was reduced by N addition in relation to the control media, and at low N level addition of P stimulated spore germination. Total root length was stimulated by N addtion at low P level, but no significant difference (p£0.05 was observed between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. P addition at low N level media also stimulated total root growth, and a significant difference (p£0.05 was observed among P concentrations. Colonized root length by G. etunicatum increased significantly (p£0.05 with P additions at low N levels. Under low P level no significant differences was found between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. These results demonstrate that the interaction between P and N affect differently spore germination, root growth and colonized root lenght.

  13. Produção de mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., inoculadas com o fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus clarum, em substrato agro-industrial Production of guava ( Psidium guajava L. plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus clarum, in agro-industrial substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOLIMAR ANTONIO SCHIAVO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento de mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., produzidas em blocos prensados, confeccionados com resíduos agro-industriais, e inoculadas com o fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, sendo 2 tratamentos microbiológicos: controle e FMA; e 2 sistemas de produção de mudas: blocos prensados (nova metodologia e tubetes plásticos (tradicional, com 5 repetições. O substrato utilizado para a confecção dos blocos prensados e enchimento dos tubetes foi constituído por uma mistura de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e torta de filtro (3:1 v/v. O FMA proporcionou aumentos significativos na produção de matéria seca, conteúdo de N e P da parte aérea da goiabeira, apenas no sistema de produção das mudas em blocos prensados. Mudas produzidas e inoculadas em blocos prensados mostraram um aumento de 88% na matéria seca da parte aérea, 82% e 89% para os conteúdos de nitrogênio e fósforo da parte aérea, respectivamente, em relação ao tratamento-controle.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth of guava plant seedlings, inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, produced in pressed blocks made with agro-industrial residues. The experimental design utilized was a completely randomized in factorial 2x2, having two microbiological treatments: control and inoculated; two systems of production: pressed blocks (new methodology and plastic tubes (traditional, with 5 repetitions. The substrate utilized to make the pressed blocks and to fill the plastic tubes was constituted by a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and filter cake (3:1 v/v. The AMF inoculation led to a significant increase in dry matter yield and nutrients content of shoot plants, only in pressed blocks. Plants produced in

  14. Fungos micorrízicos nativos e Glomus clarun no rendimento de trevo vesiculoso cultivado em condições naturais e modificadas pela calagem e aplicação de fósforo Glomus clarun and native mycorrhizal fungi on yield of Trifolium spp. cultivated under natural and modified soil contitions with addition by phosphorus and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos dos Santos Pessoa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento desenvolvido na casa de vegetação na UFSM-RS, avaliou-se o efeito da introdução de fungos micorrizicos arbusculares (fMA Glomus clarum e nativos no rendimento de massa seca (MS e absorção de P pelo trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium spp. e verificou-se a compatibilidade entre a espécie introduzida e os fMA nativos ocorrentes no solo estudado. Os tratamentos/oram constituídos defatorial 4x2x2 com quatro níveis de fMA: G. clarum, fungos nativos, mistura de ambas as populações e controle sem inoculação de fMA: com dois valores de pH: 4,4 e 5,4 e com dois níveis de fósforo disponível (Mehlich l: 6 e ISmg/kg de solo. A introdução de G. clarum isoladamente ou em conjunto com fMA nativos, na condição de pH 4,4, e em baixa disponibilidade de P, aumentou o rendimento de MS e absorção de P. Em disponibilidade intermediária de P (l5mg/kg de solo e pH 5,4 não ocorreu diferença entre os tratamentos inoculados com fMA, mas destes ocorreu diferença para o tratamento sem inoculação, evidenciando a dependência do trevo pela micorrizaçâo. Tratamentos inoculados com G. clarum apresentaram maiores rendimentos de MS, absorção de P, colonização micorrizica e esporulação, mostrando que a introdução dessa espécie pode ser viável quando espécies nativas não são eficientes para a cultura ou tornam-se ineficientes quando a fertilidade do solo é modificada por aplicação de P e/ou calagem.The experiment v/as conducted under greenhouse condition at the University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The objectives were to evaluate the introduction of arbuscular mycorrhizalfúngi (AMF Glomus clarum and natives fungi on the phosphorus uptake and dry matter (DM production from Trifolium spp. and Io verify lhe compatibilily between introduced specie and lhe nativo AMF occurence in lhe studied soil. The treatments was constituled of 4x2x2 factorial withfour AMF leveis: G. clarum, AMf native, mixture of both populations of AMF

  15. Study the concentration of macroelements in forage mays (Zea mays L. (SC 704 as effected by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and Azotobacter chroococcum under different levels of nitrogen

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    M. Amirabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and phosphorus are two necessary macronutrients for plant growth and yield. These two elements now will be added to soil by chemical fertilizers. This research has been carried out based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Markazi Provience Agricultural Research Station, Iran, during growing season of 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum and Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices as biofertilizers and urea as chemical fertilizers on concentrations of N, P, K, Na, Ca and crude protein (% in corn (Zea mays L. shoot tissues and dry matter of corn. Azotobacter chroococcum used as two levels (inoculated and uninoculated, mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices in two levels (inoculated and uninoculated and urea in four levels (0, 75, 150 and 300 kg.ha-1. Results showed that Azotobacter chroococcum affected significantly all studied criteria except of K shoot concentration, but mycorrhizan (Glomus intraradices only had a increasing significantly effect on N, K, Na and Crude protein. The interaction between Azotobacter chroococcum and Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices had the most increasing effect on dry matter, N, Na and Crude protein. Therefore, based on our results it can be concluded that in order to prevent polluting the agricultural soil, environmental and other water supplies from nitrogen chemical fertilizers, application of Azotobacter chroococcum or combined with mycorrhizal fungi with 150 kg.ha-1 Urea is recommended.

  16. Pre-inoculation by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances male reproductive output of Cucurbita foetidissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2000-01-01

    Male and female reproductive output of Cucurbita foetidissima, a gynodioecious native perennial, was examined in a 2-yr greenhouse/outplanting study. Plants were divided into three treatment groups: (1) a lowphosphorus (P) soil mix control; (2) a low-P soil mix with the addition of mycorrhizal inoculum (Glomus intraradices); and (3) a high-P soil mix. Plants were...

  17. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on survival of salmonella and E.coli O157:H7 in soil and translocation into allium porrum roots and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern agriculture disrupts the natural symbiotic relationship arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have with most vegetable plants, which may affect translocation of human pathogens into the plant. Five-month-old Allium porrum (leek) plants (with or without AMF [Glomus intraradices]) were used as a m...

  18. Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas: Exploitation of soil patches with different phosphate enrichment differs among fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavagnaro, T.R.; Smith, F.A.; Smith, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    . This was studied by growing symbioses of Linum usitatissimum and three AMF (Glomus intraradices, G. mosseae and Gigaspora margarita) in pots with two side-arms, which were accessible to hyphae, but not to roots. Soil in one side-arm was either unamended (P0) or enriched with P; simultaneous labelling of this soil...

  19. Assessing hydroaeroponic culture for the tripartite symbiosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that the later will probably be a valuable tool for scrutinizing the interactions among the three symbionts, as well as plant physiology, and nutrient partitioning within the symbiotic system. Key words: Acaulospora mellea, arbuscular mycorrhizal, Bradyrhizobium, Gigaspora rosea, Glomus intraradices, mungbean, ...

  20. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  1. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.D.; Khan, S.U.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of bound 14 C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14 C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14 C residues, as measured by 14 C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  2. Tratamento radioterápico dos tumores glômicos do osso temporal Radiation therapy for glomus tumors of the temporal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Dall'Igna

    2005-12-01

    tumors has been controversial since its first description. It can be done with surgery, radiotherapy or just expectation. AIM: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of radiotherapy. STUDY DESIGN: clinical with transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was made a retrospective review in the charts of the patients with glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiotherapy. Disease control was determined by (1 no progression of symptoms or cranial nerve dysfunction or (2 no progression of the lesion in radiological follow-up. It was also evaluated the follow-up period and the sequelae of the treatment. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included, 8 of then women. The follow-up period was from 3 to 35 years, with a media of 11,6 years. The main symptoms were: hearing loss, pulsate tinnitus, dizziness and vertigo. The signs were pulsate retrotympanic mass, facial palsy and cofosis. The tumors were staged using Fisch's classification. The radiotherapy was performed with linear accelerator with dose ranging from 4500-5500 in 4-6 weeks. In the follow-up period were possible to identify sequelaes like dermatitis, meatal stenosis, cofosis and facial palsy. DISCUSSION: The signs and symptoms were the same found in the medical literature. The type and dosages of the radiotherapy were also the same of others reports. All patients had improvement of the symptoms and only one was not considered as having disease controlled. Complications were, in general, minor complications, with exception of the cofosis and facial palsy. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy is a viable alternative to treatment of these tumors because their good response and low level of complications. It should be considered specially in advanced tumors where a surgical procedure could bring a high level of morbidity.

  3. Contaminação do solo com antraceno e creosoto e o crescimento vegetal e a colonização micorrízica pelo Glomus etunicatum Soil contamination with anthracene and creosote: impact on plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization by Glomus etunicatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Monteiro de Paula

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação do solo por compostos orgânicos, especialmente os hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs de petróleo, é um problema crescente e que traz graves conseqüências ambientais. Para avaliar os impactos causados por esses compostos, torna-se necessário conhecer seus efeitos sobre as plantas e a microbiota rizosférica associada. No presente estudo avaliaram-se os efeitos de antraceno e creosoto no crescimento e na colonização micorrízica de Brachiaria brizantha e Pueraria phaseoloides. Antraceno e creosoto foram aplicados a um solo infestado com o fungo micorrízico Glomus etunicatum, sendo: antraceno nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 solo; e creosoto nas concentrações de 0; 0,5; 1; 2 e 3 g kg-1 solo. O solo com os tratamentos foi colocado em tubetes (290 cm³ e semeado com as plantas-teste, as quais foram cultivadas por seis semanas. Verificou-se que o antraceno não afetou o crescimento da puerária e teve pequeno estímulo no crescimento da braquiária na dose mais baixa, enquanto o creosoto reduziu o crescimento da braquiária e não teve efeito na puerária. Entretanto, ambos os contaminantes inibiram a colonização micorrízica da puerária, atingindo redução de cerca de 90 % em relação ao controle. Em concentrações bem inferiores às encontradas em solos contaminados, a colonização micorrízica foi inibida em 50 %, ficando evidente o potencial de impacto desses poluentes na relação planta-fungo micorrízico. Na braquiária não foi encontrada colonização micorrízica. Fica evidenciada a resposta diferenciada das duas espécies estudadas aos contaminantes e o acentuado efeito negativo destes sobre a colonização micorrízica. A puerária, por ter se mostrado insensível aos HAPs, nas concentrações estudadas, apresenta potencial para aplicação na fitorremediação de áreas impactadas por esses contaminantes.Soil contamination by organic compounds, especially by the petroleum

  4. Oral Ketamine in the Palliative Care Setting: A Review of the Literature and Case Report of a Patient With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Glomus Tumor-Associated Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Eliezer; Stewart, Douglas R.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Ruppert, Sarah L.; Baker, Karen; Zlott, Daniel; Handel, Daniel; Berger, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been shown to be effective not only for its anesthetic properties but also for the analgesic and opiate-sparing effects. However, data on efficacy and safety of oral ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic or cancer pain syndromes is limited with most of the evidence based on small clinical trials and anecdotal experiences. In this review, we will analyze the clinical data on oral ketamine in the palliative care setting. After an extensive search using five major databases, a total of 19 relevant articles were included. No official clinical guidelines for the use of oral ketamine in this patient population were found. Studies on oral ketamine for cancer and neuropathic pain have shown mixed results which could be partially due to significant differences in hepatic metabolism. In addition, we will include a case report of a 38-year-old female with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with history of chronic, severe pain in her fingertips secondary to multiple glomus tumors which evolved into CRPS resistant to multiple therapies but responsive to oral ketamine. Based on our experience with oral ketamine, this drug should be administered after an intravenous trial to monitor response and side effects in patients with an adequate functional status. However, patients in the palliative care and hospice setting, especially the one at the end of their lives, may also benefit from oral ketamine even if an intravenous trial is not feasible. PMID:21803784

  5. Interactive effect of Brevibacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae, both isolated from Cd contaminated soil, on plant growth, physiological mycorrhizal fungal characteristics and soil enzymatic activities in Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, A.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon, R.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between two autochthonous microorganisms (Brevibacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae) isolated from Cd amended soil increased plant growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and physiological characteristics of the AM infection (measured as SDH or ALP activities). The enhanced plant Cd tolerance after coinoculation with native microorganisms seemed to be a consequence of increased P and K acquisition and, simultaneously, of decreased concentration of Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Fe and Ni in plant tissue. Autochthonous microbial strains were more efficient for nutrient uptake, to immobilize metals and decrease their translocation to the shoot than reference G. mosseae (with or without bacteria). Indole acetic acid produced by B. brevis may be related to its ability for improving root growth, nodule production and AM fungal intra and extraradical development. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities, indicative of microbial metabolism and soil fertility, were maximized by the coinoculation of autochthonous microorganisms in cadmium polluted conditions. As a consequence, the use of native microorganisms may result very efficient in bioremediation. - Endemic isolates of bacteria and fungi were effective in bioremediation

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with psammophilic vegetation in Mediterranean coastal sand dunes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.; Cabot, P.; Pitet, M.; Estaun, V.

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the natural albacore's mycorrhizal (AM) biodiversity from Mediterranean sand dune ecosystems and to protect in a collection this biodiversity. The occurrence of AM fungi associated with sand dune plant species in three Mediterranean locations on the north-eastern coast of Spain was examined in one well preserved coastal sand dune and in two embrionary dunes recently protected from public access. Traditional taxonomy and molecular techniques were used to identify the AM fungal species present in these ecosystems. The species identified and isolated were: Scutellospora persica (Kiosk and Walker) Walker and Sanders, Glomus ambisporum Smith and Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton and Walker, Glomus clarum Nicolson and Schenck, Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith, Glomus microaggregatum Koske, Gemma and Olexia and Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall. Spores of Glomus were the most abundant in the direct soil extraction samples. The molecular analysis indicates that the most abundant fungi forming AM in the roots belonged to the Gigasporaceae group followed by fungi of Glomus group A and Glomus group B. The highest diversity of fungi and abundance of the AM fungal spores was found in the well preserved and undisturbed dune systems. (Author) 26 refs.

  7. Uptake of different forms of nitrogen by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xia; Zhang Junling

    2007-01-01

    A two-compartment incorporating air-gap device and 15 N-labeling technique was used to investigate the uptake of different forms of N by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Maize (Zea mays L.) was in association with Glomus mosseae, or Glomus intraradices. Solutions labeled with different forms of 15 N were supplied to the hyphae compartment 48 h before harvesting. The results showed that the uptake capability of 15 N varied with fungi species and N forms supplied. Percentage of 15 N taken up over 48 h by G. intraradices was higher than that by G. mosseae. The uptake capability of 15 N by AMF was in the order of 15 NH 4 + > 15 N-Gln> 15 N-Gly> 15 NO 3 - . 15 N uptake by AMF hyphae accounted for 0.005-0.032% of total N uptake. (authors)

  8. Plantago lanceolata growth and Cr uptake after mycorrhizal inoculation in a Cr amended substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Nogales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from two chromium contaminated sites, one with 275 mg kg-1 of Cr (zone A and the other with 550 mg kg-1 Cr (zone B, were multiplied and tentatively identified. The effect of both fungal consortia on Plantago lanceolata plant growth in a substrate amended with 200 mg kg-1 of Cr and with 400 mg kg-1 Cr was assessed and compared with the growth of plants inoculated with Glomus intraradices BEG72. Only the plants inoculated with G. intraradices BEG72 and with the fungal consortia obtained from the area with a high Cr contamination (zone B grew in the soil with 400 mg kg-1 of Cr. The consortia of fungi from zone B, decreased the plant’s uptake/translocation of the heavy metal compared with G. intraradices BEG72. These results underscore the differential effect of AM fungi in conferring bioprotection in Cr contaminated soils.

  9. Synergistic effect of Glomus fasciculatum and Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Firdaus-e-Bareen

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The effect of two soil amendments of tannery sludge (10% and 20%) on growth and metal uptake of. Helianthus annuus L. ... heavy metal polluted soils (Terry and Bañuelos, 2000). Although it is ..... remediation unit to treat contaminated soils containing a .... such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Rev.

  10. Synergistic effect of Glomus fasciculatum and Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants treated with both fungus and mycorrhizal (F+M) treatment showed the maximum uptake of metals and thus the synergistic effect of these fungi can be exploited in decontamination of metals from tannery sludge. Key words: Phytoextraction, tannery sludge, heavy metals, resistant rhizosphere fungi, Arbuscular ...

  11. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizas on the growth rate of mist-propagated olive plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Piedra, A.; Soriano Martín, M.L.; Porras Soriano, A.; Fernández Izquierdo, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of early inoculation of semi-woody olive cuttings (cv. Cornicabra), cultivated under mist propagation conditions, with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A strongly positive response was seen to root inoculation with the three fungal species tested —Glomus mosseae, G. intraradices and G. claroideum— both in nursery phase plantlets, and in older plants grown in 5 L pots.

  12. Population performance of collembolans feeding on soil fungi from different ecological niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Johansen, A.; Larsen, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    The potential reproductive value of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Gloinus intraradices and Glomus invermaium), root pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum) and saprotrophic fungi (Penicillium hordei and Trichoderma harzianum) were examined for the collembolans Folsomia candida....... Different quality indicators such as the C:N ratio of the fungal food sources as well as other biological parameters are discussed in relation to their reproductive value and Collembola preferential feeding. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Dual Inoculation with Mycorrhizal and Saprotrophic Fungi Applicable in Sustainable Cultivation Improves the Yield and Nutritive Value of Onion

    OpenAIRE

    Albrechtova, Jana; Latr, Ales; Nedorost, Ludovit; Pokluda, Robert; Posta, Katalin; Vosatka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum) (M1) or the single-fungus inoculum ...

  14. Role of gibberellins during arbuscular mycorrhizal formation in tomato: new insights revealed by endogenous quantification and genetic analysis of their metabolism in mycorrhizal roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin-Rodriguez, J.A.; Ocampo, J.A.; Molinero-Rosales, N.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ruiz-Rivero, O.; Garcia-Garrido, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 1 (2015), s. 66-81 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GLOMUS-INTRARADICES * FRUIT-SET * MEDICAGO-TRUNCATULA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2015

  15. Effects of whey on the colonization and sporulation of arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to research the effect of 2 different doses of whey [50 ml kg-1(W50) and 100 ml kg-1(W100)], an important organic waste, on colonization and sporulation of arbuscular mycorhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices'(G.i.) inoculated to lentil plant and the effects of changing P ratio in the soil and plant as ...

  16. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on plants growing on arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankong, P; Visoottiviseth, P

    2008-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may play an important role in phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil. In this study the effects of AMF (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum) on biomass production and arsenic accumulation in Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tagetes erecta and Melastoma malabathricum were investigated. Soil (243 +/- 13 microg As g(-1)) collected from Ron Phibun District, an As-contaminated area in Thailand, was used in a greenhouse experiment. The results showed different effects of AMF on phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil by different plant species. For P. calomelanos and T. erecta, AMF reduced only arsenic accumulation in plants but had no significant effect on plant growth. In contrast, AMF improved growth and arsenic accumulation in M. malabathricum. These findings show the importance of understanding different interactions between AMF and their host plants for enhancing phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  17. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solos de área poluída com metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klauberg-Filho

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs ocorrem de forma generalizada e formam importante simbiose com a maioria das plantas, mesmo em solos poluídos com metais pesados. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a ocorrência e a diversidade dos FMAs em quatro locais com gramíneas em uma área de solo contaminado com metais pesados pela extração e industrialização do Zn. Verificou-se a ocorrência generalizada dos FMAs nos locais estudados, sendo esta influenciada pelas concentrações de metais no solo. Encontrou-se um total de 21 espécies, sendo: sete pertencentes ao gênero Acaulospora, seis de Scutellospora, cinco de Glomus, duas de Gigaspora e uma de Entrophospora,Glomus occultum, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora mellea, Glomus intraradices, Glomus clarum e Scutellospora pellucida foram as de maior ocorrência. A densidade de esporos, a riqueza de espécies e o aumento da dominância relacionaram-se inversamente com as concentrações de metais no solo. Acaulospora mellea, Glomus clarum e Glomus occultum dominaram as populações de esporos no solo. Concluiu-se que os metais pesados exerceram efeito diferenciado sobre os FMAs, dependendo do grau de poluição.

  18. Alterations of the Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are not General Characteristics of the Colonization Process by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alteraciones de las Actividades de Enzimas Antioxidantes no son Características Generales del Proceso de Colonización por Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakelin Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant system is involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but its role during the colonization process is still poorly understood. To gain new insights into the role of antioxidant system during root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. roots inoculated with six strains of different genera and species: two Glomus mosseae, Glomus cubense, Glomus intraradices, Glomus sp. and Acaulospora scrobiculata. Glomus cubense and A. scrobiculata strains reached the highest infectivity levels with maximum values of colonization frequency and intensity of 29-10.88% and 18-9.20%, respectively; G. mosseae strains showed an intermediate infectivity, both with 15% of colonization frequency and maximum intensities of 7.647.06%, respectively; while the infectivity levels of Glomus sp. and G. intraradices strains were the lowest with colonization frequency- 13% and intensities- 5.07 and 5.41, respectively. Some activity patterns of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were not specific for early or late colonization stages neither for the colonization level and type of strain. However, a unique superoxide dismutase-band presents at early colonization and the low level of guaiacol-peroxidase activity at later stages presents in all inoculated roots indicate that these antioxidant responses are independent of colonization degree and strain. Taking together, our data suggest that alterations of the antioxidant enzyme activities are not general characteristics of the colonization process by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, probably having the key role on those responses the specific feature of each strain rather than colonization per se.El sistema antioxidante está involucrado en la simbiosis micorrízico-arbuscular, pero su rol durante el proceso de colonización es aún escasamente comprendido. Para esclarecer el papel del sistema

  19. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with contrasting life-history strategies differ in their responses to repeated defoliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijdo, Marleen; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi obligatorily depend on carbon (C) resources provided via the plant and therefore fluctuations in C availability may strongly and differently affect AM fungi with different life-history strategies (LHS). In the present study, we examined the effect of repeated defoliation of in vitro grown barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) on the spore and auxiliary cell (AC) production dynamics of a presumed r-strategist (Glomus intraradices) and a presumed K-strategist (Dentiscutata reticulata). Glomus intraradices modulated the production of spores directly to C availability, showing direct investment in reproduction as expected for r-strategists. In contrast, AC production of D. reticulata was not affected after a single defoliation and thus showed higher resistance to fluctuating C levels, as expected for K-strategists. Our results demonstrate that plant defoliation affects the production of extraradical C storage structures of G. intraradices and D. reticulata differently. Our results contribute towards revealing differences in LHS among AM fungal species, a step further towards understanding their community dynamics in natural ecosystems and agroenvironments.

  20. OPCIONES DE MANEJO SOSTENIBLE DEL SUELO EN ZONAS ARIDAS: APROVECHAMIENTO DE LA HALÓFITA Salicornia bigelovii (Torr. Y USO DE BIOFERTILIZANTES EN LA AGRICULTURA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of plant resources in arid-saline environments is increasing. Salicornia bigelovii is a halophyte of great interest. However, the productivity of these plants is limited by nitrogen availability. An alternative to chemical fertilizers are the plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizae. In the present study was evaluated the effect of Glomus intraradices, three strains of rhizobacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Azospirillum halopraeferens and two soil types (clayey and sandy on Salicornia under greenhouse conditions. The inoculation of bacteria under conditions of sandy soil significantly stimulated growth and nutritional factor of Salicornia (NPK. Synergism was observed between G. intraradices and rhizobacteria. When inoculated bacteria in individually form, behaved with significant differences. There was synergism between G. intraradices and Klebsiella pneumoniae and A. halopraeferens in the uptake of N, the opposite happened with G. intraradices and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with high significant values in the absorption of P and K. The soil was a determining factor in behavior and expression of the benefit of the microorganisms. Rhizobacteria and mycorrhiza in the study have potential for use as growth promoters in salicornia.

  1. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  2. Efecto de la biofertilización y los biorreguladores en la germinación y el crecimiento de Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Constantino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effect of biofertilization and bioregulators on germination and growth of Carica papaya L. Resumen Con el objetivo de incrementar y acelerar el proceso de germinación de las semillas y obtener una alta producción y homogeneidad de plántulas de Carica papaya variedad Maradol en vivero, se evaluó el efecto de tres biofertilizantes aplicados solos o en combinación (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradices, y un biorregulador del crecimiento vegetal, el ácido giberélico (AG3, en la germinación y el crecimiento vegetal. Se realizó un experimento bajo un diseño completamente al azar con ocho tratamientos y tres repeticiones. A las semillas se les aplicó un pretratamiento germinativo con alternancia de temperatura para superar la dormancia. Los tratamientos simples con A. chroococcum y A. brasilense, incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación a 90,28 y 88,89% respectivamente. Además, con la aplicación de los biofertilizantes y el AG3, la velocidad de germinación se incrementó y el tiempo medio de germinación se redujo. La doble aplicación en semillas y foliar de los biofertilizantes y el AG3 en plántulas mejoró el crecimiento vegetal. La población de A. chroococcum fue mayor cuando se inoculó en combinación con G. intraradices. La prevalencia de colonización de las plántulas inoculadas con G. intraradices varió de 18,53 a 26,67%, con el mayor valor registrado para el tratamiento combinado con A. brasilense. Finalmente, aplicando esta metodología se logró acelerar la germinación, obteniéndose una mayor homogeneidad en la emergencia de las plántulas, disminuyendo así el tiempo de permanencia en el vivero. Palabras clave: Azospirillum brasilense; Azotobacter chroococcum; Glomus intraradices; ácido giberélico; dormancia. Abstract In order to increase and accelerate the process of seed germination and obtain a high yield and homogeneity of papaya seedlings cv. Maradol in

  3. Biblioteca Medica in Trient und die Initiative „Es gibt ein Kind im Krankenhaus … Schenk ihm ein Buch!“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevisan, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2011 the Biblioteca Medica of the hospital in Trento (Italy received four thousand children’s and youth books. They were donated during a philanthropic action by customers of a bookstore chain. Together with volunteers of the ABIO Foundation, the Biblioteca Medica has partly donated these media to the children in the hospital and, with the rest of the books, organized some bookshelf at the pediatric wards.

  4. EFECTIVIDAD DE CEPAS DE HMA EN EL CULTIVO DE LA YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) EN DOS TIPOS DE SUELOS

    OpenAIRE

    José P. João; Alberto Espinosa Cuellar; Luís Ruiz Martínez; Jaime Simó González; Ramón Rivera Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la inoculación de cepas de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA) en clones comerciales de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) y su dependencia con el tipo de suelo, se comparó la efectividad de tres cepas de HMA, Glomus cubense, Rizophagus intraradices y Funneliformis mosseae, tanto en suelo Pardo Mullido Carbonatado como en Ferralítico Rojo Lixiviado. En el primer suelo, se utilizaron seis clones comerciales en un diseño de bloq...

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza reduces phytoextraction of uranium, thorium and other elements from phosphate rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Per; Jakobsen, Iver

    2008-01-01

    Uptake of metals from uranium-rich phosphate rock was studied in Medicago truncatula plants grown in symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices or in the absence of mycorrhizas. Shoot concentrations of uranium and thorium were lower in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal......-fungus uptake systems. The results support the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza as being an important component in phytostabilization of uranium. This is the first study to report on mycorrhizal effect and the uptake and root-to-shoot transfer of thorium from phosphate rock. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  6. The plant growth promoting substance, lumichrome, mimics starch and ethylene-associated symbiotic responses in lotus and tomato roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel eGouws

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus or Glomus intraradices/Glomus mossea (for tomato. It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato.

  7. Can Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce the Growth of Agricultural Weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rita S. L.; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their beneficial effects on plants. However, there is increasing evidence that some ruderal plants, including several agricultural weeds, respond negatively to AMF colonization. Here, we investigated the effect of AMF on the growth of individual weed species and on weed-crop interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings First, under controlled glasshouse conditions, we screened growth responses of nine weed species and three crops to a widespread AMF, Glomus intraradices. None of the weeds screened showed a significant positive mycorrhizal growth response and four weed species were significantly reduced by the AMF (growth responses between −22 and −35%). In a subsequent experiment, we selected three of the negatively responding weed species – Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria viridis and Solanum nigrum – and analyzed their responses to a combination of three AMF (Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae and Glomus claroideum). Finally, we tested whether the presence of a crop (maize) enhanced the suppressive effect of AMF on weeds. We found that the growth of the three selected weed species was also reduced by a combination of AMF and that the presence of maize amplified the negative effect of AMF on the growth of E. crus-galli. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that AMF can negatively influence the growth of some weed species indicating that AMF have the potential to act as determinants of weed community structure. Furthermore, mycorrhizal weed growth reductions can be amplified in the presence of a crop. Previous studies have shown that AMF provide a number of beneficial ecosystem services. Taken together with our current results, the maintenance and promotion of AMF activity may thereby contribute to sustainable management of agroecosystems. However, in order to further the practical and ecological relevance of our findings, additional experiments should be performed under field conditions. PMID

  8. root colonized by Glomus mosseae and Ralstonia solanacearum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Ngakou et al., 2007), plant nutrition support (Mahmood and Rizvi, 2010), and salt stress (Shokri and Maadi,. 2009). Safir (1968) was the first to report the study on interaction of plant pathogenic fungi and species of AMF, followed by many reports confirming the reduction of disease severity as a result of ...

  9. Glomus tumours of the Hand in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Few reports have documented the epidemiology and presentation in the. West African .... nuclei homogenous chromatin and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm19. ... According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Soft.

  10. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  11. Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71.

  12. Underground friends or enemies: model plants help to unravel direct and indirect effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facelli, Evelina; Smith, Sally E; Facelli, José M; Christophersen, Helle M; Andrew Smith, F

    2010-03-01

    *We studied the effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, singly or together, on the outcome of competition between a host (tomato cultivar, wild-type (WT)) and a surrogate nonhost (rmc, a mycorrhiza-defective mutant of WT) as influenced by the contributions of the direct and AM phosphorus (P) uptake pathways to plant P. *We grew plants singly or in pairs of the same or different genotypes (inoculated or not) in pots containing a small compartment with (32)P-labelled soil accessible to AM fungal hyphae and determined expression of orthophosphate (P(i)) transporter genes involved in both AM and direct P uptake. *Gigaspora margarita increased WT competitive effects on rmc. WT and rmc inoculated with Glomus intraradices both showed growth depressions, which were mitigated when G. margarita was present. Orthophosphate transporter gene expression and (32)P transfer showed that the AM pathway operated in single inoculated WT, but not in rmc. *Effects of AM fungi on plant competition depended on the relative contributions of AM and direct pathways of P uptake. Glomus intraradices reduced the efficiency of direct uptake in both WT and rmc. The two-fungus combination showed that interactions between fungi are important in determining outcomes of plant competition.

  13. The Role of Mycorrhiza in Drought Tolerance of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Moghadasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis and drought stress on marigold, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted at the Plant Research Laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur branch in 2014. The first factor consisted of application and non-application of mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices and the second factor consisted of drought stress with three levels (irrigation based on 100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity. The results showed that growth parameters like plant height, leaf number, leaf area, root, shoot dry/fresh weight, Chla and Chlb content were significantly decreased by drought stress in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. However, inoculation of plants by mycorrhizal fungus increased growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments as compared with non-mycorrhizal ones. Traits like RWC, potassium and phosphorus in response to drought stress were decreased. Inoculation of plant roots with Mycorrhizal fungi increased significantly RWC, potassium and phosphorus content of the plants under drought conditions as compared with non-inoculated plants. The results also showed the mycorrhizal symbiosis by Glomus intraradices improved drought tolerance of marigold through enhancing the absorption of water and mineral ions.

  14. Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria--as revealed by different combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaderlund, Lotta; Arthurson, Veronica; Granhall, Ulf; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-05-15

    The interactions between two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Paenibacillus brasilensis PB177, two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and one pathogenic fungus (Microdochium nivale) were investigated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Tarso) in a greenhouse trial. PB177, but not SBW25, had strong inhibitory effects on M. nivale in dual culture plate assays. The results from the greenhouse experiment show very specific interactions; e.g. the two AM fungi react differently when interacting with the same bacteria on plants. G. intraradices (single inoculation or together with SBW25) increased plant dry weight on M. nivale infested plants, suggesting that the pathogenic fungus is counteracted by G. intraradices, but PB177 inhibited this positive effect. This is an example of two completely different reactions between the same AM fungus and two species of bacteria, previously known to enhance plant growth and inhibit pathogens. When searching for plant growth promoting microorganisms it is therefore important to test for the most suitable combination of plant, bacteria and fungi in order to get satisfactory plant growth benefits.

  15. Direct quantification of fungal DNA from soil substrate using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Martin; St-Arnaud, Marc; Jabaji-Hare, Suha H

    2003-04-01

    Detection and quantification of genomic DNA from two ecologically different fungi, the plant pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, was achieved from soil substrate. Specific primers targeting a 362-bp fragment from the SSU rRNA gene region of G. intraradices and a 562-bp fragment from the F. solani f. sp. phaseoli translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene were used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays conjugated with the fluorescent SYBR(R) Green I dye. Standard curves showed a linear relation (r(2)=0.999) between log values of fungal genomic DNA of each species and real-time PCR threshold cycles and were quantitative over 4-5 orders of magnitude. Real-time PCR assays were applied to in vitro-produced fungal structures and sterile and non-sterile soil substrate seeded with known propagule numbers of either fungi. Detection and genomic DNA quantification was obtained from the different treatments, while no amplicon was detected from non-seeded non-sterile soil samples, confirming the absence of cross-reactivity with the soil microflora DNA. A significant correlation (Pgenomic DNA of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli or G. intraradices detected and the number of fungal propagules present in seeded soil substrate. The DNA extraction protocol and real-time PCR quantification assay can be performed in less than 2 h and is adaptable to detect and quantify genomic DNA from other soilborne fungi.

  16. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  17. Production of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum in aeroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, L L; Sylvia, D M

    1988-02-01

    Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28 degrees C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4 degrees C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively.

  18. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y.; Wu, S.C.; Wong, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg -1 . In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: → Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. → Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. → The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  19. Effect of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of micropropagated potato plantlets and on the extent of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M K; Tweddell, R J; Désilets, H

    2002-10-01

    Two micropropagated potato cultivars, Goldrush and LP89221, were inoculated into sowing trays with either Glomus etunicatum or G. intraradices in a greenhouse. After 2 weeks, plantlets were transplanted into pots and roots were challenged 7 days later with Rhizoctonia solani. At different times after R. solani infection, disease severity, mortality rate, root colonization levels, various growth parameters, and shoot mineral content were evaluated. In Goldrush, only inoculation with G. etunicatum led to a significant reduction in disease severity, ranging between 60.2% and 71.2%, on both shoot and crown. This decrease was not observed in LP89221. Compared with the control plantlets, inoculation of Goldrush with G. etunicatum or G. intraradices reduced significantly the mortality rate by 77% and 26%, respectively, whereas vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi did not significantly influence the mortality rate in LP89221. In Goldrush, inoculation with G. etunicatum significantly increased shoot fresh weight, root dry weight and the number of tubers produced per plant, whereas G. intraradices only significantly increased the number of tubers. Tuber and root fresh weights of both potato cultivars were significantly reduced by R. solani infection. However, R. solani-infected plantlets of both Goldrush and LP89221, inoculated with G. etunicatum, produced significantly greater tuber fresh weight than non-VAM plantlets. In R. solani-infected plantlets of Goldrush but not LP89221, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices increased root fresh weight by approximately 140.3% and 76.5%, respectively, compared with non-VAM plants. The potato cultivars Goldrush and LP89221 responded differently to VAM fungal inoculation and to R. solani infection in terms of shoot mineral content.

