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Sample records for glomerular charge selectivity

  1. Size- and charge selectivity of glomerular filtration in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A; Vidal, P

    1993-01-01

    Albuminuria is the first clinical event in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We assessed glomerular charge- and size selectivity in 51 patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus of juvenile onset and 11 healthy individuals. Patients were allocated to five groups. The urinary...... techniques and tubular protein reabsorption by excretion of beta 2-microglobulin. Charge selectivity was estimated from the IgG/IgG4 selectivity index. Size selectivity was measured by dextran clearance. Dextran was measured by refractive index detection after fractionation (2 A fractions in the range 26...... macromolecular pathways in the development of diabetic nephropathy....

  2. Reduced glomerular size- and charge-selectivity in clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Deckert, T

    1995-01-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanism behind microalbuminuria, a potential atherosclerotic risk factor, was explored by measuring fractional clearances of four endogenous plasma proteins of different size and electric charge (albumin, beta 2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin G4). Twenty......-eight clinically healthy individuals with microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin excretion of 6.6-150 micrograms min-1, and 60 matched control subjects were studied. Fractional immunoglobulin G clearance was higher (geometric means (95% confidence intervals)) 3.0 (2.3-3.9) x 10(-6), n = 28, vs. 2.1 (1...

  3. Effect of alterations in glomerular charge on deposition of cationic and anionic antibodies to fixed glomerular antigens in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S; Baker, P; Pritzl, P; Couser, W G

    1985-07-01

    Reduction of the negative charge of the glomerular capillary wall alters its charge- and size-selective properties. To investigate the effect of alteration in glomerular charge properties on antibody localization, we prepared cationic and anionic fractions of antibodies to subepithelial and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens, and compared their deposition in normal rats and rats treated with protamine sulfate or aminonucleoside of puromycin to reduce capillary wall charge. IgG antibodies were eluted from kidneys of rats with active Heymann's nephritis (AICN), passive Heymann's nephritis (PHN), or anti-GBM nephritis (NTN), separated into cationic and anionic fractions, and radiolabeled with iodine 125 or iodine 131. Relative antibody content of each fraction was determined by incubation with an excess of glomerular antigen. Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with AICN or PHN were injected into 24 normal or protamine sulfate-treated rats. Glomerular binding of all antibodies was highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 4 hours was 1.08 +/- 0.07 for AICN eluate and 0.37 +/- 0.04 for PHN eluate. The ratios were not significantly different in animals pretreated with protamine sulfate (1.15 +/- 0.06 and 0.44 +/- 0.06, respectively; P greater than 0.05). Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with NTN were injected into 10 normal rats and four rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin. Glomerular binding of antibody was again highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 1 hour was 1.03 +/- 0.06, and was not significantly altered in rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin (1.05 +/- 0.03, P greater than 0.5). Proteinuria in PHN rats was also unaffected by treatment with protamine sulfate for

  4. Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaio, M.P.; Salant, D.J.; Adler, S.; Darby, C.; Couser, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. The authors examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) fractions, which were radiolabelled with 131 I and 125 I, respectively, shown to have equal antibody contents measured by in vitro binding to normal glomeruli, mixed in equal amounts, and injected in incremental doses to ten rats. At 1 hr the glomerular antibody binding of each fraction was directly related to the blood level (r . 0.95, r . 0.97) and delivery of antibody (r . 0.98, r . 0.98). Glomerular binding of cationic antibody was four times greater than anionic antibody over the entire range of deliveries studied (P less than 0.001). The authors conclude that glomerular deposition of anti-GBM antibody is directly related to blood concentration and delivery of antibody. Furthermore, the deposition of cationic antibodies to GBM antigens was significantly greater than the deposition of anionic antibodies

  5. Crosstalk in glomerular injury and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimke, Henrik; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Quaggin, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The glomerulus is a unique structure required for filtration of blood, while retaining plasma proteins based on size and charge selectivity. Distinct cell types form the structural unit that creates the filtration barrier. Structurally, fenestrated endothelial cells line the ca...... the glomerular filtration unit. We will highlight recent findings of cellular crosstalk via signaling pathways that regulate glomerular barrier function in pathophysiological conditions....

  6. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  7. Selective Coherent Excitation of Charged Density Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A.A.; Sagar, D.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Marel, D. van der

    2003-01-01

    Real time femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study collective and single particle excitations in the charge density wave state of the quasi-1D metal, blue bronze. Along with the previously observed collective amplitudon excitation, the spectra show several additional coherent features.

  8. Selective adsorption of ions in charged slit-systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Valiskó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the selective adsorption of various cations into a layered slit system using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The slit system is formed by a series of negatively charged membranes. The electrolyte contains two kinds of cations with different sizes and valences modeled by charged hard spheres immersed in a continuum dielectric solvent. We present results for various cases depending on the combinations of the properties of the competing cations. We concentrate to the case when the divalent cations are larger than the monovalent cations. In this case, size and charge have counterbalancing effects, which results in interesting selectivity phenomena.

  9. Glomerular Disease in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Wiles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences exist in the prevalence of glomerular diseases. Data based on histological diagnosis underestimate the prevalence of preeclampsia, which is almost certainly the commonest glomerular disease in the world, and uniquely gender-specific. Glomerular disease affects fertility via disease activity, the therapeutic use of cyclophosphamide, and underlying chronic kidney disease. Techniques to preserve fertility during chemotherapy and risk minimization of artificial reproductive techniques are considered. The risks, benefits, and effectiveness of different contraceptive methods for women with glomerular disease are outlined. Glomerular disease increases the risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including preeclampsia; yet, diagnosis of preeclampsia is complicated by the presence of hypertension and proteinuria that precede pregnancy. The role of renal biopsy in pregnancy is examined, in addition to the use of emerging angiogenic biomarkers. The safety of drugs prescribed for glomerular disease in relation to reproductive health is detailed. The impact of both gender and pregnancy on long-term prognosis is discussed.

  10. Selective containment in EBIS for charge breeding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, Vincenzo; Valentino, Vincenzo; Bak, Petr A.; Kuznetsov, Gennady I.; Skarbo, Boris; Tiunov, Michael A.; Clauser, Tarcisio; Boggia, Antonio; Raino, Antonio C.

    2008-01-01

    The production of radioactive ion beam (RIB) with the ISOL technique could require a charge breeder device to increase the ion acceleration efficiency and reduce greatly the production cost. The 'charge breeder' is a device designed to accept radioactive 1+ ions in order to increase their charge state up to n+. In the framework of the SPES project, proposed at the INFN-LNL (Padua) for RIB production, an R and D experiment of a charge breeder device, BRIC, has been carried out at LNL. BRIC is an EBIS-type ion charge state breeder in which a radio frequency (RF) quadrupolar field has been superimposed in the trapped ion region to introduce a selective containment with the aim of increasing the ion trapping efficiency. In this paper, the device and the test measurements that demonstrate the selective containment effect due to the RF quadrupolar field are presented. Furthermore, some comments on the possibility of using that device as charge state breeder for RIB production has been also discussed in the conclusions. This experiment has been also considered as R and D program of the RIB European project EURISOL D S

  11. Selective determination of dopamine using quantum-sized gold nanoparticles protected with charge selective ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyuju; Kumar, S. Senthil; Lee, Dongil

    2012-06-01

    We report here the selective determination of dopamine (DA) using quantum-sized gold nanoparticles coated with charge selective ligands. Glutathione protected gold nanoparticles (GS-Au25) were synthesized and immobilized into a sol-gel matrix via thiol linkers. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode was found to show excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA but no activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid. The role of electrostatic charge in the selective electrocatalytic activity of GS-Au25 was verified by voltammetry of redox markers carrying opposite charges. The pH dependent sensitivity for the determination of DA further confirmed the charge screening effect of GS-Au25. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the selectivity is attained by the selective formation of an electrostatic complex between the negatively charged GS-Au25 and DA cation. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode also showed excellent selectivity for DA in the presence of an interferent, ascorbic acid.We report here the selective determination of dopamine (DA) using quantum-sized gold nanoparticles coated with charge selective ligands. Glutathione protected gold nanoparticles (GS-Au25) were synthesized and immobilized into a sol-gel matrix via thiol linkers. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode was found to show excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA but no activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid. The role of electrostatic charge in the selective electrocatalytic activity of GS-Au25 was verified by voltammetry of redox markers carrying opposite charges. The pH dependent sensitivity for the determination of DA further confirmed the charge screening effect of GS-Au25. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the selectivity is attained by the selective formation of an electrostatic complex between the negatively charged GS-Au25 and DA cation. The GS-Au25 modified sol-gel electrode also showed excellent selectivity for DA in the

  12. Glomerular size- and charge selectivity in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the mechanisms of proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease, we measured the renal clearances of albumin, total IgG, and IgG4 in 20 male Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic glomerulosclerosis (biopsy proven), in 10 male Type 2 diabetic patients...

  13. Classical/quantum correspondence in state selective charge transfer and excitation reactions involving highly charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2009-01-01

    State selective charge transfer and excitation cross sections for collisions of Ne q+ (q = 1-10) with atomic hydrogen are calculated within the framework of Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation.

  14. Glomerular Damage in Experimental Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Under Glomerular Capillary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Rong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Immunologically and hemodynamically mediated the destruction of glomerular architecture is thought to be the major causes of end-stage renal failure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of glomerular hypertension on glomerular injury and the progression of glomerular sclerosis after Thy-1 nephritis was induced. Method: Thy-1 nephritis was induced in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain (SHR-SP (group SP and in age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY (group WKY rats, following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX, and a vehicle was injected alone in UNX SHR-SP as control (group SC. Result: The degree of glomerular damage in response to a single dose of anti-thy-1 antibody, and its functional consequences (eg. proteinuria, diminished GFR are more pronounced in group SP than normotensive group WKY and hypertensive group SC without mesangial cell injury. While normotensive group WKY rats recovered completely from mesangial cell injury on day 28-42, glomeruli in group SP kept on persistent macrophage infiltration, α-SMA expression on day 42-56. In addition, glomerular capillary repair with the GECs was rarely seen in pronouncedly proliferative and sclerostic areas. The incidence of glomerular sclerosis and the level of proteinuria were markedly increased by day 56 in the group SP. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that glomerular hypertension aggravate glomerular damage and glomerulosclerosis in this model of Thy 1 nephritis.

  15. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Wachowiak, Matt; Rothermel, Markus; Shipley, Michael T

    2015-04-08

    Cholinergic [acetylcholine (ACh)] axons from the basal forebrain innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed in glomeruli. The activation of nAChRs directly excites both mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs), the two major excitatory neurons that transmit glomerular output. The functional roles of mAChRs in glomerular circuits are unknown. We show that the restricted glomerular application of ACh causes rapid, brief nAChR-mediated excitation of both MTCs and ETCs in the mouse olfactory bulb. This excitation is followed by mAChR-mediated inhibition, which is blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, indicating the engagement of periglomerular cells (PGCs) and/or short axon cells (SACs), the two major glomerular inhibitory neurons. Indeed, selective activation of glomerular mAChRs, with ionotropic GluRs and nAChRs blocked, increased IPSCs in MTCs and ETCs, indicating that mAChRs recruit glomerular inhibitory circuits. Selective activation of glomerular mAChRs in the presence of tetrodotoxin increased IPSCs in all glomerular neurons, indicating action potential-independent enhancement of GABA release from PGC and/or SAC dendrodendritic synapses. mAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release also presynaptically suppressed the first synapse of the olfactory system via GABAB receptors on sensory terminals. Together, these results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glomerular circuits is biphasic, involving an initial excitation of MTC/ETCs mediated by nAChRs followed by inhibition mediated directly by mAChRs on PGCs/SACs. This may phasically enhance the sensitivity of glomerular outputs to odorants, an action that is consistent with recent in vivo findings. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355680-13$15.00/0.

  16. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  17. Glomerular sieving of high molecular weight proteins in proteinuric rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolatus, J.A.; Abuyousef, M.; Hunsicker, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the permeability of the glomerular capillary wall to high molecular weight proteins in normal and proteinuric rats, we determined the glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) of radioiodinated marker proteins of known size and charge by means of a paired label, tissue accumulation method previously validated in this laboratory. In one group of rats (Series A) the GSCs of 125 I-anionic IgG (aIgG-molecular weight [mol wt] 150,000, pI 4.9) and 131 I-neutral IgG (nIgG-pI 7.4 to 7.6) were measured simultaneously. In Series B, the GSC of a second anionic marker, 131 I-human ceruloplasmin (Crp-mol wt 137,000, pI 4.9) was compared to that of 125 I-nIgG. As in the previous report, the labeled proteins were not degraded or deiodinated during the 20 minute clearance period for GSC determination. Within Series A and B, three subgroups of rats were studied: control saline-infused rats, rats made acutely proteinuric by infusion of the polycation hexadimethrine (HDM), and rats with chronic doxorubicin (Adriamycin-Adria) nephrosis. In the control rats, GSCs for the anionic markers aIgG (Series A) or Crp (Series B) were significantly greater than that of nIgG (both series). These large proteins crossed the filtration barrier by a different pathway from that available to smaller neutral molecules the size of albumin, which in our previous study had a much higher GSC than a native, anionic albumin marker. In a third group of control rats only (Series C), the GSCs of native anionic bovine albumin (BSA) and nIgG were compared directly. The GSC of BSA (0.0029) was only slightly larger than the GSC of nIgG (0.0025), indicating that most of the native albumin crosses the glomerular capillary wall via a nonselective pathway similar to that available to nIgG. The results in the control groups are compatible with recently-described heteroporous models of glomerular size selectivity

  18. Modification of selection rules as a P-noninvariant effect in the charge-monopole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolkachev, E.A.; Tomil'chik, L.M.; Shnir, Y.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that P-noninvariance in the theory of magnetic charge, connected with the non-removability of the discontinuity of the phase of the wave function of charged particles in the field of a Dirac monopole, leads to a change in the selection rules for dipole radiation, which can in principle be used as a critical test for a model with magnetically charged quarks

  19. Coke properties in relation to charge preparation techniques. [Selective crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-01-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  20. Separation selectivity patterns of fully charged achiral compounds in capillary electrophoresis with a neutral cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Srisa-art, Monpichar; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the separation selectivity equation, related to the dimensionless parameters for fully charged achiral analytes using a neutral CD, the separation selectivity can be classified into seven patterns. With respect to CZE without CD, the presence of CD in the buffer may improve, or reduce, the separation selectivity with this effect being accompanied by the same or reversed electrophoretic mobility order for charged analytes. This can depend on the separation selectivity of the two analytes in free solution, the binding selectivity, the separation selectivity of analyte-CD complexes and the ratio of electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in free, and complexed forms. Using positional isomers of benzoic acids and phenoxy acids as test analytes and α-CD as a selector, the observed separation selectivity shapes were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted separation selectivities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Selective Acylation Enhances Membrane Charge Sensitivity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Mastoparan-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas Povl; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Rasmussen, Palle

    2011-01-01

    and positioning of the peptide in the membrane caused by either PA or OA acylation play a critical role in the fine-tuning of the effective charge of the peptide and thereby the fine-tuning of the peptide's selectivity between neutral and negatively charged lipid membranes. This finding is unique compared...... to previous reports where peptide acylation enhanced membrane affinity but also resulted in impaired selectivity. Our result may provide a method of enhancing selectivity of antimicrobial peptides toward bacterial membranes due to their high negative charge—a finding that should be investigated for other...