  20. The Effects of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorous on Arsenic Uptake by Sunflower Plant in Soils Spiked with Arsenite and Arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagherifam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arsenic is a highly toxic metalloid in group 15 of periodic table. The information on environmental behaviour of arsenic, however, is still scarce. Contamination of soils and water with arsenic and antimony due to their widespread industrial application and mining activities has raised serious environmental concerns. Nearly all Arsenic-contaminated soils results from human activities and it has different environmental and sociological impacts. Various strategies and methods have been proposed for environmental management and remediation of contaminated soils. Among all methods, the phytoremediation is receiving more attention due to its cost effective and environmental friendly characteristics. In the case of arsenic contaminated soils, there are effective factors such as soil fertility, nutrients content and microorganisms function, which can improve the uptake of As by plants. Up to now, several studies have been evaluated the effects of symbiotic fungal association in plants on increasing nutrients and toxic elements uptake. Many of authors reported that the mycorrhizal symbiosis increases the uptake of toxic elements in root and shoot of plants and consequently improve the efficacy of phytostabilization and phytoextraction processes. There are conflicting results about the effect of arbuscular- mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on As uptake by various plants. Chen et al. (4 found that Glomus mosseae symbiosis with plant reduces As concentration and enhance phosphorus content in shoot and root of plant. Whilst Cozzolino et al. (7 reported that the AMF increases as concentration in shoot and root of cabbage. Phosphorus has important role on mycorrhizal symbiosis and also As uptake by plants. Therefore, current study was conducted to evaluated effect of Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae symbiosis with sunflower and also soil phosphorus concentration on uptake of arsenic from arsenite and arsenate contaminated soils. Materials and

  1. Growth, cadmium uptake and accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) under the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingzhi; Gong, Zongqiang; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Peijun

    2014-12-01

    The effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates on Cd uptake and accumulation by maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated in a planted pot experiment. Plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices, Glomus constrictum and Glomus mosseae at three different Cd concentrations. The results showed that root colonization increased with Cd addition during a 6-week growth period, however, the fungal density on roots decreased after 9-week growth in the treatments with G. constrictum and G. mosseae isolates. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization by the three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates ranged from 22.7 to 72.3%. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculations decreased maize biomass especially during the first 6-week growth before Cd addition, and this inhibitory effect was less significant with Cd addition and growth time. Cd concentrations and uptake in maize plants increased with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization at low Cd concentration (0.02 mM): nonetheless, it decreased at high Cd concentration (0.20 mM) after 6-week growth period. Inoculation with G. constrictum isolates enhanced the root Cd concentrations and uptake, but G. mosseae isolates showed the opposite results at high Cd concentration level after 9 week growth period, as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In conclusion, maize plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were less sensitive to Cd stress than uninoculated plants. G. constrictum isolates enhanced Cd phytostabilization and G. mosseae isolates reduced Cd uptake in maize (Z. mays L.).

  2. Effect of Three Species of Mycorrhiza Inoculation on Yield and Some Physiological properties of Two Potato Cultivars under Drought Stress in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khaninejad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In recent years, rainfall deficiency was an increasing problem in most countries; which limited the production of agricultural crops. Among abiotic stresses the plants encountered, drought stress is considered as the most important limiting factor in plants growth and reproduction in natural and agricultural systems through most parts of the world; while drought stress causes 45% increase in the crops among various stress making factors (biotic and abiotic. A suitable procedure for controlling drought stress in agriculture is making the symbiotic relation between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi decrease the plant ability in absorbing nutrients, ion balance, keeping enzyme activity, increasing chlorophyll density and root-soil connection; they decline the hazards caused by stress and decrease the plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Potato is one of the most valuable sources to provide human food in the developing countries and is one of the most productive crops, while its production is twofold to rice and wheat. Producing more than 5 million tones potato makes this crop as the first utilizable nutrient after wheat, in this country. Potato is sensitive to soil humidity caused by limited and low-deep root system. Materials and Methods Thus, an investigation was conducted to examine the effect of three of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus fasciculatum on two potato cultivars (Agria and Fontana under drought stress and control conditions, in factorial experiment based on complete randomize block with three repetitions in research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University in 2012. In control treatment, irrigating was done when field capacity got 80% and it was conducted to 100% field capacity. Stress treatment was done when the field capacity got 60% and continued to 80% field capacity. Fungus treatment was done with a 100g mixture of inoculum including mycorrhizal root sections of corn

  3. Reply to Comment of T. Fischer and J. Horálek on "Geodynamic pattern of the West Bohemia region based on permanent GPS measurements" by V. Schenk, Z. Schenková and Z. Jechumtálová

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka; Jechumtálová, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2009), s. 345-350 ISSN 0039-3169. [West-Bohemia/Vogtland international workshop "Geodynamics of Earthquake Swarm Areas" /8./. Františkovy Lázně, 16.10.2007-19.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA MŠk 1P05ME781; GA AV ČR IAA300460507; GA AV ČR 1QS300460551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : GPS data reliability * fault plane solutions * regional stress field Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  4. Comment on “Crustal deformations in the epicentral area of the West Bohemia 2008 earthquake swarm in central Europe” by Schenk et al. (JGR 117 (2012), B07408)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan; Fischer, Tomáš; Horálek, Josef; Seidl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 10 (2014), s. 7865-7869 ISSN 2169-9313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : surface displacements * GPS measurements * geodynamic modeling Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014

  5. Comment on the "Geodynamic pattern of the West Bohemia region based on permanent GPS measurements" by V. Schenk, Z. Schenková and Z. Jechumtálová (Stud. Geophys. Geod., 53(2009), 329–341)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Horálek, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2009), s. 343-344 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : earthquake swarm region * West Bohemia * GPS observations Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  6. Biofertilización de café orgánico en etapa de vivero en Chiapas, México Biofertilizer of organic coffee in stage of seedlings in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María de Lourdes Adriano Anaya; Ramón Jarquín Gálvez; Carlos Hernández Ramos; Miguel Salvador Figueroa; Clara Teresa Monreal Vargas

    2011-01-01

    En Chiapas, la producción de plántulas de café, se realiza convencionalmente con la aplicación de fertilizantes químicos. La producción de café orgánico, requiere la nutrición de plántulas con biofertilizantes y por ello el objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de algunos de éstos en el desarrollo de plántulas de café (Coffe arábica) variedad Bourbon en vivero. El experimento se realizó durante 2007 y 2008 en Cacahohatan,Chiapas. Los inoculantes fueron una cepa Glomus intraradices Schenck y Smith, c...

  7. Effect of potassium and phosphorus on the transport of radiocesium by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Dupre de Boulois, Herve; Declerck, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Potassium, a chemical analogue of cesium, and phosphorus, an essential macronutrient transported by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have been suggested to influence the transport of radiocesium by AMF. However, no study investigated the effects of increasing concentrations of both elements on the importance of this transport. Here, the arbuscular mycorrhizal-plant (AM-P) in vitro culture system associating Medicago truncatula plantlets with Glomus intraradices was used to evaluate this effect. Using three concentrations of K (0, 1, 10 mM) and two concentrations of P (30 and 3000 μM) added to a compartment only accessible to the AMF, we demonstrated that K and P individually and in combination significantly influenced radiocesium transport by AMF. Whilst increased concentration of K decreased the amount of radiocesium transported, the opposite was observed for P. Although the exact mechanisms involved need to be assessed, both elements were identified as important factors influencing the transport of radiocesium by AMF.

  8. Effect of potassium and phosphorus on the transport of radiocesium by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyuricza, Veronika; Dupre de Boulois, Herve [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite de microbiologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Declerck, Stephane, E-mail: stephan.declerck@uclouvain.b [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite de microbiologie, Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Potassium, a chemical analogue of cesium, and phosphorus, an essential macronutrient transported by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have been suggested to influence the transport of radiocesium by AMF. However, no study investigated the effects of increasing concentrations of both elements on the importance of this transport. Here, the arbuscular mycorrhizal-plant (AM-P) in vitro culture system associating Medicago truncatula plantlets with Glomus intraradices was used to evaluate this effect. Using three concentrations of K (0, 1, 10 mM) and two concentrations of P (30 and 3000 muM) added to a compartment only accessible to the AMF, we demonstrated that K and P individually and in combination significantly influenced radiocesium transport by AMF. Whilst increased concentration of K decreased the amount of radiocesium transported, the opposite was observed for P. Although the exact mechanisms involved need to be assessed, both elements were identified as important factors influencing the transport of radiocesium by AMF.

  9. Increased sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by manipulation of nutrient regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douds, D D; Schenck, N C

    1990-02-01

    Adjustment of pot culture nutrient solutions increased root colonization and sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Paspalum notatum Flugge and VAM fungi were grown in a sandy soil low in N and available P. Hoagland nutrient solution without P enhanced sporulation in soil and root colonization of Acaulospora longula, Scutellospora heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and a wide range of other VAM fungi over levels produced by a tap water control or nutrient solutions containing P. However, Glomus intraradices produced significantly more spores in plant roots in the tap water control treatment. The effect of the nutrient solutions was not due solely to N nutrition, because the addition of NH(4)NO(3) decreased both colonization and sporulation by G. margarita relative to levels produced by Hoagland solution without P.

  10. Transfer of 65Zn in maize -mycorrhizal systems: a potential mechanism to alleviate Zn deficiency in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.S.; Tenshia, Virgin

    2017-01-01

    Mycorrhizas are root associated fungi and obligate symbionts known to improve the nutritional status of the host plant as a direct consequence of transfer of slowly diffusing nutrients such as zinc. The Zn use efficiency by crops hardly exceeds 2-5 per cent and major portion of the Zn gets accumulated in soil in various pools which are not available to plants. Further, mycorrhizal symbiosis alters the chemical and biochemical properties of rhizosphere that affect the isotopic parameters such as A value, E value and L value. These parameters were measured for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plants. A pot culture experiment was conducted to determine the availability of Zn using isotopic dilution techniques. Maize plants were grown in pots inoculated with (M+) or without (M-) mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Tagged 65 ZnSO 4 was applied to soil at the time of sowing

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhiza reduces phytoextraction of uranium, thorium and other elements from phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Per; Jakobsen, Iver

    2008-01-01

    Uptake of metals from uranium-rich phosphate rock was studied in Medicago truncatula plants grown in symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices or in the absence of mycorrhizas. Shoot concentrations of uranium and thorium were lower in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants and root-to-shoot ratio of most metals was increased by mycorrhizas. This protective role of mycorrhizas was observed even at very high supplies of phosphate rock. In contrast, phosphorus uptake was similar at all levels of phosphate rock, suggesting that the P was unavailable to the plant-fungus uptake systems. The results support the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza as being an important component in phytostabilization of uranium. This is the first study to report on mycorrhizal effect and the uptake and root-to-shoot transfer of thorium from phosphate rock

  12. Plant growth and phosphorus uptake in mycorrhizal rangpur lime seedlings under different levels of phosphorus Crescimento e absorção de fósforo por plântulas de limão 'Cravo' micorrizadas sob diferentes níveis de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of rangpur lime (Citrus limonia to arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, under P levels ranging from low to excessive. Plants were grown in three levels of soluble P (25, 200 and 1,000 mg kg-1, either inoculated with Glomus intraradices or left noninoculated, evaluated at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after transplanting (DAT. Total dry weight, shoot P concentration and specific P uptake by roots increased in mycorrhizal plants with the doses of 25 and 200 mg kg-1 P at 90 DAT. With 1,000 mg kg-1 P, mycorrhizal plants had a transient growth depression at 90 and 120 DAT, and nonmycorrhizal effects on P uptake at any harvesting period. Root colonization and total external mycelium correlated positively with shoot P concentration and total dry weight at the two lowest P levels. Although the highest P level decreased root colonization, it did not affect total external mycelium to the same extent. As a result, a P availability imbalance affected negatively the mycorrhizal symbiosis and, consequently, the plant growth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia à micorriza arbuscular (Glomus intraradices, com variações de níveis de P de baixo a excessivo. As plantas foram cultivadas em três níveis de P solúvel (25, 200 e 1.000 mg kg-1, com inoculação de Glomus intraradices ou sem inoculação, e avaliadas aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias depois do transplantio (DAT. A biomassa seca total, a concentração de P na parte aérea, e a absorção específica de P pelas raízes aumentaram nas plantas micorrizadas nas doses de 25 e 200 mg kg-1 de P aos 90 DAT. Na dose de 1.000 mg kg-1 de P, houve depressão transiente de crescimento nas plantas micorrizadas, aos 90 e 120 DAT, e não houve efeito micorrízico sobre a absorção de P em qualquer época de colheita. A colonização radicular e o micélio externo total correlacionaram-se positivamente com a

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhiza reduces phytoextraction of uranium, thorium and other elements from phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Per [Radiation Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jakobsen, Iver [Biosystems Department, Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)], E-mail: iver.jakobsen@risoe.dk

    2008-05-15

    Uptake of metals from uranium-rich phosphate rock was studied in Medicago truncatula plants grown in symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices or in the absence of mycorrhizas. Shoot concentrations of uranium and thorium were lower in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants and root-to-shoot ratio of most metals was increased by mycorrhizas. This protective role of mycorrhizas was observed even at very high supplies of phosphate rock. In contrast, phosphorus uptake was similar at all levels of phosphate rock, suggesting that the P was unavailable to the plant-fungus uptake systems. The results support the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza as being an important component in phytostabilization of uranium. This is the first study to report on mycorrhizal effect and the uptake and root-to-shoot transfer of thorium from phosphate rock.

  14. Phosphorus availability changes the internal and external endomycorrhizal colonization and affects symbiotic effectivenes Disponibilidade de fósforo altera a colonização endomicorrízica interna e externa e afeta a eficiência simbiótica

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    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the awareness that high phosphorus (P availability decreases the mycorrhizal root colonization in higher plants, the effects on the external mycelium are contradicting. The aim of this work was to assess the external mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF Glomus intraradices and Gigaspora rosea, associated to soybean under increasing P levels (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1. The tested hypotheses were: a the amount of external mycelium depends on the fungal species; b the P levels affect diferentially each mycorrhizal species; c the mycorrhizal effectiveness depends on the amount of external mycelium. Mycorrhizal stimulus on plant biomass occurred at P levels of 0, 25 and 200 mg kg-1. Mycorrhizal root colonization and total external mycelium (TEM decreased with increasing P levels. At zero P level, G. rosea produced less TEM than G. intraradices, which may be related to the lower mycorrhizal effectiveness for G. rosea. Both AMF increased the active external mycelium along P levels, but this increase was not related with symbiotic effectiveness. TEM was found to be closely related to root colonization and mycorrhizal effectiveness. The root colonization and TEM are mutually afected by P availability. Althoug G. intraradices produced more TEM than G. rosea along the P levels, they seemed to affect similarly the TEM for both AMF. More AMF species should be assessed in order to attest whether P levels affect the external mycelium differentially among them.Apesar do conhecimento de que a disponibilidade de fósforo diminui a colonização micorrízica, os efeitos sobre o micélio externo são contraditórios. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o micélio externo dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA Glomus intraradices e Gigaspora rosea, associados à soja, sob doses crescentes de P (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1. As hipóteses foram: a a quantidade de micélio externo depende da espécie fúngica; b cada espécie fúngica

  15. Micorrização e indução de quitinases e β-1,3-glucanases e resistência à fusariose em porta-enxerto de videira Mycorrhizal inoculation and induction of chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases and fusarium resistance in grapevine rootstock

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    Murilo Dalla Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de expressão de β-1,3-glucanases e quitinases nos porta-enxertos de videira SO4 e R110, respectivamente suscetível e resistente a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis, bem como avaliar o efeito do fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus intraradices no crescimento, na expressão dessas enzimas e na supressão do patógeno no porta-enxerto suscetível. Foram quantificadas as atividades enzimáticas de β-1,3-glucanases e quitinases nas raízes dos porta-enxertos. Mudas do porta-enxerto SO4 receberam inóculos de G. intraradices e F. oxysporum, e foram avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, atividade das duas enzimas e sintomas de doença. As atividades das enzimas nas raízes do porta-enxerto resistente aumentaram entre 0 e 5 dias após a inoculação do patógeno. A atividade de quitinases nas raízes do porta-enxerto suscetível aumentou com a inoculação do fungo micorrízico e do patógeno. A atividade de β-1,3-glucanases foi maior somente com a presença do fungo micorrízico e do patógeno. Videiras com inoculação de G. intraradices apresentaram diminuição nos sintomas de infecção por Fusarium spp., o que indica que o fungo micorrízico promove a indução de quitinases e β-1,3-glucanases especificamente na supressão ou inibição do patógeno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases in SO4 and 110 grapevine rootstocks, respectively susceptible and resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis, as well as to evaluate the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on plant growth, on enzyme expression and on pathogen suppression in the susceptible rootstock. The enzyme activities of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases in the rootstocks roots were evaluated. Plant growth, enzyme activity, and disease symptoms were evaluated in SO4 plantlets inoculated with G. intraradices and F. oxysporum. Enzyme activities

  16. HONGO ENDOMICORRÍZICO Y BACTERIA FIJADORA DE NITRÓGENO INOCULADAS A Coffea arabica EN VIVERO

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    Juan Francisco Aguirre-Medina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense y Glomus intraradice en café, se estableció la presente investigación en un vivero en el Campo Experimental Rosario Izapa, Chiapas, México de septiembre de 2005 a abril de 2006. Se utilizó un suelo Andosol¿mólico típico de la región cafetalera del Soconusco Chiapas, México. El A. brasilense tuvo una concentración de 100 x 106 bacterias por gramo de turba y el hongo micorrízico, cuarenta esporas por gramo de suelo con infección de 95% en el sistema radical de cebolla. Los tratamientos utilizados fueron los microorganismos solos, la combinación de ambos y el testigo sin inocular que se distribuyeron en un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y fisiológicas del rendimiento cada treinta días a partir del segundo mes de siembra durante siete meses y se determinó el contenido de N, P y Ca en el tejido vegetal. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente y las diferencias entre tratamientos se compararon de acuerdo a Tukey 5%. Los resultados indican una respuesta diferencial entre los microorganismos. A. brasilense indujo mayor desarrollo radical y la simbiosis doble G. intraradices + A. brasilense mejoró el desarrollo del tallo y lámina foliar. El contenido de N, P y Ca se presentó de forma consistente con G. intraradices.

  17. Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

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    M. Bijhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control, 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1 reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7 by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1 and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

  18. The Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Chlorophyll Index, Yield and Yield Components of Grain Sorghum

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    J. Hamzei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of irrigation intervals and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll index, yield and yield components of grain sorghum. A factorial experiment was done based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at the Agriculture Research Station faculty of Agriculture, Bu- Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days with three levels of seed inoculation (control without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mossea and inoculation with G. intraradices were the experimental treatments. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal fungi were significant for traits of chlorophyll index, percentage of root symbiosis (PRS, number of grain per panicle, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index (HI. Maximum value for each trait was observed at G. mossea treatment. G. mossea treatment in comparison with G. intraradices and control treatment can increase the grain yield of sorghum up to 6.80 and 23.10%, respectively. Also, with increasing irrigation interval from 7 to 21 days, PRS increased up to 27.9%. Maximum value for grain yield (755 g m-2 was achieved at irrigation every 14 days and application of G. mossea treatment. But, there was no significant difference between irrigation sorghum plants every 14 days and application of G. mossea and irrigation every 7 days and application of either G. mossea or G. intraradices. In general, irrigation of sorghum plants every 14 days and supplying of G. mossea can produce the highest grain yield, while decreasing water consumption for sorghum production.

  19. Dual inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi applicable in sustainable cultivation improves the yield and nutritive value of onion.

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    Albrechtova, Jana; Latr, Ales; Nedorost, Ludovit; Pokluda, Robert; Posta, Katalin; Vosatka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum) (M1) or the single-fungus inoculum of G. intraradices BEG140 (M2) and (2) bark chips preinoculated with saprotrophic fungi (mix of Gymnopilus sp., Agrocybe praecox, and Marasmius androsaceus) (S). The growth response of onion was the highest for the M1 mix treatment, reaching nearly 100% increase in bulb fresh weight. The effectiveness of dual inoculation was proved by more than 50% increase. We observed a strong correlation (r = 0.83) between the growth response of onion bulbs and AM colonization. All inoculation treatments but the single-fungus one enhanced significantly the total antioxidant capacity of bulb biomass, was the highest values being found for M1, S + M1, and S + M2. We observed some induced enhancement of the contents of mineral elements in bulb tissue (Mg and K contents for the M2 and M2, S, and S + M2 treatments, resp.).

  20. Dual Inoculation with Mycorrhizal and Saprotrophic Fungi Applicable in Sustainable Cultivation Improves the Yield and Nutritive Value of Onion

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    Jana Albrechtova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum (M1 or the single-fungus inoculum of G. intraradices BEG140 (M2 and (2 bark chips preinoculated with saprotrophic fungi (mix of Gymnopilus sp., Agrocybe praecox, and Marasmius androsaceus (S. The growth response of onion was the highest for the M1 mix treatment, reaching nearly 100% increase in bulb fresh weight. The effectiveness of dual inoculation was proved by more than 50% increase. We observed a strong correlation (r=0.83 between the growth response of onion bulbs and AM colonization. All inoculation treatments but the single-fungus one enhanced significantly the total antioxidant capacity of bulb biomass, was the highest values being found for M1, S + M1, and S + M2. We observed some induced enhancement of the contents of mineral elements in bulb tissue (Mg and K contents for the M2 and M2, S, and S+M2 treatments, resp..

  1. Strigolactones Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Activating Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Kiefer, Patrick; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Jauneau, Alain; Roy, Sébastien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Roux, Christophe; Bécard, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF) that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10 −13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants. PMID:16787107

  2. Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria.

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    Arnaud Besserer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10(-13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants.

  3. Lead tolerance of Populus nigra in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.; Tabari, M.; Mohammadi Goltapeh, E.; Shirvani, A.

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to examine lead tolerance of Populus nigra (clone 62/154) in symbiosis witharbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a greenhouse experiment was carried out in a factorial randomized complete scheme with two factors 1) fungal inoculation in 4 levels (control, inoculation with Glomus mosseae, inoculation with G. intraradices and inoculation with G. mosseae+G. intraradices) and 2) lead in 4 levels (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters of plants were measured at the end of growth season. Results showed that at all Pb levels, the percentage of root mycorrhizal colonization in fungal treatments was significantly higher than that in control treatment (without fungal inoculation), however without significant differences between 3 fungal treatments. Pb treatments had no significant effect on root mycorrhizal colonization of P. nigra plants. Also, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, intercellular CO2 concentration and water use efficiency of P. nigra plants had no significant inhibitory effects versus the control found under Pb and fungal treatments or their interaction.The results of present study demonstrated that fungal treatments had no significant effects on physiological parameters and Pb tolerance of P. nigraplants. While, in relation to mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters, P. nigra clone 62/154 showeda good tolerance to Pb stress. So, in further investigations of phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soils, this clone can be considered as a proposed species.

  4. Osmotic Adjustment in Leaves of VA Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Rose Plants in Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, R M; Schekel, K A; Wample, R L

    1986-11-01

    Osmotic adjustment in Rosa hybrida L. cv Samantha was characterized by the pressure-volume approach in drought-acclimated and unacclimated plants brought to the same level of drought strain, as assayed by stomatal closure. Plants were colonized by either of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss and Menge or G. intraradices Schenck and Smith, or were nonmycorrhizal. Both the acclimation and the mycorrhizal treatments decreased the osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) of leaves at full turgor and at the turgor loss point, with a corresponding increase in pressure potential at full turgor. Mycorrhizae enabled plants to maintain leaf turgor and conductance at greater tissue water deficits, and lower leaf and soil water potentials, when compared with nonmycorrhizal plants. As indicated by the Psi(pi) at the turgor loss point, the active Psi(pi) depression which attended mycorrhizal colonization alone was 0.4 to 0.6 megapascals, and mycorrhizal colonization and acclimation in concert 0.6 to 0.9 megapascals, relative to unacclimated controls without mycorrhizae. Colonization levels and sporulation were higher in plants subjected to acclimation. In unacclimated hosts, leaf water potential, water saturation deficit, and soil water potential at a particular level of drought strain were affected most by G. intraradices. G. deserticola had the greater effect after drought preconditioning.

  5. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

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    Marques, Ana P.G.C. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: amarques@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Oliveira, Rui S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: rsoliveira@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Samardjieva, Kalina A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: kas@ibmc.up.pt; Pissarra, Jose [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Botanica, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jpissarr@fc.up.pt; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: arangel@esb.ucp.pt; Castro, Paula M.L. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2007-02-15

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg{sup -1}. The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces.

  6. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: a step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

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    K. Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A.indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect the response to high zinc concentrations of two registered poplar clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingua, Guido; Franchin, Cinzia; Todeschini, Valeria; Castiglione, Stefano; Biondi, Stefania; Burlando, Bruno; Parravicini, Valerio; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Berta, Graziella

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a high concentration of zinc on two registered clones of poplar (Populus alba Villafranca and Populus nigra Jean Pourtet), inoculated or not with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) before transplanting them into polluted soil, were investigated, with special regard to the extent of root colonization by the fungi, plant growth, metal accumulation in the different plant organs, and leaf polyamine concentration. Zinc accumulation was lower in Jean Pourtet than in Villafranca poplars, and it was mainly translocated to the leaves; the metal inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, compromised plant growth, and, in Villafranca, altered the putrescine profile in the leaves. Most of these effects were reversed or reduced in plants pre-inoculated with G. mosseae. Results indicate that poplars are suitable for phytoremediation purposes, confirming that mycorrhizal fungi can be useful for phytoremediation, and underscore the importance of appropriate combinations of plant genotypes and fungal symbionts. - Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can improve poplar tolerance to heavy metals in phytoremediation programmes

  8. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tomato yield and nutrient uptake under different fertilization levels

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    Ľudovít Nedorost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza on tomato plants (Lycopersicon lycopersicum in the pot experiment was studied. Three different fertilization regimes (optimum – H1, stress a – H2, stress b - H3 and three different mycorrhizal treatments (control – Ctrl, Glomus mossae – Gm, Glomus intraradices – Gi were used. Economical parameter (yield, nutritional characteristic (vitamin C content, phosphates and minerals content, total antioxidant capacity, and level of root colonization were studied. The yield of the tomatoes was influenced by the basic dose of the fertilization, especially in the H2 and H3 treatment. The highest yield was in the H2 treatment in Gm (938 g per plant. The positive effect of the inoculation resulted in the increased content of the vitamin C. The highest significant influence was observed in the H2 treatment (plants inoculated with Gi with the average content of the vitamin C 289 mg.kg−1. The average rate of the colonization was in the range from 39 % to 65 %.

  9. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on gas exchange and stable isotope ratio of δ13C, δ15N of leymus chinensis plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiqi; Wang Guoan; Li Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    Leymus chinensis, one of dominant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, was selected to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant gas change parameters and stable isotope ratio in pot culture. The plant was inoculated with two mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices and Glomus claroidum, and the uninoculated plant was used as the control check. On the 45th , 60th , 75th days after sowing, gas exchange parameters and stable isotope ratio were measured. The results showed that AM infection promoted phosphoms content, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of Leymus chinensis, reduced host δ 15 N, however, it did not influence host intrinsic water using efficiency and δ 13 C. It was the growth time that significantly affected the gas exchange and stable isotope ratio of δ 13 C and δ 15 N. And the interaction of inoculation and growth time also influenced on the net photosynthetic rate, δ 13 C and δ 15 N of the host. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate were always changed the same direction by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi causing no significant difference between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plant. AMF absorbed nitrogen and accumulated δ 15 N, thus, it transformed less 15 N into the host, and as a result, the mycorrhizal plant had lower δ 15 N. Therefore, the results gave a new way and reference to know of the grass balance of carbon gain and water cost and the nitrogen cycle in grassland. (authors)

  10. Colonization with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promotes the Growth of Morus alba L. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Nan Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth of M. alba L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were evaluated 90 days after colonization with the fungi. The growth and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were significantly affected by the AMF species. The mycorrhizal seedlings were taller, had longer roots, more leaves and a greater biomass than the non-mycorrhizae-treated seedlings. In addition, the AMF species-inoculated seedlings had increased root activity and a higher chlorophyll content compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Furthermore, AMF species colonization increased the phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the seedlings. In addition, simultaneous root colonization by the two AMF species did not improve the growth of M. alba L. seedlings compared with inoculation with either species alone. Based on these results, these AMF species may be applicable to mulberry seedling cultivation.

  11. Mixed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal application to improve growth and arsenic accumulation of Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) grown in As-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Ye, Z H; Cheung, K C; Yung, K K L

    2013-08-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of three types of single inoculum [indigenous mycorrhizas (IM) isolated from As mine, Glomus mosseae (GM) and Glomus intraradices (GI)] and two types of mixed inoculum (mixed with IM and either GM or GI) on the growth response of Pteris vittata (hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (non-hyperaccumulator) at three levels of As concentrations (0, 100 and 200mgkg(-1)). Both mycorrhizal plants exhibited significantly higher biomass, and N and P accumulation in its tissue than the control. Among the mycorrhizal inoculum, the mixed inoculum IM/GM promoted substantially higher mycorrhizal colonization and arsenate reductase activity in P. vittata than C. dactylon, among all As levels. The portion of Paris arbuscular mycorrhizal structure (observed in colonized roots) together with the highest As translocation factor of 10.2 in P. vittata inoculated with IM/GM was also noted. It was deduced that IM/GM inoculum may be the best choice for field inoculation at any contaminated lands as the inoculum exhibited better adaptation to variable environmental conditions and hence benefited the host plants. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of manure and compost to contaminated soils and its effect on zinc accumulation by Solanum nigrum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Zn accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in naturally contaminated soil in the presence of different types of organic amendments was assessed. Under the same conditions, the response of the plant to inoculation with two different isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices) was also evaluated. S. nigrum grown in the non-amended soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, with the addition of amendments inducing reductions of up to 80 and 40%, for manure and compost, respectively, and enhancing plant biomass yields. The establishment of S. nigrum in the Zn contaminated soil combined with the application of amendments led to a 70-80% reduction in the amount of Zn leached through the soil. The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for reducing the effects of soil contamination, diminishing Zn transfer to other environmental compartments via percolation. - The use of S. nigrum in combination with manure appeared as an effective method for the stabilisation of a metal contaminated soil

  13. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Samardjieva, Kalina A.; Pissarra, Jose; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg -1 . The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces

  14. Magnesium ions alleviate the negative effect of manganese on Glomus claroideum BEG23

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Gryndler, Milan; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2002), s. 125-129 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * proliferation of intraradical hyphae * ion antagonism Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2002

  15. Second toe swelling: Nora's lesion or glomus tumour, case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohammad, A

    2012-09-01

    We report a rare case of bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP, Nora\\'s lesion) of the right second toe in a 60-year-old man who presented with painful, bluish and bulbous swelling of the right second toe without any break in the skin.

  16. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency. (paper)

  17. Influence of two glomus species on the fertilizer efficiency of sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments consisted of sole inoculations of G. mosseae and G. deserticola and their combinations with phosphate rock (PR), sole application of PR, SSP and a no-inoculation, no-fertilizer control. Results obtained revealed that the percent colonization rate of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) was significantly higher in ...

  18. Six years of following up a glomus jugulare tumor - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Štenc Bradvica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report followed up a patient for six years after she had been successfully treated by embolization and gamma knife surgery, while a complete surgical resection was contraindicated because of the high risk of possible mortality outcome. A development of internal hydrocephalus in a subacute postoperative period as a probable postoperative complication related to gamma knife surgery was noted.

  19. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus-cucumber symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Thingstrup, I.; Jakobsen, I.

    1996-01-01

    when benomyl was applied to the HC at 10 µg g-1 soil, whereas the uptake of 32P from RHC I roots + hyphae) was reduced only at the highest dose of application to the RHC (100 µ g g-1 soil). In contrast to the marked reduction of benomyl on fungal P transport, the activity of fungal alkaline phosphatase...

  20. Axenic culture and encapsulation of the intraradical forms of Glomus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strullu, D G; Romand, C; Plenchette, C

    1991-05-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts to cultivate in vitro vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi which are obligate symbionts. Resting spores extracted from soils are often used as inoculum. Mycorrhizal root pieces are also used for inoculation but the role of intra-radical structures has not been clearly established. On agar medium vegetative mycelium was regenerated from individual intra-radical vesicles and from hyphae extracted by enzymatic maceration. After cell penetration, the mycelium probably accumulates substances which allow growth of VAM fungi in pure culture. When associated with tomato roots, this mycelium forms typical mycorrhizae. Encapsulation stabilized the biological properties of mycorrhizal roots and isolated vesicles. The immobilization also preserved the infectivity of the intra-radical hyphae and vesicles. After 25 years of exclusive utilization of resting spores as starting material for axenic and dual cultures of VAM fungi, it appears that intra-radical vesicles may be preferable propagules.

  1. Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots and soils of two salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Petra; Manal, Astrid; Stodden, Marc; Sieverding, Ewald; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Bothe, Hermann

    2009-06-01

    The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed by both morphological and molecular criteria in two salt marshes: (i) a NaCl site of the island Terschelling, Atlantic Coast, the Netherlands and (ii) a K(2)CO(3) marsh at Schreyahn, Northern Germany. The overall biodiversity of AMF, based on sequence analysis, was comparably low in roots at both sites. However, the morphological spore analyses from soil samples of both sites exhibited a higher AMF biodiversity. Glomus geosporum was the only fungus of the Glomerales that was detected both as spores in soil samples and in roots of the AMF-colonized salt plants Aster tripolium and Puccinellia sp. at both saline sites and on all sampling dates (one exception). In roots, sequences of Glomus intraradices prevailed, but this fungus could not be identified unambiguously from DNA of soil spores. Likewise, Glomus sp. uncultured, only deposited as sequence in the database, was widely detected by DNA sequencing in root samples. All attempts to obtain the corresponding sequences from spores isolated from soil samples failed consistently. A small sized Archaeospora sp. was detected, either/or by morphological and molecular analyses, in roots or soil spores, in dead AMF spores or orobatid mites. The study noted inconsistencies between morphological characterization and identification by DNA sequencing of the 5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region or part of the 18S rDNA gene. The distribution of AMF unlikely followed the salt gradient at both sites, in contrast to the zone formation of plant species. Zygotes of the alga Vaucheria erythrospora (Xanthophyceae) were retrieved and should not be misidentified with AMF spores.

  2. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  3. Trace element toxicity in VA mycorrhizal cucumber grown on weathered coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosskey, M.G.; Adriano, D.C. (University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Mycorrhizal colonization is widely recognized as enhancing plant growth on severely disturbed sites. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to determine if inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi will enhance vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basinss, Spores of Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerdemann) were added to weathered precipitator ash (EC-0.91 dSm[sup -1], pH 5.0) and to a pasteurized soils of the same pH (Grossarenic Paleudult, 92% sand, 1% organic matter). Some soil and ash were left unamended as non-mycorrhizal controls. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsette 76) seeds were sown, watered regularly, and fertilized periodically with macronutrient solution. By 8 weeks all ash-grown plants exhibited smaller leaves with leaf margin curl and necrosis, and plant biomass was significantly less (0.75x) than soil-grown plants. Based on analysis of 18 elements in plant tissues, toxicity to B, Mn, or Zn could have caused growth suppression, confirming trace element problems for plant growth on fly ash. For plants grown on fly ash, G. etunicatum was the only fungus that colonized roots (20% of root length reduced from 67% on soil) and it suppressed plant growth to 0.80 x that of uninoculated ash-grown plants. Correspondingly, shoot Zn concentration in G. etunicatum-inoculated plants was 3.5 x higher than in uninoculated plants and at generally toxic levels (273 mg kg[sup -1]). Glomus etunicatum had no other significant effects on elemental concentrations. These results indicate that VAM colonization in acid, weathered fly ash suppressed plant growth by facilitating uptake of Zn to toxic levels, and implies a limitation to successful use of VAM for vegetation establishment on abandoned coal fly ash basins.

  4. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansa Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Alters Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and Resists Cadmium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25–60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg·kg−1 Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mg·kg−1 Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2–80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation. PMID:23139811

  6. The alternative Medicago truncatula defense proteome of ROS – defective transgenic roots during early microbial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Muriithi Kiirika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ROP-type GTPases of plants function as molecular switches within elementary signal transduction pathways such as the regulation of ROS synthesis via activation of NADPH oxidases (RBOH-respiratory burst oxidase homologue in plants. Previously, we reported that silencing of the Medicago truncatula GTPase MtROP9 led to reduced ROS production and suppressed induction of ROS-related enzymes in transgenic roots (MtROP9i infected with pathogenic (Aphanomyces euteiches and symbiotic microorganisms (Glomus intraradices, Sinorhizobium meliloti. While fungal infections were enhanced, S. meliloti infection was drastically impaired. In this study, we investigate the temporal proteome response of M. truncatula MtROP9i transgenic roots during the same microbial interactions under conditions of deprived potential to synthesize ROS. In comparison with control roots (Mtvector, we present a comprehensive proteomic analysis using sensitive MS protein identification. For four early infection time-points (1, 3, 5, 24 hpi, 733 spots were found to be different in abundance: 213 spots comprising 984 proteins (607 unique were identified after S. meliloti infection, 230 spots comprising 796 proteins (580 unique after G. intraradices infection, and 290 spots comprising 1240 proteins (828 unique after A. euteiches infection. Data evaluation by GelMap in combination with a heatmap tool allowed recognition of key proteome changes during microbial interactions under conditions of hampered ROS synthesis. Overall, the number of induced proteins in MtROP9i was low as compared with controls, indicating a dual function of ROS in defense signaling as well as alternative response patterns activated during microbial infection. Qualitative analysis of induced proteins showed that enzymes linked to ROS production and scavenging were highly induced in control roots, while in MtROP9i the majority of proteins were involved in alternative defense pathways such as cell wall and protein

  7. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  8. EFECTO DE BIOFERTILIZANTES SOBRE LA TOLERANCIA DE BANANO A LA DESINFECCIÓN E INDUCCIÓN DE ORGANOGÉNESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sandoval-Cancino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de biofertilizantes y medios de cultivo sobre la tolerancia al establecimiento aséptico y la inducción de la organogénesis en banano. Se utilizaron explantes de hijuelos de dos genotipos de Musa cavendish AAA, cultivares ‘Clon Francés’ y ‘Clon Oaxaqueño’. Se evaluaron tres aplicaciones de biofertilizante (1 g de Glomus intraradices, 1 ml de la bacteria diazotrófica 11B y la interacción de ambos microorganismos y una sin biofertilizantes. Se sembraron los ápices en tres medios de cultivo: MS sin reguladores de crecimiento, MS adicionado con 22.2 μM de bencilaminopurina (BAP y MS adicionado con 11.4 μM de ácido indolacético (AIA y 22.2 μM de BAP. Se midieron las relaciones hídricas, el contenido de catalasa y peroxidasa, los explantes con brotes y los brotes por explante. En ambos clones se elevó la inducción de la organogénesis con la adición de BAP y por la biofertilización previa de los hijuelos. En el ‘Clon Oaxaqueño’ los tratamientos 6, 8 y 11 indujeron mayor organogénesis, con promedios entre 66 y 71 % de explantes con brotes y entre 3.16 y 2.28 brotes por explante. Para el ‘Clon Francés’ los tratamientos 8 y 9 elevaron la inducción de la organogénesis con promedios de 66 hasta 83 % de explantes con brotes y 1.83 a 2.16 brotes por explante. En ambos genotipos, los biofertilizantes propiciaron mayor porcentaje de supervivencia, mayor tolerancia a la oxidación y menor contaminación. En los dos genotipos, los tratamientos 1 (Glomus intraradices y 4 (Testigo produjeron menos estrés en las plantas.

  9. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Submédio São Francisco Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with roots of banana cultivated in the Submédio São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mayumi Yano de Melo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, A. morrowiae Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, A. tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton & Walker, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, G. macrocarpum Tui. & Tui., G. mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, G. occultum Walker e Scutellospora sp. A percentagem de colonização das raízes de bananeiras nas diferentes áreas foi em média 55%.In the region of the São Francisco Valley, where irrigated agriculture is responsable for high production of fruits for exportation, banana is one of the most expanded crops in cultivated areas. In order to know the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with this crop, samples from the rhizosphere of banana plants were collected in four areas with different soil characteristics, being identified the species: Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, A. morrowiae Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, A. tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus diaphanum Morton & Walker, G. etunicatum Becker & Gerd., G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, G. macrocarpum Tui. & Tui., G. mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, G. occultum Walker and

  10. Desenvolvimento Vegetativo e morfologia radicular de citrange carrizo afetado por ácido indolbutírico e micorrizas arbusculares Vegetative development and root morphology of carrizo citrange affected by indolebutyric acid and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na localidade de Alcanar (Tarragona, Espanha e objetivou avaliar o efeito de cinco concentrações do ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 g/L e da inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares (MA (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo, conteúdo foliar de P e K e morfologia radicular de plântulas de citrange Carrizo (Citrus sinensis (L. X Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualisados em esquema fatorial, com 4 repetições e 10 plantas por parcela. A aplicação de AIB não alterou o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plântulas cultivadas em ausência de MA, apesar de haver incrementado a quantidade de P e K e a espessura dos feixes vasculares. As MA incrementaram o conteúdo de P foliar. Encontrou-se uma interação positiva entre o AIB e as MA, pois as plântulas micorrizadas apresentaram um incremento no desenvolvimento vegetativo, nos conteúdos foliares de P e K e na espessura dos feixes vasculares com o aumento das concentrações de AIB.This study was carried out in Alcanar (Tarragona - Spain to evaluate the effect of five indolebutyric acid (IBA concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g/L and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith on Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and root morphology. The experimental design was in a Completly Randomized Block Design with 10 seedlings per plot and 4 replicates. The IBA concentrations had no effect on vegetative development of nonmycorrhizal seedlings, althougt it had increased P and K foliar contents and primary xylem tickness. AMF increased P foliar content. IBA x AMF interaction was observed, increasing IBA concentrations on mycorrhizal seedlings resulted in increased in vegetative development, P and K foliar contents and primary xylem thickness.

  11. Effect of Arbucula Myrrhizal Fungi on an Ecological Crop of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. Efecto de los Hongos Micorrícicos Arbusculares en un Cultivo Ecológico de Ají (Capsicum annuum L. Cacho de Cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castillo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapuche farmers in southern Chile have been cultivating local ecotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L., called locally “Cacho de cabra” for many decades. It is used to make “merkén”, a condiment that is consumed locally and exported. This vegetable requires a nursery stage and can obtain nutritional benefits from symbiotic associations such as mycorrhizal fungi, achieving a better adaptation to transplanting. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are obligate biotrophes appearing in abundance in agroecosystems with conservation management. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of two AMF, a commercial mycorrhizal inoculant (IC, Glomus intraradices and another native (IN, Glomus claroideum with a control without inoculation (-I on the production and quality of “Cacho de cabra”. At 45 days after sowing (DAS transplanting was carried out and at 90 and 216 DAS fruit quality, fungal and edaphic parameters were evaluated. The harvest was at four stages. With IN inoculation plants and with greater foliar area were obtained. Also, precocity of fruit production was observed. The harvest started 49 days earlier and fresh weight was 177% higher than that of the control. Root colonization was low, showing significant differences between IN and IC, while a large number of spores was produced in the substrate. It was concluded that inoculation with native fungi decreased transplanting stress thus accelerating the maturation stage of plants and resulting in higher and better yield quality.En el sur de Chile, agricultores mapuches han cultivado durante décadas ecotipos locales de ají (Capsicum annuum L.“Cacho de cabra” para elaborar “merkén”, producto con reconocidas ventajas en el mercado internacional. Esta hortaliza requiere etapa de almácigo, pudiendo beneficiarse nutricionalmente con la asociación simbiótica del tipo micorrizas,logrando una mejor adaptación al trasplante. Los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares son bi

  12. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares na formação de mudas de cafeeiro, em substratos orgânicos comerciais Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the development of coffee plantlets using different organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Sales Massafera Tristão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento, em casa de vegetação, em arranjo fatorial 9 x 4, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de substratos orgânicos comerciais e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs no desenvolvimento de mudas de cafeeiro, cultivar 'Catuaí Amarelo', IAC 62. Utilizaram-se substratos à base de fibra de coco (Golden Mix 11, Golden Mix 47 e Golden Mix 80, casca de pinus (Rendmax, Vida Verde com adubação, Vida Verde sem adubação e Terra do Paraíso, solo puro e solo + esterco (70% e 30%,v/v, inoculando-se os FMAs Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita. Manteve-se um tratamento sem inoculação. Aos 200 dias após transplante avaliaram-se: altura, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria fresca da raiz, teor de fósforo na parte aérea, colonização radicular, comprimento do micélio externo, atividade da fosfatase ácida e teores de pigmentos fotossintetizantes nas folhas do cafeeiro. Independentemente da micorrização, o melhor crescimento das mudas foi obtido no substrato Vida Verde sem adubação. Os melhores efeitos da micorrização foram constatados nas plantas colonizadas por G. margarita e crescidas nos substratos convencional (solo + esterco e Vida Verde com adubação, nas quais se verificaram mais eficácia na utilização de P, o que reverteu em maior crescimento e produção de biomassa, resultando em maior eficiência simbiótica. No substrato solo + esterco, a micorrização favoreceu a concentração de pigmentos fotossintetizantes e diminuiu a atividade da fosfatase ácida nas folhas do cafeeiro.A greenhouse experiment with an alleatory factorial 9 x 4 scheme was carried out to evaluate the effects of different substrates and species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the development of coffee plants, cultivar Catuaí Amarelo, IAC 62. Nine substrates were used: seven commercial organic substrates - four substrates containing composted

  13. Effect Mycorrhizal Fungi on Reduction of Drought Stress Effect in Some Growth Traits of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Genotypes

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    esmaeel gholinezhad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sesame (Sesamum indicum plays an important role in human health because of its high oil capacity (47 - 52%.. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis protects host plants against the detrimental effects of drought stress through mechanisms of drought avoidance. Strategies of drought avoidance in mycorrhizal plants rely on the ability to maintain an adequate hydration status on the level of whole plants as characterized by relative water content. So the aim of current study was to evaluate the symbiosis effect of two different species of mycorrhizae fungi on yield and physiological characteristics of sesame landraces under different drought stress levels in Urmia. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in 2014-2015 by using factorial split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in the research field of Urmia agricultural high school with 12 Km distance from Urmia. The main plot factor was consisted of different irrigation levels: normal irrigation (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation of crop (ETC, moderate drought stress (irrigation after 90 mm evaporation of crop (ETC and severe drought stress (irrigation after 110 mm evaporation of crop (ETC. Also three levels of Sub plot factors included two species of mycorrhizae fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and no -inoculation (control. Sub-sub plot factorss consisted of eight landraces of sesames (named Jiroft13, Zanjan Tarom landrace, Moghan landrace, Naz of several branches, TC-25,TS-3, Darab 14 and Dashtestan 5. Then Leaf Area Index (LAI, Total Dry Matter (TDM, Leaf relative water content (RWC, Specific leaf area (SLA, Specific leaf weight (SLW, Leaf Area Ratio (LAR, Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR of different landraces calculated using SAS and MSTATC. To compare the means, Tukey's test at 5% probability level was used. Results and Discussion The results of the experiment showed that with increasing the levels of drought stress, RWC, LAI, seed yield

  14. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  15. Changes in the Diversity of Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi after Cultivation for Biofuel Production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) Tropical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Hernández, Guillermina; Roldán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems. PMID:22536339

  16. Effects of salt stress and mycorrhiza fungi on morpho-physiological characteristics of sweet corn

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    seyed Abdolreza kazemeini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interaction of mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth and physiological characteristics of sweet corn, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, in 2014. The experimental design was factorial based on Completely Randomized Design in three replications. Treatments included salinity at four levels (0.4 (control, 4, 7, 10 dS m-1, and the fungi at three levels (no fungi (control, Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices. Results indicated that at flowering stage, with increasing salinity levels, leaf chlorophyll a, b and a+b content and carotenoid decreased at a rate of 18.9, 52.4, 33.1, and 34.5 respectively. Application of mycorrhiza under salinity, partially offset the negative impacts and increased tolerance of maize to NaCl by enhancing SOD and CAT activities, chlorophyll contents, carotenoid and K concentrations in leaves, plant height, leaf area, and total dry weight at flowering stage significantly, compared to control. The Na/K ratio at salinity level of 10 dS m-1 in treatments inoculated with GIN and GM fungi decreased by 39.69 and 40.45 percentage, respectively. Increases plant height, leaf area, total dry weight, concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid and K, the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared with the control. Moreover, GIN type fungi had a greater advantage over GM and reduced the negative effects of salinity. Results indicated that application of mycorrhiza alleviated the adverse effect of salinity stress and improve the sweet corn dry weight up to 38 percentage at salinity level of 10 dS m-1.

  17. Simbiosis de micorrizas arbusculares en plantas de arroz (Oryza sativa L. en condiciones de inundación y secano

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    Michel Ruiz Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En la Unidad Científico Tecnológica de Base Los Palacios, Cuba, a 22° 34’ 32.73” N y 83° 14’ 11.95” O, se evaluó el efecto de la inundación sobre la colonización de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares durante la fase vegetativa de plantas de arroz cultivar INCA LP-5. Se realizaron dos experimentos en condiciones de invernadero en macetas con una capacidad de 800 g de suelo, ambos experimentos en un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado. Uno de ellos se realizó con Rhizophagus (=Glomus intraradices (Ri, donde se evaluó la dinámica de colonización de la simbiosis micorrízica en condiciones de inundación y secano (no inundadas. En el segundo experimento se trabajó con Glomus cubense (Gc y se evaluó la colonización micorrízica en plantas de arroz cultivadas con diferentes alturas de lámina de agua. En ambos experimentos se evaluaron altura de la planta, producción de masa seca y tasa absoluta de crecimiento. Como resultado se encontró que las plantas de arroz fueron colonizadas a partir del día 35 después de la germinación, tanto en condiciones inundadas como no inundadas, con una tendencia al incremento en el tiempo. Se comprobó que la colonización micorrízica disminuyó en condiciones de inundación y a medida que la altura de la lámina de agua fue superior se encontraron valores inferiores de este indicador. La colonización micorrízica incrementó el desarrollo de las plantas de arroz

  18. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Watrud, L.S.; Reeves, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of plants to accumulate low level radioactive waste from soil, followed by incineration of plant material to concentrate radionuclides may prove to be a viable and economical method of remediating contaminated areas. We tested the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on 137 Cs and 90 Sr uptake by bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), johnson grass (Sorghum halpense) and switchgrass (Panicum virginatum) for the effectiveness on three different contaminated soil types. Exposure to 137 Cs or 90 Sr over the course of the experiment did not affect above ground biomass of the three grasses. The above ground biomass of bahia, johnson and switchgrass plants accumulated from 26.3 to 71.7% of the total amount of the 137 Cs and from 23.8 to 88.7% of the total amount of the 90 Sr added to the soil after three harvests. In each of the three grass species tested, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices had greater aboveground plant biomass, higher concentrations of 137 Cs or 90 Sr in plant tissue, % accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant bioconcentration ratios at each harvest than those that did not receive mycorrhizal inoculation. Johnson grass had greater aboveground plant biomass, greater accumulation of 137 Cs or 90 Sr from soil and plant higher bioconcentration ratios with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than bahia grass and switchgrass. The greatest accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was observed in johnson grass inoculated with G. mosseae. Grasses can grow in wide geographical ranges that include a broad variety of edaphic conditions. The highly efficient removal of these radionuclides by these grass species after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae supports the concept that remediation of radionuclide contaminated soils using mycorrhizal plants may present a viable strategy to remediate and reclaim sites contaminated with radionuclides

  19. Changes in the diversity of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after cultivation for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba tropical system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Alguacil

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba, in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems.

  20. Chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schäfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed Trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar Pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. We compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic Pinova and the transgenic lines T386 and T389. Local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock M9. Scab susceptibility was also assessed in own-rooted and grafted trees. AMF root colonization was assessed microscopically in the roots of apple trees cultivated in pots with artificial substrate and inoculated with the AMF Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. Own-rooted transgenic lines had significantly higher chitinase activities in their leaves and roots compared to non-transgenic Pinova. Both of the own-rooted transgenic lines showed significantly fewer symptoms of scab infection as well as significantly lower root colonization by AMF. Biomass production was significantly reduced in both own-rooted transgenic lines. Rootstock M9 influenced chitinase activities in the leaves of grafted scions. When grafted onto M9, the leaf chitinase activities of non-transgenic Pinova (M9/Pinova and transgenic lines (M9/T386 and M9/T389 were not as different as when grown on their own roots. M9/T386 and M9/T389 were only temporarily less infected by scab than M9/Pinova. M9/T386 and M9/T389 did not differ significantly from M9/Pinova in their root chitinase activities, AMF root colonization and biomass.

  1. "Please, Give Me Space": Findings and Implications from an Evaluation of the GLOMUS Intercultural Music Camp, Ghana 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, David G.; Saether, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Folk music programmes have been a major feature of higher education music departments across the Nordic region for several decades. Still, programmes that offer the opportunity to deeply study non-European music (other than jazz) are very rare in most of Europe, and programmes in music "education" that offer such opportunities at…

  2. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y/177Lu-labelled peptides for inoperable head and neck paragangliomas (glomus tumours)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Singh, Aviral; Baum, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare tumours arising from autonomic nervous system ganglia. Although surgery offers the best chance of complete cure, there is associated morbidity due to the crucial location of these tumours. Radiotherapy arrests tumour growth and provides symptomatic improvement, but has long-term consequences. These tumours express somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and hence peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is now a treatment option. We assessed the molecular, morphological and clinical responses of inoperable HNPGLs to PRRT. Nine patients with inoperable HNPGL assessed between June 2006 and June 2014 were included. Four patients had a solitary lesion, four had multifocal involvement and one had distant metastases (bone and lungs). The patients were treated with PRRT using 90 Y/ 177 Lu-labelled peptides after positive confirmation of SSTR expression on 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. All patients received two to four courses of PRRT. Subsequent serial imaging with 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT was carried out every 6 months to assess response to treatment. Clinical (symptomatic) response was also assessed. Based on molecular response (EORTC) criteria, four of the nine patients showed a partial molecular response to treatment seen as significant decreases in SUV max , accompanied by a reduction in tumour size. Five patients showed stable disease on both molecular and morphological criteria. Six out of nine patients were symptomatic at presentation with manifestations of cranial nerve involvement, bone destruction at the primary site and metastatic bone pain. Molecular responses were correlated with symptomatic improvement in four out of these six patients; while two patients showed small reductions in tumour size and SUV max . The three asymptomatic patients showed no new lesions or symptomatic worsening. PRRT was effective in all patients, with no disease worsening seen, either in the form of neurological symptoms or distant spread. Though these are preliminary results, PRRT shows promise as a good treatment option for HNPGL, and hence study in a larger patient cohort is essential to establish its place in the management algorithm. (orig.)

  3. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus irregulare, controls the mycotoxin production of Fusarium sambucinum in the pathogenesis of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are an important family of mycotoxins produced by several species of the genus Fusarium. These fungi cause serious disease on infected plants and postharvest storage of crops and the toxins can cause health problems for humans and animals. Unfortunately, there are few methods for cont...

  4. Hyphal growt and mycorrhiza formation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus claroideum BEG 23 is stimulated by humic substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Sudová, Radka; Gryndlerová, Hana; Řezáčová, Veronika; Merhautová, Věra

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 483-488 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/0188; GA ČR GA526/00/1276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : fulvic acid * humic acid * iron Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2005

  5. Metal-free cultivation of Glomus sp. BEG 140 isolated from Mn-contaminated soil reduces tolerance to Mn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2003), s. 151-157 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * soil contamination * manganese toxicity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.870, year: 2003

  6. Influence of Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation and phosphorus application on growth and arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivated on an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, I; Beone, G M; Gonnelli, C

    2015-05-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) is characterized by extensive arsenic (As) anomalies, with concentrations of up to 2000 mg kg soil(-1). Samples from the location of Scarlino, containing about 200 mg kg(-1) of As, were used to study the influence of the inoculation of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis, previously known as Glomus intraradices) and of phosphorus (P) application, separately and in combination, on As speciation in the rhizosphere of Zea mays on plant growth and As accumulation. Also, P distribution in plant parts was investigated. Each treatment produced a moderate rise of As(III) in the rhizosphere, increased As(III) and lowered As(V) concentration in shoots. P treatment, alone or in combination with AM, augmented the plant biomass. The treatments did not affect total As concentration in the shoots (with all the values <1 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while in the roots it was lowered by P treatment alone. Such decrease was probably a consequence of the competition between P and As(V) for the same transport systems, interestingly nullified by the combination with AM treatment. P concentration was higher with AM only in both shoots and roots. Therefore, the obtained results can be extremely encouraging for maize cultivation on a marginal land, like the one studied.

  7. Effect of mycorrhizal strains in the quality of the plant Calophyllum antillanum Britton in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuris Rodríguez Matos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the Municipal Agricultural Interprise in the municipality of Moa in the province of Holguín, from january to May the 2016, with the objective to evaluate the effect of different mycorrhizal strains on the morphological parameters of the species Calophyllum antillanum, under nursery conditions. The treatments that were used were: T1- Soil / Glomus cubense in proportion 9: 1, T2 - Soil / Funneliformis moseae in proportion 9: 1, T3 - Soil / Rhizophagus intraradices 9: 1 and T4 - Control (Worm Humus in proportion 5: 1 "Five wagons of soil and one of organic matter", through a completely randomized design. 100 plants were used for each treatment, evaluating 25 in each of them, at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after germination. The statistical package STATGRAPHICS Plus 5.1 was used. The results indicated T2 -Suelo/Funneliformis moseae en proporción 9:1, with the best results in the morphological parameters: plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, dry leaf mass and root, morphological attributes of the root system: long root length, number of primary roots and secundary, morphological index of plants: slenderness (H / D, shoot part ratio - RPA / RPR and Dickson quality. For the production of good quality postures T2 is also the most economically feasible, since the total expenses are 0.34.

  8. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

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    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  9. The Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. on its Yield and Some Physiological Characteristics Under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madineh Bijhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. plants and on its growth and yield under drought stress conditions a greenhouse experiment was carried out in split plot using a randomized complete block design at Zabol University green house in 2013. Treatments were three drought stresses: control, mild stress and severe stress (70, 50 and 30% FC assigned to main plots, and three species of mycorrhizal treatments (Glomus intraradices, G. versiform, G. mosseae and non-inoculation as control to sub-plots. The effects of drought on all traits under study were significant, and reduced number of leaves per plant, plant height, root length, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll by 15.6, 7.6, 10.7, 2.5 and 8.4 % and increased proline and carbohydrates by 38.6 and 17.7 % as compared with the control. Mycorrhizal treatments did not affect the amount of carbohydrates and proline content significantly. Interaction of mycorrhiza and drought stress was significant on grain yield, chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll. Among the mycorrhizal strains G. mosseae affected the traits significantly under drought conditions. The results suggested that mycorrhizal treatments of plants at different drought stresses could improve grain yield of fenugreek and reduce the negative effects of drought by increasing photosynthetic pigments and other quantitative and qualitative traits.

  10. Enhancement of the efficacy of a carbamate nematicide against the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, through mycorrhization in commercial potato fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliopoulos, T; Minnis, S T; Jones, P W; Haydock, P P J

    2010-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted over 2 years in commercial potato fields in Shropshire, UK, to evaluate the compatibility of the nematicide aldicarb with commercial inocula of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. The AMF used were Vaminoc (mixed-AMF inoculum), Glomus intraradices (BioRize BB-E) and G. mosseae (isolate BEG 12). In the absence of AMF, the in-soil hatch of G. pallida increased 30% (P potato (cv. Golden Wonder) tubers with AMF eliminated this delay in G. pallida hatch by stimulating a mean increase of 32% (P < 0.01) in hatch within 2 wk after planting. In the aldicarb-treated plots in Experiment 1, G. pallida multiplication rate was 38% lower (P < 0.05) in roots of AMF-inoculated than noninoculated plants, but in Experiment 2, this effect was slightly lower (P = 0.07). In these plots, the single AMF inocula showed also a weak trend (P = 0.10) towards greater tuber yields relative to their noninoculated counterparts. Mycorrhization therefore appears to enhance the efficacy of carbamate nematicides against G. pallida and consequently more research is proposed to validate these findings and fully explore the potential of this model.

  11. The Effects of Micro Elements of Iron and Zinc on Morphological Characteristics of Mycorrhized Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micro-nutrients in human diet may cause health problems. To increase the amount of these elements in the edible parts of the plants would eliminate the incidence of these health problems. Thus, the effects of iron and zinc on seed yield and morphological characteristics of mycorrhized barley (cv. Bahman root was studied in Karaj, Iran, during growing season of 2013-14. It was carried out in afactorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted two levels of mycorrhiza, non-inoculation (M0 and inoculation with 10 kg/ha of Glomus intraradices (M1, and three levels of iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 as control (F0, 2.5 kg/ha (F1 and 5kg/ha (F2 and three levels of zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 as control (Z0, 25 kg/ha (Z1 and 50 kg/ha (Z2. The results showed that application of mycorrhiza increased parameters like total root length (TRL, root length density (RLD, specific root length (SLR, root colonization percentage and grain yield by 900.6 cm, 0.52 cm/cm3, 1738.1 cm/g, 5.41% and 1ton/ha respectively. Mean comparisons also revealed that using iron, mycorrhiza and without Zn application increased levels of root dry weight (RDW by 2.81 g.

  12. Role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tolerance response against Armillaria mellea in lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Calvet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lavender species form the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and are at the same time highly susceptible to white root rot. In an attempt to evaluate the response of mycorrhizal Lavandula angustifolia L. to Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr P. Kumm in a greenhouse experiment, plants were previously inoculated with an isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (former Glomus intraradices BEG 72 and the influence of the pH growing medium on the plant-symbiont-pathogen interaction was tested in gnotobiotic autotrophic growth systems in which mycorrhizal inoculum was obtained from root organ cultures. After ten months growth dual-inoculated lavender plants grown in containers with a pasteurized substrate mixture produced a similar number of spikes than healthy plants and achieved equivalent plant diameter coverage. When the growing medium in the autotrophic systems was supplemented with calcium carbonate, the inoculation of lavender plantlets with R. irregularis at higher pH (7.0 and 8.5 media caused a significant decrease of A. mellea presence in plant roots, as detected by qPCR. Moreover, the observation of internal root mycorrhizal infection showed that the extent of mycorrhizal colonization increasedin plant rootsgrown at higher pH, indicating that tolerance to white root rot in lavender plants inoculated with R. irregularis could be associated to mycorrhizal establishment.

  13. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and development of sandy everlasting Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Sawilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The significance of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi for the growth and development of Helichrysum arenarium was investigated in two independent experiments. In the first experiment the association of root colonization level with the pluviothermal conditions within the growing season and the age of a natural plant population was analyzed. In the second one, under controlled conditions, the influence of artificial inoculation with the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices on the features of plants raised from achenes was studied. It was shown that hydrothermal conditions during blooming period had a greater influence on reproduction processes of sandy everlasting than both the population age (the secondary succession progress and the level of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. High amount of precipitation at plant generative development phase positively influences the potential and actual fertility of ramets. The presence of arbuscular fungus in the soil favors the growth and development of sandy everlasting specimens at their early growing stages: they have a better-developed root system and a greater photosynthetic area.

  14. Role of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in heavy metal-contaminated wetlands with various soil moisture levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Wang, C; Shen, Z; Quan, Y; Liu, X

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an efficient heavy metal (HM) control method in HM-contaminated wetlands with varied soil moisture levels through the introduction of extrinsic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) into natural wetland soil containing indigenous AMF species. A pot culture experiment was designed to determine the effect of two soil water contents (5-8% and 25-30%), five extrinsic AMF inoculants (Glomus mosseae, G. clarum, G. claroideum, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices), and HM contamination on root colonization, plant growth, and element uptake of common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel) plantlets in wetland soils. This study showed the prevalence of mycorrhizae in the roots of all P. australis plantlets, regardless of extrinsic AMF inoculations, varied soil moisture or HM levels. It seems that different extrinsic AMF inoculations effectively lowered HM concentrations in the aboveground tissues of P. australis at two soil moisture levels. However, metal species, metal concentrations, and soil moisture should also be very important factors influencing the elemental uptake performance of plants in wetland ecosystems. Besides, the soil moisture level significantly influenced plant growth (including height, and shoot and root dry weight (DW)), and extrinsic AMF inoculations differently affected shoot DW.

  15. Alleviatory activities in mycorrhizal tobacco plants subjected to increasing chloride in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Safahani Langeroodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of presence and absence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM+ and AM- fungus (AMF Glomus intraradices on agronomic and chemical characteristics of field-grown tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Virginia type (cv. K-326 plants exposed to varying concentrations of chloride 10, 40, 70 and 100 mg Cl L–1 (C1-C4 were studied over two growing seasons (2012-2013. Mycorrhizal plants had significantly higher uptake of nutrients in shoots and number of leaves regardless of intensities of chloride stress. The cured leaves yields of AM+ plants under C2-C4 chloride stressed conditions were higher than AM- plants. Leaf chloride content increased in line with the increase of chloride level, while AMF colonised plants maintained low Cl content. AM+ plants produced tobacco leaves that contained significantly higher quantities of nicotine than AM- plants. AM inoculation ameliorated the chloride stress to some extent. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione also exhibited great variation with chloride treatment. Chloride stress caused great alterations in the endogenous levels of growth hormones with abscisic acid showing increment. AMF inoculated plants maintained higher levels of growth hormones and also allayed the negative impact of chloride. The level of 40 mg L–1 in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal can be considered as the acceptable threshold to avoid adverse effects on Virginia tobacco.

  16. AMF-induced biocontrol against plant parasitic nematodes in Musa sp.: a systemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, A; Gervacio, D; Swennen, R; De Waele, D

    2008-07-01

    Although mycorrhizal colonization provides a bioprotectional effect against a broad range of soil-borne pathogens, including plant parasitic nematodes, the commercial use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biocontrol agents is still in its infancy. One of the main reasons is the poor understanding of the modes of action. Most AMF mode of action studies focused on AMF-bacterial/fungal pathogens. Only few studies so far examined AMF-plant parasitic nematode interactions. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether the AMF Glomus intraradices was able to incite systemic resistance in banana plants towards Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae, two plant parasitic nematodes using a split-root compartmental set-up. The AMF reduced both nematode species by more than 50%, even when the AMF and the plant parasitic nematodes were spatially separated. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time that AMF have the ability to induce systemic resistance against plant parasitic nematodes in a root system.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the uptake of uranium by subterranean clover grown at high levels of uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufyikiri, Gervais; Huysmans, Lien; Wannijn, Jean; Hees, May van; Leyval, Corinne; Jakobsen, Iver

    2004-01-01

    Subterranean clover inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices was grown on soil containing six levels of 238 U in the range 0-87 mg kg -1 . Increasing U concentration in soil enhanced the U concentration in roots and shoots of both mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants but had no significant effects on plant dry matter production or root AM colonization. Mycorrhizas increased the shoot dry matter and P concentration in roots and shoots, while in most cases, it decreased the Ca, Mg and K concentrations in plants. The AM fungus influenced U concentration in plants only in the treatment receiving 87 mg U kg -1 soil. In this case, U concentration in shoots of nonmycorrhizal plants was 1.7 times that of shoots of mycorrhizal plants. These results suggested that mycorrhizal fungi can limit U accumulation by plants exposed to high levels of U in soil. - Plant mycorrhization may decrease U concentration in shoots of plants grown at high level of U in soil

  18. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  19. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  20. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Translocation of 14 C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf. x Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to 14 CO 2 for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the 14 C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems

  1. Hyphal transport by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus of N applied to the soil as ammonium or nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jakobsen, I.; Jensen, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Transport of N by hyphae of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus was studied under controlled experimental conditions. The N source was applied to the soil as (NH4+)-N-15 or (NH3-)N-15. Cucumis sativus was grown for 25 days, either alone or in symbiosis with Glomus intraradices, in containers...... with a hyphal compartment separated from the root compartment by a fine nylon mesh. Mineral N was then applied to the hyphal compartment as (NH4+)-N-15 or (NO3-)-N-15 at 5 cm distance from the root compartment. Soil samples were taken from the hyphal compartment at 1, 3 and 5 cm distance from the root...... compartment at 7 and 12 days after labelling, and the concentration of mineral N in the samples was measured from 2 M KCl extracts. Mycorrhizal colonization did not affect plant dry weight. The recovery of N-15 in mycorrhizal plants was 38 or 40%, respectively, when (NH4+)-N-15 or (NO3-)-N-15 was applied...

  2. Interaction of Endomycorrhizal Fungi, Superphosphate, and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton in Microplot and Field Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G S; Roncadori, R W; Hussey, R S

    1986-04-01

    Microplot and field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, Glomus intraradices (Gi) and Gigaspora margarita (Gm), and dicalcium phosphate (P) on Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and seed cotton yield of the Mi-susceptible cotton cultivar, Stoneville 213. In 1983 population densities of Mi juveniles were significantly lower 60 and 90 days after planting in microplots receiving Gi. Mycorrhizal fungi reduced the severity of yield losses to Mi, whereas P fertilization increased yield losses to Mi. In 1984 microplot yields were reduced linearly as nematode inoculum densities increased in treatments of Mi alone, Gm, or P, but the response was curvilinear with Gi. Yield suppressions in the 1984 field experiment occurred only in plots infested with Mi alone. In the 1984 microplots, numbers of Mi juveniles penetrating seedling roots increased Iinearly with increasing nematode inoculum densities and was favored when mycorrhizal fungi or superphosphate were added. Juvenile penetration of roots was negatively correlated with yields in all treatments (r = -0.54 to -0.81) except Gm and with number of bolls in Mi alone (r = -0.85) and P (r = -0.81) treatments. Mycorrhizal fungi can increase host tolerance to M. incognita in field conditions and may function as important biological control agents in soils infested with high population densities of efficient VAM species.

  3. Effect of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Physiology of Maize at Ambient and Low Temperature Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the growth and lipid peroxidation, soluble sugar, proline contents, and antioxidant enzymes activities of Zea mays L. was studied in pot culture subjected to two temperature regimes. Maize plants were grown in pots filled with a mixture of sandy and black soil for 5 weeks, and then half of the plants were exposed to low temperature for 1 week while the rest of the plants were grown under ambient temperature and severed as control. Different AMF resulted in different root colonization and low temperature significantly decreased AM colonization. Low temperature remarkably decreased plant height and total dry weight but increased root dry weight and root-shoot ratio. The AM plants had higher proline content compared with the non-AM plants. The maize plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and G. intraradices had higher malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents under low temperature condition. The activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase of AM inoculated maize were higher than those of non-AM ones. Low temperature noticeably decreased the activities of CAT. The results suggest that low temperature adversely affects maize physiology and AM symbiosis can improve maize seedlings tolerance to low temperature stress.

  4. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  5. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  6. Study the effects of bio and organic fertilizers on growth characteristics and yield of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategies for improving the quality of agricultural products is using bio-fertilizers. So in order to study the effects of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and humic acid on growth characteristics and yield of Fennel, an experiment was studied on research farm of agricultural college of Shahrood University. This study was conducted as factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications. Factors include: mycorrhizal fugi( inoculated with Glomus intraradices and without inoculated, vermicompost(0,4,8 ton.ha-1 and humic acid( foliar and non-foliar application. Results of this study showed, the main effects of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and humic acid on height, no. of umbels, seed weight per plant, biological and grain yield were significant. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased biological and grain yield compared with control plots about 8.5 and 20%, respectively. In this study 1000 seed weight significantly was affected by vermicompost and humic acid application. Interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost on no. of seed per umbel, 1000 seed weight and grain yield was significant. So , the highest 1000 seed weight and grain yield were obtained from combination of mycorrhizal inoculation and 8 ton vermicompost( about 21 and 45 % increase in compare with control. Also the effects of combination of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and humic acid on plant height and biological yield of fennel were significant.

  7. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  8. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the production of cut flower roses under commercial-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmendia, I.; Mangas, V. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and G. intraradices (Schenck and Smith) on cut flower yield of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Grand Gala) under commercial-like greenhouse conditions. Flower production was positively influenced by G. mosseae inoculation. Both inocula tested caused low levels of mycorrhizal root colonization, with higher percentages in Rosa associated with G. mosseae. Significant improvement of plant biomass, leaf nutritional status or flower quality was not detected in inoculated plants probably due to the low symbiosis establishment. However, G. mosseae reduced by one month the time needed for 80% of the plants to flower and slightly increased number of cut flowers relative to non-mycorrhizal controls on the fourth, sixth and eighth months after transplanting. It is suggested that an altered carbohydrate metabolism could contribute to this positive effect. Low colonization of rose roots supports the idea that more effort is required to ensure successful application of AMF in ornamental production systems. (Author) 40 refs.