  2. Selective observation of charge storing ions in supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forse, Alexander C; Griffin, John M; Grey, Clare P

    2018-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a useful technique for probing the structure and dynamics of the electrode-electrolyte interface in supercapacitors, as ions inside the pores of the carbon electrodes can be studied separately from bulk electrolyte. However, in some cases spectral resolution can limit the information that can be obtained. In this study we address this issue by showing how cross polarisation (CP) NMR experiments can be used to selectively observe the in-pore ions in supercapacitor electrode materials. We do this by transferring magnetisation from 13 C nuclei in porous carbons to nearby nuclei in the cations ( 1 H) or anions ( 19 F) of an ionic liquid. Two-dimensional NMR experiments and CP kinetics measurements confirm that in-pore ions are located within Ångströms of sp 2 -hybridised carbon surfaces. Multinuclear NMR experiments hold promise for future NMR studies of supercapacitor systems where spectral resolution is limited. Copyright © 2017 University of Cambridge. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ion selection of charge-modified large nanopores in a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijun; Xue, Jianming; Kang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Water desalination becomes an increasingly important approach for clean water supply to meet the rapidly growing demand of population boost, industrialization, and urbanization. The main challenge in current desalination technologies lies in the reduction of energy consumption and economic costs. Here, we propose to use charged nanopores drilled in a graphene sheet as ion exchange membranes to promote the efficiency and capacity of desalination systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the selective ion transport behavior of electric-field-driven KCl electrolyte solution through charge modified graphene nanopores. Our results reveal that the presence of negative charges at the edge of graphene nanopore can remarkably impede the passage of Cl- while enhance the transport of K+, which is an indication of ion selectivity for electrolytes. We further demonstrate that this selectivity is dependent on the pore size and total charge number assigned at the nanopore edge. By adjusting the nanopore diameter and electric charge on the graphene nanopore, a nearly complete rejection of Cl- can be realized. The electrical resistance of nanoporous graphene, which is a key parameter to evaluate the performance of ion exchange membranes, is found two orders of magnitude lower than commercially used membranes. Our results thus suggest that graphene nanopores are promising candidates to be used in electrodialysis technology for water desalinations with a high permselectivity.

  4. A metal ion charged mixed matrix membrane for selective adsorption of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Skrzypek, K.; Levisson, M.; Stamatialis, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a mixed matrix membrane by incorporating 20–40 µm size iminodiacetic acid modified immobeads within porous Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) polymer matrix. The MMM were charged with copper ions for selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin in presence of bovine serum albumin.

  5. Time-dependent ion selectivity in capacitive charging of porous electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Soestbergen, M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bazant, M.Z.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a combined experimental and theoretical study, we show that capacitive charging of porous electrodes in multicomponent electrolytes may lead to the phenomenon of time-dependent ion selectivity of the electrical double layers (EDLs) in the electrodes. This effect is found in experiments on

  6. A metal ion charged mixed matrix membrane for selective adsorption of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Levisson, M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a mixed matrix membrane by incorporating 20–40 μm size iminodiacetic acid modified immobeads within porous Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) polymer matrix. The MMM were charged with copper ions for selective adsorption of bovine hemoglobin in presence of bovine serum albumin.

  7. Measurements of Ion Selective Containment on the RF Charge Breeder Device BRIC

    CERN Document Server

    Variale, Vincenzo; Batazova, Marina; Boggia, Antonio; Clauser, Tarcisio; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Rainò, Antonio; Shiyankov, Sergey; Skarbo, Boris A; Valentino, Vincenzo; Verrone, Grazia

    2005-01-01

    The "charge state breeder" BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a Radio Frequency (RF) Quadrupole aiming to filtering the unwanted elements and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this contribution, the measurements of the selective effect on the ion charge state containement of the RF quadrupole field, applied on the ion chamber, will be reported and discussed. The ion charge state analisys of the ions trapped in BRIC seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that the s...

  8. HUMAN GLOMERULAR VOLUME QUANTIFICATIONDURING THE AGING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Zdravković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney function is directly related to the changes of renal tissue, especially glomeruli, which is particularly distinct during the aging process. The impossibility of kidney function substitution points to the need for glomerular morphologic and functional characteristics estimation during the aging process.Human cadaveric kidney tissue samples were used as material during research. Age of cadavers ranged from 20 to 70 years and they were classified according to the scheme: I (20–29; II (30–39; III (40–49; IV (50–59; V (60–69 i VI (older than 70. After the routine histologic preparation of the renal tissue the slices were analized stereologicaly under the light microscope with projection screen (Reichert Visopan with 40 x lens magnification. M42 test system was used and 100, by unbased method selected glomeruli, were analyzed.Average glomerular capillary network volume shows significant increase (p< 0,001 as far as to the age of 50 years in regard to the age of 20 to 29 years. This parameter shows insignificant decrease after the age of 50 until the age of 70 years. This decrease was significant after the age of 70 years in regard to the period of the 20 to 29 (p< 0,05 and the period of 40 to 49 years (p<0,01.

  9. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D. R. [University of North Texas; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens; Havener, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  10. Schistosomal glomerular disease (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper schistosomal glomerulopathy is defined as an immune-complex disease. The disease appears in 12-15 per cent of the individuals with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Portal hypertension with collateral circulation helps the by pass of the hepatic clearance process and the parasite antigens can bind to antibodies in the circulation and be trapped in the renal glomerulus. Chronic membranousproliferative glomerulonephritis is the most commom lesion present and the nephrotic syndrome is the usual form of clinical presentation. The disease can be experimentally produced, and schistosomal antigens and antibodies, as well as complement, can be demonstrated in the glomerular lesions. Specific treatment of schistosomiasis does not seem to alter the clinical course of schistosomal nephropathy.A glomerulopatia esquistossomotica e um exemplo de doenca causada por complexos imunes. Ela se manifesta em 12 a 15% dos portadores de forma hepato-eplenica da esquistossomose. A hipertensao porta, com circulacao colateral, facilita a ultrapassagem do filtro hepatico e os antigenos esquistossomoticos podem se acoplar aos anticorpos na circulacao e vir a se depositar nos glomerulos. O tipo histologico mais frequente e a glomerulonefrite cronica membrano-proliferativa, geralmente com sindrome nefrotica. A doenca e passivel de reproducao experimental e os antigenos esquistossomoticos, os anticorpos e fracoes do complemento podem ser demonstrados nas lesoes glomerulares. O tratamento especifico da esquistossomose nao mostrou ate o momento a capacidade de alterar o curso da nefropatia.

  11. Inversion of membrane surface charge by trivalent cations probed with a cation-selective channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnev, Philip A; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2012-11-13

    We demonstrate that the cation-selective channel formed by gramicidin A can be used as a reliable sensor for studying the multivalent ion accumulation at the surfaces of charged lipid membranes and the "charge inversion" phenomenon. In asymmetrically charged membranes with the individual leaflets formed from pure negative and positive lipids bathed by 0.1 M CsCl solutions the channel exhibits current rectification, which is comparable to that of a typical n/p semiconductor diode. We show that even at these highly asymmetrical conditions the channel conductance can be satisfactorily described by the electrodiffusion equation in the constant field approximation but, due to predictable limitations, only when the applied voltages do not exceed 50 mV. Analysis of the changes in the voltage-dependent channel conductance upon addition of trivalent cations allows us to gauge their interactions with the membrane surface. The inversion of the sign of the effective surface charge takes place at the concentrations, which correlate with the cation size. Specifically, these concentrations are close to 0.05 mM for lanthanum, 0.25 mM for hexaamminecobalt, and 4 mM for spermidine.

  12. Estimating individual glomerular volume in the human kidney: clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Zimanyi, Monika A; Samuel, Terence; Hughson, Michael D; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F; Armitage, James A

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of individual glomerular volumes (IGV) has allowed the identification of drivers of glomerular hypertrophy in subjects without overt renal pathology. This study aims to highlight the relevance of IGV measurements with possible clinical implications and determine how many profiles must be measured in order to achieve stable size distribution estimates. We re-analysed 2250 IGV estimates obtained using the disector/Cavalieri method in 41 African and 34 Caucasian Americans. Pooled IGV analysis of mean and variance was conducted. Monte-Carlo (Jackknife) simulations determined the effect of the number of sampled glomeruli on mean IGV. Lin's concordance coefficient (R(C)), coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of error (CE) measured reliability. IGV mean and variance increased with overweight and hypertensive status. Superficial glomeruli were significantly smaller than juxtamedullary glomeruli in all subjects (P IGV mean and variability. Overall, mean IGV was particularly reliable with nine or more sampled glomeruli (R(C) > 0.95, IGV and estimated total glomerular number. Multiple comorbidities for CKD are associated with increased IGV mean and variance within subjects, including overweight, obesity and hypertension. Zonal selection and the number of sampled glomeruli do not represent drawbacks for future longitudinal biopsy-based studies of glomerular size and distribution.

  13. Oxidative stress in primary glomerular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markan, Suchita; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sud, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure.......To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure....

  14. Supersaturated Self-Assembled Charge-Selective Interfacial Layers for Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-24

    layers (IFLs) on the tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anodes of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, a series of Ar2N-(CH2)n-SiCl3 precursors with Ar = 3,4...Bulk- heterojunction OPV devices are fabricated with these SHSAMs: ITO/IFL/poly[[4,8- bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][2...phobicity,15,19,20 electrical conductivity,21−23 and charge in- jection/collection selectivity through the film.1,2,10 For example, on metal oxide substrates

  15. Contribution of glomerular morphometry to the diagnosis of pediatric nephropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barreto Marini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies describe histopathological changes in renal biopsies performed in pediatric patients. This study was conducted to identify an association between morphometric data in renal biopsies and renal function of these patients. Fifty-nine individuals with ages between 2 and 18 years old were selected, who were divided into six groups consisting of frequent nephropathies in children and adolescents and one control group. Proteinuria, urea, and creatinine values of the patients were recorded. Interactive image analysis software Leica QWin[®]was used for morpho- metric analysis of Bowman′s capsule, glomerular capillary tuft, and Bowman′s space area. The mean glomerular tuft area was higher in the membranous glomerulopathy group than in the podo- cytopathy group (57,101 ± 25,094 vs. 27,420 c ± 6279 µm2; P <0.05. The median of Bowman′s space area was higher in the control group than in the podocytopathy group and in the thin basement membrane/Alport syndrome group [12,210 (7676-26,945 vs. 5801 (3031-7852 µm2; P <0.01 and 12210 (7676-26,945 vs. 4183 (3797-7992 µm2; P <0.01, respectively]. There was a positive and significant correlation between Bowman′s capsule area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea of the patients, as well as between the glomerular tuft area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea in the patients, regardless of their nephropathy. Glomerular morphometry may contribute to the diagnosis of some glomerulopathies and the association between glomerular morphometric parameters, and laboratory data may promote a better understanding of the prognosis of these patients.

  16. Permeability of peritoneal and glomerular capillaries: what are the differences according to pore theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Bengt; Davies, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Pore and fiber-matrix theory can both be used to model the peritoneal and glomerular filtration barriers in an attempt to shed light on their differing structure-function relationships. The glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) is structurally more specialized, morphologically complex, and also highly dynamic; but paradoxically, because of its uniformity, it conforms more closely to the predictions of pore theory than does the peritoneum, and it in fact resembles a more simple synthetic membrane. Compared with the peritoneal capillary wall, the GFB has no transcellular "third" pores (aquaporins), and it is far less leaky and more size-selective to proteins, mainly as a result of having far fewer "large" pores. It does have charge-selective properties, although these are considered much less important in excluding albumin than was once thought, and it is also able to select polymers according to their shape and flexibility. Even this property might reflect the relative uniformity of the GFB, which has a high diffusion area and short diffusion distances, compared with the peritoneal barrier, which behaves more like a gel filtration column. Furthermore, the length of the diffusion path across the peritoneal membrane is much greater for small solutes, given the relatively high ultrafiltration coefficient for that membrane compared with the GFB--a situation that reflects both the tortuosity of the interendothelial clefts and the distribution of peritoneal capillaries within the interstitium. These comparisons reveal the peritoneal barrier as a relatively complex structure to model; and yet this model may be more representative of the general microcirculation, and thus shed light on systemic endothelial function in renal failure.

  17. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Lovrincic, Robert; Yu, Xi; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  18. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.

    2015-08-06

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  19. Selective contacts drive charge extraction in quantum dot solids via asymmetry in carrier transfer kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Gonzalez-Pedro, Victoria; Gimenez, Sixto; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Kemp, Kyle W.; Sargent, Edward H.; Bisquert, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective contacts drive charge extraction in quantum dot solids via asymmetry in carrier transfer kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2013-08-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct evidence of charge separation in a metal-organic framework: efficient and selective photocatalytic oxidative coupling of amines via charge and energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hang; Li, Dandan; Su, Ji-Hu; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-03-28

    The selective aerobic oxidative coupling of amines under mild conditions is an important laboratory and commercial procedure yet a great challenge. In this work, a porphyrinic metal-organic framework, PCN-222, was employed to catalyze the reaction. Upon visible light irradiation, the semiconductor-like behavior of PCN-222 initiates charge separation, evidently generating oxygen-centered active sites in Zr-oxo clusters indicated by enhanced porphyrin π-cation radical signals. The photogenerated electrons and holes further activate oxygen and amines, respectively, to give the corresponding redox products, both of which have been detected for the first time. The porphyrin motifs generate singlet oxygen based on energy transfer to further promote the reaction. As a result, PCN-222 exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity, selectivity and recyclability, far superior to its organic counterpart, for the reaction under ambient conditions via combined energy and charge transfer.

  2. Mass, charge, and energy separation by selective acceleration with a traveling potential hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, L. Schwager; Barr, W. L.; Lowder, R. S.; Post, R. F.

    1996-10-01

    A traveling electric potential hill has been used to generate an ion beam with an energy distribution that is mass dependent from a monoenergetic ion beam of mixed masses. This effect can be utilized as a novel method for mass separation applied to identification or enrichment of ions (e.g., of elements, isotopes, or molecules). This theory for mass-selective acceleration is presented here and is shown to be confirmed by experiment and by a time-dependent particle-in-cell computer simulation. Results show that monoenergetic ions with the particular mass of choice are accelerated by controlling the hill potential and the hill velocity. The hill velocity is typically 20%-30% faster than the ions to be accelerated. The ability of the hill to pickup a particular mass uses the fact that small kinetic energy differences in the lab frame appear much larger in the moving hill frame. Ions will gain energy from the approaching hill if their relative energy in the moving hill frame is less than the peak potential of the hill. The final energy of these accelerated ions can be several times the source energy, which facilitates energy filtering for mass purification or identification. If the hill potential is chosen to accelerate multiple masses, the heaviest mass will have the greatest final energy. Hence, choosing the appropriate hill potential and collector retarding voltage will isolate ions with the lightest, heaviest, or intermediate mass. In the experimental device, called a Solitron, purified 20Ne and 22Ne are extracted from a ribbon beam of neon that is originally composed of 20Ne:22Ne in the natural ratio of 91:9. The isotopic content of the processed beam is determined by measuring the energy distribution of the detected current. These results agree with the theory. In addition to mass selectivity, our theory can also be applied to the filtration of an ion beam according to charge state or energy. Because of this variety of properties, the Solitron is envisioned to

  3. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M.

    1990-01-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate

  4. The new ECR charge breeder for the Selective Production of Exotic Species project at INFN—Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Roncolato, C.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project is an ISOL facility under construction at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare–Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). 1+ radioactive ions, produced and extracted from the target-ion-source system, will be charge bred to high charge states by an ECR charge breeder (SPES-CB): the project will adopt an upgraded version of the PHOENIX charge breeder, developed since about twenty years by the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC). The collaboration between LNL and LPSC started in 2010 with charge breeding experiments performed on the LPSC test bench and led, in June 2014, to the signature of a Research Collaboration Agreement for the delivery of a complete charge breeder and ancillaries, satisfying the SPES requirements. Important technological aspects were tackled during the construction phase, as, for example, beam purity issues, electrodes alignment, and vacuum sealing. This phase was completed in spring 2015, after which the qualification tests were carried out at LPSC on the 1+/q+ test stand. This paper describes the characteristics of the SPES-CB, with particular emphasis on the results obtained during the qualification tests: charge breeding of Ar, Xe, Rb, and Cs satisfied the SPES requirements for different intensities of the injected 1+ beam, showing very good performances, some of which are “best ever” for this device

  5. The new ECR charge breeder for the Selective Production of Exotic Species project at INFN—Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Roncolato, C.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project is an ISOL facility under construction at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). 1+ radioactive ions, produced and extracted from the target-ion-source system, will be charge bred to high charge states by an ECR charge breeder (SPES-CB): the project will adopt an upgraded version of the PHOENIX charge breeder, developed since about twenty years by the Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC). The collaboration between LNL and LPSC started in 2010 with charge breeding experiments performed on the LPSC test bench and led, in June 2014, to the signature of a Research Collaboration Agreement for the delivery of a complete charge breeder and ancillaries, satisfying the SPES requirements. Important technological aspects were tackled during the construction phase, as, for example, beam purity issues, electrodes alignment, and vacuum sealing. This phase was completed in spring 2015, after which the qualification tests were carried out at LPSC on the 1+/q+ test stand. This paper describes the characteristics of the SPES-CB, with particular emphasis on the results obtained during the qualification tests: charge breeding of Ar, Xe, Rb, and Cs satisfied the SPES requirements for different intensities of the injected 1+ beam, showing very good performances, some of which are "best ever" for this device.