  9. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  10. Role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tolerance response against Armillaria mellea in lavender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, C.; Garcia-Figueres, F.; Lovato, P.; Camprubi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lavender species form the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and are at the same time highly susceptible to white root rot. In an attempt to evaluate the response of mycorrhizal Lavandula angustifolia L. to Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) P. Kumm in a greenhouse experiment, plants were previously inoculated with an isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (former Glomus intraradices BEG 72) and the influence of the pH growing medium on the plant-symbiont-pathogen interaction was tested in gnotobiotic autotrophic growth systems in which mycorrhizal inoculum was obtained from root organ cultures. After ten months growth dual-inoculated lavender plants grown in containers with a pasteurized substrate mixture produced a similar number of spikes than healthy plants and achieved equivalent plant diameter coverage. When the growing medium in the autotrophic systems was supplemented with calcium carbonate, the inoculation of lavender plantlets with R. irregularis at higher pH (7.0 and 8.5) media caused a significant decrease of A. mellea presence in plant roots, as detected by qPCR. Moreover, the observation of internal root mycorrhizal infection showed that the extent of mycorrhizal colonization increasedin plant rootsgrown at higher pH, indicating that tolerance to white root rot in lavender plants inoculated with R. irregularis could be associated to mycorrhizal establishment. (Author)

  11. Influence of Species of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus Nutrition on Growth, Development, and Mineral Nutrition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, DAJ.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-07-01

    Growth, development, and mineral physiology of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants in response to infection by three species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and different levels of P nutrition were characterized. P deficiency in no-P and low-P (0.5 mM) nonmycorrhizal plants developed between 28 and 84 d after planting. By 84 d after planting, P deficiency decreased plant relative growth rate such that no-P and low-P plants had, respectively, 65 and 45% less dry mass and 76 and 55% less total P than plants grown with high P (2.5 mM). A severe reduction in leaf area was also evident, because P deficiency induced a restriction of lateral bud growth and leaf expansion and, also, decreased the relative plant allocation of dry matter to leaf growth. Root growth was less influenced by P deficiency than either leaf or stem growth. Moreover, P-deficient plants accumulated a higher proportion of total available P than high-P plants, indicating that P stress had enhanced root efficiency of P acquisition. Plant P deficiency did not alter the shoot concentration of N, K, Mg, or Fe; however, the total accumulation of these mineral nutrients in shoots of P-stressed plants was substantially less than that of high-P plants. P uptake by roots was enhanced by each of the VAM symbionts by 56 d after planting and at all levels of abiotic P supply. Species differed in their ability to colonize roots and similarly to produce a plant growth response. In this regard, Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) enhanced plant growth the most, whereas Glomus dimorphicum (Boyetchko and Tewari) was least effective, and Glomus mosseae ([Nicol. and Gerd.] Gerd. and Trappe) produced an intermediate growth response. The partial alleviation of P deficiency in no-P and low-P plants by VAM fungi stimulated uptake of N, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. VAM fungi enhanced shoot concentrations of P, N, and Mg by 28 d after planting and, through a general improvement of overall plant mineral nutrition

  12. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    4000 m3 ha-1, inoculation with two species of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices and control allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results and Discussion Results showed that the effect of irrigation regimes were significant (p≤0.05 on yield components except 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index (HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield. By increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 biological and seed yield enhanced up to 52% and 118%, respectively. Increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 also improved WUE based on seed yield up to 22%. Inoculation with mycorrhiza species had significant effect on yield components, biological yield, seed yield, HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield P ≤ 0.05. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control with 7 and 12%, respectively. These improvement of WUE based on seed yield were 7% and 24%, respectively. In general, mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE through root system development and nutrient availability as this effect for G. mosseae was higher than G. intraradices. Conclusions Yield and yield components of sesame were generally more responsive to irrigation level under mycorhiza inoculation. Sesame yield and its components were significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Increase the irrigation level enhanced biological and seed yield- and also improved WUE. The water was used more efficiently in the deficit irrigation treatments where WUE increased with lower amounts of water. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control. Mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE due to root system development and nutrient availability. These results highlight the importance of determining the interaction effects between water level and mycorrhiza inoculation on yield of sesame to formulate proper management practices for sustainable production.

  13. Plant Signals Disrupt (regulate?) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Under Enhanced Ozone and CO2 Growing Conditions for Populus tremuloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. M.; Podila, G. K.

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of the genetic determinants of keystone symbiotic relationships is essential to elucidating adaptive mechanisms influencing higher-order processes, including shifts in community composition following environmental perturbations. The Aspen FACE project offers a unique opportunity to address adaptive processes with an imposed three way interaction experiment composed of the atmospheric pollutant ozone (eO3), elevated CO2 (eCO2) fumigations, five Populus tremuloides (aspen) genotypes, and both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal interactions. The 10 year time span of this experiment has allowed for a realistic and mechanistic understanding of above ground responses of the aspen genotypes to eCO2, eO3 and the interaction effects of eCO2 and eO3. Even so, treatment influences to the below ground, including carbon allocation to roots and associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and rhizosphere dynamics are just beginning to be understood. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal responses to eCO2, eO3, and the interaction effects of eCO2+eO3 are conditioned by the degree of response of their aspen hosts. We intend to describe the molecular mechanisms of an important critical interaction between host and fungus using microarray analysis of expression profiles, as well as metabolic profiling of aspen roots and their associated mycorrhizal partner, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices, under eCO2, eO3 and eCO2+eO3. We present evidence that host-derived factors, expressed in response to eCO2+eO3, trigger responses in Glomus leading to the partitioning or metabolic shift in lipid biosynthesis that is associated with reduced extraradical hyphae growth and altered lipid metabolism. We then scale these lower-level responses to give better insight to fungal intraradical and extraradical allocation of biomass and fungal and root lipid and carbohydrate content in association with aspen genotype responses to the imposed treatments. By

  14. Evaluation of Two Mycorrhiza Species and Nitroxin on Yield and Yield Components of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in an Ecological Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    biofertilizers on different crops, information on the effects of these factors for many medicinal plants such as garlic is scarce; therefore, in this study the effects of mycorrhiza and biofertilizers on quantitative characteristics of garlic in a low input cropping system were studied. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of two mycorrhiza species and nitroxin on yield and yield components of garlic (Allium sativum L., an experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement based on a randomized completed block design with three replications in the growing seasons of 2010 at the experimental farm of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The experimental factors were all combination of two mycorrhiza species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and control and also inoculation with and without nitroxin (include Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp. as a biofertilizer. Results and Discussion The results showed that both two mycorrhiza species had superior effects on most of the study traits compared with control. Bulb weight per plant was significantly affected by mycorrhiza species. Glomus mosseae، and Glomus intraradices increased bulb weight per plant by 48 and 29 percent compared with control, respectively. Nitroxin had a significant effect on length and diameter of bulbs. Length and diameter of bulbs were increased by 13 and 8 percent using nitroxin compared with control, respectively. Interactive effects of mycorrhiza and nitroxin on all study traits also were significant. Interactive effects of study treatments showed that Glomus mosseae had better effect on most of study traits at with and without nitroxin treatments. On the other hand, nitroxin had synergistic effect on mycorrhiza treatments compared when these treatments were used without nitroxin. Highest (4306 kg ha-1 and lowest (1665 kg ha-1 economic yield (bulb yield were obtained from Glomus mosseae + Nitroxin and control (without mycorhiza and nitroxin, respectively. In

  15. Effects of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemeh Bitarafan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is one of the most important essential oil plants that its essential oil constituent be used in different medicinal and food industries. Vermicompost is organic manure that significant amounts of macro and micronutrients make available to the plants. Although some of this material is minerals but most of them gradually and slowly released through the mineralization of organic matter. Mycorrhizal fungi are one of the biological factors in the rhizosphere, which include a relatively important part of soil organisms. Under water deficit conditions, mycorrhiza enhances photosynthesis and carbon fixation during the growing season by increasing the leaf area. This condition does not directly contribute to increased photosynthesis in the host plant, but keeps the photosynthesis level higher than control by improving water relations and changing the hormonal relations. Materials and methods The treatments included vermicompost in four levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 ton.ha-1 and mycorrhiza in three levels (without inoculation, inoculation with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices was arranged based on randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replications. Fresh leaf tissue was used to measure chlorophyll content. Dimethyl sulfoxide (7 ml was added to 0.1 g leaf tissue and the samples were incubated at 70°Cfor 4h. The light absorptance was measured at 663, 645 and 470 nm with spectrophotometer (Jenway, 6305 to obtain chlorophyll content. To measure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, plant roots were collected one week before harvesting, cleaned by 10% KOH at 80˚C for 2h, and acidified in 1% HCL for 60 min. Then the cleaned up roots were stained in a solution of trypan blue. The roots were destained in a mixture of 500 ml glycerol, 450 ml water and 5 ml HCL for 24 h, allowing the fungus to be revealed under microscopic examination (Taylor et al. 2008. Statistical analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA

  16. Fósforo adicionado e fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento e nutrição mineral de limoeiro-cravo [Citrus limonia (L. OSBECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Melloni

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a influência de fósforo adicionado e fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs no crescimento e nutrição mineral de limoeiro-cravo, instalou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 3, sendo os fatores: (a seis doses de P (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mg kg-1 de substrato e (b duas espécies de FMAs (Glomus etunicatum e G. intraradices e um controle sem FMA, com três repetições, em vasos de 1,7 dm³ de substrato. Após cinco meses do transplantio das mudas de limoeiro-cravo, avaliaram-se a altura, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas, nutrientes acumulados na parte aérea e percentagem de colonização radicular. No substrato, avaliaram-se o comprimento de micélio extra-radicular ativo (MEA e total (MET de FMAs. O porta-enxerto limoeiro-cravo apresentou alta dependência micorrízica na absorção dos nutrientes, quando inoculado com G. intraradices, o que resultou em maior altura, diâmetro de caule e matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas. Apenas essa espécie de FMA formou micorriza com o hospedeiro, com valores de colonização radicular inversamente proporcionais às doses de P adicionado. Houve aumento de MEA e MET com o aumento das doses de P, com alta correlação entre o primeiro e a absorção de nutrientes. Apesar de não colonizar o hospedeiro, a infestação com G. etunicatum resultou em valores de MEA e MET superiores aos do controle, indicando, talvez, capacidade saprofítica desse fungo para sobreviver no substrato.

  17. Free Space Optics Communication for Mobile Military Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Federal Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FOV Field-of-View FSO Free Space Optics FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum Gbps...Physique et de Métrologie des Oscillateurs (LPMO) du CNRS UPR3203, associé à l’Université de Franche -Comté, 15 March 2002 [Schenk 2000] H. Schenk

  18. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Providing the nutritional requirements of agricultural crops by non-chemical resources is a new approach in the organic farming that has attracted the attention of both the researchers and the consumers in recent years. Therefore, it is highly important to find new fertilizer resources that are both economically able to provide the nutritional needs of the crop plants and have no adverse effects on the consumers and the environment. Materials and Methods: With this approach, an experiment was conducted in the research station of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments including Mycorrhizal fungi in three levels (i.e. no use of strain; use of Glomus intraradices strain; and use of Glomus mosseae strain, bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum in two-levels (i.e. non-inoculated and inoculated and wheat cultivars in three levels (i.e. Chamran; Dena; and Behrang. The measured parameters include the concentration of macronutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and some micronutrients (i.e. zinc, iron and manganese in two part seed and the root of wheat. Results and Discussion: Surveying the elements content in the root and the grain indicated a significant and positive effect of the use the Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza to improve the concentration of the elements in wheat cultivars. However, the simultaneous use of these microorganisms led to an increase of the effects of their application on their assessed traits.Finally the highest concentration of N (2.21 present, P (0.50 present and Fe (33.88 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain; the highest concentration of K (0.93 present and 0.54 present and Mn (43.11 and 23.63 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain and root, respectively. Moreover, the highest concentration of Zn in the root (19.70 mg.kg-1 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with

  19. Crecimiento de Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae en suelo con diésel, y aplicación de bioestimulación y bioaumentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Díaz-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La fitorremediación es una biotecnología ecológicamente racional que está dirigida a la limpieza de suelos contaminados; sin embargo, el estudio de especies arbóreas para la fitorremediación de suelos con hidrocarburos del petróleo es limitado. Más aún, la combinación de la fitorremediación con procesos de bioaumentación y bioestimulación es también limitada. Por lo anterior, este estudio evaluó el efecto de la inoculación de Glomus intraradices, un consorcio bacteriano (M2BOS1-R2 y M2BOSI-F4 y Trichoderma viride en el crecimiento de plantas de Casuarina equisetifolia L. fertilizadas con Floranid® o Triple 17, en suelo contaminado con diésel (7 500mg/kg. El experimento factorial 2x5x3 incluyó 30 tratamientos y 10 repeticiones, distribuidos completamente al azar en invernadero, durante 120 días. El diésel disminuyó significativamente la altura, la biomasa total y el índice de calidad (ICP de planta. Glomus o las bacterias aumentaron significativamente la altura, la biomasa seca total y el ICP con respecto al tratamiento sin inocular o con la triple inoculación. El Floranid redujo el crecimiento vegetal y el ICP, en presencia de diésel. El Triple 17 combinado con los tres microorganismos produjo mayor crecimiento vegetal en ausencia de contaminación, pero en presencia de diésel, el Triple 17 combinado con bacterias o con Trichoderma, estimuló la biomasa seca total y el ICP. La colonización micorrízica fue inhibida por el diesel, especialmente con la fertilización del Floranid. El Triple 17 (bioestimulación combinado con los microorganismos (bioaumentación, favoreció el crecimiento de Casuarina en suelo contaminado con diésel.

  20. The cultivation bias: different communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi detected in roots from the field, from bait plants transplanted to the field, and from a greenhouse trap experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ineichen, Kurt; Wiemken, Andres; Redecker, Dirk

    2007-12-01

    The community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated in roots of four different plant species (Inula salicina, Medicago sativa, Origanum vulgare, and Bromus erectus) sampled in (1) a plant species-rich calcareous grassland, (2) a bait plant bioassay conducted directly in that grassland, and (3) a greenhouse trap experiment using soil and a transplanted whole plant from that grassland as inoculum. Roots were analyzed by AMF-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism screening, and sequence analyses of rDNA small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions. The AMF sequences were analyzed phylogenetically and used to define monophyletic phylotypes. Overall, 16 phylotypes from several lineages of AMF were detected. The community composition was strongly influenced by the experimental approach, with additional influence of cultivation duration, substrate, and host plant species in some experiments. Some fungal phylotypes, e.g., GLOM-A3 (Glomus mosseae) and several members of Glomus group B, appeared predominantly in the greenhouse experiment or in bait plants. Thus, these phylotypes can be considered r strategists, rapidly colonizing uncolonized ruderal habitats in early successional stages of the fungal community. In the greenhouse experiment, for instance, G. mosseae was abundant after 3 months, but could not be detected anymore after 10 months. In contrast, other phylotypes as GLOM-A17 (G. badium) and GLOM-A16 were detected almost exclusively in roots sampled from plants naturally growing in the grassland or from bait plants exposed in the field, indicating that they preferentially occur in late successional stages of fungal communities and thus represent the K strategy. The only phylotype found with high frequency in all three experimental approaches was GLOM A-1 (G. intraradices), which is known to be a generalist. These results indicate that, in greenhouse trap experiments, it is difficult

  1. Ácido salicílico inibe a formação de micorrizas arbusculares e modifica a expressão de quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases em raízes de feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Heron Salazar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos que controlam o processo de colonização intrarradicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares ainda não são conhecidos, mas podem envolver o sistema de defesa vegetal. Normalmente, em condições favoráveis à formação de micorrizas arbusculares (MAs, e.g. baixo fosfato (P, ocorre supressão da expressão de genes de defesa, como quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases, em certos estágios do desenvolvimento das simbioses. Assim, a inibição do crescimento fúngico intrarradicular em condições de alto P pode ser decorrência da atenuação da supressão e/ou indução de genes de defesa específicos. Se o sistema de defesa está envolvido no controle do crescimento fúngico intrarradicular em condições de alto P, a aplicação às raízes de um indutor de respostas de defesa, como o ácido salicílico (AS, poderia simular o efeito inibitório do P. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do AS na colonização intrarradicular e nas atividades de quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases em raízes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca 80-SH inoculadas com Glomus clarum ou Glomus intraradices, em condições de baixo e alto P. Em condições de baixo P, a aplicação de AS inibiu a colonização intrarradicular a níveis similares aos observados em condições de alto P. Em condições de alto P, a inibição da micorrização pelo AS foi ainda maior. Associado a essa inibição, incrementos de aproximadamente 10 vezes nas atividades específicas de quitinases e redução nas atividades de b-1,3-glucanases nas raízes das plantas que receberam AS foram observados. Em função dos padrões de atividades de quitinases e b-1,3-glucanases nas raízes não-inoculadas e inoculadas, não foi possível estabelecer uma relação entre as atividades dessas hidrolases e o crescimento fúngico intrarradicular.

  2. Combined Inoculation with Multiple Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improves Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Photosynthesis in Cucumber Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangchen Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal inoculation stimulates growth, photosynthesis and nutrient uptake in a wide range of host plants. However, the ultimate effects of arbuscular mycorrhyzal (AM symbiosis vary with the plants and fungal species involved in the association. Therefore, identification of the appropriate combinations of AM fungi (AMF that interact synergistically to improve their benefits is of high significance. Here, three AM fungal compositions namely VT (Claroideoglomus sp., Funneliformis sp., Diversispora sp., Glomus sp., and Rhizophagus sp. and BF (Glomus intraradices, G. microageregatum BEG and G. Claroideum BEG 210, and Funneliformis mosseae (Fm were investigated with respect to the growth, gas exchange parameters, enzymes activities in Calvin cycles and related gene expression in cucumber seedlings. The results showed that VT, BF and Fm could successfully colonize cucumber root to a different degree with the colonization rates 82.38, 74.65, and 70.32% at 46 days post inoculation, respectively. The plant height, stem diameter, dry weight, root to shoot ratio of cucumber seedlings inoculated with AMF increased significantly compared with the non-inoculated control. Moreover, AMF colonization greatly increased the root activity, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, light saturated rate of the CO2 assimilation (Asat, maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate (RuBP regeneration rate (Jmax, which were increased by 52.81, 30.75, 58.76, 47.00, 69.15, and 65.53% when inoculated with VT, respectively. The activities of some key enzymes such RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, D-fructose-6-phosphatase (F6P and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (Ru5PK, and related gene expression involved in the Calvin cycle including RCA, FBPase, FBPA, SBPase, rbcS and rbcL were upregulated by AMF colonization. AMF inoculation also improved macro- and micro nutrient contents such as N, P, K, S, Ca, Cu

  3. Biofertilización en híbridos de maíz androestériles y fértiles para los Valles Altos de México1

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    Margarita Tadeo Robledo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de variedades mejoradas, así como biofertilizantes elaborados con hongos micorriza favorecen la nutrición y permiten complementar el uso de fertilizantes químicos, lo que podría incrementar la producción. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el rendimiento de grano de los híbridos por efecto de la aplicación, y testigo sin aplicar, de micorriza (Glomus intraradices, en cinco híbridos de maíz en sus versiones fértiles y androestériles. La evaluación se realizó por medio de cuatro experimentos, dos ubicados en la Facultad de Estudios Superiores FES Cuautitlán-UNAM y dos en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México CEVAMEX - INIFAP, en Texcoco, México. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones; las siembras de los materiales se efectuaron en la segunda quincena de mayo y primera de junio de 2012. El análisis estadístico de los datos fue factorial, donde los factores principales fueron ambientes, genotipos, androesterilidad/fertilidad, aplicación o no de biofertilizante, así como las interacciones de los mismos. En los rendimientos se detectó significancia debido a los ambientes y genotipos, no así para ningún otro factor o interacciones. La media general del rendimiento fue de 8294 kg ha1. El rendimiento obtenido en la segunda fecha de siembra en la FES Cuautitlán-UNAM fue de 9939 kg ha-1, siendo superior al de la fecha 1 del CEVAMEX (6071 kg ha‑1. No hubo efecto de la aplicación de micorriza en el rendimiento medio de los híbridos (8310 kg ha-1, el cual fue similar al del testigo sin aplicación de micorriza (8279 kg ha-1. El genotipo con mayor rendimiento fue Tsíri PUMA, con 9557 kg ha-1, y resultó diferente estadísticamente al del H-47 AE (8692 kg ha-1. TSÍRI PUMA I y PUMA 1183 AE rindieron 8687 kg ha-1 y 8150 kg ha‑1, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el rendimiento medio de la versión androestéril de los híbridos fue de 8447 kg ha‑1, siendo similar estad

  4. Cadmium effect on the association of jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Efeito do cadmio na associação de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis e fungos micorrízicos arbusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Adrián López de Andrade

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cadmium (Cd on mycorrhizal association and on shoot and root Cd concentration was investigated in jackbean plants under hydroponic conditions. The treatments consisted of the inoculation of three different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomus etunicatum, G. intraradices and G. macrocarpum, and a non-inoculated control, two Cd (0 and 5 µmol L-1 and two P (1 and 10 mg L-1 levels in the nutrient solution. Mycorrhizal colonization, length of AMF extraradical mycelium, guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots, plant growth and root and shoot Cd and P concentrations were determined. Mycorrhizal status did not promote jackbean growth but in most of the cases mycorrhization increased root and shoot Cd concentrations. Cd ions were accumulated mainly in roots and only small amounts were translocated to the shoot. Cd addition did not affect root colonization by AMF but the AM extraradical mycelium (ERM was sensitive to the added Cd. ERM length was reduced by 25% in the presence of Cd. This reduction was more pronounced under conditions of low P concentration. Also at this P concentration, Cd addition decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity in non-mycorrhizal roots and in roots colonized by G. macrocarpum. However, mycorrhizal roots maintained lower values of peroxidase activity. G. etunicatum showed the best performance when associated to jackbean plants and it could be a promising association for phytoremediation of Cd- contaminated soil.O efeito do cádmio na associação micorrízica e no teor e acúmulo de Cd na raiz e parte aérea de feijão de porco foi avaliado em condição de hidroponia. Os tratamentos consistiram da inoculação ou não de três espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, Glomus etunicatum, G. intraradices e G. macrocarpum, e uma testemunha (ausência de FMA, duas concentrações de Cd ( 0 e 5 µmol L-1 e de P (1 e 10 mg L-1 na solução nutritiva. Foram determinados a colonização micorr

  5. Endoproteolytic activities in pea roots inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and/orAphanomyces euteiches in relation to bioprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slezack, S; DUMAS-GAUDOT, E; Rosendahl, Søren

    1999-01-01

    as 'trypsin-like' serine endoproteases. Interestingly, in a situation of bioprotection, only low levels of the activities normally associated with the infection by A. euteiches were detected, suggesting that the synthesis of these proteins is directly linked to the growth or virulence of the pathogen....

  6. Análise do proteoma do fluido intercelular de raízes de cana-de-açúcar colonizadas por Glomus clarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Simão Lindoso de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Os mecanismos que regulam o desenvolvimento de micorrizas arbusculares (MAs) em condições de baixo e alto nível de P ainda são desconhecidos. Tem sido proposto que proteínas secretadas no apoplasto das raízes podem ter papel importante na regulação de MAs. A análise comparativa do proteoma do fluido intercelular (FI) de raízes colonizadas por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) com o de raízes não-colonizadas, em condições de baixo e alto nível de P, poderia contribuir para a elucidação d...

  7. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  8. Glomus Tumor of the Larynx: A Rare Synchronous Paraganglioma in a Patient with Bilateral Carotid Body Tumor Detected on 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Mukherjee, Anirban; Singh, Chirom A; Jat, Bhinyaram; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Paragangliomas are neoplasms arising from extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. They frequently cause symptoms by overproduction of catecholamines with known predilection to multicentricity. We describe the case of a patient with bilateral carotid body tumor who underwent a baseline 68 Gallium labeled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide.

  9. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-labelled peptides for inoperable head and neck paragangliomas (glomus tumours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Singh, Aviral; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, THERANOSTICS Centre for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging, ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare tumours arising from autonomic nervous system ganglia. Although surgery offers the best chance of complete cure, there is associated morbidity due to the crucial location of these tumours. Radiotherapy arrests tumour growth and provides symptomatic improvement, but has long-term consequences. These tumours express somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and hence peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is now a treatment option. We assessed the molecular, morphological and clinical responses of inoperable HNPGLs to PRRT. Nine patients with inoperable HNPGL assessed between June 2006 and June 2014 were included. Four patients had a solitary lesion, four had multifocal involvement and one had distant metastases (bone and lungs). The patients were treated with PRRT using {sup 90}Y/{sup 177}Lu-labelled peptides after positive confirmation of SSTR expression on {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. All patients received two to four courses of PRRT. Subsequent serial imaging with {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT was carried out every 6 months to assess response to treatment. Clinical (symptomatic) response was also assessed. Based on molecular response (EORTC) criteria, four of the nine patients showed a partial molecular response to treatment seen as significant decreases in SUV{sub max}, accompanied by a reduction in tumour size. Five patients showed stable disease on both molecular and morphological criteria. Six out of nine patients were symptomatic at presentation with manifestations of cranial nerve involvement, bone destruction at the primary site and metastatic bone pain. Molecular responses were correlated with symptomatic improvement in four out of these six patients; while two patients showed small reductions in tumour size and SUV{sub max}. The three asymptomatic patients showed no new lesions or symptomatic worsening. PRRT was effective in all patients, with no disease worsening seen, either in the form of neurological symptoms or distant spread. Though these are preliminary results, PRRT shows promise as a good treatment option for HNPGL, and hence study in a larger patient cohort is essential to establish its place in the management algorithm. (orig.)

  10. Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  12. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Martin; Gerlach, Nina; Gahrtz, Manfred; Bucher, Marcel; Scholz, Uwe; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis). Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL) of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and mycorrhizal fungi.

  13. Sequence and ionomic analysis of divergent strains of maize inbred line B73 with an altered growth phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays is the most widely grown crop species in the world and a classical model organism for plant research. The completion of a high-quality reference genome sequence and the advent of high-throughput sequencing have greatly empowered re-sequencing studies in maize. In this study, plants of maize inbred line B73 descended from two different sets of seed material grown for several generations either in the field or in the greenhouse were found to show a different growth phenotype and ionome under phosphate starvation conditions and moreover a different responsiveness towards mycorrhizal fungi of the species Glomus intraradices (syn: Rhizophagus irregularis. Whole genome re-sequencing of individuals from both sets and comparison to the B73 reference sequence revealed three cryptic introgressions on chromosomes 1, 5 and 10 in the line grown in the greenhouse summing up to a total of 5,257 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Transcriptome sequencing of three individuals from each set lent further support to the location of the introgression intervals and confirmed them to be fixed in all sequenced individuals. Moreover, we identified >120 genes differentially expressed between the two B73 lines. We thus have found a nearly-isogenic line (NIL of maize inbred line B73 that is characterized by an altered growth phenotype under phosphate starvation conditions and an improved responsiveness towards symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. Through next-generation sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes we were able to delineate exact introgression intervals. Putative de novo mutations appeared approximately uniformly distributed along the ten maize chromosomes mainly representing G:C -> A:T transitions. The plant material described in this study will be a valuable tool both for functional studies of genes differentially expressed in both B73 lines and for research on growth behavior especially in response to symbiosis between maize and

  14. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehteshami, S M R; Aghaalikhani, M; Khavazi, K; Chaichi, M R

    2007-10-15

    The effect of seed inoculation by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L. SC. 704) was studied in a field experiment. Positive effect on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculum of Glomus intraradices (AM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf). Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and P, soil available P, root colonization percentage and crop WUE under water deficit stress. In some of investigated characteristics under well-watered conditions, chemical fertilizer treatment was higher than double inoculated treatments, but this difference was not significant. Seed inoculation only with AM positively affected the measured parameters as amount as co-inoculated treatments. According to the results showed in contrast to the inoculated treatments with AM+Pf and AM, the application of alone Pf caused a comparatively poor response. Therefore, this microorganism needs to a complement for its activity in soil. All of measured parameters in inoculated treatments were higher than uninoculated treatments under water deficit stress conditions. Furthermore, the investigated characteristics of co-inoculated plants under severe water deficit stress conditions were significantly lower than co-inoculated plants under well-watered and moderate-stressed conditions. Therefore it could be stated, these microorganisms need more time to fix and establishing themselves in soil. The present finding showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms can interact positively in promoting plant growth as well as P uptake of maize plants, leading to plant tolerance improving under water deficit stress conditions.

  15. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  16. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and free living nitrogen fixing bacteria on growth, photosynthesis and yield of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen jahan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biological fertilizers have received special attention by scientists in sustainable and low input agriculture. In order to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and free living nitrogen fixing bacteria on growth and photosynthesis characteristics of corn in conventional and ecological cropping systems, a field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during year 2006. A split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments consisted four cropping systems (1- High input conventional system, 2- Medium input conventional system, 3- Low input conventional system and 4- Ecological system and four inoculations (1- Mycorrhiza fungus, Glomus intraradices, 2- Bacteria, Azotobacter paspali and Azospirillum brasilense, 3- Dual inoculation, Fungus plus bacteria, and 4- No-inoculation, control, which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. All agronomic practices and inputs application during planting and nursing for each of cropping systems were conducted according to regional traditions. Results showed that the effect of inoculation on photosynthesis rates of corn was significant, as the highest photosynthesis rate obtained in dual inoculation. Single inoculation (fungus or bacteria was ranked second. The effect of all inoculations on corn dry matter production was significant and dual inoculation produced the highest dry matter yield. The cropping systems have significant effect on corn yield and the difference between medium input conventional system and high input conventional system was significant, but the high input, low input and ecological cropping systems showed no differences. Inoculants affected the SPAD readings, and dual inoculation showed the highest SPAD readings. This study showed that utilization of low input conventional and ecological systems in combination with use of dual inoculation of

  17. Importance of dispersal and thermal environment for mycorrhizal communities: lessons from Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Meadow, James; Rohr, Jason R; Redecker, Dirk; Zabinski, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    The relative importance of dispersal and niche restrictions remains a controversial topic in community ecology, especially for microorganisms that are often assumed to be ubiquitous. We investigated the impact of these factors for the community assembly of the root-symbiont arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by sampling roots from geothermal and nonthermal grasslands in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), followed by sequencing and RFLP of AMF ribosomal DNA. With the exception of an apparent generalist RFLP type closely related to Glomus intraradices, a distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the AMF community composition correlated with soil pH or pH-driven changes in soil chemistry. This was unexpected, given the large differences in soil temperature and plant community composition between the geothermal and nonthermal grasslands. RFLP types were found in either the acidic geothermal grasslands or in the neutral to alkaline grasslands, one of which was geothermal. The direct effect of the soil chemical environment on the distribution of two AMF morphospecies isolated from acidic geothermal grasslands was supported in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Paraglomus occultum and Scutellospora pellucida were more beneficial to plants and formed significantly more spores when grown in acidic than in alkaline soil. Distance among grasslands, used as an estimate of dispersal limitations, was not a significant predictor of AMF community similarity within YNP, and most fungal taxa may be part of a metacommunity. The isolation of several viable AMF taxa from bison feces indicates that wide-ranging bison could be a vector for at least some RFLP types among grasslands within YNP. In support of classical niche theory and the Baas-Becking hypothesis, our results suggest that AMF are not limited by dispersal at the scale of YNP, but that the soil environment appears to be the primary factor affecting community composition and distribution.

  18. FITOEXTRACCIÓN DE PLOMO Y CADMIO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS USANDO QUELITE (Amaranthus hybridus L. Y MICORRIZAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Ortiz-Cano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas practicadas en la Comarca Lagunera, México han contaminado el suelo, el aire y el agua. El uso de plantas es una de las estrategias para la remediación de suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre remediación con plantas de zonas áridas y su asociación con micorrizas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la capacidad extractora de Plomo (Pb y Cadmio (Cd del quelite (Amaranthus hybridus L. al adicionar una mezcla de micorrizas arbusculares (Entrophospora columbiana, Glomus intraradices, G. etunicatum, G clarum al sustrato contaminado con Pb o Cd. Dos experimentos, uno por cada metal, con diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones fueron desarrollados. En el primero se adicionaron tres cantidades de micorrizas (0, 2.5 y 5.0 g·kg-1 en suelos con 300 mg·kg-1 de Pb. En el segundo experimento, las mismas cantidades de micorrizas fueron probadas en suelos contaminados con 15 mg·kg-1 de Cd. Las concentraciones de Pb y Cd en raíz, hoja y tallo a los 65, 95 y 125 días de edad de la planta se determinaron con un espectrofotómetro de absorción atómica. Los resultados indican que la adición de micorrizas incrementó significativamente (P<0.05 la concentración de Pb y Cd en raíz, tallo y hoja de quelite. Las concentraciones de estos metales se incrementaron significativamente conforme la edad de la planta.

  19. Effects of Single and Combined Application of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Anisum (Pimpinella anisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kamayestani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of single and combined applications of biofertilazer and organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum (Pimpinella anisum, an experiment was conducted based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and fifteen treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011 year. Treatments were: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, (2 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (3 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (4 mycorrhiza+ compost, (5 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (6 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp. + Bentonite, (7 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (8 biosulfur + cow manure, (9 biosulfur + vermicompost, (10 biosulfur+compost,11 (cow manure, (12 vermicompost, (13 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (14compost and (15 control. The results showed that application of fertilizer treatments had significant effect on most characteristics of anisum. The highest number of seed per umbelet (7.24, economic yield (1263.4kg/ha were obtained fram biosulfur treatment. The highest dry matter yield (4504.1 kg/ha resulted from combined application of biosulfur + chemical fertilizer and the highest harvest index (25.97% observed in biosulfur+cow manure. The combined application of mycorrhiza affected some qualification traits, as the highest number of umbel per plant (65.7, 1000 seed-weight (3.24 g and essential oil percentage (5.3% resulted from combined application of mycorrhiza+chemical fertilizer. In general, it can be concluded that application of organic and biological fertilizer particularly mycorrhiza and biosulfur had a significant effect on improving of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum. Furthermore, the combined application of organic and biological fertilizer had higher positive effects than their single application.

  20. The effects of hydroxy fatty acids on the hyphal branching of germinated spores of AM fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David D

    2011-01-01

    Two hydroxy fatty acids, tentatively identified previously in carrot root exudates, were tested for their effects on hyphal growth of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Gigaspora gigantea (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe. Best results were achieved with a long-term bioassay (7-8d) with nanomolar concentrations throughout the Petri dish in contrast to the rapid microinjection bioassay (16-24h) in which nanogram quantities were injected near growing hyphal tips. When 5nM 2-hydroxy fatty acids of various chain length were tested, the length of the hydroxyl fatty acid was significant since only 2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (2OH-TDA) and to a slightly lesser degree, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid (2OH-DDA) induced a hyphal growth response while 2-hydroxydecanoic acid (2OH-DA) and 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic (2OH-HDA) acid did not. The position of the hydroxyl group was critical since 5nM 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (3OH-TDA) had no effect on hyphal growth. The length of the non-hydroxy containing straight chain fatty acid, per se, did not appear significant since none of these fatty acids had an effect on hyphal growth. The morphological growth response promoted by 2OH-TDA consisted of multiple lateral branches, spaced fairly regularly apart, along the primary germ tubes as well as some lateral branch formation off the major secondary hyphae. This growth response was identical to that observed when germinated spores were allowed to grow towards cultured carrot roots in vitro. This response to 2OH-TDA also was observed with an unidentified Gigaspora species but no morphological response was observed with Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. The results indicate that 2-hydroxy fatty acids are another putative category of root exudate signals perceived by Gigaspora species, stimulating an increase in elongated lateral branches. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  2. Identification and Quantification of Cause and Effects in Symbiosis of Corn with Arbuscular Mycorrehiza Fungus using Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering to necessity and importance of determining mycorrhizal symbiosis level and its effects on crop agroecological characteristics as well as other related factors affecting this relationship, beside, the lack of an assured method for this purpose, the present study designed based on new perspectives and insights for determining cause and effects relations, latent variables using structural equation modeling (SEM approach. A field experiment was conducted during 2 years. A split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Treatments consisted four cropping systems (high, medium, and low input conventional as well as ecological system and four inoculations (mycorrhizae fungus: Glomus intraradices, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: (Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter paspali, dual inoculation: (fungus plus bacteria, and no-inoculation (control, which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. At the first step, a confirmatory factor analyzing was conducted resulted to two distinguished factors, and then the variables which had the most loads (weight on one of these two factors were determined. At the second step, considering ecophysiological basis of crops growth and development, in order to continue analyzing, the first factor (including: leaf area index (LAI, root length colonization percent (RLCP, dry matter (DM, stem diameter (D, SPAD readings and the second factor (including: maximum photosynthesis (Amax, specific root length (SRL, canopy temperature (CT, plant height (H, soil respiration rate (SRR, variable chlorophyll fluorescence to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, plant tissue phosphorus content (%P determined resource capture latent construct and resource utilization latent construct, respectively. Correlation coefficients, squared multiple correlation coefficients, covariance matrices, direct and indirect path coefficients were calculated

  3. GintAMT3 – a low-affinity ammonium transporter of the arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eCalabrese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e. to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive valuable carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P, the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices, two ammonium transporters (AMT were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium (IRM of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2. GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply.