  6. Detectors for selective registration of charged particles and gamma-quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Katrunov, K

    2002-01-01

    A new design is proposed and described of a combined detector (CD) for simultaneous detection of charged particles and gamma-quanta. The CD comprises a single crystalline plate of ZnSe(Te) placed onto the output window of a scintillating transparent light transducer made of CsI(Ti) and Al sub 2 O sub 3 (Ti) in the shape of truncated pyramid. The CsI(Ti) light transducer is used to create an additional channel for detection of gamma-radiation,as well as for protecting the photodiode from the penetrating radiation.It is shown that introduction of such light transducer does not worsen the energy characteristics of ZnSe(Te). Separate detection of alpha- and gamma-radiation has been achieved under simultaneous excitation by sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu (ZnSe(Te), R sub a =6%) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (CsI(Tl), R subgamma = 20 %). The use of selective optical filters allows separation of the peaks of total absorption (p.t.a.) in the case of their superposition.

  7. "Supersaturated" self-assembled charge-selective interfacial layers for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Charles Kiseok; Luck, Kyle A; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Heitzer, Henry M; Manley, Eric F; Goldman, Samuel; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A; Bedzyk, Michael J; Chang, Robert P H; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-12-24

    To achieve densely packed charge-selective organosilane-based interfacial layers (IFLs) on the tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anodes of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, a series of Ar2N-(CH2)n-SiCl3 precursors with Ar = 3,4-difluorophenyl, n = 3, 6, 10, and 18, was synthesized, characterized, and chemisorbed on OPV anodes to serve as IFLs. To minimize lateral nonbonded -NAr2···Ar2N- repulsions which likely limit IFL packing densities in the resulting self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), precursor mixtures having both small and large n values are simultaneously deposited. These "heterogeneous" SAMs are characterized by a battery of techniques: contact angle measurements, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), cyclic voltammetry, and DFT computation. It is found that the headgroup densities of these "supersaturated" heterogeneous SAMs (SHSAMs) are enhanced by as much as 17% versus their homogeneous counterparts. Supersaturation significantly modifies the IFL properties including the work function (as much as 16%) and areal dipole moment (as much as 49%). Bulk-heterojunction OPV devices are fabricated with these SHSAMs: ITO/IFL/poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][2-[[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]carbonyl]-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  8. The Prediction of Key Cytoskeleton Components Involved in Glomerular Diseases Based on a Protein-Protein Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangrui; Tan, Aidi; Ju, Wenjun; Li, Xuejuan; Li, Shao; Ding, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of the physiological morphologies of different types of cells and tissues is essential for the normal functioning of each system in the human body. Dynamic variations in cell and tissue morphologies depend on accurate adjustments of the cytoskeletal system. The cytoskeletal system in the glomerulus plays a key role in the normal process of kidney filtration. To enhance the understanding of the possible roles of the cytoskeleton in glomerular diseases, we constructed the Glomerular Cytoskeleton Network (GCNet), which shows the protein-protein interaction network in the glomerulus, and identified several possible key cytoskeletal components involved in glomerular diseases. In this study, genes/proteins annotated to the cytoskeleton were detected by Gene Ontology analysis, and glomerulus-enriched genes were selected from nine available glomerular expression datasets. Then, the GCNet was generated by combining these two sets of information. To predict the possible key cytoskeleton components in glomerular diseases, we then examined the common regulation of the genes in GCNet in the context of five glomerular diseases based on their transcriptomic data. As a result, twenty-one cytoskeleton components as potential candidate were highlighted for consistently down- or up-regulating in all five glomerular diseases. And then, these candidates were examined in relation to existing known glomerular diseases and genes to determine their possible functions and interactions. In addition, the mRNA levels of these candidates were also validated in a puromycin aminonucleoside(PAN) induced rat nephropathy model and were also matched with existing Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) transcriptomic data. As a result, there are 15 of 21 candidates in PAN induced nephropathy model were consistent with our predication and also 12 of 21 candidates were matched with differentially expressed genes in the DN transcriptomic data. By providing a novel interaction network and prediction, GCNet

  9. Glomerular Lesions in Proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Lees, G E; Brown, C A; Cianciolo, R E

    2017-05-01

    Miniature Schnauzer dogs are predisposed to idiopathic hypertriglyerceridemia, which increases risk for diseases such as pancreatitis and gallbladder mucocele. Recently, elevated triglyceride concentrations have been associated with proteinuria in this breed, although it is difficult to determine which abnormality is primary. Retrospective review of renal tissue from 27 proteinuric Miniature Schnauzers revealed that 20 dogs had ultrastructural evidence of osmophilic globules consistent with lipid in glomerular tufts. Seven of these dogs had lipid thromboemboli in glomerular capillary loops that distorted their shape and compressed circulating erythrocytes. Triglyceride concentrations were reported in 6 of these 7 dogs, and all were hypertriglyceridemic. In addition, glomerular lipidosis (defined as accumulation of foam cells within peripheral capillary loops) was identified in a single dog. The remaining 12 dogs had smaller amounts of lipid that could only be identified ultrastructurally. Neither signalment data nor clinicopathologic parameters (serum albumin, serum creatinine, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and blood pressure) differed among the various types of lipid lesions. During the time course of this study, all dogs diagnosed with glomerular lipid thromboemboli were Miniature Schnauzers, underscoring the importance of recognizing these clear spaces within capillary loops as lipid.

  10. Glomerular latency coding in artificial olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Jaber Al; Boussaid, Farid; Bermak, Amine; Martinez, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Sensory perception results from the way sensory information is subsequently transformed in the brain. Olfaction is a typical example in which odor representations undergo considerable changes as they pass from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to second-order neurons. First, many ORNs expressing the same receptor protein yet presenting heterogeneous dose-response properties converge onto individually identifiable glomeruli. Second, onset latency of glomerular activation is believed to play a role in encoding odor quality and quantity in the context of fast information processing. Taking inspiration from the olfactory pathway, we designed a simple yet robust glomerular latency coding scheme for processing gas sensor data. The proposed bio-inspired approach was evaluated using an in-house SnO(2) sensor array. Glomerular convergence was achieved by noting the possible analogy between receptor protein expressed in ORNs and metal catalyst used across the fabricated gas sensor array. Ion implantation was another technique used to account both for sensor heterogeneity and enhanced sensitivity. The response of the gas sensor array was mapped into glomerular latency patterns, whose rank order is concentration-invariant. Gas recognition was achieved by simply looking for a "match" within a library of spatio-temporal spike fingerprints. Because of its simplicity, this approach enables the integration of sensing and processing onto a single-chip.

  11. The Rho-GTPase binding protein IQGAP2 is required for the glomerular filtration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Yuya; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Auberger, Ines; Ziegler, Urs; Segerer, Stephan; Cohen, Clemens D; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Loffing, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Podocyte dysfunction impairs the size selectivity of the glomerular filter, leading to proteinuria, hypoalbuminuria, and edema, clinically defined as nephrotic syndrome. Hereditary forms of nephrotic syndrome are linked to mutations in podocyte-specific genes. To identify genes contributing to podocyte dysfunction in acquired nephrotic syndrome, we studied human glomerular gene expression data sets for glomerular-enriched gene transcripts differentially regulated between pretransplant biopsy samples and biopsies from patients with nephrotic syndrome. Candidate genes were screened by in situ hybridization for expression in the zebrafish pronephros, an easy-to-use in vivo assay system to assess podocyte function. One glomerulus-enriched product was the Rho-GTPase binding protein, IQGAP2. Immunohistochemistry found a strong presence of IQGAP2 in normal human and zebrafish podocytes. In zebrafish larvae, morpholino-based knockdown of iqgap2 caused a mild foot process effacement of zebrafish podocytes and a cystic dilation of the urinary space of Bowman's capsule upon onset of urinary filtration. Moreover, the glomerulus of zebrafish morphants showed a glomerular permeability for injected high-molecular-weight dextrans, indicating an impaired size selectivity of the glomerular filter. Thus, IQGAP2 is a Rho-GTPase binding protein, highly abundant in human and zebrafish podocytes, which controls normal podocyte structure and function as evidenced in the zebrafish pronephros.

  12. Post-duplication charge evolution of phosphoglucose isomerases in teleost fishes through weak selection on many amino acid sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yukuto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicated genes by neutral evolution, or subfunctionalization, has been considered the primary process for the evolution of novel proteins (neofunctionalization. Nonetheless, how a subfunctionalized protein can evolve into a more adaptive protein is poorly understood, mainly due to the limitations of current analytical methods, which can detect only strong selection for amino acid substitutions involved in adaptive molecular evolution. In this study, we employed a comparative evolutionary approach to this question, focusing on differences in the structural properties of a protein, specifically the electric charge, encoded by fish-specific duplicated phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi genes. Results Full-length cDNA cloning, RT-PCR based gene expression analyses, and comparative sequence analyses showed that after subfunctionalization with respect to the expression organ of duplicate Pgi genes, the net electric charge of the PGI-1 protein expressed mainly in internal tissues became more negative, and that of PGI-2 expressed mainly in muscular tissues became more positive. The difference in net protein charge was attributable not to specific amino acid sites but to the sum of various amino acid sites located on the surface of the PGI molecule. Conclusion This finding suggests that the surface charge evolution of PGI proteins was not driven by strong selection on individual amino acid sites leading to permanent fixation of a particular residue, but rather was driven by weak selection on a large number of amino acid sites and consequently by steady directional and/or purifying selection on the overall structural properties of the protein, which is derived from many modifiable sites. The mode of molecular evolution presented here may be relevant to various cases of adaptive modification in proteins, such as hydrophobic properties, molecular size, and electric charge.

  13. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (Palbumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  14. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  15. New Insights into Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and Its Signaling Pathways in Glomerular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs have aroused an increasing attention recently. The proliferation of PECs is the main feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis; besides that, in the past decade, PEC activation has been identified in several types of noninflammatory glomerulonephropathies, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulopathy, and membranous nephropathy. The pathogenesis of PEC activation is poorly understood; however, a few studies delicately elucidate the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in these processes. In this review we will focus on the latest observations and concepts about PEC activation in glomerular diseases and the newest identified signaling pathways in PEC activation.

  16. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, M.; Feitsma, H.I.J.; Calame, W.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1994-01-01

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  17. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  18. Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.

    1986-01-01

    Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect

  19. B Cell Depletion: Rituximab in Glomerular Disease and Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marinaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Selective targeting can be achieved with the use of the monoclonal antibody rituximab. In addition to being a drug for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, rituximab is also an FDA-approved treatment for refractory rheumatoid arthritis and, since recently, ANCA vasculitis. It has shown efficacy in many autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss current evidence and the rationale of the use of rituximab in glomerular diseases, including randomized controlled trials. The focus will be on the use of rituximab in idiopathic membranous nephropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus and ANCA-associated vasculitis. The emerging role of rituximab in renal transplantation, where it seems to be important for the desensitization protocols for highly sensitized patients as well as for the preconditioning of ABO-incompatible recipients and the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection, will also be addressed.

  20. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells in kidney physiology, pathology, and repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shankland, Stuart J.; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Romagnani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review We have summarized recently published glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) research, focusing on their roles in glomerular development and physiology, and in certain glomerular diseases. The rationale is that PECs have been largely ignored until the recent availability of cell lineage tracing studies, human and murine PEC culture systems, and potential therapeutic interventions of PECs. Recent findings Several new paradigms involving PECs have emerged demonstrating thei...

  1. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  2. Conical Intersections, charge localization, and photoisomerization pathway selection in a minimal model of a degenerate monomethine dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Seth; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a minimal model Hamiltonian for the electronic structure of a monomethine dye, in order to describe the photoisomerization of such dyes. The model describes interactions between three diabatic electronic states, each of which can be associated with a valence bond structure. Monomethine dyes are characterized by a charge-transfer resonance; the indeterminacy of the single-double bonding structure dictated by the resonance is reflected in a duality of photoisomerization pathways corresponding to the different methine bonds. The possible multiplicity of decay channels complicates mechanistic models of the effect of the environment on fluorescent quantum yields, as well as coherent control strategies. We examine the extent and topology of intersection seams between the electronic states of the dye and how they relate to charge localization and selection between different decay pathways. We find that intersections between the S 1 and S 0 surfaces only occur for large twist angles. In contrast, S 2 /S 1 intersections can occur near the Franck-Condon region. When the molecule has left-right symmetry, all intersections are associated with con- or disrotations and never with single bond twists. For asymmetric molecules (i.e., where the bridge couples more strongly to one end) the S 2 and S 1 surfaces bias torsion about different bonds. Charge localization and torsion pathway biasing are correlated. We relate our observations with several recent experimental and theoretical results, which have been obtained for dyes with similar structure.

  3. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Lee

    Full Text Available Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61, P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75, P for trend < 0.001 in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2, male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80, P for trend = 0.009. Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49, P for trend = 0.002. After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25, P for trend = 0.013. Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post

  4. Evidence of changes in renal charge selectivity in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, A; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Vidal, P

    1986-01-01

    in plasma and urine was determined by a specific, sensitive and highly reproducible chromatographic procedure. In diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, the selectivity index was increased three-fold compared with that of non-diabetic subjects (2 p less than 0.01). A significant...... clearance of non-glycated plasma albumin/clearance of glycated plasma albumin in 38 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The two albumin molecules differed slightly in charge, non-enzymatic glycated albumin being more anionic at physiological pH compared with unmodified plasma albumin. Glycated albumin...... patients with increased albumin excretion rate had a significantly lower selectivity index compared with patients with normal albumin excretion (2 p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation (r = 0.85, 2 p less than 0.001, exponential curve fit) was seen between urinary albumin excretion...

  5. Selection of tRNA charging quality control mechanisms that increase mistranslation of the genetic code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mistranslation can follow two events during protein synthesis: production of non-cognate amino acid:transfer RNA (tRNA) pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and inaccurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. Many aaRSs actively edit non-cognate amino acids, but editing mechanisms...

  6. Long-term expression of glomerular genes in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Dominik; Banas, Bernhard; Lennartz, Laura; Putz, Franz Josef; Eidenschink, Kathrin; Beck, Sebastian; Stempfl, Thomas; Moehle, Christoph; Reichelt-Wurm, Simone; Banas, Miriam C

    2018-01-11

    Although diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause for end-stage renal disease in western societies, its pathogenesis still remains largely unclear. A different gene pattern of diabetic and healthy kidney cells is one of the probable explanations. Numerous signalling pathways have emerged as important pathophysiological mechanisms for diabetes-induced renal injury. Glomerular cells, as podocytes or mesangial cells, are predominantly involved in the development of diabetic renal lesions. While many gene assays concerning DN are performed with whole kidney or renal cortex tissue, we isolated glomeruli from black and tan, brachyuric (BTBR) obese/obese (ob/ob) and wildtype mice at four different timepoints (4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks) and performed an mRNA microarray to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In contrast to many other diabetic mouse models, these homozygous ob/ob leptin-deficient mice develop not only a severe type 2 diabetes, but also diabetic kidney injury with all the clinical and especially histologic features defining human DN. By functional enrichment analysis we were able to investigate biological processes and pathways enriched by the DEGs at different disease stages. Altered expression of nine randomly selected genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from glomerular RNA. Ob/ob type 2 diabetic mice showed up- and downregulation of genes primarily involved in metabolic processes and pathways, including glucose, lipid, fatty acid, retinol and amino acid metabolism. Members of the CYP4A and ApoB family were found among the top abundant genes. But more interestingly, altered gene loci showed enrichment for processes and pathways linked to angioneogenesis, complement cascades, semaphorin pathways, oxidation and reduction processes and renin secretion. The gene profile of BTBR ob/ob type 2 diabetic mice we conducted in this study can help to identify new key players in molecular pathogenesis of diabetic kidney

  7. Aldosterone and glomerular filtration--observations in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dittmann, Kathleen; Völzke, Henry; Endlich, Karlhans; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2014-03-10

    Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany. A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (ß-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; ß-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD. Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.

  8. Optimal Site Selection of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on a Cloud Model and the PROMETHEE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of site selection for electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS is hugely important from the perspective of harmonious and sustainable development. However, flaws and inadequacies in the currently used multi-criteria decision making methods could result in inaccurate and irrational decision results. First of all, the uncertainty of the information cannot be described integrally in the evaluation of the EVCS site selection. Secondly, rigorous consideration of the mutual influence between the various criteria is lacking, which is mainly evidenced in two aspects: one is ignoring the correlation, and the other is the unconscionable measurements. Last but not least, the ranking method adopted in previous studies is not very appropriate for evaluating the EVCS site selection problem. As a result of the above analysis, a Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE method-based decision system combined with the cloud model is proposed in this paper for EVCS site selection. Firstly, the use of the PROMETHEE method can bolster the confidence and visibility for decision makers. Secondly, the cloud model is recommended to describe the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms integrally and accurately. Finally, the Analytical Network Process (ANP method is adopted to measure the correlation of the indicators with a greatly simplified calculation of the parameters and the steps required.

  9. Selected vitamin D metabolic gene variants and risk for autism spectrum disorder in the CHARGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hansen, Robin L; Hartiala, Jaana; Allayee, Hooman; Sconberg, Jaime L; Schmidt, Linda C; Volk, Heather E; Tassone, Flora

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D is essential for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and common, functional polymorphisms in vitamin D pathways. Children aged 24-60 months enrolled from 2003 to 2009 in the population-based CHARGE case-control study were evaluated clinically and confirmed to have ASD (n=474) or typical development (TD, n=281). Maternal, paternal, and child DNA samples for 384 (81%) families of children with ASD and 234 (83%) families of TD children were genotyped for: TaqI, BsmI, FokI, and Cdx2 in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, and CYP27B1 rs4646536, GC rs4588, and CYP2R1 rs10741657. Case-control logistic regression, family-based log-linear, and hybrid log-linear analyses were conducted to produce risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each allelic variant. Paternal VDR TaqI homozygous variant genotype was significantly associated with ASD in case-control analysis (odds ratio [OR] [CI]: 6.3 [1.9-20.7]) and there was a trend towards increased risk associated with VDR BsmI (OR [CI]: 4.7 [1.6-13.4]). Log-linear triad analyses detected parental imprinting, with greater effects of paternally-derived VDR alleles. Child GC AA-genotype/A-allele was associated with ASD in log-linear and ETDT analyses. A significant association between decreased ASD risk and child CYP2R1 AA-genotype was found in hybrid log-linear analysis. There were limitations of low statistical power for less common alleles due to missing paternal genotypes. This study provides preliminary evidence that paternal and child vitamin D metabolism could play a role in the etiology of ASD; further research in larger study populations is warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Selective adsorption of oppositely charged PNIPAAM on halloysite surfaces: a route to thermo-responsive nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Lisuzzo, Lorenzo; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2018-05-17

    Halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with stimuli-responsive macromolecules to generate smart nanohybrids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-methacrylic acid (PNIPAAM-co-MA) was selectively adsorbed into halloysite lumen by exploiting electrostatic interactions. Amine-terminated PNIPAAM polymer was also investigated that selectively interacts with the outer surface of the nanotubes. The adsorption site has a profound effect on the thermodynamic behavior and therefore temperature responsive features of the hybrid material. The drug release kinetics was investigated by using Diclofenac as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug model. The release kinetics depends on the nanoarchitecture of the PNIPAAM/Halloysite based material. In particular, diclofenac release was slowed down above the LCST for PNIPAAM-co-MA/Halloysite. Opposite trends occurred for Halloysite functionalized with PNIPAAM at the outer surface. This work represents a further step toward the opportunity to extend and control the delivery conditions of active species, which represent a key point in technological applications. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Near-infrared selective dynamic windows controlled by charge transfer impedance at the counter electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Praveen; Scarfiello, Riccardo; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Veramonti, Giulia; Sibillano, Teresa; Qualtieri, Antonio; Giannini, Cinzia; Cozzoli, P Davide; Manca, Michele

    2016-12-08

    Recent developments in the exploitation of transparent conductive oxide nanocrystals paved the way to the realization of a new class of electrochemical systems capable of selectively shielding the infrared heat loads carried by sunlight and prospected the blooming of a key enabling technology to be implemented in the next generation of "zero-energy" building envelopes. Here we report the fabrication of a set of electrochromic devices embodying an engineered nanostructured electrode made by high aspect-ratio tungsten oxide nanorods, which allow for selectively and dynamically controlling sunlight transmission over the near-infrared to visible range. Varying the intensity of applied voltage makes the spectral response of the device change across three different optical regimes, namely fully transparent, near-infrared only blocking and both visible and near-infrared blocking. It is demonstrated that the degree of reversible modulation of the thermal radiation entering the glazing element can approach a remarkable 85%, accompanied by only a modest reduction in the luminous transmittance.

  12. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  13. Charge- and Size-Selective Molecular Separation using Ultrathin Cellulose Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-08-30

    To date, it is still a challenge to prepare high-flux and highselectivity microporous membranes thinner than 20 nm without introducing defects. In this work, we report for the first time the application of cellulose membranes for selective separation of small molecules. A freestanding cellulose membrane as thin as 10 nm has been prepared through regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC). The freestanding membrane can be transferred to any desired substrate and shows a normalized flux as high as 700 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 when supported by a porous alumina disc. According to filtration experiments, the membrane exhibits precise size-sieving performances with an estimated pore size between 1.5–3.5 nm depending on the regeneration period and initial TMSC concentration. A perfect discrimination of anionic molecules over neutral species is demonstrated. Moreover, the membrane demonstrates high reproducibility, high scale-up potential, and excellent stability over two months.

  14. Physiopathology glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetes. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Mascheroni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular hyperfiltration (HF in diabetic kidney disease is a complex hemodynamic phenomenon which occurs in early stages of the disease’s progress and probably has negative influences, regarding the progression to the occurrence of microalbuminuria and the progress of evident diabetic nephropathy (DN. Factors involved in its physiopathology are numerous, they include: diabetic biochemical environment and several humoral factors like nitric oxide, prostaglandins, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide, reactive oxygen species, other humoral and growth factors. These factors cause or enhance the vasodilatation of the afferent arteriole (AA. Factors with vasoconstriction function over the efferent arteriole, all considered primary vascular factors. However, these factors cannot explain other observed alterations and they constitute primary tubular abnormalities such as the increased reabsorption at the proximal tubule, probably conditioned by kidney growth in DBT and by the overexpression of the SGLT2 cotransporter. This higher proximal reabsorption would produce a lower arrival of solutes to the macula densa (MD. This would be incompatible with an action of the tubuloglomerular balance system, but it would be compatible with an action performed by the tubuloglomerular feedback system (TGFB that senses the decrease of the ClNa concentration at the MD. Also deactivating the TGFB and causing vasodilatation of the AA, resulting in an increase of glomerular filtration (GF and renal plasma flow (RPF, characteristic of the HF process. These two processes (vascular and tubular could act in synergy or simultaneously, depending on the metabolic and progressing conditions of the diabetic kidney disease. Similar mechanisms could explain the salt paradox, whereby a lowsalt diet would exacerbate the HF phenomenon and a high-salt diet would decrease the GF and the RPF, which could result in unexpected clinical implications. The

  15. Charge-carrier selective electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cell by contact-printed siloxane oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2015-01-01

    ‘Smart’ (or selective) electrode for charge carriers, both electrons and holes, in organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using insertion layers made of hydrophobically-recovered and contact-printed siloxane oligomers between electrodes and active material has been demonstrated. The siloxane oligomer insertion layer has been formed at a given interface simply by conformally-contacting a cured slab of polydimethylsiloxane stamp for less than 100 s. All the devices, either siloxane oligomer printed at one interface only or printed at both interfaces, showed efficiency enhancement when compared to non-printed ones. The possible mechanism that is responsible for the observed efficiency enhancement has been discussed based on the point of optimum symmetry and photocurrent analysis. Besides its simplicity and large-area applicability, the demonstrated contact-printing technique does not involve any vacuum or wet processing steps and thus can be very useful for the roll-based, continuous production scheme for organic BHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • Carrier-selective insertion layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells • Simple contact-printing of siloxane oligomers improves cell efficiency. • Printed siloxane layer reduces carrier recombination at electrode surfaces. • Siloxane insertion layer works equally well at both electrode surfaces. • Patterned PDMS stamp shortens the printing time within 100 s

  16. Molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumya K; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A; George, Linz-Buoy; Highland, Hyacinth N; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and Tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the CQ resistance transporter (CRT) system. The present study deals with computational modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. The model of PfCRT was developed using Protein homology/analogy engine (PHYRE ver 0.2) and was validated based on the results obtained using PSI-PRED. Subsequently, molecular interactions of selected phytochemicals extracted from C. roseus Linn. and T. indica were studied using multiple-iterated genetic algorithm-based docking protocol in order to investigate the translocation of these legends across the PfCRT protein. Further, molecular dynamics studies exhibiting interaction energy estimates of these compounds within the active site of the protein showed that compounds are more selective toward PfCRT. Clusters of conformations with the free energy of binding were estimated which clearly demonstrated the potential channel and by this means the translocation across the PfCRT is anticipated.

  17. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Garasto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at reviewing age-related changes in kidney structure and function, methods for estimating kidney function, and impact of reduced kidney function on geriatric outcomes, as well as the reliability and applicability of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in older patients. CKD is associated with different comorbidities and adverse outcomes such as disability and premature death in older populations. Creatinine clearance and other methods for estimating kidney function are not easy to apply in older subjects. Thus, an accurate and reliable method for calculating eGFR would be highly desirable for early detection and management of CKD in this vulnerable population. Equations based on serum creatinine, age, race, and gender have been widely used. However, these equations have their own limitations, and no equation seems better than the other ones in older people. New equations specifically developed for use in older populations, especially those based on serum cystatin C, hold promises. However, further studies are needed to definitely accept them as the reference method to estimate kidney function in older patients in the clinical setting.

  18. Important clinical and laboratory correlates of glomerular filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... for glomerular changes seen in sickle cell disease (SCD). These include ... sex, frequency of crises per annum, as well as steady state laboratory indices .... nephropathy in sickle cell does not arise from a vaso‑occlusive effect.

  19. [Why? How? What for? We must measure the glomerular filtration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Becerra, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of the glomerular filtration shows the degree of the functional qualities and the proficiency of the renal system. Despite new technologies, at present the best accepted technique for measuring the glomerular filtration in most countries is the clearance of creatinine in 24 hour urine. The clearance of creatinine has the advantage that it is confident, easy to reproduce, without technical limitations and low cost.

  20. Phlorizin Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration but not Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Malatiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of renal and glomerular hypertrophies to development of hyperfiltration and proteinuria early in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were explored. Control, diabetic, phlorizin-treated controls, and diabetic male Fischer rats were used. Phlorizin (an Na+-glucose cotransport inhibitor was given at a dose sufficient to normalize blood glucose. Inulin clearance (Cinulin and protein excretion rate (PER were measured. For morphometry, kidney sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff. At one week, diabetes PER increased 2.8-folds (P<.001, Cinulin increased 80% (P<.01. Kidney wet and dry weights increased 10%–12% (P<.05, and glomerular tuft area increased 9.3% (P<.001. Phlorizin prevented proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and kidney hypertrophy, but not glomerular hypertrophy. Thus, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and whole kidney hypertrophy were related to hyperglycemia but not to glomerular growth. Diabetic glomerular hypertrophy constitutes an early event in the progression of glomerular pathology which occurs in the absence of mesangial expansion and persists even after changes in protein excretion and GFR are reversed through glycemic control.

  1. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy.

  2. Hemodinâmica glomerular renal no roedor Calomys callosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian A. Boim

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available A função renal do roedor Calomys callosus, envolvido no ciclo de transmissão de diversos agentes patogênicos para o homem foi avaliada no animal intacto, através da técnica de depuração e micropunção renal. Os resultados mostraram que este roedor apresenta níveis pressóricos, hematócrito e proteinas plasmáticas semelhantes aos dos ratos submetidos ao mesmo procedimento experimental. Os pesos corporal e renal, bem como a filtração glomerular global e por nefro assemelham-se aos do camundongo. Surpreendentemente estes roedores apresentaram significante número de glomérulos superficiais por rim, permitindo a avaliação da hemodinàmica glomerular. Apesar da pressão arterial semelhante à dos ratos Munich-Wistar (MW, a pressão hidráulica intraglomerular no Calomys callosus foi inferior. Esta redução foi conseqüente à menor resistência pós-glomerular quando comparada à dos ratos MW. O fluxo plasmático glomerular atingiu valor bastante elevado em relação à filtração glomerular por nefro, fato que não só compensaria a reduzida pressão intraglomerular, como também seria suficiente para elevar a filtração (por g/rim a níveis superiores neste roedor, pois o coeficiente de ultrafiltração glomerular (Kj foi semelhante ao do rato MW. O presente trabalho sugere que apesar das dificuldades técnicas que este animal impõe devido ao seu reduzido tamanho, o estudo da função renal global bem como da hemodinàmica glomerular é factível, podendo portanto ser utilizado como modelo para estudo da função renal em doenças tropicais.Renal function was characterized in Calomys callosus, a rodent which can participate in the transmission of several human diseases. The results showed that the pressures levels, hematocrit and plasmatic proteins were similar to rats submitted to the same experimental maneuvers. The corporal and renal weights, whole and single nephron glomerular filtration rates were similar to the mouse

  3. Dual Mechanism of an Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT)-FRET-Based Fluorescent Probe for the Selective Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoyi; Qiao, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Shang, Luqing

    2017-12-14

    A dual-mechanism intramolecular charge transfer (ICT)-FRET fluorescent probe for the selective detection of H 2 O 2 in living cells has been designed and synthesized. This probe used a coumarin-naphthalimide hybrid as the FRET platform and a boronate moiety as the recognition group. Upon the addition of H 2 O 2 , the probe exhibited a redshifted (73 nm) fluorescence emission, and the ratio of fluorescence intensities at λ=558 and 485 nm (F 558 /F 485 ) shifted notably (up to 100-fold). Moreover, there was a good linearity (R 2 =0.9911) between the ratio and concentration of H 2 O 2 in the range of 0 to 60 μm, with a limit of detection of 0.28 μm (signal to noise ratio (S/N)=3). This probe could also detect enzymatically generated H 2 O 2 . Importantly, it could be used to visualize endogenous H 2 O 2 produced by stimulation from epidermal growth factor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A new selective fluorene-based fluorescent internal charge transfer (ICT) sensor for sugar alcohols in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol, are commonly used as a replacement for sucrose in the food industry, applied as starting material for vitamin C synthesis, and involved as one of the causative factors in diabetic complications. Therefore, their detection and quantification in aqueous solution are necessary. The reversible covalent interactions between boronic acids and diols are the basis of efficient methods for the detection of saccharides. Herein, we report a new internal charge transfer (ICT) fluorene-based fluorescent boronic acid sensor (1) 2-[(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-amino)methyl] phenyl boronic acid that shows significant fluorescence changes upon addition of saccharides. The boronic acid has high affinity (K a = 1107.9 M(-1)) and selectivity for sorbitol at pH = 8.31. It showed a linear response toward sorbitol in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-5) to 6.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 7.04 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). Sensor 1 was used to detect sorbitol in real samples with good recovery.

  5. Selective effects of charge on G protein activation by FSH-receptor residues 551-555 and 650-653.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, P; Deziel, M R; Reichert, L E

    1995-01-01

    Two cytosolic regions of the rat testicular FSH receptor (FSHR), residues 533-555 and 645-653, have been identified as G protein-coupling domains. We localized the activity in these domains to their C-terminal sequences, residues 551-555 (KIAKR, net charge +3) and 650-653 (RKSH, net charge +3), and examined the effects of charge on G protein activation by the C-terminal peptides, using synthetic analogs containing additions, through alanine (A) linkages, of arginine (R, +), histidine (H, +) or both. RA-KIAKR (net charge +4) mimicked the effect of FSHR-(551-555) on guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but reduced its ability to inhibit FSH-stimulated estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Further increasing net charge by the addition of H (HARA-KIAKR, net charge +5) increased guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding, but eliminated FSHR-(551-555) effects on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. HA-RKSH (net charge +4) significantly inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but stimulated basal and potentiated FSH-induced estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Addition of two H residues (HAHA-RKSH, net charge +5) restored GTP binding and further potentiated basal and FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. These results suggest that positive charges in G protein-coupling domains of the FSHR play a role in modulating G protein activation and postbinding effects of FSH, such as steroidogenesis.