  4. Effects inoculation of mycorhizae species and irrigation levels impacts on growth criteria, yield and water use efficiency of corb (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Amerian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deficiency is one of the most important factors for limiting crop yield in arid and semiarid regions. Symbiosis with a variety of microorganisms in these regions is one of the modern ecological approaches for sustainable agriculture to reduce damages caused by environmental stresses. Symbiotic of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM with the roots of crops has shown positive effects on agricultural systems. In order to study the effects of inoculation with two species of mycorrhizal fungi and irrigation levels on root growth criteria and water use efficiency of corn, an experiment was performed as split plots based on a complete randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008-2009. Treatments included two mycorhizae inoculation (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices and control and four irrigation levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of water requirement. Grain yield, root specific length, the percentage of root colonization and water use efficiency based on grain yield of corn were measured. The results showed that the effect of mycorrhizae inoculation was significant on (p≤0.05 root specific length, grain yield and water use efficiency of corn. Mycorrhizae species had no significant effect on root colonization percentage of corn. Different irrigation levels had significant effect on grain yield, special length root, the percentage of root colonization, and water use efficiency of corn (p≤0.05. Generally, the results showed that mycorrhizae inoculation in water deficiency conditions, can increase the uptake of water and nutrients by developing the root and increasing the absorbing surface. In this way, not only the plant tolerance against the water deficiency increases, but also more yield will be produced for a specific value of water, which means the water use efficiency increases. Furthermore, the use of water will be decreased.

  5. Comunidades microbianas, atividade enzimática e fungos micorrízicos em solo rizosférico de "Landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos Microbial communities, enzymatic activity and mycorrhizal fungi in rhizospheric soil used for Landfarming of Petrochemical Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Shigueyoshi Nakatani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As raízes das plantas podem estimular a microbiota do solo, a qual pode contribuir para o aumento da eficiência do processo de remediação. Assim, avaliar a magnitude dos efeitos das raízes sobre a microbiota do solo é de grande interesse e de relevância prática e ecológica. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se a densidade microbiana, a atividade enzimática, a estrutura da comunidade bacteriana e a presença de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na rizosfera de plantas de ocorrência espontânea em solo de sistema de "landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos. Avaliaram-se também solos rizosféricos de cinco plantas e solo-controle sem planta por meio de contagens de microrganismos em placas, eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE de fragmentos do gene rRNA 16S, seqüenciamento genético, atividades enzimáticas, percentagem de colonização radicular e contagem e identificação de esporos de FMAs. As plantas estimularam a densidade microbiana total e da população de degradadores de antraceno, com contagens médias de 1,5 x 10(6 e 2,2 x 10(6 UFC g-1 no solo seco, respectivamente, enquanto, no solo sem planta, essas contagens foram de 5,7 x 10(5 e 2,9 x 10(5 UFC g-1 no solo seco para os respectivos grupos microbianos. As espécies de maior efeito foram Bidens pilosa e Eclipta alba. Entretanto, esses efeitos estimulantes não foram verificados para a atividade enzimática do solo. A colonização micorrízica das raízes (em torno de 40 % e a densidade de esporos nos solos rizosféricos foram elevadas (entre 900 e 4.800 esporos por 50 cm³ de solo, sendo maior na Brachiaria decumbens. Foram identificadas quatro espécies de FMAs: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus intraradices, Paraglomus occultum e Archaeospora trappei. Com exceção de G. intraradices, essas espécies não foram observadas em áreas contaminadas por hidrocarbonetos de petróleo. A análise por DGGE revelou que os solos rizosféricos apresentaram comunidades

  6. Reproductive biology of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata and effective pollination across its native range in Queensland, Australia. CFE Bacles, J Brooks, DJ Lee, PM Schenk, AJ Lowe, A Kremer ...

  7. Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation and Grain Priming on Some Quantity and Quality Properties of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen azarnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important problems of farmers in arid and semi-arid regions are adequate nutrition, optimum rooting, emergence, establishment and optimal density, and ultimately plant yield. Using grain priming and mycorrhizal inoculation is effective strategies in these conditions. Priming can cause earlier growth of seedling, to increase emergence rate, emergence percentage, plant tolerance to drought and salinity stress, early flowering as well as to increase the quality and quantity of yield and nutrient absorption. Plant hormones such as salicylic acid and gibberellic acid can be used for priming. Regarding plant response to environmental stresses, salicylic acid, which is an important signal molecule, plays a key role in the regulation of several physiological processes such as growth and plant development, absorption of ions, emergence and photosynthesis. Gibberellic acid (GA3 has been shown to be involved in many physiological processes such as cell division activity of meristem regions, increase the cell length, emergence speed, and emergence percentage, seedling growth in field condition, early flowering and yield. Mycorrhizal inoculation increases the availability of nutrients especially plant phosphorus, concentrations of plant hormones (auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, chlorophyll content, the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation, assimilates allocation to host plant organs, the changes of root structure, and improve soil structure. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the response of lentil to grain priming (without grain priming, hydro-priming, 100 ppm gibberellic acid, 100 ppm salicylic acid, 100 ppm gibberellic acid + 100 ppm salicylic acid and soil mycorrhizal inoculation (non-inoculated control, inoculated with Glomus moseae and Glomus intraradices, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized block design with four replications carried out in a greenhouse and research farm of the Gonbad

  8. Improved Growth And Colchicine Concentration In Gloriosa Superba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AM), fungi, Glomus mossae, Glomus fasciculatum, Gigaspora margarita and Gigaspora gilmorei either alone or supplemented with P-fertilizer, on colchicine concentration in Gloriosa superba were studied. The concentration of colchicine was ...

  9. Influence of mycorrhizal inoculation on alley cropped farms in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi under farmers' conditions was tried at Ajibode Village, a humid tropical environment on maize/cassava intercropped farms in an alley cropping system. Four species of AM fungi (Glomus clarum, Glomus mosseae Glomus etunicatum and Acaulospora dilatata) were used in ...

  10. Genetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal populations in fallow and cultivated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Matzen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    protein-coding genes GmFOX2 and GmTOR2 were used as co-dominant genetic markers together with the large subunit (LSU) rDNA. The gene diversity and genetic structure of Glomus mosseae, Glomus geosporum and Glomus caledonium were compared within and between the fields. •  Spores of G. caledonium and G...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis mitigates the negative effects of salinity on durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraffia, Rosolino; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is generally considered to be effective in ameliorating the plant tolerance to salt stress. Unfortunately, the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in salinity stress alleviation by AM symbiosis is far from being complete. Thus, an experiment was performed by growing durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants under salt-stress conditions to evaluate the influence of AM symbiosis on both the plant growth and the regulation of a number of genes related to salt stress and nutrient uptake. Durum wheat plants were grown outdoors in pots in absence or in presence of salt stress and with or without AM fungi inoculation. The inoculum consisted of a mixture of spores of Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices) and Funneliformis mosseae (formerly G. mosseae). Results indicate that AM symbiosis can alleviate the detrimental effects of salt stress on the growth of durum wheat plants. In fact, under salt stress conditions mycorrhizal plants produced more aboveground and root biomass, had higher N uptake and aboveground N concentration, and showed greater stability of plasma membranes compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with AM fungi had no effect on the expression of the N transporter genes AMT1.1, AMT1.2, and NAR2.2, either under no-stress or salt stress conditions, probably due to the fact that plants were grown under optimal N conditions; on the contrary, NRT1.1 was always upregulated by AM symbiosis. Moreover, the level of expression of the drought stress-related genes AQP1, AQP4, PIP1, DREB5, and DHN15.3 observed in the mycorrhizal stressed plants was markedly lower than that observed in the non-mycorrhizal stressed plants and very close to that observed in the non-stressed plants. Our hypothesis is that, in the present study, AM symbiosis did not increase the plant tolerance to salt stress but instead generated a condition in which plants were subjected to a level of salt stress lower than that of non

  12. Estudio de los síntomas asociados a la pérdida de color del chayote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cadena-Iñiguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero, se reprodujeron los síntomas de deficiencias nutrimentales iniciales asociadas a la pérdida de vigor de planta y color del fruto de Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. llamado chayote blanco, para evaluar la respuesta de adición de nutrimentos e inoculación de microsimbiontes. Se utilizó suelo de Actopan, Veracruz, México, separándolo en capas a 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm y mezcla del perfil completo para determinar su fertilidad. Se aplicaron 8.29 g de (NH42SO4, 1.0 g de Ca3 (PO42, 4.4 g de K2SO4, 1.15 g de FeSO4, MnSO4 y ZnSO4, y 0.75 g de azufre, 40 g de Glomus intraradices (MA y Azospirillum brasilense por cada 30 litros de capa de suelo. Se evaluó altura de planta, clorofila y biomasa total, asimilación de CO2 y análisis con rayos-X de cortes del cuarto entrenudo inferior a la yema apical del tallo principal. El suelo evaluado presentó compuestos solubles de Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Na+ y pH de hasta 7.9, además de 5.6, 50.3 y 4.7 veces más P, Ca2+ y Mg2+ que los valores consignados para la especie. En suelo de la capa 0-30 cm, las plantas presentaron mayor crecimiento y menor en 30-60, 60-90 cm y la mezcla. Los nutrimentos combinados con MA, así como con MA y A. brasilense fueron estadísticamente significativos. Las plantas testigo mostraron cristales formados por P, Ca, S, Si, Na y Mg obstruyendo los vasos del xilema de tallo. La evidencia experimental mostró que los síntomas iniciales asociados a chayote blanco, se deben en gran medida a deficiencias nutrimentales, siendo más evidentes en capas de suelo inferiores a 0-30 cm

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis mitigates the negative effects of salinity on durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileccia, Veronica; Ruisi, Paolo; Ingraffia, Rosolino; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Martinelli, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is generally considered to be effective in ameliorating the plant tolerance to salt stress. Unfortunately, the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in salinity stress alleviation by AM symbiosis is far from being complete. Thus, an experiment was performed by growing durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants under salt-stress conditions to evaluate the influence of AM symbiosis on both the plant growth and the regulation of a number of genes related to salt stress and nutrient uptake. Durum wheat plants were grown outdoors in pots in absence or in presence of salt stress and with or without AM fungi inoculation. The inoculum consisted of a mixture of spores of Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices) and Funneliformis mosseae (formerly G. mosseae). Results indicate that AM symbiosis can alleviate the detrimental effects of salt stress on the growth of durum wheat plants. In fact, under salt stress conditions mycorrhizal plants produced more aboveground and root biomass, had higher N uptake and aboveground N concentration, and showed greater stability of plasma membranes compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with AM fungi had no effect on the expression of the N transporter genes AMT1.1, AMT1.2, and NAR2.2, either under no-stress or salt stress conditions, probably due to the fact that plants were grown under optimal N conditions; on the contrary, NRT1.1 was always upregulated by AM symbiosis. Moreover, the level of expression of the drought stress-related genes AQP1, AQP4, PIP1, DREB5, and DHN15.3 observed in the mycorrhizal stressed plants was markedly lower than that observed in the non-mycorrhizal stressed plants and very close to that observed in the non-stressed plants. Our hypothesis is that, in the present study, AM symbiosis did not increase the plant tolerance to salt stress but instead generated a condition in which plants were subjected to a level of salt stress lower than that of non

  14. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  15. The Effects of Soil Amendments and Bio-fertilizers Inoculation on Morphological Characteristics and Yield of Echium amoenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Amiri

    2017-10-01

    one of the most important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine. Petals of Iranian oxtongue have been advocated for a variety of effects such as demulcent, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, especially for common cold, anxiolytic, sedative and other psychiatric symptoms including obsession in folk medicine of Iran. Despite many research on the effects of organic acids and bio-fertilizers on different crops, there is scarce information on the effects of these factors for many medicinal plants. Therefore, in this study effect of organic acids and bio-fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of Echium amoenum in a low input cropping system was studied. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effects of soil amendments and different bio-fertilizers on morphological characteristics and seed yield of Echium amoenum, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2011-2013 growing seasons, at the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatments were eight different types of soil amendments and bio-fertilizers concluding: 1 Humic acid, 2 Fulvic acid, 3 Nitroxin® (Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp., 4 Biophosphorous® (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 5 Biosulfur® (Thiobacillus spp., 6 Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae, 7 Mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, and 8 no fertilizer as control. Result and Discussion: The results showed that mycorrhiza species increased flower yield compared with control, as the flower yield in treatments of G. mosseae and G. intraradices were 24 and 11 percent more than control, respectively. Soil amendments and different bio-fertilizers increased the number of flower cycle per plant compared with control. Although the effect of biophosphorous® was more pronounced, as the number of flower cycle per plant increased from 342 to 1322 cycles in control and biophosphorous® , respectively. Humic acid treatment increased seed yield, biological yield, seed

  16. Survey the Effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum of Wheat Cultivars Resistance in Yellow Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat is one of the major agricultural crops with respect to human nutrition. It is cultivated over a wide range of environments, because of wide adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. In Iran, 6.2 million hectares are under wheat cultivation, of which 33% is irrigated and 67% is rain-fed, the irrigated wheat growing areas (2 million hectares are located mostly in southern, central and east of Iran Production of crops is under the influence of plant genetic structure, environmental conditions and their interactions. Biotic and abiotic stresses are considered to lower production. Among the biotic stress, the fungal disease is the main factor limiting production of crop plants in hot and humid regions. Stripe rust was not a serious economic concern to the wheat industry for most of the 1990’s due to the use of resistant varieties. However, by 2003 it had developed into a significant issue, particularly as new path types evolved. Even in the dry years of 2003 and 2004, stripe rust cost growers significant income. Provide country's need for wheat as a strategic product, meanwhile, production is free from chemical fungicide is a high but achievable goal. So in order to achieve fertilizer and fungicide resources that in addition to having no adverse effects on consumers and the environment, has been economically able to provide nutrition need of crop plant, is very important. Materials and Methods: With this approach, to survey the effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum in resistance to yellow rust in wheat cultivars, an experiment was conducted at the research station of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments include of Mycorrhiza fungi in three levels (without application of Mycorrhiza strain and using strain Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae, Azospirillum lipoferum bacterium in two

  17. CRESCIMENTO, ACÚMULO DE NUTRIENTES E FENÓIS TOTAIS DE MUDAS DE CEDROAUSTRALIANO (Toona ciliata INOCULADAS COM FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késsia Barreto Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Australian red cedar seedlings for their ability to growth, nutrition and production of phenolic compounds under arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation. An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with three treatments consisting of Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus clarum in single inoculation, and four treatments composed by the combination of these species, Gigaspora margarita + Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita + Glomus etunicatum, Glomus clarum + Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita + Glomus etunicatum + Glomus clarum. All treatments with the fungal inoculum were evaluated without addition of phosphorus in the substrate. In comparison, three treatment controls were used (without fungus containing in random blocks with five replicates. After 140 days of germination, it was observed that all species of AMF inoculated alone or in combination, led to significant benefits on growth, nutrition and production of phenolic compounds in Australian red cedar seedlings in soils containing low phosphorus availability. The mixture in the soil of Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus clarum was able to provide significant increases in plant growth in most parameters assessed, resulting in performance equivalent or higher than non-mycorrhizal and control plants grown in soil fertilized with phosphorus. This suggests that AMF can promote reduction in phosphorus addition during the production of Australian red cedar seedlings.

  18. Correlations of Glomalin Contents and PAHs Removal in Alfalfa-vegetated Soils with Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Zhen-ya; ZONG Jiong; ZHU Xue-zhu; LING Wan-ting

    2016-01-01

    The correlations of glomalin contents and removal of phenanthrene and pyrene as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils with inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) were investigated. The test AMF included Glomus etunicatum(Ge), Glomus mosseae(Gm), and Glomus lamellosum(Gla), and the host plant was alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.). The AMF hyphal density and contents of easily extractable glomalin and total glomalin in AMF-inoculated soils were observed to increase...

  19. inquests on five persons who died after blood transfusio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inquests held at Cape Town on 3, 8 and I7 March 1956 at Magis- trates Court Cape Town before Mr. J. H. Basson, additional magistrate, assisted by Dr. R. J. ... surgical operation to control the uterine bleeding. (e) Laura M. C. Schenk, .... unusual-circumstances and are most unlikely to be repeated in the future. The general ...

  20. ارزیابی خصوصیات رنگ کاسبرگ در گیاه دارویی چای‌ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. تحت تأثیر مدیریت آبیاری، تلقیح با دو گونه قارچ میکوریزا و مصرف اسید هیومیک

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حمیدرضا فلاحی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available در این تحقیق تأثیر فراهمی آب (آبیاری پس از تبخیر 100 و 200 میلی‌متر از تشتک کلاس A به ترتیب به‌عنوان تیمارهای بدون تنش و تحت تنش خشکی، تلقیح میکوریزایی (شاهد، Glomus intraradicesو Glomus versiforme و مصرف اسید هیومیک (صفر و 4 کیلوگرم در هکتار بر عملکرد و مؤلفه‌های رنگ در کاسبرگ­های گیاه دارویی چای­ ترش مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت­های دو بار خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی سرایان (دانشگاه بیرجند انجام شد. عملکرد کاسبرگ در شرایط اعمال تنش خشکی کمتر از تیمار عدم وجود تنش (به ترتیب 10.7 و 19.1 گرم در مترمربع و در شرایط تلقیح با قارچ میکوریزای Glomus intraradices بیشتر از تیمار عدم تلقیح میکوریزایی بود (به ترتیب 18.2 و 12.9 گرم در مترمربع. همچنین مصرف هیومیک اسید در شرایط اعمال تنش خشکی عملکرد کاسبرگ خشک را بهبود بخشید. تنش خشکی موجب کاهش مقدار a*، هیو وکرما به ترتیب به میزان 22، 53 و 15 درصد شد. مصرف اسید هیومیک نیز مقدار زاویه هیو را 63 درصد کاهش و نسبت b/a را 25 درصد افزایش داد. هر دو گونه میکوریزا حدود 66 درصد شاخص هیو را در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد افزایش دادند. نتایج اثرات سه­ گانة عامل­های آزمایشی نشان داد که بیشترین و کمترین میزان b/a به ترتیب در ت

  1. The Hidden Cost of Untreated Paragangliomas of the Head and Neck: Systemic Reactive (AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Dervisoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed with systemic reactive (AA amyloidosis in association with untreated glomus jugulare and glomus caroticum tumors. He refused radiotherapy and renal replacement therapy. Paragangliomas, although rare, should be considered one of the tumors that can result in AA amyloidosis.

  2. Jugular and vagal paragangliomas: Systematic study of management with surgery and radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Bodeker, C.C.; Llorente, J.L.; Silver, C.E.; Jansen, J.C.; Takes, R.P.; Strojan, P.; Pellitteri, P.K.; Rinaldo, A.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Ferlito, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The definitive treatment for head and neck paraganglioma (PG) is surgical excision. Unfortunately, surgery, particularly of vagal paraganglioma (VPG; "glomus vagale") and foramen jugulare ("glomus jugulare") tumors, may be complicated by injuries to the lower cranial nerves, a high price

  3. The distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R; Mukerji, K G

    1990-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widely distributed throughout the area studied including different altitudes ranging from sea level to 2500 ft above sea level. VAM fungi were recorded from 88% of the sites examined with Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus macrocarpum being the most commonly recorded. Mean species diversity was found to be maximum in the areas thickly vegetated and undisturbed.

  4. Mechanical soil disturbance as a determinant of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in semi-natural grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim Krone; Lekberg, Ylva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2011-01-01

    an ongoing grassland restoration experiment that contained replicated plowed and control plots. The AM fungal community in roots was determined using nested PCR and LSU rDNA primers. We identified 38 phylotypes within the Glomeromycota, of which 29 belonged to Glomus A, six to Glomus B, and three...

  5. Primary glomangiosarcoma of the lung: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinou Eleftheria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomus tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derived from cells of the neuromyoarterial glomus or glomus body. Most glomus tumours occur in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. A case of a primary pulmonary glomus tumour originating in the right upper lobe is presented. Case presentation A 74-yr-old male was admitted with siccus cough, dyspnea and right-sided chest pain. Computed tomography of the thorax revealed a 4 cm growth of the right upper lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated an endobronchial hypervascular mass causing obstruction of the apical segmental bronchus. Pathology report was consistent with pulmonary glomus tumor. The patient underwent a typical right upper lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection. Twelve months later he is free of disease. Conclusion Occasionally glomus tumors can occur in extracutaneous sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, bone, genitourinary system and respiratory tract. Primary pulmonary glomus tumors are very rare (our case is the 19th one presented in the international literature and are often confused with other solid neoplasms such as carcinoids, hemangiopericytomas and tumors belonging to the family of Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumours.

  6. Glomangioma of the knee with no response to sclerotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Rahmani, MD

    2017-06-01

    This case demonstrates that glomus tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions which recur after sclerotherapy even in locations not typically associated with glomus tumors such as the knee. This possibility supports the benefit of surgical excision in refractory vascular lesions to support both diagnosis and more definitive treatment.

  7. Effect of Biofertilizers and Irrigation Intervals on Yield Component and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaberi

    2016-02-01

    , Azad University, Birjand, Iran, during 2010-2011. Experimental treatments were irrigation intervals in three levels (every 6, 9 and 12 days and biofertilizer in five levels (nitroxin, biophosphorus, and micorhyza fungi G. mosseae, G. intraradices and control-no fertilizer. Fenugreek was planted through furrow in mid-April 2010. The distance between rows and between plants was 30 and 10 cm, respectively. Seeds were covered by Nitroxin (including: Azotobacterchroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense and biophosphrous (including: Pseudomonas fluorescens and then were cultured.They were used at a depth of 2cm below the seed from Glomusintraradiceand Glomus mosseae. Fenugreek was harvested in early July when the plants became yellow and at least 80% of the pods were reached. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SAS 9.1 and MSTATC. Mean comparison were compared by the Duncan test at 1% and 5% level of probability. Results and Discussion: Results of statistical analysis showed that irrigation treatments and biofertilizers had significant effect on most indices. Interaction effect of irrigation and biofertilizer were significant on seed and leaf yield (p

  8. Influence of PGPR Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and some Physiological Parameters of Onopordon acanthium in a Cd-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals (HMs are serious threat for environment due to their dangerous effects. These metals as contaminants that can be accumulated in soil and after absorption by plants, finally will be found in food chains. Cadmium (Cd is one of the dangerous HMs that threats the health of plants, living organisms and human. Physicochemical remediation methods may cause large changes in different characteristics of soils . Recently environmental-friendly strategies including phytoremediation have been emphasized by researchers. Phytoremediation that refers to the use of plants and their assistance with microorganisms for remediation of contaminated soils is an effective and low cost method for reclamation of heavy metals polluted soils. The most important limitation of phytoremediation is low availability of heavy metals and sensitivity of plants to contamination. There are evidences that soil microbes can help to overcome these limitations through several ways. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are known to enhance plant growth and survival in heavy metal contaminated soils through different mechanisms including producing promoting metabolites, auxin, siderophore and antibiotics. In this study the role of some strains of PGPR (a mixture of Pseudomonas species including P. putida, P. fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa and AMF (a mixture of Glomus species including G. intraradices, G. mosseae and G. fasciculatum, on uptake and accumulation of Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu as well as some physiological properties of Onopordon (Onopordon acanthium L were evaluated. Materials and Methods:This study was carried out under greenhouse condition as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with two factors including Cd concentration (four levels and microbial treatment (three levels in three replications. Consequently, a soil was selected and spiked uniformly with different concentrations of

  9. The Efficiency of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth Characteristics and some Nutrients Uptake of Plane tree Seedling (Platanus orientalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alipour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses which significantly reduce yield and growth of most of plants. Plane tree is one of the important trees planted in the urban landscapes of Iran. One of the major limiting factors of landscapes development is providing water for plants. Deficit irrigation is a desirable method for saving water use in water deficit conditions and ultimately reducing necessary cost of water securement to landscape plants. Moreover, inoculation of plant root with mycorrhizal fungi can be considered as a method to reduce water demand of plants. In addition, mycorrhiza can increase plant resistance against environmental stress, such as salinity, temperature stress, drought stress and etc. Mycorrhiza can improve drought stress through enhancing water uptake as result of extra radical hyphae and stomatal regulation or transpiration. Increasing P concentration by mycorrhiza inoculation can be another mechansim for drought resistance in plants. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two Glomus species in combination together on plane tree under water deficit for growth characteristics and nutrients uptake such as P, Fe and Zn concentration. Materials and Methods: This outdoor experiment was conducted at - Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, with average temperature 14.2 ºC and 27.9 ºC night/day, respectively and relative humidity 35-70% between Mar and Aug 2012 and repeated under the same condition in 2013. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus on plane saplings response to different applicable water levels (50 and 100% of water needs based on a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments were control (without fertilizer, Germans peat + fertilizer, Germans peat + fertilizer + mycorrhiza in 50% of field capacity and Germans peat + fertilizer + mycorrhizain 100% of field capacity. The Mycorrhiza

  10. Phenolic composition of basil plants is differentially altered by plant nutrient status and inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four cultivars of basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Cinnamon’, ‘Siam Queen’, ‘Sweet Dani’, and ‘Red Rubin’) were inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), Rhizophagus intraradices, and grown with a fertilizer containing either 64 mg/l P (low-P) or 128 mg/l P (high-P) to assess whether (...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis-mediated tomato tolerance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarra, Walter; Maserti, Biancaelena; Gambino, Giorgio; Guerrieri, Emilio; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2016-07-02

    A multidisciplinary approach, involving eco-physiological, morphometric, biochemical and molecular analyses, has been used to study the impact of two different AM fungi, i.e. Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices, on tomato response to water stress. Overall, results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to drought in tomato with a different plant response depending on the involved AM fungal species.

  12. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation on growth, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of our work was to assess the effect of inoculation with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Rhizoglomus aggregatum (N.C. Schenck and G.S. Sm.) Sieverd., G.A. Silva and Oeh., Funneliformis mosseae (T.H. Nicolson and Gerd.) C. Walker and A. Schüssler. and Rhizoglomus intraradices (N.C. Schenck and ...

  13. Chapter 4: Hongos Hipogeos de Tamulipas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero; Efren Cazares-Gonzalez; Gregory Bonito; Rosanne A. Healy; Benjamin Stielow; Jesus Garcia; Fortunato Garza-Ocanas; Michael Castellano; James Trappe

    2014-01-01

    Twenty genera of hypogeous fungi or truffles are reported and illustrated from the State of Tamaulipas. The truffles belong to the following phyla: Glomeromycota (Glomus); Zygomycota (Endogone); hypogeous Ascomycota (Elaphomyces, Genabea, Genea, Hydnobolites, Pachyphloeus, Tuber); and Basidiomycota (...

  14. Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology (Vol. 33)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ladaf 2

    Screen house experiments were conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research ... (Glomus clarum) and compost (sunflower) on the growth and yield of tomato plants. ... green foliage of this plant (Udo, 1982; John et al., tomato plants were ...

  15. The potential of endomycorrhizal fungi in controlling tomato bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... The impact of colonization by three mycorrhizal fungi on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia ... Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) were tested. (Glomus ...... management of fruits and vegetables. Vol.

  16. Effect of Nutritional Management on Yield and Yield Components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa as a Medicinal Plant in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa is an annual plant with a height of about 64 to 429 cm belongs to Malvaceae family. Roselle is self-pollinated and sensitive to cold. Sepals of Roselle are used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It has been reported that Roselle is not native to Iran but it is cultivated extensively in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran. In order to achieve high quality and quantity yield of Roselle sepal it is necessary to improve nutritional systems of plant. Proper management of soil fertility and plant nutrition can preserve environment, improve biodiversity and also increase inputs efficiency. Results showed that use of nutritional resources will improve plant growth. Organic fertilizers such as compost can improve soil fertility as an important source of food that increase yield of plants. Nabila and Aly (2002 observed that use of hen and cow manure increased plant height, number of lateral branches, numbers of fruit and sepal yield of Roselle. Each plant species has the maximum potential in favorable conditions. Therefore, evaluation the effect of climatic and agronomic factors and nutritional management for plants is essential. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of Roselle in response to use of single and combined nutritional resources. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of single and combined organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa, a field experiment was conducted with 12 treatments based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-2014. Treatments included: 1- mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, 2- cow manure, 3- chemical fertilizer, 4- vermicompost, 5- chemical fertilizer + cow manure, 6- chemical fertilizer + vermicompost, 7- chemical fertilizer + mycorrhiza, 8- cow manure

  17. Effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (Solidago canadensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Yu, Guodong; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2008-01-01

    It is less known whether and how soil metal lead (Pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species (Solidago canadensis L.) in a microcosm system. Each microcosm unit was separated into HOST and TEST compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the TEST compartments. Three Pb levels (control, 300, and 600 mg/kg soil) were used in this study to simulate ambient soil and two pollution sites where S. canadensis grows. Mycorrhizal inoculum comprised five indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiform, Glomus diaphanum, Glomus geosporum, and Glomus etunicatum). The 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated nitrogen acquisition of plants. The results showed that S. canadensis was highly dependent on mycorrhizae. The Pb additions significantly decreased biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (root length colonized, RLC%) but did not affect spore numbers, N (including total N and 15N) and P uptake. The facilitating efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient acquisition was promoted by Pb treatments. The Pb was mostly sequestered in belowground of plant (root and rhizome). The results suggest that the high efficiency of mycorrhizae on nutrient uptake might give S. canadensis a great advantage over native species in Pb polluted soils.

  18. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marisângela V; Pereira, Elismara A; Cury, Juliano C; Carneiro, Marco A C

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi make up an important ecological niche in ecosystems, and knowledge of their diversity in extreme environments is still incipient. The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands archipelago, Antarctica. For that, soil and roots of Deschampsia antarctica were collected at the brazilian research station in Antarctica. The spore density, species diversity and mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were evaluated. There was a low density of spores (27.4 ± 17.7) and root mycorrhizal colonization (6 ± 5.1%), which did not present statistical difference. Four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified, distributed in two genera: three species of the genus Glomus (Glomus sp1, Glomus sp2 and Glomus sp3) and one of the genus Acaulospora, which was identified at species level (Acaulospora mellea). Greater soil diversity was verified with pH 5.9 and phosphorus concentration of 111 mg dm-3, occurring two species of genus Glomus and A. mellea. Based on literature data, this may be the first record of this species of Acaulospora mellea in Antarctic soils, colonizing D. antarctica plants.

  19. Beyond the rhizosphere: growth and function of arbuscular mycorrhizal external hyphae in sands of varying pore sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, E.A.; Murray, R.S.; Smith, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Research on nutrient acquisition by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has mainly focused on the root fungus interface and less attention has been given to the growth and functioning of external hyphae in the bulk soil. The growth and function of external hyphae may be affected....... intraradices obtained a greater proportion of P at a distance from the host roots. Differences in P acquisition were not correlated with production of external hyphae in the four media zones and changes in sand pore size did not affect the ability of the fungi studied to acquire P at a distance from the host...... roots. Production of external hyphae in HC2 was influenced by fungal species and media treatment. Both fungi produced maximum amounts of external hyphae in the soil medium. Sand pore size affected growth of G. intraradices (but not G. mosseae) and hyphal diameter distributions of both fungi. The results...

  20. Application of an improved band-gap narrowing model to the numerical simulation of recombination properties of phosphorus-doped silicon emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, J.O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Oltmannsstr, 5, D-79100 Freiburg (Germany); Altermatt, P.P.; Heiser, G.; Aberle, A.G. [Photovoltaics Special Research Centre, University of NSW, 2052 Sydney (Australia)

    2001-01-01

    The commonly used band-gap narrowing (BGN) models for crystalline silicon do not describe heavily doped emitters with desirable precision. One of the reasons for this is that the applied BGN models were empirically derived from measurements assuming Boltzmann statistics. We apply a new BGN model derived by Schenk from quantum mechanical principles and demonstrate that carrier degeneracy and the new BGN model both substantially affect the electron-hole product within the emitter region. Simulated saturation current densities of heavily phosphorus-doped emitters, calculated with the new BGN model, are lower than results obtained with the widely used empirical BGN model of del Alamo.

  1. Mapping the Topography of Europa: The Galileo-Clipper Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2014-11-01

    The renewed effort to return to Europa for global mapping and landing site selection raises the question: What do we know about Europa topography and how do we know it? The question relates to geologic questions of feature formation, to the issue of ice shell thickness, mechanical strength, and internal activity, and to landing hazards. Our topographic data base for Europa is sparse indeed (no global map is possible), but we are not without hope. Two prime methods have been employed in our mapping program are stereo image and shape-from-shading (PC) slope analyses. On Europa, we are fortunate that many PC-DEM areas are also controlled by stereo-DEMs, mitigating the long-wavelength uncertainties in the PC data. Due to the Galileo antenna malfunction, mapping is limited to no more than 20% of the surface, far less than for any of the inner planets. Thirty-seven individual mapping sites have been identified, scattered across the globe, and all have now been mapped. Excellent stereo mapping is possible at all Sun angles, if resolution is below ~350 m. PC mapping is possible at Sun angles greater than ~60 degrees, if emission angles are less than ~40 degrees. The only extended contiguous areas of topographic mapping larger than 150 km across are the two narrow REGMAP mapping mosaics extending pole-to-pole along longitudes 85 and 240 W. These are PC-only and subject to long-wavelength uncertainties and errors, especially in the north/south where oblique imaging produces layover. Key findings include the mean slopes of individual terrain types (Schenk, 2009), topography across chaos (Schenk and Pappalardo, 2004), topography of craters and inferences for ice shell thickness (Schenk, 2002; Schenk and Turtle, 2009), among others. A key discovery, despite the limited data, is that Europan terrains rarely have topographic amplitude greater than 250 meters, but that regionally Europa has imprinted on it topographic amplitudes of +/- 1 km, in the form of raised plateaus and

  2. Glomangiomatosis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzhugh, Valerie A. [Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Newark, NJ (United States); Beebe, Kathleen S. [Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, Newark, NJ (United States); Wenokor, Cornelia; Blacksin, Marcia [Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Glomangiomatosis is a benign vascular variant of a glomus tumor. The lesion represents only 5% of glomus tumors with unusual or atypical features and even fewer glomus tumors with typical features. The lesions are most commonly located in the distal extremities and are multiple, deep, extensive, and often pain producing. They develop from small arteriovenous anastamoses and are most often identified in young adults. The lesions may recur. We present a case of a 33-year-old male who presented clinically with multiple slowly enlarging masses of the leg over a 5-year period, of which one caused significant pain. One of the lesions was reported to be present at birth. Imaging studies were performed and were suggestive of neurofibromatosis. Biopsies from multiple lesions led to an eventual diagnosis of multiple glomangiomatosis. (orig.)