  6. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Vulfius, C.A.; Corbacheva, E.V.; Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Utkin, Y.N.; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    α-Conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of α-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into α-conotoxins

  7. “Zebrafishing” for Novel Genes Relevant to the Glomerular Filtration Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Hanke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data for genes relevant to glomerular filtration barrier function or proteinuria is continually increasing in an era of microarrays, genome-wide association studies, and quantitative trait locus analysis. Researchers are limited by published literature searches to select the most relevant genes to investigate. High-throughput cell cultures and other in vitro systems ultimately need to demonstrate proof in an in vivo model. Generating mammalian models for the genes of interest is costly and time intensive, and yields only a small number of test subjects. These models also have many pitfalls such as possible embryonic mortality and failure to generate phenotypes or generate nonkidney specific phenotypes. Here we describe an in vivo zebrafish model as a simple vertebrate screening system to identify genes relevant to glomerular filtration barrier function. Using our technology, we are able to screen entirely novel genes in 4–6 weeks in hundreds of live test subjects at a fraction of the cost of a mammalian model. Our system produces consistent and reliable evidence for gene relevance in glomerular kidney disease; the results then provide merit for further analysis in mammalian models.

  8. Role of albumin and its modifications in glomerular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shipra; Smoyer, William E

    2017-08-01

    Albuminuria is both a characteristic hallmark and a known risk factor for progressive glomerular disease. Although the molecular basis for a potential causative role for albuminuria in progressive chronic kidney disease remains poorly understood, there have been several recent advances in our understanding of the role of albumin, and its molecular modifications, in the development and progression of glomerular disease. This review discusses recent findings related to the ability of albumin and its associated factors to directly induce podocyte and glomerular injury. Additional recent studies confirming the ability and mechanisms by which podocytes endocytose albumin are also discussed. Lastly, we present several known molecular modifications in the albumin molecule itself, as well as substances bound to it, which may be important and potentially clinically relevant mediators of albumin-induced glomerular injury. These recent findings may create entirely new opportunities to develop novel future therapies directed at albumin that could potentially help reduce podocyte and renal tubular injury and slow the progression of chronic glomerular disease.

  9. Charge-Transfer Processes in Warm Dense Matter: Selective Spectral Filtering for Laser-Accelerated Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M. D.; Morales, R.; Schnürer, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, how the spectral distribution of laser accelerated carbon ions can be filtered by charge exchange processes in a double foil target setup. Carbon ions at multiple charge states with an initially wide kinetic energy spectrum, from 0.1 to 18 MeV, were detected with a remarkably narrow spectral bandwidth after they had passed through an ultrathin and partially ionized foil. With our theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that this process is a consequence of the evolution of the carbon ion charge states in the second foil. We calculated the resulting spectral distribution separately for each ion species by solving the rate equations for electron loss and capture processes within a collisional radiative model. We determine how the efficiency of charge transfer processes can be manipulated by controlling the ionization degree of the transfer matter.

  10. State-selective charge transfer and excitation in ion-ion interactions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R; Purkait, M

    2012-01-01

    Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation and Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methods are applied to calculate the charge transfer and excitation cross sections for ion-ion collisions.

  11. [Current insights about recurrence of glomerular diseases after renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Tomek; Oniszczuk, Julie; Lang, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Audard, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    Recurrence of glomerular disease after renal transplantation is a frequent cause of graft loss. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of recurrence are widely due to the underlying glomerular disease. Graft biopsy analysis is required to confirm the definitive diagnosis of recurrence and to start an appropriate therapy that, in some cases, remains challenging to prevent graft failure. Increased use of protocol biopsy and recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of some glomerular diseases with the identification of some relevant biomarkers provide a unique opportunity to initiate kidney-protective therapy at early stages of recurrence on the graft. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the management of many recurrent primary and secondary glomerulonephritis after kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2018 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of intrarenal pressures and glomerular filtration rate after acetazolamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    -EDTA and lithium. Proximal tubular pressure (Pprox) increased initially by 1.7 +/- 0.1 mmHg after ACZ, causing a decrease in the hydrostatic pressure difference across the glomerular membrane (delta P). EDC increased, and then RBF, glomerular capillary pressure (Pgc), Pprox, and star vessel pressures (Psv) dropped......The dynamics of intrarenal pressures, early distal tubular fluid conductivity (EDC), and renal flood flow (RBF) were studied in rats given acetazolamide (ACZ), an inhibitor of proximal reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and end-proximal flow were estimated by clearances of 51Cr...... as a result of afferent vasoconstriction. Pprox decreased less than Pgc, resulting in a further decrease in delta P, which after 25-30 s reached a constant level 3-4 mmHg below control. After a transient increase the pressures declined to a new steady state, in which Pprox was equal to control, Pgc...

  13. Clinical dehydration and glomerular filtration rate in acute paediatric gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Fossali, Emilio F; Perri, Alessandra; Vettori, Arianna; Grillo, Paolo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate changes in glomerular filtration rate in acute gastroenteritis. The correlation between two clinical diagnostic scales and glomerular filtration rate has been investigated in 113 children with acute gastroenteritis in a paediatric emergency setting. A significant reduction of GFR was found in 10% children less than, and 5% children higher than, 2 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. The differences observed as for risk of renal hypoperfusion suggests to consider the age of children as an important determinant to consider the dehydration status in acute gastroenteritis. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  15. Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural Alterations of the Glomerular Wall And Vessels in Early Stages of Diabetes Mellitus: Light and Transmission Electron Microscopic Study. ... The second group of 20 (the experimental group) was injected intraperitoneally by a single dose of streptozotocin to induce hyperglycemia. Rats were sacrificed after ten days, ...

  16. Reduced glomerular filtration rate as a predictor of coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek A. Ghonemy

    2016-07-09

    Jul 9, 2016 ... Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit, Zagazig University ... glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and risk of coronary artery disease ... ing of eGFR may have a pivotal role in early detection and management of CAD in those types of ..... position statement from kidney disease improving global out-.

  17. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-07-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively. For PECs, no specific function other than a structural one has been known until recently. Possible important functions for PECs in the fate of the glomerulus in glomerular disease have now become apparent: (1) PECs may be involved in the replacement of lost podocytes; (2) PECs form the basis of extracapillary proliferative lesions and subsequent sclerosis in glomerular disease. In addition to the acknowledgement that PECs are crucial in glomerular disease, knowledge has been gained regarding the molecular processes driving the phenotypic changes and behavior of PECs. Understanding these molecular processes is important for the development of specific therapeutic approaches aimed at either stimulation of the regenerative function of PECs or inhibition of the pro-sclerotic action of PECs. In this review, we discuss recent advances pertaining to the role of PECs in glomerular regeneration and disease and address the major molecular processes involved.

  18. Hemodinâmica glomerular renal no roedor Calomys callosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian A. Boim

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available A função renal do roedor Calomys callosus, envolvido no ciclo de transmissão de diversos agentes patogênicos para o homem foi avaliada no animal intacto, através da técnica de depuração e micropunção renal. Os resultados mostraram que este roedor apresenta níveis pressóricos, hematócrito e proteinas plasmáticas semelhantes aos dos ratos submetidos ao mesmo procedimento experimental. Os pesos corporal e renal, bem como a filtração glomerular global e por nefro assemelham-se aos do camundongo. Surpreendentemente estes roedores apresentaram significante número de glomérulos superficiais por rim, permitindo a avaliação da hemodinàmica glomerular. Apesar da pressão arterial semelhante à dos ratos Munich-Wistar (MW, a pressão hidráulica intraglomerular no Calomys callosus foi inferior. Esta redução foi conseqüente à menor resistência pós-glomerular quando comparada à dos ratos MW. O fluxo plasmático glomerular atingiu valor bastante elevado em relação à filtração glomerular por nefro, fato que não só compensaria a reduzida pressão intraglomerular, como também seria suficiente para elevar a filtração (por g/rim a níveis superiores neste roedor, pois o coeficiente de ultrafiltração glomerular (Kj foi semelhante ao do rato MW. O presente trabalho sugere que apesar das dificuldades técnicas que este animal impõe devido ao seu reduzido tamanho, o estudo da função renal global bem como da hemodinàmica glomerular é factível, podendo portanto ser utilizado como modelo para estudo da função renal em doenças tropicais.

  19. Podocyte Number in Children and Adults: Associations with Glomerular Size and Numbers of Other Glomerular Resident Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G.; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.; Li, Jinhua; Hughson, Michael D.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Kerr, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in glomerular size occur with normal body growth and in many pathologic conditions. In this study, we determined associations between glomerular size and numbers of glomerular resident cells, with a particular focus on podocytes. Kidneys from 16 male Caucasian-Americans without overt renal disease, including 4 children (≤3 years old) to define baseline values of early life and 12 adults (≥18 years old), were collected at autopsy in Jackson, Mississippi. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and design-based stereology to estimate individual glomerular volume (IGV) and numbers of podocytes, nonepithelial cells (NECs; tuft cells other than podocytes), and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Podocyte density was calculated. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). Glomeruli from children were small and contained 452 podocytes (IQR=335–502), 389 NECs (IQR=265–498), and 146 PECs (IQR=111–206). Adult glomeruli contained significantly more cells than glomeruli from children, including 558 podocytes (IQR=431–746; P<0.01), 1383 NECs (IQR=998–2042; P<0.001), and 367 PECs (IQR=309–673; P<0.001). However, large adult glomeruli showed markedly lower podocyte density (183 podocytes per 106 µm3) than small glomeruli from adults and children (932 podocytes per 106 µm3; P<0.001). In conclusion, large adult glomeruli contained more podocytes than small glomeruli from children and adults, raising questions about the origin of these podocytes. The increased number of podocytes in large glomeruli does not match the increase in glomerular size observed in adults, resulting in relative podocyte depletion. This may render hypertrophic glomeruli susceptible to pathology. PMID:25568174

  20. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  1. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate is an early biomarker of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela-Toha, Ángel; Pardo, María Carmen; Pérez, Teresa; Muriel, Alfonso; Zamora, Javier

    2018-04-20

    and objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is still based on serum creatinine and diuresis. However, increases in creatinine are typically delayed 48h or longer after injury. Our aim was to determine the utility of routine postoperative renal function blood tests, to predict AKI one or 2days in advance in a cohort of cardiac surgery patients. Using a prospective database, we selected a sample of patients who had undergone major cardiac surgery between January 2002 and December 2013. The ability of the parameters to predict AKI was based on Acute Kidney Injury Network serum creatinine criteria. A cohort of 3,962 cases was divided into 2groups of similar size, one being exploratory and the other a validation sample. The exploratory group was used to show primary objectives and the validation group to confirm results. The ability to predict AKI of several kidney function parameters measured in routine postoperative blood tests, was measured with time-dependent ROC curves. The primary endpoint was time from measurement to AKI diagnosis. AKI developed in 610 (30.8%) and 623 (31.4%) patients in the exploratory and validation samples, respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed the best AKI prediction capacity, with values for the AUC ROC curves between 0.700 and 0.946. We obtained different cut-off values for estimated glomerular filtration rate depending on the degree of AKI severity and on the time elapsed between surgery and parameter measurement. Results were confirmed in the validation sample. Postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed good ability to predict AKI following cardiac surgery one or 2days in advance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The kinetics of glomerular deposition of nephritogenic IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yamaji

    Full Text Available Whether IgA nephropathy is attributable to mesangial IgA is unclear as there is no correlation between intensity of deposits and extent of glomerular injury and no clear mechanism explaining how these mesangial deposits induce hematuria and subsequent proteinuria. This hinders the development of a specific therapy. Thus, precise events during deposition still remain clinical challenge to clarify. Since no study assessed induction of IgA nephropathy by nephritogenic IgA, we analyzed sequential events involving nephritogenic IgA from IgA nephropathy-prone mice by real-time imaging systems. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that serum IgA from susceptible mice had strong affinity to mesangial, subepithelial, and subendothelial lesions, with effacement/actin aggregation in podocytes and arcade formation in endothelial cells. The deposits disappeared 24-h after single IgA injection. The data were supported by a fluorescence molecular tomography system and real-time and 3D in vivo imaging. In vivo imaging showed that IgA from the susceptible mice began depositing along the glomerular capillary from 1 min and accumulated until 2-h on the first stick in a focal and segmental manner. The findings indicate that glomerular IgA depositions in IgAN may be expressed under the balance between deposition and clearance. Since nephritogenic IgA showed mesangial as well as focal and segmental deposition along the capillary with acute cellular activation, all glomerular cellular elements are a plausible target for injury such as hematuria.

  4. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar; Rashid, Abdul B M Harun Ur; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  5. Charge selective contact on ultra-thin In(OH)xS y/Pb(OH) xS y heterostructure prepared by SILAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.; Oja, I.; Lim, B.; Belaidi, A.; Bohne, W.; Strub, E.; Roehrich, J.; Lux-Steiner, M.-Ch.; Dittrich, Th.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-thin In(OH) x S y /Pb(OH) x S y heterostructures were formed by the wet chemical SILAR (successive ion layer adsorption and reaction) technique. ERDA (elastic recoil detection analysis) was used for stoichiometry analysis. The heterocontacts were conditioned by joint annealing of the two layers at different low temperatures in air. The charge selectivity was demonstrated with various small area solar cell structures. The results are discussed on the base of formation of bonds between sulphide clusters and passivation of defects with hydrogen containing species in hydroxy-sulphides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar

    2010-06-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  7. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2011-01-01

    We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected...

  8. Cell biology of mesangial cells: the third cell that maintains the glomerular capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Hidetake; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2017-03-01

    The renal glomerulus consists of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells, which cooperate with each other for glomerular filtration. We have produced monoclonal antibodies against glomerular cells in order to identify different types of glomerular cells. Among these antibodies, the E30 clone specifically recognizes the Thy1.1 molecule expressed on mesangial cells. An injection of this antibody into rats resulted in mesangial cell-specific injury within 15 min, and induced mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a reproducible manner. We examined the role of mesangial cells in glomerular function using several experimental tools, including an E30-induced nephritis model, mesangial cell culture, and the deletion of specific genes. Herein, we describe the characterization of E30-induced nephritis, formation of the glomerular capillary network, mesangial matrix turnover, and intercellular signaling between glomerular cells. New molecules that are involved in a wide variety of mesangial cell functions are also introduced.

  9. A prospective study of glomerular filtration rate and arterial blood pressure in insulin-dependent diabetics with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Friisberg, B

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR, single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique), serum creatinine, proteinuria and arterial blood pressure have been measured prospectively in 14 young onset insulin-dependent diabetics selected by of persistent proteinuria (greater than 0.5 g/day) secondary to diabetic...... in arterial blood pressure to a hypertensive level is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy in young insulin-dependent diabetics....... and 112/mumol/l (NS), proteinuria increased from 1.8 to 3.3 g/day (p less than 0.001) and arterial blood pressure rose from 132/88 to 153/101 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Glomerular filtration rate decreased linearly with time (slope = -0.75, r = 0.99, p less than 0.001) by a mean of 0.75 ml/min/month (range...

  10. Rheological Influence Upon the Glomerular Podocyte and Resultant Mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Pichler Sekulic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular podocyte is exposed to numerous mechanical forces as a constituent of the glomerular filtration apparatus. This includes fluid shear stress (FSS displaced upon the podocytic foot process's apical, lateral, and basal surfaces. Even in the face of continuous flow the podocyte is capable of contributing to physiologic filtration, however with pathologic levels of hyperfiltration there is increased FSS placed upon the cell. The mechanisms by which the podocyte detects and responds to FSS are topics of recent investigations, with the aim to clarify the way these cells are injured and/or adapt in times of hyperfiltration and disease states. As the pathogenesis of numerous glomerulopathies is contingent on the status of the podocyte, understanding the manner that these cells can be modified by FSS is essential. Likewise, determination of the effect of such mechanical forces upon other resident cells of the renal corpuscle would reveal the contribution of FSS in the progression of glomerular diseases. The biochemical manner in which podocytes sense and respond to FSS, that is mechanotransduction, will be discussed.