  3. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (Glomales, Zygomycota na Ilha dos Eucaliptos, Represa do Guarapiranga, São Paulo, SP Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycota from "Ilha dos Eucaliptos", Guarapiranga Reservoir, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Paula Gomes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se conhecer a micota de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, Glomales, Zygomycota, coletou-se amostras de solo rizosférico de plantas instaladas em três áreas (plantio de eucaliptos, mata e transição entre ambas em três épocas (março/1996, época chuvosa e final de verão; junho/1996, época de inverno; janeiro/1997, início das chuvas e do verão na Ilha dos Eucaliptos (cerca de 323.500m², na Represa do Guarapiranga, São Paulo, SP. O solo foi processado para a separação dos esporos de FMA segundo a técnica do peneiramento e decantação em via úmida, seguindo-se centrifugação em solução de sacarose 50% (V:V. Os esporos isolados foram preparados em lâminas permanentes com resina PVL. Foram constatados 21 táxons de FMA: Acaulospora excávala Ingleby, Walker & Mason, Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora morrowiae Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora spinosa Walker & Trappe, Acaulospora sp. 1, Acaulospora sp. 2, Acaulospora sp. 3, Acaulospora sp. 4, Entrophospora colombiana Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora gigantea Nicol. & Gerd., Gigaspora ramisporopfwra Spain, Sieverding & Schenck, Glomus aggregatum (Schenck & Smith Koske, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Glomus geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker, Glomus invennayum Hall, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tui., Glomus multisubstensum Mukerjii, Bhattacharjee & Tewari, Scutellospora aff. biornata Spain, Sieverding & Toro e Scutellospora erythropa Koske & Walker. A aplicação do índice de similaridade de Sõrensen entre populações de FMA nas diferentes áreas e as épocas de coletas mostrou valores de 64 a 90%, sugerindo não haver seleção dos FMA mediada por esses fatores.With the aim of verifying the occurence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF, Glomales, Zygomycota, rhizosphere soil samples were collected in three areas (eucaliptus reforestation, forest and intersection and on three

  4. Crescimento e composição mineral da menta em resposta à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada Growth and mineral composition of mint in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone M Freitas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA no crescimento e composição mineral de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, num fatorial 5x4, sendo cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (controle, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita e Acaulospora scrobiculata e quatro doses de P (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas na fase de floração, aos 65 dias após o plantio. Verificou-se que, na ausência de P, os fungos Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita apresentaram maiores percentagens de colonização micorrízica nas raízes e proporcionaram aumentos de 330 e 334% na matéria seca foliar, de 143 e 123% no conteúdo de N, de 224 e 124% no conteúdo de P e de 139 e 142% no conteúdo de K, respectivamente. Os FMA não influenciaram os conteúdos de Ca, Mg, S, Fe e Zn na matéria seca foliar. As doses de P entre 122 e 165 mg kg-1 de solo proporcionaram as maiores produções de matéria seca. Nessas doses, o conteúdo de Mn foi menor quando as plantas foram inoculadas com Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita e Glomus etunicatum. A dependência micorrízica da menta variou de acordo com a espécie de fungo e a dose de P utilizada, sendo maior com os fungos Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, na ausência de P.The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated on the growth and mineral composition of Mentha arvensis L., grown under different phosphorus levels. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a factorial scheme 5x4, with five microbiological treatments (control without AMF, Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita and Acaulospora scrobiculata and four P levels (0; 50; 100 and 200 mg kg-1. A randomized block design was used, with four replications. The plants were harvested at flowering, 65 days

  5. Development and amplification of multiple co-dominant genetic markers from single spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by nested multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Multiple co-dominant genetic markers from single spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus geosporum were amplified by nested multiplex PCR using a combination of primers for simultaneous amplification of five loci in one PCR. Subsequently, each...... marker was amplified separately in nested PCR using specific primers. Polymorphic loci within the three putative single copy genes GmFOX2, GmTOR2, and GmGIN1 were characterized by sequencing and single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP). Primers specific for the LSU rDNA D2 region were included...... are homokaryotic. All isolates of G. mosseae had unique genotypes. The amplification of multiple co-dominant genetic markers from single spores by the nested multiplex PCR approach provides an important tool for future studies of AM fungi population genetics and evolution....

  6. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI INCREASED EARLY GROWTH OF GAHARU WOOD OF Aquilaria malaccencsis and A. crasna UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu wood stand has an important source of profits to the forest community in South and Southeast Asia tropical forest countries, but Aquilaria species have reduced in number and turn out to be endangered due to overexploitation.   Today,   the planting stocks of   Aquilaria species are not sufficient to sustain the yield of gaharu wood and promote forest conservation.  The objective of this study was to determine   the effect of   five arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Entrophospora sp., Gigaspora decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, and Glomus sp. ACA, on the early growth of  Aquilaria malaccensis and A. crasna under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of  Aquilaria spp. were inoculated with Entrophospora sp., Gi. decipiens, Glomus clarum, Glomus sp. ZEA, Glomus sp. ACA and uninoculated (control under greenhouse conditions. Then, percentage AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate and nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P content and mycorrhizal dependence (MD were measured. The percentage AM colonization of A. malaccensis and A. crasna ranged from 83 to 97% and from 63 to 78%, respectively. Colonization by five AM fungi increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. N and P content of  the seedlings were also increased by AM colonization. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than those in the control seedlings. The MD of Aquilaria species was higher than 55 %. The results suggested that AM fungi can be inoculated`to Aquilaria species under nursery conditions to obtain vigorous seedlings, and the field experiment is underway to clarify the role of AM fungi under field conditions.

  7. A legacy of tinnitus: multiple head and neck paragangliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Turner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient who presented with a right-sided glomus jugulare tumor and bilateral glomus vagale tumors. These proved to be nonmalignant paragangliomas on histopathological analysis. Genetic analysis revealed a germline heterozygous missense mutation (Pro81Leu in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD gene. We discuss the clinical presentations of the familial paraganglioma syndrome type 1, which is caused by mutations in SDHD, and the implications for the clinical diagnosis and care of such patients.

  8. Response of Sesbania grandiflora to Inoculation of Soil with Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, M; Aziz, T

    1985-09-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of two tropical isolates of Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus mosseae on the nutrient uptake and growth of Sesbania grandiflora. Inoculation of sterile soil with the fungi significantly improved growth and nutrient uptake by S. grandiflora, but the response of the legume was markedly better when the soil was inoculated with G. fasciculatum than when it was inoculated with G. mosseae. Nutrient uptake and growth of S. grandiflora in nonsterile soil was also significantly stimulated by inoculation, but the legume did not respond differently to the two endophytes under this condition.

  9. Paraganglioma of the head and neck region: treatment outcome and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, Naren; Bhaddy, Nasir; Holliday, Michael; Lee, D.-J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long term results of treating paraganglioma (glomus tumor) of the head and neck region, in terms of local control and toxicities. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 38 patients with a diagnosis of a paraganglioma of the head and neck region who had received their therapy at our hospital from 1972 to 1994. Nine patients received definitive radiotherapy (XRT), 7 had surgical resection plus postoperative XRT and 22 patients had surgical resection only. There were 11 males and 27 females. The median age was 50 years with a range of 15 to 78. XRT, either definitive or postoperative, consisted of 1.8 Gy per fraction to a total of 45 to 50.4 cGy. In terms of surgery for the postoperative XRT group, resection of the glomus tumor in the neck or temporal bone was carried out in 6, and in one patient additional suboccipital craniotomy (2-staged) for removal of the intracranial portion of the tumor was performed. For the surgery alone group, 18 patients had resection of the glomus tumor in the neck or temporal bone, and 4 patients required additional two-staged suboccipital craniotomy. Results: In the XRT group, 14 patients had glomus jugulare and 2 patients had glomus typanicum tumor. With a median follow-up of 5 years (range: 2 to 21), one of the 16 patients developed local recurrence. In the surgery only group (15 glomus jugulare, 4 glomus typanicum and 3 glomus vegalis), 5 of the 22 patients developed local recurrence, with a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2 to 15). The difference in the local control rates was not statistically significant (Fisher's test, p= 0.18). XRT was well tolerated. One patient developed facial nerve paralysis 5 years following XRT. Whereas in the surgery only group, the long term sequela was mainly cranial nerve dysfunction which affected the facial nerve in 2, the facial nerve plus the lingual nerve in one and facial plus cranial nerves VI, IX and XII in another (p=0.28). Conclusion

  10. Colonização e crescimento de mudas de café inoculadas com fungo micorrízico arbuscular em solos com doses de P e umidades controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Samuel Dias

    2014-01-01

    Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) são capazes de estimular o crescimento das plantas, sobre tudo pelo efeito na nutrição mineral e hidratação, onde possibilita maior absorção de água e nutrientes. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a colonização e o crescimento de plantas de café inoculadas com FMA em solos com doses de fósforo (P) e diferentes umidades. Foram produzidas mudas de café (Coffea arabica) micorrizadas utilizando inóculos contendo esporos de Glomus calrum, Glomus etuni...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manga, Anicet. Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Le champignon arbusculaire Glomus aggregatum améliore la nutrition minérale de Acacia seyal soumis au stress salin progressif. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  12. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  13. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi prevalence and diversity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and population levels of VAM fungi in a range of field soil environments in Zimbabwe were determined. The main VAM genera Acaulospora, Scutellospora, Gigaspora, Glomus, Sclerocystis and Entrophospora were represented in the study sites. The relative abundance was ...

  14. Chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Man Soo; Lee, Sang Youl; Chung, Jae Gul; Lee, Deok Hee; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Kang Nung Hospital, Ulsan Univ. Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone is a rare lesion. Clinically it has been confused with chordoma, glomus jugulare tumor and meningioma, among other conditions, and due to its anatomic location, cranial nerve palsy is frequently observed. We report a case involving a 50-year-old woman with chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone.

  15. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    26 sept. 2017 ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... rehaussée après injection de Gadolinium, hyper intense en T2, siégeant .... Magnetic resonance imaging ... Glomus tumor imaging: use of MRI for localization of occult.

  16. Chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Man Soo; Lee, Sang Youl; Chung, Jae Gul; Lee, Deok Hee; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik

    2001-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone is a rare lesion. Clinically it has been confused with chordoma, glomus jugulare tumor and meningioma, among other conditions, and due to its anatomic location, cranial nerve palsy is frequently observed. We report a case involving a 50-year-old woman with chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone

  17. Forfodsamputation på en 14-årig dreng efter infiltrerende glomustumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Hoda; Jensen, Claus L; Bonde, Christian T

    2017-01-01

    Glomus tumours are rare dermal tumours, which very seldom can be seen viscerally. The majority is benign small tumours of the skin. Malignancy has been reported in very few cases worldwide. The diagnosis is made clinically supported by MRI-scans and biopsy of the lesion. We present a case story o...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 210 ... M Solomon, AS Ameh, O Ladeji. Vol 33 (2017), Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil by response surface methodology, Abstract PDF. A. Garba, M. M. Abarshi, M. B. Shuaib, R. Sulaiman. Vol 33 (2017), Performance of Glomus clarum and Tithonia diversifolia compost in improving growth ...

  19. 2373-IJBSC-Article-Banito Agnassim

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    In a column values with the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level with Duncan's Multiple Range. Test. M233, M353, B3 and Gd = Glomus strains .... Castillo CG, Puccio F, Morales D, Borie F,. Sieverding E. 2012. Early arbuscular.

  20. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 425 ... Vol 48 (2017), Growth and yield of cassava as influenced by maize ... Vol 40, No 1-2 (2009), Influence of two glomus species on the fertilizer efficiency of ... Vol 45, No 2 (2014), Market participation among rice producing ...

  2. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on cadmium accumulation by different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav; Rossi, L.; Lugon-Moulin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2007), s. 502-510 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : agriculture * Glomus * heavy metals Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2007

  3. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto

    1982-01-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type. (Chiba, N.)

  4. The potential of endomycorrhizal fungi in controlling tomato bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonization by three mycorrhizal fungi on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanaceraum was investigated. Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) were tested (Glomus mosseae, Scutellospora sp. and Gigaspora margarita). Siginificant differences in tomato growth based on plant ...

  5. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. juss) seedling growth as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), specifically, Glomus moseae and cow dung on the growth of Neem (Azadiracchta indica, A. Juss) seedlings was investigated at the forestry quarters, Lagos Street, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments ...

  7. Comparison of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of two Viola species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opik, M; Moora, Mari; Liira, Jaan

    2006-01-01

    The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in roots of rare Viola elatior and common V. mirabilis was investigated using PCR with primers specific for Glomus and common was investigated using PCR with primers specific for group A, followed by single-stranded conformation...

  8. Production of cell wall enzymes in pepper seedlings, inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, produced cellulase, polygal-acturonase and pectin methylestrase enzymes. The activities of the enzymes increased as the pepper seedlings matured in age, showing that the activity of the enzymes in the seedlings was age mediated.

  9. Efficacité des champignons mycorhiziens contre les nématodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 mai 2015 ... Mots clés : Glomus sp., Lycopersicon esculentum, lutte biologique, Meloidogyne spp. Effectiveness of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the parasitic nematodes of tomato in Togo. ABSTRACT. Objectives : To find alternatives to the synthetic pesticides used against nematodes the present work aimed at.

  10. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  11. Responses of soilless grown tomato plants to arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Responses of soilless grown tomato plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (Glomus fasciculatum) colonization in re-cycling and open systems. H. Yildiz Dasgan1*, Sebnem Kusvuran1 and Ibrahim Ortas2. 1Cukurova University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture ...

  12. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  13. Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in saline conditions was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense (NFB) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus clarum on the host plants (Vicia faba) in pot cultures were investigated ...

  14. Response of Gliricidia sepium tree to phosphorus application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was carried out in a green house at Bel Air station to determine effect of phosphorus on the growth of Gliricidia sepium in presence of rhizobial strains and an arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus. A factorial 3 factors block was designed with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus aggregatum, phophorus ...

  15. Studies of microbial development on mycorrhizosphere and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from maize rhizosphere and mycorrhizosphere soil (both sterilized and unsterilized) were studied to assess the compatibility of the arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) with certain soil fungi, bacteria and rhizobacteria followed by assessment of the inhibitory effect of the identified rhizobacteria on ...

  16. Influence of cultivation regime of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolate on its symbiotic efficacy in phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. S.; Vosatka, M.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), from the Phylum Glomeromycota, are a group of soil organisms that forms symbiotic associations with plant roots and can contribute to increase plant biomass and promote phyto restoration of disturbed ecosystems. The influence of cultivation regime of a Glomus geosporum isolate, obtained from a highly alkaline anthropogenic sediment, on its symbiotic efficacy was investigated. (Author)

  17. Interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia: Effects on flax yield in spoil-bank clay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Sudová, Radka; Gryndler, M.; Mikanová, O.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 1 (2011), s. 128-134 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Linum usitatissimum * Glomus * Sinorhizobium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2011

  18. Differential access to phosphorus pools of an Oxisol by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could take up phosphorus (P) from pools that are normally considered unavailable to plants. An aluminum (Al) resistant maize variety, inoculated with three species of Glomus or uninoculated, supplied with nutrient solution without P,

  19. Stimulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by mycotrophic and nonmycotrophic plant root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, R P; Koide, R T

    1993-08-01

    Transformed root cultures of three nonmycotrophic and one mycotrophic plant species stimulated germination and hyphal growth of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum (Becker & Gerd.) in a gel medium. However, only roots of the mycotrophic species (carrot) supported continued hyphal exploration after 3 to 4 weeks and promoted appressoria formation by G. etunicatum.

  20. Stimulation of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Mycotrophic and Nonmycotrophic Plant Root Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiner, R. Paul; Koide, Roger T.

    1993-01-01

    Transformed root cultures of three nonmycotrophic and one mycotrophic plant species stimulated germination and hyphal growth of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum (Becker & Gerd.) in a gel medium. However, only roots of the mycotrophic species (carrot) supported continued hyphal exploration after 3 to 4 weeks and promoted appressoria formation by G. etunicatum.

  1. The resource investigation and community structure characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Chinese fir is one of the most important commercial timber species in south China. ... distribution also associated with seasons and forest age; the most active season .... dry soil, 36.0, 12.08 and 48.08%, the IV of Glomus was.

  2. A comparison of the development and metabolic activity of mycorrhizas formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from different genera on two tropical forage legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddington, C.L.; Dodd, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Two glasshouse experiments were done to assess the development and metabolic activity of mycorrhizas formed by isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from three different genera, Acaulospora, Gigaspora and Glomus on either Pueraria phaseoloides L. or Desmodium ovalifolium L. plants. The

  3. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in jojoba and mariola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloss, H E

    1975-01-01

    Glomus fasculatus was isolated from soil and roots of the indigenous desert plants Parthenium incanum and Simmondsia chinensis, possible sources of rubber and a waxy oil, respectively. It is suggested that inoculation of these plants with mycorrhizal G. spp. could enhance their productivity under cultivation.

  4. USER MANUAL: A Practical Guide to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Ecological Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Cetraspora, Gig : Gigaspora, Cla: Claroideoglomus, Glo: Glomus, Fun: Funneliformis, Sep: Septoglomus, Rhi: Rhizoglomus, Amb: Ambispora, Arc: Archaeospora...Lester, A. Livengood, A. Davis, and L. Yonavjak. 2015. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy . PloS one 10:e0128339

  5. Redox signaling in acute oxygen sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute oxygen (O2 sensing is essential for individuals to survive under hypoxic conditions. The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor, which contains excitable and O2-sensitive glomus cells with O2-regulated ion channels. Upon exposure to acute hypoxia, inhibition of K+ channels is the signal that triggers cell depolarization, transmitter release and activation of sensory fibers that stimulate the brainstem respiratory center to produce hyperventilation. The molecular mechanisms underlying O2 sensing by glomus cells have, however, remained elusive. Here we discuss recent data demonstrating that ablation of mitochondrial Ndufs2 gene selectively abolishes sensitivity of glomus cells to hypoxia, maintaining responsiveness to hypercapnia or hypoglycemia. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species and NADH generated in mitochondrial complex I during hypoxia are signaling molecules that modulate membrane K+ channels. We propose that the structural substrates for acute O2 sensing in CB glomus cells are “O2-sensing microdomains” formed by mitochondria and neighboring K+ channels in the plasma membrane. Keywords: Hypoxia, Acute oxygen sensing, Peripheral chemoreceptors, Carotid body, Adrenal medulla, Mitochondrial complex I, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, Pyridine nucleotides

  6. Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rdna sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots and are found in most ecosystems. In this study the community structure of AMF in a clade of the genus Glomus was examined in undisturbed costal grassland using LSU rDNA sequences amplified from roots of Hieracium...

  7. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto [Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Wakayama (Japan)

    1982-05-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type.

  8. Aspectos ecológicos de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares da mata tropical úmida da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal vesicular-arbuscular fungi of the tropical humid forest of Cardoso Island, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F. B Trufem

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto/1984 a maio/1987, em nove ocasiões, foram coletadas 300 amostras de solo da rizosfera de 35 espécies de plantas nativas da mata tropical úmida do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil, para a investigação da ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA ea obtenção de dados sobre aspectos ecológicos desses microrganismos. Foram verificados 35 taxa de fungos MV A, sete dos quais espécies novas. Os esporos qué ocorreram em maior quantidade foram os de Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd.. Glomus geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. e Glomus microcarpum Tul. & Tul. As plantas cujas rizosferas apresentaram maior número de esporos de fungos MV A foram as de Blechnum serrulatum L.C. Rich., Euterpe edulis Mart, Neomarica caerulia Sprague, Geonoma elegans Mart, e Piper aduncum L. A maior diversidade de espécies de fugnos MV A ocorreu nas rizosferas de Aphettandra sp., Geonoma elegans Mart e Leandra barbinervis Cogn. Verificouse que houve predominancia de espécies de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares clamidospóricas sobre as azigospóricas, bem como que a quantidade de esporos em urna dada rizosfera está diretamente relacionada com a diversidade. Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe e as espécies de Sclerocystis podem ser apontadas como características do ecossistema estudado, que apresentou a média de 50,04 esporos/ 100g de solo.From August/1984 to May/1987, 300 soil samples were collected from the rhizospheres of 35 species of native plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brazil, in a wet tropical forest, to investigate the occurrence and some ecological aspects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungi. Thirty five taxa of VA M fungi were reported, seven of them as new species. The most numerous VA M fungal spores belong to Acaulospora foveata Trappe & Janos, Acaulospora

  9. Fernando De Castro and the discovery of the arterial chemoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio eGonzalez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When De Castro entered the carotid body (CB field, the organ was considered to be a small autonomic ganglion, a gland, a glomus or glomerulus, or a paraganglion. In his 1928 paper, De Castro concluded: In sum, the Glomus caroticum is innervated by centripetal fibers, whose trophic centers are located in the sensory ganglia of the glossopharyngeal, and not by centrifugal [efferent] or secretomotor fibers as is the case for glands; these are precisely the facts which lead to suppose that the Glomus caroticum is a sensory organ. A few pages down, De Castro wrote: The Glomus represents an organ with multiple receptors furnished with specialized receptor cells like those of other sensory organs [taste buds?]…As a plausible hypothesis we propose that the Glomus caroticum represents a sensory organ, at present the only one in its kind, dedicated to capture certain qualitative variations in the composition of blood, a function that, possibly by a reflex mechanism would have an effect on the functional activity of other organs… Therefore, the sensory fiber would not be directly stimulated by blood, but via the intermediation of the epithelial cells of the organ, which, as their structure suggests, possess a secretory function which would participate in the stimulation of the centripetal fibers. In our article we will recreate the experiments that allowed Fernando de Castro to reach this first conclusion. Also, we will scrutinize the natural endowments and the scientific knowledge that drove De Castro to make the triple hypotheses: the CB as chemoreceptor [variations in blood composition], as a secondary sensory receptor which functioning involves a chemical synapse, and as a centre, origin of systemic reflexes. After a brief account of the systemic reflex effects resulting from the CB stimulation, we will complete our article with a general view of the cellular-molecular mechanisms currently thought to be involved in the functioning of this arterial

  10. Fernando de Castro and the discovery of the arterial chemoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Constancio; Conde, Silvia V.; Gallego-Martín, Teresa; Olea, Elena; Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Ramirez, Maria; Yubero, Sara; Agapito, Maria T.; Gomez-Niñno, Angela; Obeso, Ana; Rigual, Ricardo; Rocher, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    When de Castro entered the carotid body (CB) field, the organ was considered to be a small autonomic ganglion, a gland, a glomus or glomerulus, or a paraganglion. In his 1928 paper, de Castro concluded: “In sum, the Glomus caroticum is innervated by centripetal fibers, whose trophic centers are located in the sensory ganglia of the glossopharyngeal, and not by centrifugal [efferent] or secretomotor fibers as is the case for glands; these are precisely the facts which lead to suppose that the Glomus caroticum is a sensory organ.” A few pages down, de Castro wrote: “The Glomus represents an organ with multiple receptors furnished with specialized receptor cells like those of other sensory organs [taste buds?]…As a plausible hypothesis we propose that the Glomus caroticum represents a sensory organ, at present the only one in its kind, dedicated to capture certain qualitative variations in the composition of blood, a function that, possibly by a reflex mechanism would have an effect on the functional activity of other organs… Therefore, the sensory fiber would not be directly stimulated by blood, but via the intermediation of the epithelial cells of the organ, which, as their structure suggests, possess a secretory function which would participate in the stimulation of the centripetal fibers.” In our article we will recreate the experiments that allowed Fernando de Castro to reach this first conclusion. Also, we will scrutinize the natural endowments and the scientific knowledge that drove de Castro to make the triple hypotheses: the CB as chemoreceptor (variations in blood composition), as a secondary sensory receptor which functioning involves a chemical synapse, and as a center, origin of systemic reflexes. After a brief account of the systemic reflex effects resulting from the CB stimulation, we will complete our article with a general view of the cellular-molecular mechanisms currently thought to be involved in the functioning of this arterial

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  12. Young surface of Pluto's Sputnik Planitia caused by viscous relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.; Hu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Lin, D. N. C.; Yang, J.; Showman, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The young surface of Pluto's Sputnik Planitia (SP) is one of the most prominent features observed by the New Horizon mission (Moore et al., 2016; Stern et al., 2015). No crater has been confirmed on the heart-shaped SP basin, in contrast to more than 5000 identified over comparable areas elsewhere (Robbins et al., 2016). The SP basin is filled with mostly N2 ice and small amount of CH4 and CO ice (Protopapa et al., 2017). Previous studies suggested that the SP surface might be renewed through vigorous thermal convection (McKinnon et al., 2016), and that the surface age may be as young as 500,000 years. In this paper, we present numerical simulations demonstrating that craters can be removed by rapid viscous relaxation of N2 ice over much shorter timescales. The crater retention age is less than 1000 years if the N2-ice thickness is several kilometers. McKinnon, W. B., Nimmo, F., Wong, T., Schenk, P. M., White, O. L., Roberts, J., . . . Umurhan, O. (2016). Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto's geological vigour. Nature, 534(7605), 82-85. Moore, J. M., McKinnon, W. B., Spencer, J. R., Howard, A. D., Schenk, P. M., Beyer, R. A., . . . White, O. L. (2016). The geology of Pluto and Charon through the eyes of New Horizons. Science, 351(6279), 1284-1293. Protopapa, S., Grundy, W. M., Reuter, D. C., Hamilton, D. P., Dalle Ore, C. M., Cook, J. C., . . . Young, L. A. (2017). Pluto's global surface composition through pixel-by-pixel Hapke modeling of New Horizons Ralph/LEISA data. Icarus, Volume 287, 218-228. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.11.028Robbins, S. J., Singer, K. N., Bray, V. J., Schenk, P., Lauer, T. R., Weaver, H. A., . . . Porter, S. (2016). Craters of the Pluto-Charon system. Icarus. Stern, S. A., Bagenal, F., Ennico, K., Gladstone, G. R., Grundy, W. M., McKinnon, W. B., . . . Zirnstein, E. (2015). The Pluto system: Initial results from its exploration by New Horizons. Science, 350(6258), aad1815.

  13. Transfer of N and P from intact or decomposing roots of pea to barley interconnected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    of growth. In half of the containers, the donor-plant shoot was removed 42 d after the start of labelling and the roots were left in the soil to decompose. The reverse transfer of N and P, from barley donor to pea receiver plants was also measured to allow calculation of the net transfer through hyphae...... by G, intraradices. The results for P transfer followed the same patterns as was observed for N, although in smaller proportions. The results indicate that arbuscular mycorrhizas may play a significant role in the flow of N and P between two plants interconnected by hyphae, when the root system of one...

  14. Desempenho de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares na produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, em diferentes substratos Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi performance to produce mycorrhizal passionflower seedlings under different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo selecionar fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs eficientes na promoção do crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, em substrato esterilizado, com diferentes níveis de fertilidade, em função da adição ou não de matéria orgânica. Foram realizados três experimentos, em casa de vegetação. No primeiro, empregou-se como substrato uma mistura de 2:1:1 de areia, solo (Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico e esterco de curral; no segundo, uma mistura de 1:1 de solo e areia e no terceiro, uma mistura de 9:1 de solo e esterco de curral. Os FMAs empregados foram: Acaulospora sp.(IAC-13, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus sp (IAC-27, Acaulospora morrowae, Acaulospora sp. (IAC-44, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Scutellospora heterogama, Glomus clarum,Glomus sp. (IAC-28, Entrophospora colombiana, Glomus etunicatum e Glomus macrocarpum. No terceiro experimento, empregaram-se G. clarum, Glomus sp. (IAC-28, G. margarita, G. etunicatum e G. macrocarpum (IAC-50, uma mistura dessas espécies e populações de fungos nativos, oriundas de solo de uma cultura de maracujá estabelecida no campo e multiplicadas em Brachiaria decumbens, maracujazeiro e amendoinzeiro. Os efeitos positivos da micorrização foram maiores no substrato sem adição de matéria orgânica (esterco de curral, não superando, entretanto, o efeito da sua adição. G. clarum, G. etunicatum e G. margarita promoveram aumento significativo na produção de matéria seca. No substrato com adição de 25% de matéria orgânica, os fungos Acaulospora sp. (IAC- 44 e A. morrowae foram eficientes na promoção do desenvolvimento das mudas, com desempenho comparável ao Glomus sp. (IAC- 28 no substrato com adição de 10% de esterco de curral. G. clarum mostrou efeito parasítico, diminuindo o crescimento das plantas no substrato com 25% de matéria orgânica.The purpose of this study was to select effective arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the production of yellow

  15. Influência da colonização micorrízica arbuscular sobre a nutrição do quiabeiro Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on the nutrition of okra plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luís Louro Berbara

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em casa de vegetação alguns parâmetros de crescimento em plantas de quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema colonizadas por dois grupos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, com o objetivo de determinar a influência dos inóculos na nutrição e morfologia radicular do quiabeiro. Um grupo continha apenas esporos de Acaulospora longula (A enquanto o outro, esporos de oito espécies: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. As plantas foram submetidas a três níveis de P (0, 10 e 60 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e coletadas em três diferentes idades (22, 32 e 47 dias, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Foi determinado o acúmulo de N, P, K, e Mg na raiz e parte aérea, bem como o influxo médio desses elementos e a área radicular. Os resultados indicaram, além da resposta positiva do quiabeiro ao P, uma maior eficiência da inoculação com mistura de espécies apesar de o influxo médio, determinado aos 47 dias, apresentar maiores valores para o tratamento com A. longula.An experiment was carried out in greenhouse to determine the influence of inoculation of two groups of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the nutrition and radicular morphology of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cv. Piranema. One group had only Acaulospora longula spores and the other a spore mixture of eight species: Glomus occultum, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowae, Sclerocystis coremioides, Sclerocystis sinuosa, Scutellospora pellucida. The experiment was held in greenhouse conditions with three levels of P (0, 10 and 60 kg ha-1 of P2O5, three samplings dates (22, 32 and 47 days and four replications. The accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in roots and shoots, root area and their influx ratio were determined. The results made evident that the mixture of

  16. The influence of auxins on the biosynthesis of isoprene derivatives in callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop were optimized for their isoprene derivatives production by supplementing Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium with constant concentration of kinetin (2.32 microM) and two different amounts of selected auxins. Every auxin, except for IBA, used in 10-time higher concentration (2,4D, NAA, IAA, NOA) stimulated biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and inhibited triterpene synthesis. Quantitative analysis of isoprene derivatives in callus biomass collected on the 25th day of the experiment proved that the analyzed callus of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop synthesized the highest amount of isoprene derivatives after subculturing on SH medium modified with 22.6 microM of 2,4D and 2.32 microM of kinetin.

  17. Inoculation of HMA and phosphoric fertilizer requirements Ipomea batata (L. Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Espinosa Cuéllar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As well as sweet potato is a micotrófico crop, litle results where P fertilizer requirements associated with inoculation of strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (HMA are reported. For these purposes two experiments were performed, evaluating the response of the clones ‘INIVIT B2-2005’ or ‘CEMSA 78-354’ to application of five doses of phosphoric fertilizer with or without the application of the species Rhizoglomus intraradices (INCAM-11 in Phaeozems haplic calcari, in a randomized block design, factorial arrangement and four replications. Tuber yield, percentage of mycorrhizal colonization of mycorrhizal spores contained 50 g of soil and phosphorus content in the leaf, stem and root tuberous were evaluated. A significant response mineral fertilization in performance with an optimal dose of 75 kg ha-1, which decreased to 50 kg ha -1 when soil was inoculated with R. intraradices was found, while maintaining equivalent yields . This effect was similar in both clones and in both years. Inoculation significantly increased the percentage of colonization and spores and the highest values ever obtained in the treatment of 50 kg ha-1 of P2O5 , lower and upper fertilizations showed lower values. The contents of phosphorus in different organs also showed a similar response. It is concluded that efficient inoculating strain originates adequate mycorrhizal HMA performance in the presence of medium doses of fertilizer, ensuring high yields with lower doses of these.

  18. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficiency using the amphibious plant iris to restore polluted water, the promoting effect of different arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi(AMFon iris was investigated, by monitoring the plant growth index, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the plant photosynthesis indexes. The result showed that the promoting effects of the AMF on the aboveground part and the underground part of the iris were based on different mechanism. For the underground part of the iris, the AMF stimulated its growth through the nutrient enrichment which was performed by the enormous hypha network. The nitrogen absorbing rate of the G. mosseae and the G. intraradices infected iris increased about 71.75% and 42.55%, and the phosphorous absorbing rate increased 8.36% and 9.5% separately. For the aboveground part of the iris, the AMF strengthened the conductance of the leaves’ stomas to control the balance between the net photosynthesis rate and the transpiration rate, so that the utilization rate of water resources was optimized, the metabolic rate was accelerated and the growth of the plant was promoted eventually. In this study, the promoting effect of the G. mosseae on the photosynthesis rate of the iris was significantly better than that of the G. intraradices(P<0.05.

  19. Distribution of dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi among five plant species in undisturbed vegetation of a coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Most plant species in mixed grassland vegetation are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Previous studies have reported differences in host preferences among AM fungi, although the fungi are known to lack host specificity. In the present study, the distribution of phylogenetic groups...... of AM fungi belonging to a clade of Glomus species was studied in five plant species from a coastal grassland in Denmark. The occurrence of the fungi was determined by PCR analyses of fungal large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences amplified from root fragments using a specific primer set. The results...... showed that the dominant Glomus species were able to colonize all the studied plant species, supporting the view that the AM fungi represent a large underground interconnecting mycelial network....

  20. Production and infectivity of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi multiplied in a substrate supplemented with Tris-HCl buffer Produção e infectividade de inóculo de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares multiplicados em substrato suplementado com tampão Tris-HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding Tris-HCl buffer on production and infectivity of AMF inoculum was investigated. Sporulation of Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora longula and Gigaspora albida was improved in solution with buffer. The infectivity of G. etunicatum increased after storage, what suggests that the inoculum of this isolate is benefited by storage.O efeito da adição do tampão Tris-HCl na produção e infectividade de inóculo foi investigado. A esporulação de Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora longula e Gigaspora albida foi incrementada utilizando solução com tampão. A infectividade de G. etunicatum aumentou após estocagem, sugerindo que o inóculo deste isolado é beneficiado pelo armazenamento.

  1. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and pesticides on Cynara cardunculus growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. is a promising crop for biomass production. A nursery trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation on the biomass yield of wild cardoon seedlings and the effect of the pesticides fosetyl-Al, folpet and propamocarb, as fungicides, and isofenphos, phoxim and oxamyl, as insecticides, on cardoon plant growth and the mycorrhization. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi inocula were: commercial inoculum with Glomus mosseae spores, and an inoculum of a Glomus sp. strain (AMF-i isolated locally. Mycorrhizal inoculation with either inoculum increased cardoon shoot biomass compared to non-inoculated control plants. The pesticide applications had a neutral or positive effect on cardoon seedling growth. However, the AM fungi colonisation did not decrease except for plants colonised by G. mosseae and treated with the insecticides isofenphos and oxamyl. Thus, the mycorrhiza can survive to pesticide concentrations employed in commercial nursery, and enhance cardoon plant productivity.

  2. Glomangiomyoma of the neck in a child in Nepal: a rare case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishow Tulachan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glomangiomyoma is a rare histological variant of glomus tumour. Clinically, it mimicks as a haemangioma and is challenging to diagnose. Its occurrence in the neck of a child has not been previously described. Case presentation A 3 year old girl presented with the complaints of painless progressive neck swelling in the right side for one and half year. Sonography, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, CT neck angiography and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC were suggestive of vacular malformation i.e. giant haemangioma or arteriovenous malformation. The mass was removed in toto under general anaesthesia without postoperative complications. The histopathology confirmed it to be glomangiomyoma with haemangiopericytoma like features. Conclusion It’s an extremely rare variant of glomus tumour and may be the first report of a glomangiomyoma in the neck of a child. Despite a rare entity, it should be borne in mind during differential diagnosis.

  3. Fungal associations of roots of dominant and sub-dominant plants in high-alpine vegetation systems with special reference to mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwandter, K; Read, D J

    1980-04-01

    Types of root infection were analysed in healthy dominant and sub-dominant plants of zonal and azonal vegetation above the timberline in the Central and Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. In the open nival zone vegetation, infection by fungi of the Rhizoctonia type was predominant, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, which was mostly of the fine endophyte (Glomus tenuis) type, being light and mainly restricted to grasses in closed vegetation patches. More extensive Glomus tenuis infection was found in the alpine grass heath, but in Carex, Rhizoctonia was again the most important fungus. The ericaceous plants of the dwarf shrub heath have typical ericoid infection, but quantitative analysis reveals a decrease of infection intensity with increase of altitude. The possible function of the various types of root infection are discussed, and the status of Rhizoctonia as a possible mycorrhizal fungus is considered.