  11. Glomerular function in sickle cell disease patients during crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, A; Arije, A; Akinkugbe, O O

    1994-06-01

    An 8 month prospective study was carried out in 20 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients 16 sickle cell anaemia (Hbss) and 4 sickle cell Hbc disease (Hbsc); who had vaso-occlusive crises within the study period to determine the extent of the effect of sickle cell crisis on glomerular function in SCD patients during crisis. The male: female ratio was 1:57 and their mean age was 21.1 +/- 7.9 years. Creatinine clearance (CCr), as an index of glomerular function, was determined at the pre-crisis, crisis, 2 and 4 weeks post-crisis and at the end of the study period. The mean values of their CCr dropped from 113.37 +/- 33.80mls/min at pre-crisis stage to 96.39 +/- 30.13mls/min during crisis (p pre-crisis stage (p > 0.05). It is concluded that glomerular dysfunction in SCD patients during crisis is potentially reversible.

  12. Simple method for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, T [Group for Biomedical Informatics, Uppsala Univ. Data Center, Uppsala (Sweden); Tengstroem, B [District General Hospital, Skoevde (Sweden)

    1977-02-01

    A simple method is presented for indirect estimation of the glomerular filtration rate from two venous blood samples, drawn after a single injection of a small dose of (/sup 125/I)sodium iothalamate (10 ..mu..Ci). The method does not require exact dosage, as the first sample, taken after a few minutes (t=5 min) after injection, is used to normilize the value of the second sample, which should be taken in between 2 to 4 h after injection. The glomerular filtration rate, as measured by standard insulin clearance, may then be predicted from the logarithm of the normalized value and linear regression formulas with a standard error of estimate of the order of 1 to 2 ml/min/1.73 m/sup 2/. The slope-intercept method for direct estimation of glomerular filtration rate is also evaluated and found to significantly underestimate standard insulin clearance. The normalized 'single-point' method is concluded to be superior to the slope-intercept method and more sophisticated methods using curve fitting technique, with regard to predictive force and clinical applicability.

  13. Loss of endogenous thymosin β4 accelerates glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, Elisavet; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; White, Kathryn E; Robson, Michael G; Cohen, Clemens D; Sebire, Neil J; Riley, Paul R; Winyard, Paul J; Long, David A

    2016-11-01

    Glomerular disease is characterized by morphologic changes in podocyte cells accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis. Thymosin β 4 regulates cell morphology, inflammation, and fibrosis in several organs and administration of exogenous thymosin β 4 improves animal models of unilateral ureteral obstruction and diabetic nephropathy. However, the role of endogenous thymosin β 4 in the kidney is unknown. We demonstrate that thymosin β 4 is expressed prominently in podocytes of developing and adult mouse glomeruli. Global loss of thymosin β 4 did not affect healthy glomeruli, but accelerated the severity of immune-mediated nephrotoxic nephritis with worse renal function, periglomerular inflammation, and fibrosis. Lack of thymosin β 4 in nephrotoxic nephritis led to the redistribution of podocytes from the glomerular tuft toward the Bowman capsule suggesting a role for thymosin β 4 in the migration of these cells. Thymosin β 4 knockdown in cultured podocytes also increased migration in a wound-healing assay, accompanied by F-actin rearrangement and increased RhoA activity. We propose that endogenous thymosin β 4 is a modifier of glomerular injury, likely having a protective role acting as a brake to slow disease progression. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ischemia-induced glomerular parietal epithelial cells hyperplasia: Commonly misdiagnosed cellular crescent in renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yeting; Wang, Xinrui; Xie, Feilai; Zheng, Zhiyong

    2017-08-01

    Ischemic pseudo-cellular crescent (IPCC) that is induced by ischemia and composed of hyperplastic glomerular parietal epithelial cells resembles cellular crescent. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and pathological features of IPCC in renal biopsy to avoid over-diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic basis. 4 IPCC cases diagnosed over a 4-year period (2012-2015) were evaluated for the study. Meanwhile, 5 cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and 5 cases of lupus nephritis (LN) were selected as control. Appropriate clinical data, morphology, and immunohistochemical features of all cases were retrieved. Results showed that the basement membrane of glomerulus with IPCC appeared as a concentric twisted ball, and glomerular cells of the lesion were reduced even entirely absent, and the adjacent afferent arterioles showed sclerosis or luminal stenosis. Furthermore, immune globulin deposition, vasculitis, and fibrinous exudate have not been observed in IPCC. While the cellular crescents showed diverse characteristics in both morphology and immunostaining in the control group. Therefore, these results indicated that IPCC is a sort of ischemic reactive hyperplasia and associated with sclerosis, stenosis, or obstruction of adjacent afferent arterioles, which is clearly different from cellular crescents result from glomerulonephritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic analysis of intracapillary glomerular lipoprotein deposits in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda A Noordmans

    Full Text Available Renal aging is characterized by functional and structural changes like decreased glomerular filtration rate, and glomerular, tubular and interstitial damage. To gain insight in pathways involved in renal aging, we studied aged mouse strains and used genetic analysis to identify genes associated with aging phenotypes.Upon morphological screening in kidneys from 20-month-old mice from 26 inbred strains we noted intracapillary PAS-positive deposits. The severity of these deposits was quantified by scoring of a total of 50 glomeruli per section (grade 0-4. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining for apoE, apoB, apoA-IV and perilipin-2 was performed to further characterize the lesions. To identify loci associated with these PAS-positive intracapillary glomerular deposits, we performed haplotype association mapping.Six out of 26 mouse strains showed glomerular PAS-positive deposits. The severity of these deposits varied: NOD(0.97, NZW(0.41, NON(0.30, B10(0.21, C3 H(0.9 and C57BR(0.7. The intracapillary deposits were strongly positive for apoE and weakly positive for apoB and apoA-IV. Haplotype association mapping showed a strong association with a 30-Kb haplotype block on Chr 1 within the Esrrg gene. We investigated 1 Mb on each site of this region, which includes the genes Spata17, Gpatch2, Esrrg, Ush2a and Kctd3.By analyzing 26 aged mouse strains we found that some strains developed an intracapillary PAS and apoE-positive lesion and identified a small haplotype block on Chr 1 within the Esrrg gene to be associated with these lipoprotein deposits. The region spanning this haplotype block contains the genes Spata17, Gpatch2, Esrrg, Ush2a and Kctd3, which are all highly expressed in the kidney. Esrrg might be involved in the evolvement of these glomerular deposits by influencing lipid metabolism and possibly immune reponses.

  16. Podocytes regulate the glomerular basement membrane protein nephronectin by means of miR-378a-3p in glomerular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, Janina; Dannenberg, Jan; Schroder, Patricia; Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H; Chen, Rongjun; Bräsen, Jan-Hinrich; Thum, Thomas; Nyström, Jenny; Staggs, Lynne Beverly; Haller, Hermann; Fiedler, Jan; Lorenzen, Johan M; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-10-01

    The pathophysiology of many proteinuric kidney diseases is poorly understood, and microRNAs (miRs) regulation of these diseases has been largely unexplored. Here, we tested whether miR-378a-3p is a novel regulator of glomerular diseases. MiR-378a-3p has two predicted targets relevant to glomerular function, the glomerular basement membrane matrix component, nephronectin (NPNT), and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF-A. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), miR-378a-3p mimic injection or npnt knockdown by a morpholino oligomer caused an identical phenotype consisting of edema, proteinuria, podocyte effacement, and widening of the glomerular basement membrane in the lamina rara interna. Zebrafish vegf-A protein could not rescue this phenotype. However, mouse Npnt constructs containing a mutated 3'UTR region prevented the phenotype caused by miR-378a-3p mimic injection. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p in mice confirmed glomerular dysfunction in a mammalian model. Biopsies from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy had increased miR-378a-3p expression and reduced glomerular levels of NPNT. Thus, miR-378a-3p-mediated suppression of the glomerular matrix protein NPNT is a novel mechanism for proteinuria development in active glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Competitive Association and Charge Transfer in the Reactions of NO + with some Ketones: a Select Ion Flow Drift Tube Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fairley, D. A.; Milligan, D. B.; Freeman, C. G.; McEwan, M. J.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (1999), s. 35-43 ISSN 1387-3806 Grant - others:Marsden Fund(NZ) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:A54/98:Z4-040-9-ii Keywords : ion-molecule reaction kinetics * selected ion flow drift tube * ternary association Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.086, year: 1999

  18. Crescentic glomerular nephritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendran, K; Senarathne, L D S U; Lanerolle, R D

    2017-07-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder where clinically significant renal involvement is relatively common. However, crescentic glomerular nephritis is a rarely described entity among the rheumatoid nephropathies. We report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative crescentic glomerular nephritis. A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman who had recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was being treated with methotrexate 10 mg weekly and infrequent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. She presented to our hospital with worsening generalized body swelling and oliguria of 1 month's duration. Her physical examination revealed that she had bilateral pitting leg edema and periorbital edema. She was not pale or icteric. She had evidence of mild synovitis of the small joints of the hand bilaterally with no deformities. No evidence of systemic vasculitis was seen. Her blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg, and her jugular venous pressure was elevated to 7 cm with an undisplaced cardiac apex. Her urine full report revealed 2+ proteinuria with active sediment (dysmorphic red blood cells [17%] and granular casts). Her 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 2 g. Her serum creatinine level was 388 μmol/L. Abdominal ultrasound revealed normal-sized kidneys with acute parenchymal changes and mild ascites. Her renal biopsy showed renal parenchyma containing 20 glomeruli showing diffuse proliferative glomerular nephritis, with 14 of 20 glomeruli showing cellular crescents, and the result of Congo red staining was negative. Her rheumatoid factor was positive with a high titer (120 IU/ml), but results for antinuclear antibody, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (perinuclear and cytoplasmic) were negative. Antistreptolysin O titer rheumatoid arthritis, awareness of which would facilitate early appropriate investigations and treatment.

  19. Glomerular hyperfiltration in children with cancer: prevalence and a hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwatra, Neha S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Meany, Holly J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Washington, DC (United States); Ghelani, Sunil J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zahavi, David [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pandya, Nayan; Majd, Massoud [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Glomerular hyperfiltration has recently been reported in children with malignancies and has been attributed to increased solute from breakdown of tumor tissues. To evaluate the prevalence of hyperfiltration in the pediatric oncology population and explore its pathophysiological mechanism. Tc-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) examinations (437 studies) and medical records of 177 patients <21 years of age diagnosed with a malignancy between January 2005 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Hyperfiltration was defined as a GFR ≥ 160 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. Seventy-seven (43.5%) patients had hyperfiltration in at least one GFR exam. A significantly higher percentage of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors (63.6%) had hyperfiltration when compared to other tumor types (27.3%, P < 0.001). No association was found between hyperfiltration and age, gender, race or bone marrow involvement. There was a significant trend toward decreasing hyperfiltration after the second cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.006) and a significant increase in subjects with low GFR (<100 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}) with increasing number of cycles of chemotherapy (P = 0.005). Glomerular hyperfiltration is common in children with malignancies at diagnosis and during initial cycles of chemotherapy. It is particularly prevalent in patients with central nervous tumors, which are frequently smaller in volume. Therefore, the pathophysiological mechanism of hyperfiltration cannot be explained solely on the basis of large tumor volume and subsequent cell breakdown. We hypothesize that host hypermetabolic state plays an important role in pathophysiology of hyperfiltration. (orig.)

  20. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  1. Evaluation of selectivity and thermodynamic characteristics of doubly charged cations on zirconium titanate from aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, E.S.; Ali, I.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The ion exchange of Ni 2+ /H + and Co 2+ /H + have been determined using solution of 0.1 ionic strength for both forward and backward reactions at 25 degree C by batch technique. The thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the exchange process have been calculated using Gains Thomas equation. The preference series Ni 2+ >Co 2+ was determined. The ion exchange selectivity for exchange of Ni 2 + and Co 2+ ions with hydrogen ions on zirconium titanate have been investigated for aqueous and 25% of methanol and ethanol solutions. The values of thermodynamic functions for the studied systems have been calculated

  2. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  3. Nanoscale protein architecture of the kidney glomerular basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Hani; Zhang, Lei; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Shaw, Andrey S; Dani, Adish

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play structural and functional roles in essentially all organs, so understanding ECM protein organization in health and disease remains an important goal. Here, we used sub-diffraction resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to resolve the in situ molecular organization of proteins within the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM), an essential mediator of glomerular ultrafiltration. Using multichannel STORM and STORM-electron microscopy correlation, we constructed a molecular reference frame that revealed a laminar organization of ECM proteins within the GBM. Separate analyses of domains near the N- and C-termini of agrin, laminin, and collagen IV in mouse and human GBM revealed a highly oriented macromolecular organization. Our analysis also revealed disruptions in this GBM architecture in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. These results provide the first nanoscopic glimpse into the organization of a complex ECM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01149.001 PMID:24137544

  4. Glomerular prostaglandins modulate vascular reactivity of the downstream efferent arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, S; Ren, Y; Juncos, L A; Carretero, O A; Ito, S

    1994-03-01

    The balance of vascular resistance in afferent (Af-) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Arts) is a crucial factor that determines glomerular hemodynamics. We have recently reported that when Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end of the Af-Art through the glomerulus (orthograde perfusion; OP), both angiotensin II (Ang II) and norepinephrine (NE) induced much weaker constriction than they did when Ef-Arts were perfused from the distal end (retrograde perfusion; RP). This difference was not affected by inhibiting synthesis of nitric oxide. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that glomerular prostaglandins (PGs) may modulate vascular reactivity of the downstream Ef-Art. In addition, we examined the possible modulatory role of PGs in the Af-Art responses to Ang II or NE. Both Ang II and NE caused dose-dependent constriction of Ef-Arts with either OP or RP; however, the constriction was stronger in RP. At 10(-8) M, Ang II decreased Ef-Art diameter by 35 +/- 3.5% in OP (N = 9) compared to 73 +/- 3.9% in RP (N = 5), while 10(-6) M NE decreased the diameter by 25 +/- 3.6% in OP (N = 9) compared to 62 +/- 7.2% in RP (N = 5). Pretreatment with 5 x 10(-5) M indomethacin (Indo) did not alter basal diameter with either method of perfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Quantitation of renal function with glomerular and tubular agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, E.V.; Russell, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative methods to measure the glomerular and tubular function of the kidneys with radionuclides have been available for many years. They have not been widely used because the techniques and the calculations exceeded the scope of routine nuclear medicine practice. Validation of simplified methods and the introduction of computer technology have made measurement of the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) simple enough so that they can be performed reproducibly in most nuclear medicine departments. The estimation of ERPF with radioiodinated OIH and GFR with /sup 99m/TcDTPA can be achieved in many ways, all of which yield clinically useful results. How to get the best results using the simplest methods is still unclear. The required accuracy depends on the intended clinical use. Our preference at the present time is to use a single or double plasma sample to calculate global ERPF or GFR, and to use the 1-2 min OIH or 1-3 min Tc-DTPA uptake to calculate relative function of the two kidneys (split function ERPF or GFR). The choice of method will be influenced by local factors, such as the nature of the patient population, the case volume, and the resources available. A desirable goal for future studies is to document carefully the capabilities and limitations of each alternative method, so that the choice can be rational

  6. Titanium Oxide/Platinum Catalysis: Charge Transfer from a Titanium Oxide Support Controls Activity and Selectivity in Methanol Oxidation on Platinum

    KAUST Repository

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-11-24

    Platinum films of 1 nm thickness were deposited by electron beam evaporation onto 100 nm thick titanium oxide films (TiOx) with variable oxygen vacancy concentrations and fluorine (F) doping. Methanol oxidation on the platinum films produced formaldehyde, methyl formate, and carbon dioxide. F-doped samples demonstrated significantly higher activity for methanol oxidation when the TiOx was stoichiometric (TiO 2), but lower activity when it was nonstoichiometric (TiO 1.7 and TiO1.9). These results correlate with the chemical behavior of the same types of catalysts in CO oxidation. Fluorine doping of stoichiometric TiO2 also increased selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde and methyl formate, but had an opposite effect in the case of nonstoichiometric TiOx. Introduction of oxygen vacancies and fluorine doping both increased the conductivity of the TiO x film. For oxygen vacancies, this occurred by the formation of a conduction channel in the band gap, whereas in the case of fluorine doping, F acted as an n-type donor, forming a conduction channel at the bottom of the conduction band, about 0.5-1.0 eV higher in energy. The higher energy electrons in F-doped stoichiometric TiOx led to higher turnover rates and increased selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol. This correlation between electronic structure and turnover rate and selectivity indicates that the ability of the support to transfer charges to surface species controls in part the activity and selectivity of the reaction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  8. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, M.J.; Berg, B.M. van den; Avramut, M.C.; Faas, F.G.; Vlag, J. van der; Rops, A.L.; Ravelli, R.B.; Koster, B.J.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Vink, H.; Rabelink, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this

  9. Nucleosomes and histones are present in glomerular deposits in human lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBruggen, MCJ; Kramers, C; Walgreen, B; Elema, JD; Kallenberg, CGM; vandenBorn, J; Smeenk, RJT; Assmann, KJM; Muller, S; Monestier, M; Berden, JHM

    Background. Recently we showed that antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulphate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane (GEM) via the histone part of the nucleosome. Histones have been identified in glomerular deposits in human and murine lupus nephritis. In

  10. Glomerular diseases associated with HBV and HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Kiperova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C viruses are human pathogens of major significance. Their extrahepatic manifestations are global health problem. HBV is a well-known cause of membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative GN and IgA nephropathy, frequently in Asian populations. Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare, but serious systemic complication of chronic HBV. Immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-related GN is not recommended. Interferon alpha treatment produces sustained remission of porteinuria, often associated with clearance of HBeAg and/or HBsAg, however, it has many side effects. Compared to interferon, nucleos(tide analogues offer some advantages. These antiviral agents suppress HBV replication through their inhibitory effect on viral DNA polymerase. They have convenient administration and high tolerability. Lamivudine is well tolerated and safe in long-term studies, but the resistance of HBV is an escalating problem. The resistance to newer polymerase inhibitors Entecavir and Tenofovir is significantly lower. Hepatitis C virus causes cryoglobulinemia-mediated glomerulonephritis and other immune complex forms of GN. The renal manifestations are usually associated with long-lasting HCV infection. HCV glomerular disease is more frequent in adult males, and often leads to chronic renal insufficiency. The first line treatment in patients with mild to moderate clinical and histological kidney damage is the antiviral therapy with pegylated INF alpha and ribavirin. In case of severe HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic GN - nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome and/or progressive renal failure, high activity score of glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, the initial treatment might consist of sequential administration of antiviral and immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange, or rituximab. The treatment of HCV-related glomerular disease is still under debate and based on scant experimental evidence. Large randomized and controlled

  11. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  12. Orbital selectivity causing anisotropy and particle-hole asymmetry in the charge density wave gap of 2 H -TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Wijayaratne, K.; Butler, A.; Yang, J.; Malliakas, C. D.; Chung, D. Y.; Louca, D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; van Wezel, J.; Chatterjee, U.

    2017-09-01

    We report an in-depth angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on 2 H -TaS2 , a canonical incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) system. This study demonstrates that just as in related incommensurate CDW systems, 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -NbSe2 , the energy gap (ΔCDW) of 2 H -TaS2 is localized along the K -centered Fermi surface barrels and is particle-hole asymmetric. The persistence of ΔCDW even at temperatures higher than the CDW transition temperature TCDW in 2 H -TaS2 , reflects the similar pseudogap behavior observed previously in 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -NbSe2 . However, in sharp contrast to 2 H -NbSe2 , where ΔCDW is nonzero only in the vicinity of a few "hot spots" on the inner K -centered Fermi surface barrels, ΔCDW in 2 H -TaS2 is nonzero along the entirety of both K -centered Fermi surface barrels. Based on a tight-binding model, we attribute this dichotomy in the momentum dependence and the Fermi surface specificity of ΔCDW between otherwise similar CDW compounds to the different orbital orientations of their electronic states that participate in the CDW pairing. Our results suggest that the orbital selectivity plays a critical role in the description of incommensurate CDW materials.

  13. Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Margaret [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. This document highlights the experiences of a selection of Workplace Charging Challenge partners that use Level 1 charging.

  14. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  15. Genetic Background is a Key Determinant of Glomerular Extracellular Matrix Composition and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Michael J; Woolf, Adrian S; Huang, Jennifer L; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D; Price, Karen L; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Collinson, Sophie; Denny, Thomas; Knight, David; Mironov, Aleksandr; Starborg, Toby; Korstanje, Ron; Humphries, Martin J; Long, David A; Lennon, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Glomerular disease often features altered histologic patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite this, the potential complexities of the glomerular ECM in both health and disease are poorly understood. To explore whether genetic background and sex determine glomerular ECM composition, we investigated two mouse strains, FVB and B6, using RNA microarrays of isolated glomeruli combined with proteomic glomerular ECM analyses. These studies, undertaken in healthy young adult animals, revealed unique strain- and sex-dependent glomerular ECM signatures, which correlated with variations in levels of albuminuria and known predisposition to progressive nephropathy. Among the variation, we observed changes in netrin 4, fibroblast growth factor 2, tenascin C, collagen 1, meprin 1-α, and meprin 1-β. Differences in protein abundance were validated by quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and the collective differences were not explained by mutations in known ECM or glomerular disease genes. Within the distinct signatures, we discovered a core set of structural ECM proteins that form multiple protein-protein interactions and are conserved from mouse to man. Furthermore, we found striking ultrastructural changes in glomerular basement membranes in FVB mice. Pathway analysis of merged transcriptomic and proteomic datasets identified potential ECM regulatory pathways involving inhibition of matrix metalloproteases, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, notch, and cyclin-dependent kinase 5. These pathways may therefore alter ECM and confer susceptibility to disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Selective Complexation of Cyanide and Fluoride Ions with Ammonium Boranes: A Theoretical Study on Sensing Mechanism Involving Intramolecular Charge Transfer and Configurational Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Haamid R; Jha, Prakash C

    2017-05-18

    The anion binding selectivity and the recognition mechanism of two isomeric boranes, namely, 4-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline ([p-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] + , 1, where "Mes" represents mesitylene and "Me" represents methyl) and 2-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline ([o-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] + , 2) has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. Natural population analysis indicates that the central boron atoms in 1 and 2 are the most active centers for nucleophilic addition of anions. The negative magnitude of free energy changes (ΔG) reveals that out of CN - , F - , Cl - , Br - , NO 3 - , and HSO 4 - only the binding of CN - and F - with 1 and 2 is thermodynamically feasible and spontaneous. In addition, the calculated binding energies reveal that the CN - is showing lesser binding affinity than F - both with 1 and 2, while other ions, viz. NO 3 - , HSO 4 - , Br - , and Cl - , either do not bind at all or show very insignificant binding energy. The first excited states (S 1 ) of 1 and 2 are shown to be the local excited states with π → σ* transition by frontier molecular orbital analysis, whereas fourth excited states (S 4 ) of 4-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline cyanide ([p-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] CN, 1CN, the cyano form of 1) and 4-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline fluoride ([p-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] F, 1F, the fluoro form of 1) and fifth excited state (S 5 ) of 2-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline fluoride ([o-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] F, 2F, the fluoro form of 2) are charge separation states that are found to be responsible for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process. The synergistic effect of ICT and partial configuration changes induce fluorescence quenching in 1CN, 1F, and 2F after a significant internal conversion (IC) from S 4 and

  17. Isolation and characterization of conditionally immortalized mouse glomerular endothelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rops, Angelique L; van der Vlag, Johan; Jacobs, Cor W; Dijkman, Henry B; Lensen, Joost F; Wijnhoven, Tessa J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Berden, Jo H

    2004-12-01

    The culture and establishment of glomerular cell lines has proven to be an important tool for the understanding of glomerular cell functions in glomerular physiology and pathology. Especially, the recent establishment of a conditionally immortalized visceral epithelial cell line has greatly boosted the research on podocyte biology. Glomeruli were isolated from H-2Kb-tsA58 transgenic mice that contain a gene encoding a temperature-sensitive variant of the SV40 large tumor antigen, facilitating proliferative growth at 33 degrees C and differentiation at 37 degrees C. Glomerular endothelial cells were isolated from glomerular outgrowth by magnetic beads loaded with CD31, CD105, GSL I-B4, and ULEX. Clonal cell lines were characterized by immunofluorescence staining with antibodies/lectins specific for markers of endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells. Putative glomerular endothelial cell lines were analyzed for (1) cytokine-induced expression of adhesion molecules; (2) tube formation on Matrigel coating; and (3) the presence of fenestrae. As judged by immunostaining for Wilms tumor-1, smooth muscle actin (SMA), podocalyxin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF), we obtained putative endothelial, podocyte and mesangial cell lines. The mouse glomerular endothelial cell clone #1 (mGEnC-1) was positive for vWF, podocalyxin, CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, GSL I-B4, and ULEX, internalized acetylated-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and showed increased expression of adhesion molecules after activation with proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, mGEnC-1 formed tubes and contained nondiaphragmed fenestrae. The mGEnC-1 represents a conditionally immortalized cell line with various characteristics of differentiated glomerular endothelial cells when cultured at 37 degrees C. Most important, mGEnC-1 contains nondiaphragmed fenestrae, which is a unique feature of glomerular endothelial cells.

  18. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  19. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spino, M.; Chai, R.P.; Isles, A.F.; Balfe, J.W.; Brown, R.G.; Thiessen, J.J.; MacLeod, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine renal function in 10 healthy control subjects and eight patients with cystic fibrosis in stable condition. Sequential bolus injections of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and 125 I-OIH were administered to assess glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow, respectively. Blood was subsequently collected for 3 hours, and urine for 24 hours. Renal clearances of both radioisotope markers were virtually identical in patients and controls. Inasmuch as neither glomerular filtration rate nor effective renal plasma flow was enhanced in patients with cystic fibrosis, increased clearance of drugs in these patients is unlikely to be the result of enhanced glomerular filtration or tubular secretion

  20. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ivanov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the mModern data on the influence of renin-angiotensin system blockers on the glomerular filtration rate, the level of arterial pressure and the outcome of chronic kidney disease. The strategy of  rennin-angiotensine blockade is offered to be changed depending on the criteria va­lues of glomerular filtration rate: a combination of inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme + angiotensin receptors blo­ckers, monotherapy and drug withdrawal in glomerular filtration rate under 15–30 ml/min/m2. The formula BRIMONEL for treatment of chronic kidney disease is given.

  1. Autoregulation and tubuloglomerular feedback in juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, D; Moore, L C

    1990-03-01

    Videometric measurements of changes in vessel lumen diameters were made to investigate autoregulatory and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses of early efferent arterioles (EA), mid-to-late afferent arterioles (MAA), and terminal, juxtaglomerular afferent arterioles (JAA) in rat juxtamedullary nephrons in vitro. High-contrast shadow-cast images of blood-perfused arterioles at the glomerular vascular pole were obtained with incident illumination and long-working-distance objectives fitted to a compound microscope. In response to an increase in blood perfusion pressure from 60 to 140 mmHg, strong autoregulatory vasoconstriction was observed in the MAA and JAA, with respective reductions in mean luminal diameter of 23 +/- 4 and 40 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE); EA diameter was unchanged. In response to TGF excitation by direct microinjection of Ringer solution into the cortical thick ascending limb segment near the macula densa, JAA luminal diameter decreased by 34 +/- 5%. The TGF responses were completely inhibited by the addition of 0.1 mM furosemide to the tubular injectate. Calcium channel blockade achieved by adding 1 microM nimodipine to the superfusate had no effect on early EA diameter but produced a blood pressure-dependent JAA and MAA vasodilation and complete inhibition of autoregulatory responses. These results provide direct evidence that the distal afferent arteriole in juxtamedullary nephrons is a major effector site for both renal autoregulation and tubuloglomerular feedback.

  2. 125I iothalamate an ideal marker for glomerular filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, B.; Haellgren, R.S.; Sohtell, M.; Lindstroem, B.

    1985-01-01

    The triiodinated angiographic contrast medium, iothalamate (usually labelled 125 I), has been used extensively as a marker for glomerular filtration. The authors have studied the renal handling of 125 I iothalamate (IOT) in vivo and in vitro in several species. In renal cortical slices from chicken, rabbit, rat, and monkey, the tissue-to-medium ratio of IOT was twice that of 51 Cr-EDTA (EDTA) at 37 degrees C; a difference that was abolished at 0 degree C and markedly reduced by added o-iodohippurate or iodipamide. In five chickens the steady-state renal clearance of IOT (CIOT) was twice that of EDTA (CEDTA) or 3 H inulin (C1); a difference that was abolished by administration of 100 mg/kg/hr of novobiocin, an organic anion transport inhibitor. CEDTA was similar to C1 before as well as after transport inhibition. Utilizing the Sperber technique the mean apparent tubular excretion fraction (ATEF) of IOT was 8%, while that of EDTA was 1%. After novobiocin coinfusion (new steady-state) ATEFIOT was significantly reduced and not different from that of EDTA (-1%). In the same animals the total urinary recovery of IOT was 84 and 57% before and after novobiocin, respectively, while corresponding values for EDTA was unchanged by the inhibitor. In seven rats the renal extraction of IOT was reduced from 29 to 17% by coinfusion of probenecid (5 mg/kg/hr). Corresponding extractions were 82 to 34% and 22% (unchanged) for PAH and EDTA, respectively

  3. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; Laboratory Implementation and Current Global Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Jones, Graham R D

    2018-01-01

    In 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines for identifying and treating CKD recommended that clinical laboratories report estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with every creatinine result to assist clinical practitioners to identify people with early-stage CKD. At that time, the original Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation based on serum creatinine measurements was recommended for calculating eGFR. Because the MDRD Study equation was developed using a nonstandardized creatinine method, a Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education program was formed and implemented standardized calibration traceability for all creatinine methods from global manufacturers by approximately 2010. A modified MDRD Study equation for use with standardized creatinine was developed. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration developed a new equation in 2009 that was more accurate than the MDRD Study equation at values above 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . As of 2017, reporting eGFR with creatinine is almost universal in many countries. A reference system for cystatin C became available in 2010, and manufacturers are in the process to standardize cystatin C assays. Equations for eGFR based on standardized cystatin C alone and with creatinine are now available from the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration and other groups. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  5. Consensus Recommendations for the Diagnostic Investigation of Dogs with Suspected Glomerular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littman, M.P.; Daminet, S.; Grauer, G.F.; Lees, G.E.; van Dongen, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/097672637

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) offers guidelines for chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury. As dogs with glomerular disease may present differently and require different treatment than those with whole nephron or tubular disease, the IRIS Canine

  6. Creatinine clearance during cimetidine administration for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; de Waart, D. R.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    Creatinine clearance inaccurately estimates true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of tubular secretion of creatinine. We studied the ability of oral cimetidine, a blocker of tubular creatinine secretion, to improve the accuracy of measuring creatinine clearance. Clearances of inulin and

  7. Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Slot, Marjan; van Paassen, Pieter; van Breda Vriesman, Peter; Heeringa, Peter; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned

  8. Morphological aspects of the rat kidney preserved by cold storage. I. Glomerular morphometric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, S; Chirculescu, A R; Ranga, V; Popescu, F

    1983-01-01

    The absolute density of glomeruli in the microscopic field was determined in the rat kidney preserved by cold storage for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in two different media: Sacks (hyperosmolar electrolytic solution of intracellular type) and Plasmagel (gelatin solution 4%). Progressive, statistically significant (p less than 0.01) decrease of glomerular density at 24 and 48 hrs was followed by return to initial values at 96 hrs. Decrease of the glomerular density was greater with Plasmagel.

  9. Creatinine Clearance and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate – When are they Interchangeable

    OpenAIRE

    Šimetić, Lucija; Zibar, Lada; Drmić, Sandra; Begić, Ivana; Šerić, Vatroslav

    2015-01-01

    Study goal was to examine which of glomerular rate equations is most suitable for prediction of creatinine clearance. Using a retrospective review of data from 500 hospital patients we calculated glomerular filtration rate according to Cockcroft-Gault equation (C-G), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI). We determined if results of these equations were compatible with creatinine clearance, and does...