  4. Mycorrhizal Inoculum Production Technique for Land Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Setiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spora cendawan mikoriza arbuskula (CMA telah dikoleksi dan diisolasi dari berbagai jenis tanah masam berfikasi P-tinggi di Indonesia. Lima isolate CMA lokal telah berhasil diperoleh dari spora tunggal dengan teknik “test tube culture” dan dikembangkan-biakan dengan sistem “open pot culture”. Kelima isolate tersebut adalah Acaulospora delicata (EJ-01. Acaulospora tuberculata (INDO-2, Glomus manihotis (INDO-1, Glomus mosseae (PAL-03 dan Entrophospora colombiana (LAM-36. Kelima biakan isolate CMA tersebut, dipelihara dengan tanaman inang Kudzu pada media zeolit yang diperkaya nutrisi. Dengan mempelajari berbagai tipe media, ukuran partikel, pH dan komposisi nutrisi, isolate CMA terpilih telah berhasil dapat diperbanyak dalam skala industri dengan menggunakan inang sorghum. Dengan tehnik pra-inokulasi di persemaiaan maka penggunaan mikoriza dalam skala besar di bidang kehutanan dapat direalisasikan.

  5. Interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.A.; Quint, D.J.; Sanders, W.P.; Patel, S.C.; Boulos, R.S.; Burke, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation reviews the authors' angiographic approach to interventional cases and demonstrates examples of procedures we have performed including preoperative embolizations (dural, arteriovenous malformations, meningioma, juvenile angiofibroma, gliosarcoma, glomus tympanicum, hemangiopericytoma, and spinal hemangioma), therapeutic interventions (balloon occlusion of cavernous-carotid and vertebral fistulas, intracranial and extracranial aneurysms, and angioplasty of vertebral, external carotid, and subclavian arteries), and pain management (alcohol injection of spine metastases). Potential and actual complications are reviewed

  6. Crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis) associadas a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (Glomeromycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Maryluce Albuquerque da; Cavalcante,Uided Maaze Tibúrcio; Silva,Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da; Soares,Sueli Aparecida Gomes; Maia,Leonor Costa

    2004-01-01

    Para determinar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre o crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado usando cinco tratamentos de inoculação (200 esporos/planta de Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Sanders e controle não inoculado), com sete repetições. ...

  7. 1702-IJBCS -Article-Adamou Haougui +

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    en juin la densité de Glomus sp sur Portulaca oleracea du site 2 est plus importante. La fréquence moyenne d'apparition des espèces de M.V.A. varie de 16,6 à 100%. Densité des spores par sites. La Figure 2 montre la densité moyenne des spores par site. La densité moyenne générale de spores obtenue est de 28,48.

  8. 1840-IJBCS-Article-Sarr Bathie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    des minitubercules. Le calibre des minitubercules présente une variabilité de réponse selon la variété de pomme de terre et le type d'insecticide. Ce travail a permis ... Glomus mosseae avec l'application des insecticides au sol chez les variétés Aïda et Atlas de la pomme de terre. .... tubes de verres (22x150 mm) contenant.

  9. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize plants under low-temperature stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xian-Can; Song, Feng-Bin; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus tortuosum on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism of Zea mays L. grown under low-temperature stress was investigated. Maize plants inoculated or not inoculated with AM fungus were grown in a growth chamber at 258C for 4 weeks...... temperature regimes. AM symbiosis modulated C metabolic enzymes, thereby inducing an accumulation of soluble sugars, which may have contributed to an increased tolerance to low temperature, and therefore higher Pn in maize plants....

  10. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  11. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  12. Identification of a Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus by Using Monoclonal Antibodies in an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay †

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sara F.; Morton, Joseph B.; Sworobuk, Janis E.

    1987-01-01

    Spore morphology is currently used to identify species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We report the first use of a highly specific immunological method for identification of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Two monoclonal antibodies were produced against Glomus occultum. Monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly with both spores and hyphae in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All other mycorrhizal (29 species) and nonmycorrhizal (5 species) fungi tested were no...

  13. Respons Fisiologi Beberapa Genotipe Kedelai yang Bersimbiosis dengan MVA terhadap Berbagai Tingkat Cekaman Kekeringan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSOH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Present research was aimed to study physiological changes of soybean which were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM. Glomus etunicatum was exposed to moderate and severe drought condition. Symbiotic association with VAM improved adaptability as it was shown by the increasing leaf proline content. The MLG 3474 and Sindoro are the more tolerant genotypes while the responses of plant to VAM on improving the adaptability to drought were larger on Lokon.

  14. The Physiological Response of Soybean Genotypes to VAM Inoculation on Selected Drought Stress Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSOH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Present research was aimed to study physiological changes of soybean which were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM. Glomus etunicatum was exposed to moderate and severe drought condition. Symbiotic association with VAM improved adaptability as it was shown by the increasing leaf proline content. The MLG 3474 and Sindoro are the more tolerant genotypes while the responses of plant to VAM on improving the adaptability to drought were larger on Lokon.

  15. Sporulation of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates inside dead seed cavities and glass capillaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Batkhuugyin, Enkhtuya; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 269-284 ISSN 0334-5114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA526/99/P032; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Chenopodium album seeds * Glomus * indigenous AMF isolates Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2004

  16. PERTUMBUHAN KACANG HIAS (Arachis pintoi PADA MEDIA TANAH PASCA PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA YANG DIPERKAYA MIKORIZA, KAPUR DAN PUPUK NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie Samodra Laya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of the provision of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, the provision of lime, and the provision of NPK fertilizer, and the interaction effect of the provision of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, lime and NPK fertilizers in promoting the growth of pinto peanut in the soil media of post-mining land. The research method used was a completely randomized design (CRD three-factor factorial with the first factor is the type of inoculant FMA (M = 3 levels, the second factor is the provision of lime (K = 3 levels, and the third factor is the NPK fertilizer (P = 3 levels. These results indicated that the interaction between AMF Glomus sp. and NPK fertilizer dose of 1 gram/polybag can increase height increase pinto peanut plants for 34.16 % of the controls. The interaction between AMF Gigaspora sp. The lime dose of 50 % Al-dd and Fertilizers NPK dose of 1 gram/polybag can increase the growth of leaves pinto peanut plants at 108.33 % of the controls. The interaction between AMF Glomus sp. and NPK fertilizer dose of 2 grams/polybag can increase canopy and root biomass pinto peanut plants at 245.21 % of the controls. The interaction between AMF Glomus sp. and NPK fertilizer dose of 2 grams/polybag can increase canopy and root biomass pinto peanut plants at 245.21 % of the controls. Level relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD was influenced by the type of AMF plant inoculated host. Highest RMD shown in pinto peanut using AMF Glomus sp. is 31.99% at moderately dependent.

  17. Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with different land use systems of Arunachal Pradesh of Eastern Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, A; Nath, P C; Shukla, A K

    2015-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the main component of soil microbial population in most agroecosystems. They forms a close association with more than 80% of the plant species making immobilized mineral nutrients available to the plants in order to sustain normal growth and reproduction. In this study the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi has been examined in seven land use ecosystems of Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalayan region. A total of 24 species of AM fungi belonging to 4 genera viz., Glomus, Scutellospora, Aculospora and Gigaspora were isolated from the soil samples collected from different land use systems. Glomus was the dominant genera and Glomus occulatum was the most abundant species in all the seven land use systems. Total spore number was highly variable among all the land use systems. Species richness was recorded highest in natural forest that maintains a faster nutrient cycle with the highest diversity index. The Jhum fallow land and tea garden has the least number of AM fungal species due to high disturbance of fire and application of fungicides and inorganic fertilizer. Further the plant species composition, particularly the ground vegetation coverage and disturbance level affects the distribution of the AM fungal species. In our study it has been shown that AMF diversity is significantly affected by the land use practices practiced by the people. Hence, the AM fungi isolated from different land use system may be useful in improving the agriculture practices particularly the plantation crops in the region.

  18. Growth promoting characteristics of rhizobacteria and AM Fungi for biomass amelioration of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhiza were evaluated on the growth (biomass and yield of Zea mays. In the present study, selective rhizospheric PGPR (Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azospirillum brasilense and Streptomyces sp. and a combination of six strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Acaulospora morrowae, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mossae, Glomus aggregatum and Scutellospora calospora were isolated and identified with standard methods and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PGPR and AMF were checked for their growth-promoting behavior under specific treatment conditions. The 30-48-day-old treated plants in all combinations showed a significantly higher mass value. The average dry weight from the shoot was in a range from 41-52% as compared to the control. This increase also translated into a higher mass value of the roots. Overall, an 82% growth rate was observed in terms of height as the consequence of biomass production, specifically in the case of AMF + rhizobacteria combination. We report an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective biofertilizer for enhanced biomass of Z. mays, one of the staple food crops worldwide.

  19. Establishment of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and other microorganisms on a beach replenishment site in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, D M; Will, M E

    1988-02-01

    Beach replenishment is a widely used method of controlling coastal erosion. To reduce erosional losses from wind, beach grasses are often planted on the replenishment sands. However, there is little information on the microbial populations in this material that may affect plant establishment and growth. The objectives of this research were to document changes in the populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and other soil microorganisms in replenishment materials and to determine whether roots of transplanted beach grasses become colonized by beneficial microbes. The study was conducted over a 2-year period on a replenishment project in northeastern Florida. Three sampling locations were established at 1-km intervals along the beach. Each location consisted of three plots: an established dune, replenishment sand planted with Uniola paniculata and Panicum sp., and replenishment sand left unplanted. Fungal and bacterial populations increased rapidly in the rhizosphere of beach grasses in the planted plots. However, no bacteria were recovered that could fix significant amounts of N(2). The VAM fungi established slowly on the transplanted grasses. Even after two growing seasons, levels of root colonization and sporulation were significantly below those found in the established dune. There was a shift in the dominant VAM fungi found in the planted zone with respect to those in the established dunes. The most abundant species recovered from the established dunes were Glomus deserticola, followed by Acaulospora scrobiculata and Scutellospora weresubiae. The VAM fungi that colonized the planted zone most rapidly were Glomus globiferum, followed by G. deserticola and Glomus aggregatum.

  20. Caso para diagnóstico Case for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdilene Loures de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor glômico é neoplasia benigna originada de células glômicas que circundam anastomoses arteriovenosas e têm função de reguladores de temperatura. São classificados em solitários e múltiplos, adquiridos ou congênitos e histopatologicamente em tumor glômico sólido propriamente dito, glomangioma e glomangiomioma. Os glomangiomas congênitos são extremamente raros, com menos de 20 casos documentados na literatura mundial. Descreve-se caso de glomangioma congênito múltiplo em recém-nato, com regressão parcial espontânea após seis meses de acompanhamento.Glomus tumors are benign lesions that are derived from the glomus cells surrounding arteriovenous anastomoses that serve as temperature regulators. They can be classified into solitary and multiple, acquired or congenital and, histopathologically, into 3 variants: glomus tumor proper, glomangioma and glomangiomyoma. Congenital glomangiomas are extremely rare and less than 20 cases have been documented in the world literature. We report a case of congenital multiple glomangioma present from birth with spontaneous partial regression after six months of follow-up.

  1. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  2. PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SENGON (PARASERIANTHES FALCATARIA L. TERINFEKSI MIKORIZA PADA LAHAN TERCEMAR Pb.

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    Triono Bagus Saputro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraserianthes falcataria plant is well known to be capable to make an excellent association and symbiosis with mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae can improve the plant's ability to survive in heavy metal contaminated land, one of which is Pb (lead. Pb is the main heavy metal pollutants in all environments. This aims of this research were to determine the accumulation of Pb on sengon plant roots and its growth in Pb contaminated media. This research uses a completely randomized design. Pb(NO32 were given at a dose of 833 mg/kg and the concentration of mycorrhizal inoculation of Glomus sp. used were 25, 50 and 75 grams of mycorrhizae. The measured parameters were plant height, root length, plant dry weight, accumulation of Pb in roots, chlorophyll and protein profile test. The results showed that 75 grams of mycorrhizal Glomus sp. were the highest on several parameters including plant height, dry weight, root length. The chlorophyll content were grown on media containing Pb with each value of 77.5 cm; 17.86 grams; 31.5 cm; 8.99 g/ml. A dose of 75 grams of Glomus sp. also increased the absorption and accumulation of Pb in the roots with 3.60 ppm. while the protein electrophoresis show the specific band in P. falcataria that exposed to Pb with molecular weight 53.67 kDa.

  3. Selective accumulation of biotin in arterial chemoreceptors: requirement for carotid body exocytotic dopamine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Macías, David; Levitsky, Konstantin L; Rodríguez-Gómez, José A; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Bonilla-Henao, Victoria; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; López-Barneo, José

    2016-12-15

    Biotin, a vitamin whose main role is as a coenzyme for carboxylases, accumulates at unusually large amounts within cells of the carotid body (CB). In biotin-deficient rats biotin rapidly disappears from the blood; however, it remains at relatively high levels in CB glomus cells. The CB contains high levels of mRNA for SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Animals with biotin deficiency exhibit pronounced metabolic lactic acidosis. Remarkably, glomus cells from these animals have normal electrical and neurochemical properties. However, they show a marked decrease in the size of quantal dopaminergic secretory events. Inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mimic the effect of biotin deficiency. In biotin-deficient animals, VMAT2 protein expression decreases in parallel with biotin depletion in CB cells. These data suggest that dopamine transport and/or storage in small secretory granules in glomus cells depend on biotin. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin required for the function of carboxylases as well as for the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report that biotin accumulates in unusually large amounts in cells of arterial chemoreceptors, carotid body (CB) and adrenal medulla (AM). We show in a biotin-deficient rat model that the vitamin rapidly disappears from the blood and other tissues (including the AM), while remaining at relatively high levels in the CB. We have also observed that, in comparison with other peripheral neural tissues, CB cells contain high levels of SLC5a6, a biotin transporter, and SLC19a3, a thiamine transporter regulated by biotin. Biotin-deficient rats show a syndrome characterized by marked weight loss, metabolic lactic acidosis, aciduria and accelerated breathing with normal responsiveness to hypoxia. Remarkably, CB cells from biotin-deficient animals have normal electrophysiological and neurochemical (ATP levels and catecholamine synthesis) properties; however

  4. Hyphal N transport by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus associated with cucumber grown at three nitrogen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jakobsen, I.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    colonization at all three levels of N supply, but this effect was strongest in plants of low N status. The results indicated that this increase was due partly to the improved inflow of N via the external hyphae. Root colonization by G. intraradices was unaffected by the amount of N supplied to the RC, while...... hyphal length increased in HC(A) compared to HC(B). Although a considerable N-15 content was detected in mycorrhizal roots adjacent to HC(B), only insignificant amounts of N-15 were found in the external hyphae in HC(B). The external hyphae depleted the soil of inorganic N in both HC(A) and HC(B), while...

  5. Evaluating the growth parameters of soybean in response to plant growth promoting fungi under Mazandaran climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad yazdani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In low-input cropping systems, the natural roles of microorganisms in maintaining soil fertility may be more important than conventional system. In order to investigate the effects of plant growth promoting fungi on improvement of growth and development in soybean (cv: JK an experiment was conducted at the research farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during the 2011-2012 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a factorial experiment based a completely randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was six levels of fungi: inoculation T. harzianum and AMF genus Glumus: G. mosseae, G. intraradices, and co-inoculation of T. harzianum + G. mosseae, T. harzianum + G. intraradices and non-inoculation (control. The second factor was three levels of phosphorus (0, 70 and 140 kg.ha-1 from superphosphate trip. Results showed that inoculation of T. harzianum and G. mosseae significantly had maximum chlorophyll content up to 17% and 16% at reduced phosphorus dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and conventional phosphorus dosage as compared to the control respectively. The greatest effect was recorded at reduced phosphorus dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and conventional phosphorus dosage significant increase in terms of chlorophyll content. In addition, the dry weights and chlorophyll content of soybean plants in reduced phosphorous dosage (70 kg.ha-1 and co-inoculated with T. harzianum + G. mosseae as well as conventional phosphorous dosage were significantly higher than the non-inoculated plants. In this experiment, at reduce phosphate fertilizer (P0%: 0 treatment, not affected of plant growth promoting fungi compared to control. But, reduced phosphorous dosage (70 kg.ha-1 was more affected.

  6. Caesium inhibits the colonization of Medicago truncatula by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesel, Lea; Dubchak, Sergiy; Turnau, Katarzyna; Broadley, Martin R.; White, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soils with radioisotopes of caesium (Cs) is of concern because of their emissions of harmful β and γ radiation. Radiocaesium enters the food chain through vegetation and the intake of Cs can affect the health of organisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic symbioses with plants through colonization of the roots and previous studies on the influence of AM on Cs concentrations in plants have given inconsistent results. These studies did not investigate the influence of Cs on AM fungi and it is therefore not known if Cs has a direct effect on AM colonization. Here, we investigated whether Cs influences AM colonization and if this effect impacts on the influence of Rhizophagus intraradices on Cs accumulation by Medicago truncatula. M. truncatula was grown with or without R. intraradices in pots containing different concentrations of Cs. Here, we present the first evidence that colonization of plants by AM fungi can be negatively affected by increasing Cs concentrations in the soil. Mycorrhizal colonization had little effect on root or shoot Cs concentrations. In conclusion, the colonization by AM fungi is impaired by high Cs concentrations and this direct effect of soil Cs on AM colonization might explain the inconsistent results reported in literature that have shown increased, decreased or unaffected Cs concentrations in AM plants. - Highlights: • Colonization of plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is negatively affected by increasing soil caesium concentrations. • Shoot caesium concentrations are not influenced by AM fungi at soil caesium concentrations above about 3 μg Cs kg −1 . • The direct effect of caesium on AM fungi might impact on the influence of AM fungi on Cs accumulation in plants. • This might explain the inconsistent results reported in literature on Cs accumulation in AM plants

  7. The Combined Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Lead (Pb) Stress on Pb Accumulation, Plant Growth Parameters, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Enzymes in Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Jie; Tang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered as a potential biotechnological tool for improving phytostabilization efficiency and plant tolerance to heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, the mechanisms through which AMF help to alleviate metal toxicity in plants are still poorly understood. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two AMF species (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices) on the growth, Pb accumulation, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of a leguminous tree (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) at Pb addition levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1 soil. AMF symbiosis decreased Pb concentrations in the leaves and promoted the accumulation of biomass as well as photosynthetic pigment contents. Mycorrhizal plants had higher gas exchange capacity, non-photochemistry efficiency, and photochemistry efficiency compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. The enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidases (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were enhanced, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were reduced in mycorrhizal plants. These findings suggested that AMF symbiosis could protect plants by alleviating cellular oxidative damage in response to Pb stress. Furthermore, mycorrhizal dependency on plants increased with increasing Pb stress levels, indicating that AMF inoculation likely played a more important role in plant Pb tolerance in heavily contaminated soils. Overall, both F. mosseae and R. intraradices were able to maintain efficient symbiosis with R. pseudoacacia in Pb polluted soils. AMF symbiosis can improve photosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capabilities and decrease Pb concentrations in leaves to alleviate Pb toxicity in R. pseudoacacia. Our results suggest that the application of the two AMF species associated with R. pseudoacacia could be a promising strategy for enhancing the phytostabilization efficiency of Pb contaminated

  8. Impact basins on Ganymede and Callisto and implications for the large-projectile size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Neukum, G.; Wolf, U.; Greeley, R.; Klemaszewski, J. E.

    2003-04-01

    It has been conjectured that the projectile family which impacted the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter was depleted in large projectiles, concluded from a ''dearth'' in large craters (> 60 km) (e.g. [1]). Geologic mapping, aided by spatial filtering of new Galileo as well as older Voyager data shows, however, that large projectiles have left an imprint of palimpsests and multi-ring structures on both Ganymede and Callisto (e. g. [2]). Most of these impact structures are heavily degraded and hence difficult to recognize. In this paper, we present (1) maps showing the outlines of these basins, and (2) derive updated crater size-frequency diagrams of the two satellites. The crater diameter from a palimpsest diameter was reconstructed using a formula derived by [3]. The calculation of the crater diameter Dc from the outer boundary Do of a multi-ring structure is much less constrained and on the order of Dc = k \\cdot Do , with k ≈ 0.25-0.3 [4]. Despite the uncertainties in locating the ''true'' crater rims, the resulting shape of the distribution in the range from kilometer-sized craters to sizes of ≈ 500 km is lunar-like and strongly suggests a collisionally evolved projectile family, very likely of asteroidal origin. An alternative explanation for this shape could be that comets are collisionally evolved bodies in a similar way as are asteroids, which as of yet is still uncertain and in discussion. Also, the crater size distributions on Ganymede and Callisto are shifted towards smaller crater sizes compared to the Moon, caused by a much lower impact velocity of impactors which preferentially were in planetocentric orbits [5]. References: [1] Strom et al., JGR 86, 8659-8674, 1981. [2] J. E. Klemaszewski et al., Ann. Geophys. 16, suppl. III, 1998. [3] Iaquinta-Ridolfi &Schenk, LPSC XXVI (abstr.), 651-652, 1995. [4] Schenk &Moore, LPSC XXX, abstr. No. 1786 [CD-Rom], 1999. [5] Horedt & Neukum, JGR 89, 10,405-10,410, 1984.

  9. Unexpected and Unexplained Surface Temperature Variations on Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howett, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Pearl, J. C.; Hurford, T. A.; Segura, M.; Cassini Cirs Team

    2010-12-01

    Until recently it was thought one of the most interesting things about Mimas, Saturn’s innermost classical icy moon, was its resemblance to Star Wars’ Death Star. However, a bizarre pattern of daytime surface temperatures was observed on Mimas using data obtained by Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) in February 2010. The observations were taken during Cassini’s closest ever encounter with Mimas (<10,000 km) and cover the daytime anti-Saturn hemisphere centered on longitude ~145° W. Instead of surface temperatures smoothly increasing throughout the morning and early afternoon, then cooling in the evening, as expected, a sharp V-shaped boundary is observed separating cooler midday and afternoon temperatures (~77 K) on the leading side from warmer morning temperatures (~92 K) on the trailing side. The boundary’s apex is centered at equatorial latitudes near the anti-Saturn point and extends to low north and south latitudes on the trailing side. Subtle differences in the surface colors have been observed that are roughly spatially correlated with the observed extent of the temperature anomaly, with the cooler regions tending to be bluer (Schenk et al., Submitted). However, visible-wavelength albedo is similar in the two regions, so albedo variations are probably not directly responsible for the thermal anomaly. It is more likely that thermal inertia variations produce the anomaly, with thermal inertia being unusually high in the region with anomalously low daytime temperatures. Comparison of the February 2010 CIRS data to previous lower spatial resolution data taken at different local times tentatively confirm that the cooler regions do indeed display higher thermal inertias. Bombardment of the surface by high energy electrons from Saturn’s radiation belts has been proposed to explain the observed color variations (Schenk et al., Submitted). Electrons above ~1 MeV preferentially impact Mimas’ leading hemisphere at low latitudes where they

  10. Ceres' intriguing Occator crater and its faculae: formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Scully, J. E. C.; Bowling, T.; Bu, C.; Castillo, J. C.; Jaumann, R.; Longobardo, A.; Nathues, A.; Neesemann, A.; Palomba, E.; Platz, T.; Quick, L. C.; Raponi, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Ruesch, O.; Russell, C. T.; Schenk, P.; Stein, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since March 2015, the Dawn spacecraft has orbited and explored Ceres, which is a dwarf planet and the largest object in the asteroid belt (radius 470 km). One of the most intriguing features on Ceres' surface is Occator crater, a 92-km-diameter impact crater that contains distinctive bright spots, called faculae, within its floor (Nathues et al., 2015; Russell et al., 2016; Schenk et al., 2017). Occator crater has been dated to 20-30 million years old (Nathues et al., 2017; Neesemann et al., 2017). The single scattering albedo of Occator's faculae is 0.67-0.80, which is greater than Ceres' average single scattering albedo of 0.09-0.11 (Li et al., 2016). The central facula is named Cerealia Facula, and is located in a 9 km wide and 700 m deep pit. There are also multiple additional faculae in the eastern crater floor, which are named the Vinalia Faculae. The faculae are mostly composed of sodium carbonate, are distinct from Ceres' average surface composition and are proposed to be the solid residues of crystallized brines (De Sanctis et al., 2016). The presence of such bright, apparently fresh, material on the surface of a dwarf planet that is billions of years old is intriguing, and indicates that active processes involving brines occurred within the geologically recent past. The Dawn Science Team has investigated whether the processes that formed the crater and the faculae are entirely endogenic, entirely exogenic or a combination of both. For example, the extensive lobate materials within the crater floor have been proposed to be impact melt, mass wasting deposits or cryolava flows (e.g. Buczkowski et al., 2017; Jaumann et al., 2017; Nathues et al., 2017; Schenk et al., 2017). Each possibility has the potential to provide fascinating insights into Ceres' evolution, including the potential for liquids within Ceres' interior today. The team's in-depth investigation of Occator crater will be presented in an upcoming special issue of the journal Icarus. This special

  11. Produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis em resposta à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Yield and quality of essential oils of Mentha arvensis in response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 20 tratamentos, constituídos pela combinação de cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe e controle e quatro doses de P (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas 65 dias após o plantio. Sem adubação fosfatada, os fungos Gigaspora margarita e Glomus clarum aumentaram em 206 e 198%, respectivamente, a produção de matéria fresca em relação ao tratamento controle. A maior produção de matéria fresca (90 g por vaso foi observada no tratamento de A. scrobiculata com 133 mg kg-1 de fósforo. Na ausência de adubação fosfatada, teores de óleos essenciais e de mentol no óleo foram menores em plantas sem inoculação, e os tratamentos com inoculação proporcionaram incrementos de até 89% nos teores de óleos e de mentol, em relação ao tratamento sem inoculação. Com o incremento da adubação fosfatada, não foram observados incrementos dos teores de óleos essenciais e mentol em razão dos FMA. As maiores produtividades de óleos essenciais e de mentol nos óleos, 0,69 g e 0,48 g por vaso, respectivamente, foram encontradas em plantas com inoculação de Acaulospora scrobiculata nas doses de P de 126 e 123 mg kg-1 de solo, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetative growth, production and composition of essential oil of Mentha arvensis L., grown in different phosphorus levels. The work was carried out under greenhouse conditions and

  12. Successive cultivation of maize and agricultural practices on root colonization, number of spores and species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Cultivo sucessivo de milho e práticas agrícolas sobre a colonização radical, número de esporos e de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares

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    Rosilaine Carrenho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of propagules and a broad spectrum of species are two important components of ecosystem (including agroecosystem sustainability. Previous studies carried out in temperate areas showed that repeated monoculture leads to a decrease in the species abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. This study evaluated the influence of maize monoculture and its agricultural practices on AMF during three consecutive cropping years in a Brazilian field. At the end of each cycle, soil and root samples were evaluated for species composition, spore populations and root colonization by AMF. The AMF community present during this period was scored according to the Spearman rank correlation and Principal Components Analysis. The mean percent root colonization values for the three cultivation periods were: 66.9, 60.7 and 70.5, respectively. Seven species were detected in the first year, Scutellospora persica being the most abundant (24.1% of spores and Glomus macrocarpum the most observed (100% of samples. In the second year, Glomus etunicatum was the species with the greatest number of spores (24.7% and, like G. macrocarpum, the most frequently observed (90% in a community of thirteen. In the third year, twenty-three AMF species were identified, Scutellospora sp. 1 being the most abundant (17.4%, and Gigaspora decipiens and Glomus claroideum the most frequent (both with a relative frequency of 70%. The main soil factors influencing root colonization and sporulation by AMF were pH (and related properties, phosphorus and organic matter contents.Elevado número de propágulos e de espécies são componentes importantes para manter a sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas, incluindo agrossistemas. Estudos desenvolvidos em áreas temperadas indicaram que monocultivo prolongado conduziu ao decréscimo na abundância de esporos e de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA. O presente estudo avaliou a influência da monocultura de milho e de suas

  13. Aislamiento de consorcios de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares de plantas medicinales y su efecto en el crecimiento de vinca (Catharanthus roseus Isolation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi consortia from medicinal plants and their effectiveness on growth of vinca (Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA DE LA ROSA-MERA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consistió en propagar e identificar hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA recolectados de plantas medicinales (PM de áreas naturales de bosques mixtos, y seleccionar consorcios micorrícicos con base en la promoción del crecimiento de vinca Catharanthus roseus (L G. Don, planta medicinal cuyos alcaloides tienen propiedades antineoplásicas. En la primera fase experimental se recolectaron raíces y suelo rizosférico de 13 PM establecidas en campo para evaluar el porcentaje de colonización total (PCT y cuantificar el número de esporas; además, se tomó una parte del suelo para establecer plantas trampa en invernadero durante 10 meses, y posteriormente evaluar el PCT e identificar los principales géneros de HMA. Todas las PM en su condición natural presentaron colonización micorrícica, observándose cuatro géneros de HMA (Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora y Scutellospora, de los cuales Acaulospora y Glomus fueron los predominantes. En la segunda fase experimental se seleccionaron ocho consorcios con base en el PCT (> 40 % obtenido en las plantas trampa, que correspondieron a las muestras recolectadas de Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Castilleja tenuiflora Benth., Erigeron karvinskianus DC., Pimpinella anisum L., Plantago major L., Ricinus communis L., Rubus fruticosus L. y Rumex mexicanus Meisn. Estos consorcios fueron inoculados en plántulas de C. roseus para evaluar su capacidad de estimular el crecimiento de esta especie en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 70 días, a pesar de presentar un solo género predominante (Glomus, el consorcio aislado de R. mexicanus promovió de manera más consistente el crecimiento de C. roseus (número de hojas, área foliar y peso seco foliar en comparación con el resto de los consorcios micorrícicos.This study consisted on propagating and identifying arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF collected from medicinal plants (MP of natural areas of mixed forest (Estado de Mexico, and

  14. Fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares em rizosferas de plantas em dunas do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo, Brasil: (1 Taxonomia Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from rhizospheres of dunes plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo State, Brazil (1: taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. B Trufem

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available De março/1988 a março/1989, mensalmente, foram coletadas o total de 450 amostras de solo de rizosferas de plantas de dunas do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Estado de Sáo Paulo, com a finalidade de se verificar a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA. As plantas mais constantemente investigadas foram: Baccharis trimera DC. (Compositae, Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hü. Mears (Amaranthaceae, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub. (Legurninosae, Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. (Umbelliferae,Ipomoeapes-caprae (L.Sweet(Convolvulaceae, Polygaid cyparisseas St. Hül & Moq. (Polygalaceae, além de gramíneas, ciperáceas e outras, que foram coletadas mais esporadicamente. O solo foi tratado pela técnica de decantação e peneiramento em via úmida. Foram verificados 14 taxons de fungos MVA: Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Acaulospora tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Cigaspora gigantea (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, Glomus globiferum Koske & Walker, Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe, Sclerocystis sinuosa Gerd. & Bakshi, Scutellospora calospora (Nicol & Gerd Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora coralloidea (Trappe, Gerd. & Ho (Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora gilmorei (Trappe & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora gregaria (Schenck & Nicol. Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora pérsica (Koske & Walker Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora verrucosa Koske & Walker Walker & Sanders e Scutellospora sp. São apresentadas descrições taxonómicas, comentarios e murônimos dos taxons verificados.Monthly, from March/1988 to March/1989 were collected the total of 450 soil samples from rhizospheres of plants from dunes of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo State, Brazil, to report the occurrence of VANÍ fungus. The investigated plants were: Baccharis trímera DC. (Compositae, Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hil. Mears (Amaranthaceae, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub

  15. Micorrizas arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de sabiá em um substrato proveniente da mineração de manganês

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    Kaio Gráculo Vieira Garcia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O manganês (Mn é considerado um micronutriente essencial às plantas, porém o seu excesso pode resultar em toxidez, causando clorose e necrose nas folhas. O uso de leguminosas inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tem se tornado uma importante estratégia do ponto de vista da remediação de áreas contaminadas com metais como é o caso do manganês. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. inoculadas com micorrizas arbusculares sob condições de substrato esterilizado e natural proveniente de uma área de mineração de Mn do município de Ocara – CE. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2, considerando-se: quatro tratamentos de inoculação (controle não-inoculado, inoculado com Glomus clarum, inoculado com Glomus etunicatum e com a mistura dos dois fungos (Mix e duas condições de substrato (estéril e natural, com quatro repetições. As mudas de sabiá foram produzidas em bandeja de isopor, sendo transplantadas e inoculadas em vasos após treze dias da semeadura. Após trinta dias do transplantio foram realizadas avaliações de altura da parte áerea, diâmetro do colo, número de folíolos e porcentagem de sobrevivência. A inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares favoreceu o crescimento das mudas de sabiá em substrato da mineração de manganês, em condições naturais, principalmente quando se utilizou o Glomus etunicatum. No substrato esterilizado a inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares proporcionou a atenuação da toxidez de Mn nas mudas de sabiá favorecendo o crescimento das mesmas nestas condições.Arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of sabiá seedlings on a substrate from the manganese miningAbstract: Manganese (Mn is considered an essential micronutrient to plants but its excess can result in toxicity causing chlorosis and necrosis on

  16. Ocorrência de Fungos Micorrízicos Arbusculares em resíduo da mineração de bauxita revegetado com espécies arbóreas Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi occurrence in bauxite mining residue planted to tree species

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    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs em tanques contendo resíduo da mineração de bauxita cultivados com espécies arbóreas inoculadas com Glomus clarum Nicol. & Schenck e Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall na fase de viveiro. Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don juntamente com Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. ou uma mistura de várias espécies foram transplantadas em tanques contendo resíduo de bauxita. Coletaram-se amostras de resíduos em agosto/1998 (estação seca e abril/1999 (estação chuvosa, extraíram e identificaram-se os esporos de FMAs. Determinaram-se a densidade dos esporos de FMAs, a densidade relativa, a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem e o índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. A densidade dos esporos e a diversidade das espécies de FMAs foram baixas sob ambas as coberturas. Um maior número de esporos de Glomus clarum, e alto IAF, foram detectados no substrato cultivado com Acacia holosericea e Sesbania virgata na época seca. Isto também ocorreu em ambas as áreas na época chuvosa. Não foram encontrados esporos de Gigaspora margarita em ambas as áreas, nas duas épocas. Independentemente da inoculação, verificaram-se esporos de Archeospora leptoticha (Schenck & Smith Morton & Redecker, Entrophospora colombiana Spain & Schenck, Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck e Glomus macrocarpum Tulasne & Tulasne em abundância.The establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was evaluated in two areas of bauxite mining residue planted to tree species inoculated with Glomus clarum Nicol. & Schenck and Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall in the nursery phase. Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don and Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers. and a mixture of several tree species were transplanted to deposits of containing bauxite mining residue. In August, 1998 (dry season and April, 1999 (rainy season residue samples were collected and AMF spores extracted and

  17. Inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em porta-enxerto de pessegueiro cv Okinawa Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in peach rootstock cv Okinawa

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    José Luis da Silva Nunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA sobre o crescimento vegetativo, conteúdo de macronutrientes e de substâncias de reserva de plantas do porta-enxerto de pessegueiro cv Okinawa. O experimento foi realizado em telado, e o delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 20 plantas por parcela e quatro repetições. Foram testadas três espécies de FMA (Acaulospora sp., Glomus clarum e Glomus etunicatum e um tratamento-testemunha, não-inoculado. A altura, o diâmetro, a área foliar, as biomassas fresca e seca, o conteúdo de macronutrientes e de substâncias de reserva foram avaliados aos 360 dias após a semeadura. Todas as plantas inoculadas com FMA apresentaram maior altura e diâmetro, quando comparadas à testemunha, sendo que Acaulospora sp. promoveu as melhores respostas. Glomus clarum e Glomus etunicatum induziram um crescimento intermediário às plantas. Os FMAs proporcionaram aumento na absorção de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, associados à maior altura, diâmetro do colo, área foliar, biomassa fresca e seca da parte aérea e seca das raízes, quando comparadas à testemunha. Todas as plantas inoculadas com FMA tiveram altas taxas de colonização, acima de 90%, sendo que Acaulospora sp. colonizou mais intensamente o sistema radicular das plantas.The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the vegetative growth, macronutrients and carbohydrate contents in rootstock plants of peach 'Okinawa'. The experiment was realized at greenhouse conditions and a randomized block design was applied, with 20 plants per plot and four repetitions. Three AMF species (Acaulospora sp., Glomus clarum e Glomus etunicatum and non-inoculated treatment were tested. The stem height and diameter, foliage area, fresh and dry biomass, macronutrients and carbohydrate contents were evaluated

  18. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento e nutrição de mudas de jenipapeiro Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth and nutrition of jenipapo fruit tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Fermino Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alguns trabalhos têm demonstrado que a inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na produção de mudas apresenta grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de um cultivo racional e eficiente de mudas de fruteiras. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares no crescimento e nutrição de mudas de jenipapeiro (Genipa americana L.. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, avaliando-se seis espécies fúngicas: Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus manihots, Gigaspora albida, Acaulospora scrobiculata e Scutellospora heterogama, com dez repetições. As espécies A. scrobiculata, G. clarum e G. etunicatum colonizaram mais intensamente o sistema radicular e promoveram melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de jenipapeiro quando comparados a G. manihots e G. albida. O fungo G. etunicatum destacou-se, promovendo incrementos na altura (44,4%; no diâmetro do caule (63,6%; na produção de biomassa seca na parte aérea (288,8%, nas raízes (248,7% e na área foliar (315,7% em comparação às mudas controle. Com exceção de Mn e Fe, mudas inoculadas apresentaram teores de nutrientes superior às mudas controle. As mudas que receberam inóculo de S. heterogama apresentaram crescimento e teor de nutrientes similares aos das mudas controle. A colonização micorrízica correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores de N, P, K, Mg e Cu e negativamente com os teores de Fe e Mn nas folhas das mudas de jenipapeiro. O jenipapeiro é uma planta responsiva aos FMA e a inoculação beneficiou o crescimento e a nutrição das mudas.Some studies have shown that inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in seedling production has great potential for developing a rational and efficient cultivation of fruit tree seedlings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and nutrition of seedlings of genipap (Genipa americana L.. The

  19. Soft Tissue Masses in the Extremities: The Accuracy of an Ultrasonographic Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Young; Park, So Young; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to retrospectively determine the accuracy of an ultrasonographic diagnosis of superficial soft tissue masses in the extremities by using the histologic results as the reference standard. From January 2005 to June 2010, 154 patients with soft tissue masses in the extremities and who underwent ultrasonographic evaluation followed by biopsy or resection were retrospectively evaluated. The ultrasonographic and histologic diagnoses of the soft tissue masses were lipoma, ganglion cyst, hemangioma, neurogenic tumor, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, epidermoid cyst, fibroma, glomus tumor, Baker's cyst and neurofibromatosis. Out of 154 patients, 114 (74%) patients showed concordance between the histologic diagnosis and the ultrasonographic diagnosis, and the remaining 40 (26%) patients did not. The diagnostic accuracy of each soft tissue mass was 95% for lipoma, 83% for ganglion cyst, 75% for hemangioma, 72% for neurogenic tumor, 50% for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, 43% for epidermoid cyst, 33% for fibroma and 100% each for glomus tumor, fibromatosis and Baker's cyst. Aside from these tumors, there were also sarcoma, malignant melanoma, elastofibroma, Kimura disease and pilomatricoma. Among the cases that showed discordance between the histologic diagnosis and the ultrasonographic diagnosis, three of them were notable; pilomatricoma being misdiagnosed as dermatofibroma protuberans, angiolipoma being misdiagnosed as vascular leiomyoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma being misdiagnosed as a malignant soft tissue mass. The accuracy of an ultrasonographic diagnosis for soft tissue masses in the extremities varies greatly according to each type of mass. Lipoma, ganglion cyst, hemangioma, glomus tumor, neurogenic tumor and Baker's cyst showed a relatively high rate of concordance between the ultrasonographic diagnosis and the histologic diagnosis, but epidermoid cyst and fibroma showed a relatively lower rate of concordance

  20. Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Teresa E.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Chin, Mel; Charvat, Iris

    2000-01-01

    Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments. PMID:10831433

  1. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on initial growth of six arboreal species of cerrado

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    Kenia Alves Pereira Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the benefit of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, for the initial growth of some native arboreal species of the Cerrado biome, namely gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana, baru (Dipterix alata, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, ingá (Inga laurina, caroba (Jacaranda cuspidifolia and chichá (Sterculia striata, in unsterilized soil with low (0.02 mg L‑1 and high (0.2 mg L‑1 concentrations of P in the soil solution. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using 1.5 kg vases, for up to 120 days. The experimental design for each arboreal species was completely randomized, with ten replicates in a 2x2 factorial design (inoculated and noninoculated seedlings, and two levels of phosphorus (P in the soil solution. Arboreal plants of the Cerrado biome showed increased mycorrhizal colonization from inoculation with Glomus clarum, except chichá, as this species showed a high indigenous colonization, not differing from the colonization promoted by inoculated fungi. Inoculation promoted increased growth in baru, gabiroba, ingá, caroba and chichá, increasing shoot dry matter (MSPA and root dry matter (MSR. In caroba, this effect was synergistic with application of P to the soil. Baru and jatobá showed increased dry matter with application of P to the soil only. The mycotrophy (mycorrhizal dependence of species and their response to inoculation and to phosphorus are discussed. In order to produce quality seedlings of caroba, gabiroba, chichá and ingá, combining inoculation with Glomus clarum and phosphate fertilization of the soil is recommended, while for jatobá and baru only the application of P to the soil is recommended.

  2. Increasing Growth and Yield of Upland Rice by Application of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Potassium Fertilizer

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    Dedi Natawijaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment with a split plot design has been carried out in order to assess the growth characteristics andyields, and effectiveness of MVA upland rice which were given potassium fertilizer in two growing seasons. MVAinoculation consisted of three treatments (without MVA, Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. while potassium fertilizerconsisted of five levels (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 kg ha-1 K. The results showed that plant growth variable which wasinoculated by MVA at any levels of K fertilizer was higher in the dry season than that in the wet season, whereas theopposite occurred for net assimilation rate. Potassium content of leaf tissue, shoot/root ratio, and grain weight perhill was determined and mutually dependent on genus MVA, dosages of K fertilizer, and growing season. Harvestindex and grain dry weight per hill were influenced by the growing season and the genus MVA but the effect did notdepend on each other. At all dosages of K fertilizer and any MVA genera, Gigaspora sp. inoculation was better thanthat of Glomus sp. Dry weight of grains per hill was affected by the contribution of grain content per hill, weight of1000 grains and number of productive seedlings per hill. The optimum dosage of K fertilizer in the dry season was32.4 kg ha-1 K with grain yield 3.12 Mg ha-1 for inoculation of Gigaspora sp., whereas the optimum dosage in the wetseason was 34.2 kg ha-1 K for the treatment Glomus sp. inoculation with Gigaspora sp. in the wet season did notreach dosages of optimum K fertilizer.

  3. INOCULACIÓN DE Brachiaria decumbens CON HONGOS FORMADORES DE MICORRIZA ARBUSCULAR NATIVOS DEL TRÓPICO HÚMEDO ECUATORIANO

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    Oscar Prieto Benavides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio bajo condiciones semicontroladas de invernadero, para determinar el efecto de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HMA nativos de sistema agroforestales tradicionales con Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tipo nacional (SAF-C en el Trópico húmedo ecuatoriano, sobre pasto Brachiaria decumbens. El experimento se realizó entre los meses junio y diciembre del año 2009, estuvo constituido por cinco tratamientos, que consistían en la inoculación de HMA originarios de SAF-C, distribuidos en un diseño completo al azar (DCA: T1: Glomus spp., T2: Scutellospora spp., T3: Glomus spp.+ Scutellospora spp., T4: Acaulospora spp. + Gigaspora spp., T5: Control (H2O destilada estéril, en plántulas de B. decumbens sembradas en macetas plásticas de 1,000 cm3, conteniendo como sustrato una mezcla de suelo pobre en nutrientes + tamo de arroz, estériles, en proporción 3:1. El inóculo estuvo constituido de 30 esporas de HMA por tratamiento. Se analizaron las variables: a número de esporas de HMA por 100 g de suelo húmedo (gsh-1, b porcentaje de colonización micorrícica visual y categoría de pelos radicales, c altura de plantas, d peso húmedo y seco del sistema foliar y radical, e largo total de raíz (RL, y f densidad radical (RLv, a 78 y 103 días después de las inoculaciones. Las plantas inoculadas con Glomus spp., o en combinación con Scutellospora spp. mostraron mejores respuestas en las variables evaluadas. Los resultados demostraron la eficiencia y potencial de los HMA procedentes de SAF-C, sobre plantas de B. decumbens.

  4. Correlations of Glomalin Contents and PAHs Removal in Alfalfa-vegetated Soils with Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

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    YANG Zhen-ya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The correlations of glomalin contents and removal of phenanthrene and pyrene as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils with inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF were investigated. The test AMF included Glomus etunicatum(Ge, Glomus mosseae(Gm, and Glomus lamellosum(Gla, and the host plant was alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.. The AMF hyphal density and contents of easily extractable glomalin and total glomalin in AMF-inoculated soils were observed to increase with cultivation time from 35 d to 75 d. Comparing with the control treatment(CK without AMF inoculation, the contents of easily extractable glomalin in soil increased 48.58%, 55.99% and 50.23%, and total glomalin contents increased 38.75%, 50.95% and 46.12% with Ge, Gm and Gla inoculation after 75 d, respectively. AMF inoculation promoted the removal of test PAHs in soils. The removal rates of phenanthrene and pyrene in soils with AMF enhanced in 35~75 d. 83.4%~92.7%, 82.1%~93.8% and 86.9%~93.4% of phenanthrene and 42.2%~63.5%, 43.7%~69.2% and 44.6%~66.4% of pyrene in soils with Ge, Gm, Gla were removed in 75 d respectively. AMF hyphal density and total glomalin contents were observed to be significantly positively correlated with the removal rates of PAHs in soils, indicating that the colonization of AMF enhanced hyphal density and total glomalin contents and thus promoted the degradation of PAHs in the soil environments.

  5. Growth of seedlings of sweet-passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis) associated to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maryluce Albuquerque da; Cavalcante, Uided Maaze Tibúrcio; Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa da; Soares, Sueli Aparecida Gomes; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2004-01-01

    Para determinar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre o crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado usando cinco tratamentos de inoculação (200 esporos/planta de Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Sanders e controle não inoculado), com sete repetições. A cada 20 dias foram...

  6. Chromaffin paraganglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Jose; Trejos, Javier; Morales, Mariano; Encalada, Jose; Canizares, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 37 year old male patient with a left sub maxillary region tumoral mass, submitted to exploratory cervicotomy; the pathologic diagnosis, was Limpho-hemangioma and lymphatic node with reactive follicular hyperplasia. The patient had a tumoral recidive, with a big ganglial tumor that occupied the left side of triangle of the neck, anterior and posterior, with larynx and trachea displacement; after tracheostomy and surgical biopsy, the pathologic diagnosis was chromaffin paraganglioma (carotid glomus quemodectoma). Paragangliomas are uncommon tumors, these are located at abdomen, chest, head and neck; computer tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance determine their tumoral extension. Surgery and radiotherapy are specific treatment. (The author)

  7. Digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of chemodectomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Papathanasiou, M.; Gouliamos, A.; Dimakakos, P.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1988-01-01

    During the last 2 years eleven patients with surgically confirmed chemodectomas have been investigated by means of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Seven patients underwent i.v. DSA, which revealed eight carotid body tumours, and in the remaining four with jugulotympanic chemodectomas intra-arterial (i.a.) DSA was performed. We found i.v. DSA an easy and satisfactory method for the investigation of carotid body tumours but when glomus intravagale, tympanicum or jugulare is suspected an i.a. selective injection is required. (orig.) [de

  8. Digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of chemodectomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Papathanasiou, M.; Gouliamos, A.; Dimakakos, P.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1988-05-01

    During the last 2 years eleven patients with surgically confirmed chemodectomas have been investigated by means of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Seven patients underwent i.v. DSA, which revealed eight carotid body tumours, and in the remaining four with jugulotympanic chemodectomas intra-arterial (i.a.) DSA was performed. We found i.v. DSA an easy and satisfactory method for the investigation of carotid body tumours but when glomus intravagale, tympanicum or jugulare is suspected an i.a. selective injection is required.

  9. Influence of Inoculation with the Endomycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma viride on Morphological and Physiological Growth Parameters of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushish, Sunita; Kumar, Aditya; Aggarwal, Ashok; Parkash, Vipin

    2012-06-01

    Two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus mosseae and Acaulospora laevis either alone or in combination with Trichoderma viride showed the dependence of Rauwolfia serpentina on endomycorrhizal fungi. After 60 days, G. mosseae singly or in combination with Trichoderma viride showed enhanced height increment compared to control plants. Maximum phosphorus content was shown by plants treated with G. mosseae plus T. viride (0.444 ± 2.62) in roots and (0.437 ± 4.71) in shoots. Phosphorus content in roots was more than that in shoots. Chlorophyll content and stomatal conductivity also showed similar trend.

  10. The influence of calving and puerperium on clinical and histopathologic changes associated with laminitis and sole ulceration in a group of first-calving cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R

    1990-08-01

    The left hind and front claws of 43 heifers having recently calved were studied for signs of laminitis and sole ulceration. The left hind and front claws of 8 non-pregnant heifers served as controls. Thirty claws were selected for histologic examination. No influence of parturition and puerperium was found on signs of laminitis in both clinical and histologic investigations. A remarkable histologic finding was the occurrence of numerous vascular buds in the solar corium. It is suggested that the vascular buds may give rise to the glomus-like vascular clusters, which are commonly found in older cattle.

  11. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  12. Interacción micorriza vesiculo-arbuscular, Rhizobium leguminosa en un oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satizabal E. Jorge H.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available En los dos primeros trabajos (la y lb, se evaluó la interacción entre cepas seleccionadas de Rhizobium (apropiadas para la leguminosa forrajera tropical Centrosema macrocarpum y especies (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis de micorriza vesiculo arbuscular (MVA, en un suelo esterilizado, fijador de P. Los experimentos se diferenciaron por las fuentes de P utilizadas. Por su mayor producción de materia seca, absorción de minerales, nodulación y infección por MVA, se destacaron las plantas inoculadas con cuales quiera de las cepas de FIlizobiumy Glomus manihotis (Experimento la o Acaulospora longula (Experimento lb. En la tercera investigación (Experimento II, se evalúo en Centrosema la interacción MVA, Rhizobiumo N-químico (niveles equivalentes a 0, 30,55, 105,0 + Rhiz. y 30 + Rhiz. kg N ha-1 y dosis de P (0, 20, 40 y 80 kg ha-1. Es aconsejable aplicar pequeñas dosis (30 kg ha-1 de N al momento de la siembra e inocular con Rhizobium. Plantas inoculadas con MVA presentaron su óptimo crecimiento con 40 kg P ha-1. Dosis de 80 kg P ha-1 favoreció la eficiencia de la bacteria más no la del hongo.In the first two works (la and lb we evaluated the interation between selected stumps of Rhizobium (appropiate for the tropical forage legumes Centrosema macrocarpum and species (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (MVA, in a sterelize soil fixer of P. The two experiments are different because we used different P sources. For the best production of dry matter, absorption of minerals, nodulation and infection for MVA; rebounded the plants with the inoculation with any of the Rhizobium´s stumps and Glomus manihotis (Experiment la of Acaulospora longula (Experiment lb. In the third investigation (Experiment II we evaluated in Centrosema the interaction MVA. Rhizobium and chemical N (levels equivalent to 0,30. 55, 105, O + Rhizobium and 30 + Rhizobium kg N ha

  13. Ocorrência de micorrizas arbusculares e da bactéria diazotrófica Acetobacter diazotrophicus em cana-de-açúcar Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus in sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Massena Reis

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a ocorrência e a distribuição de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e Acetobacter diazotrophicus em plantios de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes tipos de manejo nos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Pernambuco. Foram feitas 35 coletas de amostras de solo da rizosfera e de raízes de 14 variedades de cana-de-açúcar para extração de esporos e isolamento da bactéria. O número de esporos variou de 18 a 2.070/100 mL de solo, e os maiores número e diversidade de espécies foram verificados nos canaviais de Campos, RJ, especialmente naqueles que não adotam a queima do palhiço. As espécies predominantes nas três localidades amostradas foram: Acaulospora sp., Scutellospora heterogama, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus occultum e Gigaspora margarita. A. diazotrophicus estava presente nas amostras de raízes colhidas em canaviais de Campos, com exceção de uma coleta de cana-de-açúcar plantada num solo usado como bacia de sedimentação de vinhaça. Não foi possível isolar essa bactéria a partir de esporos desinfestados dos FMAs nativos, apenas dos esporos lavados com água estéril.The occurrence and distribution of species of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi and Acetobacter diazotrophicus in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum grown in different regimes of crop management in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pernambuco, Brazil, were studied. Thirty five samples of the rhizosphere soil and roots were collected from 14 varieties of sugar cane for the extraction of spores and isolation of the bacterium. The number of spores varied from 18 to 2,070 per 100 mL of soil, and the greatest diversity of fungal species was found in the sugarcane fields of Campos (Rio de Janeiro State, especially in those where the sugarcane trash was not burned at harvest. The predominant species found in the three localities sampled were: Scutellospora heterogama, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora margarita. A

  14. Cultivable microflora and endo mycorrhizas obtained in litter forest (Paramo Guerrero - Finca Puente de Tierra) Zipaquira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Eleonora; Celis, Sebastian; Galindez, Ximena; Moratto, Claudia; Sanchez, Jimena; Garcia, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), cellulolytic microorganisms and endo mycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra) in the Guerrero's moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microorganisms belonged to the staphylococcus, bacillus, pseudomonas, micrococcus, penicillium and rhodotorulagenus and cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was isolated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar. In addition eight morphotypes of endomycorrhizas were found, species of glomus and acaulospora predominated among them. This study contributes with the knowledge of the cultivable microorganisms of litter that have been little explored in moor ecosystems

  15. Embolization of spinal arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    Recently, therapeutic embolization has been advocated as the treatment of choice for spinal AVM(arteriovenous malformations). The authors review our experience with two cases of spinal AVM treated by embolization using coaxial Tracker-18 microcatheter with Latvian. The patients included a 10 year old male with glomus type and a 14 year old female with juvenile type spinal AVM revealed recanalization 5 month later. Embolization provides curative or temporary treatment for spinal AVM. After embolic occlusion, delayed reassessment with arteriography is indicated, particularly if symptoms persist or recur

  16. Contribution by two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to P uptake by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) from 32P-labelled organic matter during mineralization in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    compartment by either 37 mu m or 700 mu m nylon mesh giving only hyphae or both roots and hyphae, respectively, access to the labelled soil. The recovery of P-32 from the hyphal compartment was 5.5 and 8.6 % for plants colonized with Glomus sp. and G. caledonium, respectively, but only 0.6 % for the non...... of mycorrhizas, probably due to high root densities in the labelled soil. The experiment confirms that AM fungi differ in P uptake characteristics, and that mycorrhizal hyphae can intercept some P immobilization by other microorganisms and P-sorbing clay minerals....

  17. Caracterização fenotípica e molecular de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares mantidos em banco de germoplasma Phenotypic and molecular characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores from cultures maintained in germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Barreto de Novais

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar fenotípica e genotipicamente isolados de espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA mantidos em cultura pura e avaliar a aplicabilidade da técnica PCR-DGGE desenvolvida para Gigaspora, na identificação molecular de espécies de FMA pertencentes a outros gêneros. A caracterização fenotípica das espécies foi realizada de acordo com critérios morfológicos, descritos pela taxonomia, e com uso de descrições originais das espécies presentes na literatura especializada. A análise genotípica foi feita com base na discriminação específica da região V9 do 18S rDNA, que permitiu a diferenciação das espécies e não revelou qualquer diferença entre os isolados geográficos de Glomus clarum, e entre os de Glomus etunicatum. Isto indica a aplicabilidade da técnica para a avaliação da pureza genética e discriminação de espécies de FMA.The objective of this work was to characterize phenotypically and genotypically isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF maintained in pure culture and to evaluate the applicability of PCR-DGGE analysis, developed for Gigaspora, for molecular identification of AMF species belonging to other genres. The species phenotypic characterization was done according to morphological criteria, as described by taxonomy, and according to original descriptions of species published in the specialized literature. The genotypic analysis was made through specific discrimination of the V9 region in the 18S rDNA, which allowed the distinction of species and showed no difference among geographical isolates of Glomus clarum, and among those of Glomus etunicatum. This indicates the applicability of this technique for assessment of genetic purity and discrimination of AMF species.

  18. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  19. Chomodectoma - therapeutic problem of otolaryngologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechnik-Resler, D.; Wardega-Lasek, E.; Gul, E.; Jachowicz, B.

    1994-01-01

    Three entirely different cases of chomodectoma treated in the ENT Dept. of the Babinski Regional Hospital in Wroclaw have been shown. The first one is the auditory canal tumor, the second one is the large-sized tumor of carotid glomus. The third one is the gigantic tumor of middle throat and the neck. In this paper attention has been called to the clinical features variety of described tumors, range of patient's age , way of examining and also the role of correct diagnostics, differentiation and supplementary tests - in particular angiography. (author)

  20. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmody, R.F.; Seeger, J.F.; Smith, R.L.; Horsley, W.W.; Miller, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally. (orig.)

  1. Throbbing tinnitus in aberrant internal carotid artery aggravated by elevation of the jugular bulb. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, T.; Kirsten, R.; Kau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular anomalies in the middle ear are rarely observed. They cause no symptoms in the majority of cases, although some may be associated with tinnitus. The false diagnosis of glomus tumour may lead to considerable problems, if surgery is performed. It is therefore necessary that precise pre-operative data are obtained, preferably based on contrast-enhanced computerized tomography. Subsequent 2D and 3D image reconstructions provide further vascular findings regarding the topographic and anatomic factors involved and eliminate the need for invasive angiography of the carotid artery or retrograde jugular venography to make a firm diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  2. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, R F; Seeger, J F; Smith, R L; Horsley, W W; Miller, R W

    1984-07-01

    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally.

  3. Crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira micorrizadas em diferentes recipientes Growth of mycorrhizal micropropagated banana plantlets in different recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes Leal

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de diferentes recipientes e a eficiência da inoculação com fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA, Glomus clarum, no crescimento de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 2x2, sendo 2 tratamentos microbiológicos: Glomus clarum e controle; e 2 recipientes: blocos prensados e tubetes, com 6 repetições. O substrato utilizado para a confecção dos blocos e para o enchimento dos tubetes foi constituído por uma mistura de materiais orgânicos (bagaço de cana + torta de filtro de usina açucareira e vermiculita. Mudas de bananeira produzidas em blocos prensados e inoculadas com o FMA apresentaram melhores resultados quando comparadas com as produzidas nos tubetes, com incrementos na altura, na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e no acúmulo de N, P e K de 90%, 829%, 2774%, 249% e 403%, respectivamente.An experiment under greenhouse was carried out in order to evaluate different recipients and the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF, Glomus clarum, on the growth of micropropagated banana plantlets. A random block design in a factorial scheme 2x2 (two microbiological treatments: Glomus clarum and control; two types of recipients: pressed blocks and plastic tubes, with six repetitions, was used. The substrate utilized to construct the pressed blocks and to fill the tubes was constituted by a mixture of organic residue (sugarcane bagasse and filter cake and vermiculite. Banana plantlets produced in pressed blocks and inoculated with AMF let to better results than their counterparts grown in tubes, increasing the height, shoot dry weight, contents of N, P and K in 90%, 829%, 2774%, 249% and 403%, respectively.

  4. Extradigital glomic tumor of the forearm. About a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, U; Duteille, F; Perrot, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the clinical case of a 72-year-old man followed for 10years by a specialized pain center, for neuropathic pain poorly systematized, triggered by the contact of the anteromedial face of the right forearm. After surgical excision, histological analysis indicated a well-circumscribed nodule in the subcutaneous region, confirming that the mass was a glomus tumor. In this clinical case, surgical excision allowed an immediate disappearance of the pains without recurrence to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Till, Alison B.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of 19 papers continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the geology of Alaska. The contributions, which include full-length Articles and shorter Geologic Notes, cover a broad range of topics including dune formation, stratigraphy, paleontology, isotopic dating, mineral resources, and tectonics. Articles, grouped under four regional headings, span nearly the entire State from the North Slope to southwestern, south-central, and southeastern Alaska (fig. 1).In the section on northern Alaska, Galloway and Carter use new data on dune morphology and radiocarbon ages from the western Arctic Coastal Plain to develop a late Holocene chronology of multiple episodes of dune stabilization and reactivation for the region. Their study has important implications for climatic changes in northern Alaska during the past 4,000 years. In two papers, Dumoulin and her coauthors describe lithofacies and conodont faunas of Carboniferous strata in the western Brooks Range, discuss depositional environments, and propose possible correlations and source areas for some of the strata. Schenk and Bird propose a preliminary division of the Lower Cretaceous stratigraphic section in the central part of the North Slope into depositional sequences. Aleinikoff and others present new U-Pb data for zircons from metaigneous rocks from the central Brooks Range. Karl and Mull, reacting to a proposal regarding terrane nomenclature for northern Alaska that was published in last year's Alaskan Studies Bulletin, provide a historical perspective of the evolution of terminology for tectonic units in the Brooks Range and present their own recommendations.

  6. Root Systems of Individual Plants, and the Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Their Depth and Distribution: a Synthesis Using a Global Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumber-Davila, S. J.; Schenk, H. J.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    This synthesis examines plant rooting distributions globally, by doubling the number of entries in the Root Systems of Individual Plants database (RSIP) created by Schenk and Jackson. Root systems influence many processes, including water and nutrient uptake and soil carbon storage. Root systems also mediate vegetation responses to changing climatic and environmental conditions. Therefore, a collective understanding of the importance of rooting systems to carbon sequestration, soil characteristics, hydrology, and climate, is needed. Current global models are limited by a poor understanding of the mechanisms affecting rooting, carbon stocks, and belowground biomass. This improved database contains an extensive bank of records describing the rooting system of individual plants, as well as detailed information on the climate and environment from which the observations are made. The expanded RSIP database will: 1) increase our understanding of rooting depths, lateral root spreads and above and belowground allometry; 2) improve the representation of plant rooting systems in Earth System Models; 3) enable studies of how climate change will alter and interact with plant species and functional groups in the future. We further focus on how plant rooting behavior responds to variations in climate and the environment, and create a model that can predict rooting behavior given a set of environmental conditions. Preliminary results suggest that high potential evapotranspiration and seasonality of precipitation are indicative of deeper rooting after accounting for plant growth form. When mapping predicted deep rooting by climate, we predict deepest rooting to occur in equatorial South America, Africa, and central India.

  7. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Schenk D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Désirée White-Schenk,1,4 Riyi Shi,1–3 James F Leary1–4 1Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Lynn School of Veterinary Medicine, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. Keywords: spinal cord injury, acrolein, drug delivery, methylprednisolone, secondary injury

  8. The Shape and Flow of Heavy Ion Collisions (490th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenke, Bjoern [BNL Physics Department

    2014-12-18

    The sun can’t do it, but colossal machines like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe sure can. Quarks and gluons make up protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of every atom in the universe. At heavy ion colliders like RHIC and the LHC, scientists can create matter more than 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun—so hot that protons and neutrons melt into a plasma of quarks and gluons. The particle collisions and emerging quark-gluon plasma hold keys to understanding how these fundamental particles interact with each other, which helps explain how everything is held together—from atomic nuclei to human beings to the biggest stars—how all matter has mass, and what the universe looked like microseconds after the Big Bang. Dr. Schenke discusses theory that details the shape and structure of heavy ion collisions. He will also explain how this theory and data from experiments at RHIC and the LHC are being used to determine properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

  9. Horizontal biases in rats’ use of three-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Hayman, Robin; Becares, Natalia; Reid, Harry; Thomas, George; Wilson, Jonathan; Jeffery, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal space, we examined whether rats show a similar behavioural anisotropy when distributing their time freely between vertical and horizontal movements. We found that in two- or three-dimensional environments with a vertical dimension, rats showed a prioritization of horizontal over vertical movements in both foraging and detour tasks. In the foraging tasks, the animals executed more horizontal than vertical movements and adopted a “layer strategy” in which food was collected from one horizontal level before moving to the next. In the detour tasks, rats preferred the routes that allowed them to execute the horizontal leg first. We suggest three possible reasons for this behavioural bias. First, as suggested by Grobety and Schenk [5], it allows minimisation of energy expenditure, inasmuch as costly vertical movements are minimised. Second, it may be a manifestation of the temporal discounting of effort, in which animals value delayed effort as less costly than immediate effort. Finally, it may be that at the neural level rats encode the vertical dimension less precisely, and thus prefer to bias their movements in the more accurately encoded horizontal dimension. We suggest that all three factors are related, and all play a part. PMID:21419172

  10. Performance of Africanized honeybee colonies settled by queens selected for different traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated varroa infestation and the performance of Africanized honeybee colonies with queens selected for honey and royal jelly production, and also unselected queens, correlating with climatic variables. In Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment I used 10 Langstroth hives and in Mafra, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment II was performed with 15 Schenk hives. A mapping in areas of sealed and unsealed brood, honey and pollen was carried out on days zero, 45 and 90 days after the introduction of the queen. In the experiment I, there was interaction between the type of queen selection and the evaluation period for areas of sealed brood, honey, and total stored food. The group selected for royal jelly production presented larger sealed brood area and smaller honey area at 90 days. Varroa infestation was lower (p < 0.05 at 90 days. The type of queen selection and the evaluation period influenced the sealed brood area, the total brood and the total area occupied in the colony. The high relative humidity caused greater honey storage for the local group. The different groups of queens presented different behavior according to the environment in which they are settled.

  11. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V. [The D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), 3 Doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, Saint Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-29

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

  12. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented

  13. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Mimas: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Mimas, the innermost of the major saturnian satellites, occupies an important place in comparative studies of icy satellites. It is the smallest icy satellite known to have a mostly spherical shape. Smaller icy objects like Hyperion and Puck are generally irregular in shape, while larger ones like Miranda and Enceladus are spherical. Thus Mimas is near the diameter where the combination of increasing surface gravity and internal heating begin to have a significant effect on global structure. The nature and extent of endogenic surface features provide important constraints on the interior structure and history of this transitional body. The major landforms on Mimas are impact craters. Mimas has one of the most heavily cratered surfaces in the solar system. The most prominent single feature on Mimas is Herschel, an unrelaxed complex crater 130 km in diameter. The only other recognized landforms on Mimas are tectonic grooves and lineaments. Groove locations were mapped by Schenk, but without analysis of groove structures or superposition relationships. Mimas' tectonic structures are remapped here in more detail than previously has been done, as part of a general study of tectonic features on icy satellites.

  15. Human NOD2 Recognizes Structurally Unique Muramyl Dipeptides from Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Mirjam; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Le, Phuonganh; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Aaron W; Brennan, Patrick J; Belisle, John T; Modlin, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens via pattern recognition receptors. One such receptor, NOD2, via recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), triggers a distinct network of innate immune responses, including the production of interleukin-32 (IL-32), which leads to the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). NOD2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human leprosy, yet it is not clear whether Mycobacterium leprae, which has a distinct MDP structure, can activate this pathway. We investigated the effect of MDP structure on the innate immune response, finding that infection of monocytes with M. leprae induces IL-32 and DC differentiation in a NOD2-dependent manner. The presence of the proximal l-Ala instead of Gly in the common configuration of the peptide side chain of M. leprae did not affect recognition by NOD2 or cytokine production. Furthermore, amidation of the d-Glu residue did not alter NOD2 activation. These data provide experimental evidence that NOD2 recognizes naturally occurring structural variants of MDP. Copyright © 2016 Schenk et al.

  16. Building a Leadership Culture for Environmental Health in a Nurse-Led Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda L Demorest

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century (Costello et al., 2009. Temperature shifts caused by greenhouse gases have negative health impacts such as worsening of chronic diseases and increases in vector-borne diseases (American Public Health Association, 2016, which nurses are ethically responsible to address (American Nurses Association, 2015. At an interdisciplinary nurse-led clinic, staff were not prepared to assist patients in building resiliency related to the health impacts of climate change or to implement environmental sustainability in their workplace. Based on principles of partnership-based healthcare (Eisler & Potter, 2014, this project included Climate Conversations - sharing stories, values, and knowledge about climate change – (Minnesota Interfaith Power & Light, 2010 and evidence-based transformational leadership. The Nurses’ Environmental Awareness Tool (Schenk et al., 2015 was used to survey staff before and after they participated in behavioral interventions to incorporate environmental sustainability at their workplace. Compared to baseline, staffs’ knowledge of environmental sustainability increased significantly (pp

  17. Organ and plantlet regeneration of Menyanthes trifoliata through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Adamczyk-Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the regeneration of plants through organogenesis from callus tissues of Menyanthes trifoliata are described. The shoot multiplication rate was affected by basal culture media, the type and concentration of cytokinin and subculture number. The best response was obtained when caulogenic calli were cultured on the modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH-M containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0,5 mg/l and 6-benzyladenine (BA 1 mg/l or zeatin (2 mg/l. Under these conditions ca 7 shoots (mostly 1 cm or more in length per culture in the 5th and 6th passages could be developed. In older cultures (after 11-12 passages there was a trend for more numerous but shorter shoot formation. All regenerated shoots could be rooted on the SH-M medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA within 6 weeks; 80% of in vitro rooted plantlets survived their transfer to soil.

  18. Giuseppe Gradenigo: Much more than a syndrome! Historical vignette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, Georgios K; de A Silva, Danilo O; Chrysou, Olga I; Karanikas, Michail A; Birbilis, Theodossios A

    2012-01-01

    Giuseppe Gradenigo (1859-1926), a legendary figure of Otology, was born in Venice, Italy. He soon became a pupil to Adam Politzer and Samuel Leopold Schenk in Vienna, demonstrating genuine interest in the embryology, morphology, physiopathology, as well as the clinical manifestations of ear diseases. In this paper, the authors attempt to highlight the major landmarks during Gradenigo's career and outline his contributions to neurosciences, which have been viewed as looking forward to the 20(th) century rather than awkward missteps at the end of the 19(th). Several rare photographs along with many non-English, more than a century old articles have been meticulously selected to enrich this historical journey in time. It was after Gradenigo that the well-known syndrome consisting of diplopia and facial pain due to a middle ear infection was named. However, Gradenigo was much more than a syndrome. Surprisingly, despite the fact that he is considered a pioneer of the Italian Otology of the late 19(th) and early 20(th) century, little is written of his life and his notable achievements in the English literature. Even though his name lives on nowadays only in the eponym "Gradenigo's syndrome," his accomplishments are much wider and cast him among the emblematic figures of science. His inherent tendency for discovering the underlying mechanisms of diseases and his vision of guaranteeing quality of services, professional proficiency, respect, and dedication toward the patients is in fact what constitutes his true legacy to the next generations.

  19. Pericardial Mesothelioma in a Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot (Amazona auropalliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Brynn; Jones, Michael P; Manasse, Jorden; Johns, Sara; Gompf, Rebecca E; Newman, Shelley

    2015-03-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona auropalliata) was presented with a history of lethargy, inappetence, and decreased vocalizations. On examination, the coelom was moderately distended and palpated fluctuant, and the heart was muffled on auscultation. Coelomic ultrasound, coelomocentesis, and radiographs were performed and revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and marked coelomic effusion. Pericardial effusion was confirmed by echocardiography. A well-circumscribed, hyperechoic soft tissue density was observed at the level of the right atrium on initial echocardiography; however, a cardiac mass was not identified by computed tomography scan or repeat echocardiograms. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was performed under anesthesia, and cytology results were consistent with hemorrhage; no neoplastic cells were identified. A repeat echocardiogram 4 days after pericardiocentesis revealed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Due to the grave prognosis, the owners declined endoscopic pericardiectomy, and the patient died the following day. On postmortem examination, the pericardial surface of the heart was covered in a white to yellow, multinodular mass layer. Histologic analysis revealed a multinodular mass extending from the atria, running along the epicardium distally, and often extending into the myocardium. Neoplastic cells present in the heart mass and pericardium did not stain with a Churukian-Schenk stain, and thyroglobulin immunohistochemistry was negative. Cytokeratin and vimentin stains showed positive expression in the neoplastic cells within the mass. These results are consistent with a diagnosis of mesothelioma. This is the first report of mesothelioma in a psittacine bird.

  20. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.