  10. [Could isolated mesangial deposits of C3 be responsible of glomerular hematuric nephropathies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Andre, J P; Touzard, D; Houssin, A; Simard, C

    1982-01-01

    This communication presents three cases of prolonged macroscopic hematuria in young subjects. Complementary explorations eliminated urologic or vascular causes. Renal biopsies showed minimal glomerular lesions with light microscopy, normal basement membranes in electron microscopy and mesangial deposits of C3 and properdine in immunofluorescence. Although the mesangial deposits of C3 lack specificity and the number of observations is small, it appears useful to report such cases so as to indicate their frequency and perhaps their autonomy, in glomerular hematuric nephropathies.

  11. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  12. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  13. State-selective charge exchange in slow collisions of Si3+ ions with H atoms: A molecular state close coupling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Dwayne C; Saha, Bidhan C

    2012-01-01

    Charge transfer cross sections are calculated by employing both the quantal and semiclassical ε(R) molecular orbital close coupling (MOCC) approximations in the adiabatic representation and compared with other theoretical and experimental results

  14. State-selective charge exchange in slow collisions of Si3+ ions with H atoms: A molecular state close coupling treatment*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2012-11-01

    Charge transfer cross sections are calculated by employing both the quantal and semiclassical ɛ(R) molecular orbital close coupling (MOCC) approximations in the adiabatic representation and compared with other theoretical and experimental results

  15. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  16. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  17. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1

  18. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in the conscious rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Sabine; Krzykalla, Volker; Weckesser, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important parameter for studying drug-induced impairments on renal function in rats. The GFR is calculated from the concentration of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum and in urine, respectively. Following current protocols serum and urine samples must be taken from the same animal. Thus, in order to determine time-dependent effects it is necessary to use for each time point one separated group of animals. We developed a statistical test which allows analyzing the GFR from two different groups of animals: one used for repeated serum and the other one used for repeated urine analysis. Serum and urine samples were taken from two different sets of rats which were otherwise treated identically, i.e. drug doses, routes of administration (per os or per inhalation) and tap water loading. For each dose group GFR mean, standard deviation and statistical analysis to identify differences between the dose groups were determined. After determination of the optimal time points for measurements, the effect on GFR of the three reference compounds, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide and formoterol, was calculated. The results showed that the diuretic drugs furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide decreased the GFR and the antidiuretic drug formoterol increased the GFR, as counter regulation on urine loss or urine retention, respectively. A mathematical model and the corresponding algorithm were developed, which can be used to calculate the GFR, and to test for differences between groups from two separated sets of rats, one used for urine, and the other one for serum analysis. This new method has the potential to reduce the number of animals needed and to improve the quality of data generated from various groups of animals in renal function studies.

  19. Intraglomerular inhibition shapes the strength and temporal structure of glomerular output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2012-08-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs). ETCs, in turn, provide feedforward excitatory input to MCs. MC and ETCs are also regulated by inhibition: intraglomerular and interglomerular inhibitory circuits act at MC and ETC apical dendrites; granule cells (GCs) inhibit MC lateral dendrites via the MC→GC→MC circuit. We investigated the contribution of intraglomerular inhibition to MC and ETCs responses to ON input. ON input evokes initial excitation followed by early, strongly summating inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in MCs; this is followed by prolonged, intermittent IPSCs. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dl-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid, known to suppress GABA release by GCs, reduced late IPSCs but had no effect on early IPSCs. In contrast, selective intraglomerular block of GABA(A) receptors eliminated all early IPSCs and caused a 5-fold increase in ON-evoked MC spiking and a 10-fold increase in response duration. ETCs also receive intraglomerular inhibition; blockade of inhibition doubled ETC spike responses. By reducing ETC excitatory drive and directly inhibiting MCs, intraglomerular inhibition is a key factor shaping the strength and temporal structure of MC responses to sensory input. Sensory input generates an intraglomerular excitation-inhibition sequence that limits MC spike output to a brief temporal window. Glomerular circuits may dynamically regulate this input-output window to optimize MC encoding across sniff-sampled inputs.

  20. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne; Ham, Hamphrey

    2008-01-01

    51 Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right 99m Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for 51 Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  1. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  2. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  3. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  4. Opposite regulation of type II and III receptors for immunoglobulin G in mouse glomerular mesangial cells and in the induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radeke, HH; Janssen-Graalfs, [No Value; Sowa, EN; Chouchakova, N; Skokowa, J; Loscher, F; Schmidt, RE; Heeringa, P; Gessner, JE

    2002-01-01

    We examined the capacity of mouse glomerular mesangial cells (MC) to express and function through two different low affinity FcgammaRs, the activating FcgammaRIII and the inhibitory FcgammaRII. Immunohistochemistry identified FcgammaRII as the prominent FcgammaR in the kidney, and low levels of

  5. A pitfall of glomerular sieving: profibrotic and matrix proteins derive from the Bowman's capsule and not the glomerular tuft in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, O M; Panzer, U; Fehr, S; Meyer-Schwesinger, C; Stahl, R A K; Wenzel, U O

    2007-10-01

    The glomeruli in the non-clipped kidney of rats with 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension are a classical model for studying the mechanisms of glomerular injury. In the present study, we compared the glomerular expression of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha1 mRNA from glomeruli isolated by the classic technique of sieving with the recently developed technique of tissue laser microdissection. For quantification of mRNA from both methods, real-time PCR was used. Real-time PCR revealed a 9.0 +/- 1.3- and a 7.1 +/- 0.2-fold induction of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha 1, respectively, in the glomeruli from hypertensive rats isolated by sieving. However, in situ hybridization and microdissection revealed that expression of both mRNAs was mainly from the Bowman's capsule and not from the glomerular tuft (10.7 +/- 1.3- and 7.2 +/- 0.6-fold higher induction in whole glomeruli compared with tuft alone). This emphasizes that studies focusing on processes in the mesangium, endothelial cells or podocytes should not rely on glomeruli obtained by sieving. Rather, a technique like the laser microdissection or in situ hybridization should be applied which allows the clear separation of different glomerular and periglomerular compartments.

  6. Glomerular filtration rate, cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance Filtrado glomerular, riesgo cardiovascular y resistencia a la insulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín R. Salazar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, its changes with age, and its association with systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP, indicators of obesity, dyslipemia, insulin resistance and inflammation on a random population sample. BP, weight, size and waist circumference (WC were recorded at home. Fasting morning blood samples were analysed. The eGFR was calculated with MDRD (eGFR-MDRD, Cockroft-Gault (eGFR-CG adjusted to 1.73 m² and reciprocal of serum creatinine (100/serum cretinine. A total of 1016 individuals, 722 females (41.97 ± 0.66 years old and 294 males (42.06 ± 0.99 years old, completed the laboratory tests. The mean of 100/Scr was 115.13 ± 0.60 (dl/mg, the mean eGFR-CG was 98.48 ± 0.82 ml/min/1.73 m²; the mean eGFR-MDRD was 85.15 ± 0.58 ml/min/1.73 m². The eGFR-MDRD decreased with age and with the number of risk factors in both sexes. The eGFR-MDRD El objetivo fue evaluar en una muestra poblacional aleatoria el filtrado glomerular estimado (FGe, sus cambios con la edad y su asociación con presión arterial sistólica (PAS y diastólica (PAD, indicadores de obesidad, dislipemia, resistencia a la insulina e inflamación. En cada domicilio fueron medidos presión arterial, peso y talla y perímetro de la cintura (PC. Se analizaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y fue calculado el FGe usando las fórmulas de MDRD (FGe-MDRD y Cockroft-Gault (FGe-CG ajustado a 1.73 m², y la inversa de la creatinina sérica (100/CrS. Completaron el protocolo de laboratorio 1016 sujetos, 722 mujeres (41.97 ± 0.66 años y 294 varones (42.06 ± 0.99 años. La media de 100/Crs fue 115.13 ± 0.60 (dl/mg, la del FGe-CG 98.48 ± 0.82 ml/min/1.73 m² y la del FGe-MDRD 85.15 ± 0.58 ml/min/1.73 m² (CI 95% 84.00-86.29. El FGe-MDRD disminuyó con la edad y con el número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en ambos sexos. La prevalecencia ajustada de FGe-MDRD < 60 ml/min/1.73 m² fue 6.2 por 100

  7. Interaction between alpha 2-adrenergic and angiotensin II systems in the control of glomerular hemodynamics as assessed by renal micropuncture in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S. C.; Gabbai, F. B.; Tucker, B. J.; Blantz, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture. The physical determinants of SNGFR were assessed in adult male Munich Wistar rats 5-7 d after ipsilateral surgical renal denervation (DNX). DNX was performed to isolate inhibitory central and presynaptic alpha 2 adrenoceptors from end-organ receptors within the kidney. Two experimental protocols were employed: one to test whether prior AII receptor blockade with saralasin would alter the glomerular hemodynamic response to alpha 2 adrenoceptor stimulation with the selective agonist B-HT 933 under euvolemic conditions, and the other to test whether B-HT 933 would alter the response to exogenous AII under conditions of plasma volume expansion. In euvolemic rats, B-HT 933 caused SNGFR to decline as the result of a decrease in glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (LpA), an effect that was blocked by saralasin. After plasma volume expansion, B-HT 933 showed no primary effect on LpA but heightened the response of arterial blood pressure, glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient, and LpA to AII. The parallel results of these converse experiments suggest a complementary interaction between renal alpha 2-adrenergic and AII systems in the control of LpA.

  8. Validation of estimated glomerular filtration rate equations for Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Uemura, Osamu; Ishikura, Kenji; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Yuko; Araki, Yoshinori; Hamda, Riku; Honda, Masataka

    2018-01-25

    The gold standard for evaluation of kidney function is renal inulin clearance (Cin). However, the methodology for Cin is complicated and difficult, especially for younger children and/or patients with bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we developed a simple and easier method for obtaining the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using equations and values for several biomarkers, i.e., serum creatinine (Cr), serum cystatin C (cystC), serum beta-2 microglobulin (β 2 MG), and creatinine clearance (Ccr). The purpose of the present study was to validate these equations with a new data set. To validate each equation, we used data of 140 patients with CKD with clinical need for Cin, using the measured GFR (mGFR). We compared the results for each eGFR equation with the mGFR using mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), P 30 , and Bland-Altman analysis. The ME of Cr, cystC, β 2 MG, and Ccr based on eGFR was 15.8 ± 13.0, 17.2 ± 16.5, 15.4 ± 14.3, and 10.6 ± 13.0 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. The RMSE was 29.5, 23.8, 20.9, and 16.7, respectively. The P 30 was 79.4, 71.1, 69.5, and 92.9%, respectively. The Bland-Altman bias analysis showed values of 4.0 ± 18.6, 5.3 ± 16.8, 12.7 ± 17.0, and 2.5 ± 17.2 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively, for these parameters. The bias of each eGFR equation was not large. Therefore, each eGFR equation could be used.

  9. Haematuria as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression in glomerular diseases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan Antonio; Yuste, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Sevillano, Ángel M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Haematuria has long been considered to be a benign condition associated with glomerular diseases. However, new evidences suggest that haematuria has a pathogenic role in promoting kidney disease progression. An increased risk for end-stage renal disease has been reported in adolescents and young adults with persistent microscopic haematuria. A persistent impairment of renal function has been also reported following macroscopic haematuria-associated acute kidney injury in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Haematuria-induced renal damage has been related to oxidant, cytotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by haemoglobin or haem released from red blood cells. The pathophysiological origin of haematuria may be due to a more fragile and easily ruptured glomerular filtration barrier, as reported in several glomerular diseases. In this review we describe a number of the key issues associated with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuria-associated diseases, provide an update of recent knowledge on the role of haematuria on renal function outcome and discuss specific therapeutic approaches in this setting. KEY SUMMARY POINTS: 1. Glomerular haematuria is a common observation in a number of renal diseases that may lead to persistent renal injury. 2. Haematuria in children differs from that in adults in specific aspects, particularly in the frequency of glomerular diseases and renal disease outcome. 3. Regular follow-up of renal function in children with isolated microhaematuria may be recommended.

  10. GEC-targeted HO-1 expression reduces proteinuria in glomerular immune injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A

    2009-09-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a key defense mechanism against oxidative stress. Compared with tubules, glomeruli are refractory to HO-1 upregulation in response to injury. This can be a disadvantage as it may be associated with insufficient production of cytoprotective heme-degradation metabolites. We, therefore, explored whether 1) targeted HO-1 expression can be achieved in glomeruli without altering their physiological integrity and 2) this expression reduces proteinuria in immune injury induced by an anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab). We employed a 4.125-kb fragment of a mouse nephrin promoter downstream to which a FLAG-tagged hHO-1 cDNA sequence was inserted and subsequently generated transgenic mice from the FVB/N parental strain. There was a 16-fold higher transgene expression in the kidney than nonspecific background (liver) while the transprotein immunolocalized in glomerular epithelial cells (GEC). There was no change in urinary protein excretion, indicating that GEC-targeted HO-1 expression had no effect on glomerular protein permeability. Urinary protein excretion in transgenic mice with anti-GBM Ab injury (days 3 and 6) was significantly lower compared with wild-type controls. There was no significant change in renal expression levels of profibrotic (TGF-beta1) or anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in transgenic mice with anti-GBM Ab injury. These observations indicate that GEC-targeted HO-1 expression does not alter glomerular physiological integrity and reduces proteinuria in glomerular immune injury.

  11. Pattern of glomerular diseases in oman: A study based on light microscopy and immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy and immunofluorescence play an important part in the final diagnosis of renal biopsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of various glomerular diseases in Oman. A total of 424 renal biopsies were retrospectively analyzed at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between 1999 and 2010. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, minimal change disease (MCD, membranous glomerulopathy (MGN and IgA nephropathy were the most common primary glomerular diseases encountered, accounting for 21.2%, 17%, 12.3% and 8.3%, respectively, of all cases. Lupus nephritis was the most common secondary glomerular disease and was the most prevalent among all biopsies, accounting for 30.4% of all biopsies. Amyloidosis was seen in only two cases. The presence of fluorescein isothiocyanatefibrin in all renal cases was low when compared with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C1q markers. In conclusion, based on the findings of this study, lupus nephritis was the most common of all glomerular diseases and FSGS was the most common primary glomerular disease. The importance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrin in the diagnosis of renal biopsy needs to be further investigated.

  12. Estimated glomerular filtration rate function in patients with and without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Lizardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS is an independent risk factor, which affects the development of chronic kidney disease, so the glomerular filtration rate (GFR as an indicator of glomerular function in patients with and without MS who attended the outpatient clinic “los Grillitos, sector Caña de Azucar”. Materials and Methods: A comparative, correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a non-probability sample of convenience consisting of 60 patients with MS diagnosed according to the criteria Panel ATP III, and 60 apparently healthy individuals, whom the GFR was determined by the Cockcroft-Gault as well as clinical and biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of MS. Results: Out of the total patients evaluated, 37 (30.7% showed alterations that put them in grades G2 and G3 system risk stratification of CKD, of these 18 and 19 corresponded to patients with and without MS respectively. Glomerular Hyperfiltration (> 120 mil / min it was found in both groups 28 (46.7% and 24 (40% cases of patients with and without MS respectively. The glomerular function was strongly correlated with abdominal obesity and high levels of stress arterial. As for the number of criteria and its relationship to the level of kidney damage present, not a firm to increase the latter with respect to the first (p=0.385 trend was observed. Conclusion: The change in the glomerular function is not directly related to the MS but with its components, specifically abdominal obesity and hypertension.

  13. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748

  14. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  15. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  16. Sieve plugs in fenestrae of glomerular capillaries--site of the filtration barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Jørgen; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The exact location of the filtration barrier of the glomerular capillary wall, which consists of an endothelium, a basement membrane and a visceral epithelium, has not yet been determined. Apparent discrepancies between different investigators in the past could be explained if postmortem...... and a filamentous surface coat about 60 nm thick covered the interfenestral domains of the endothelial cell. Based on these purely morphological data, we dare to suggest that the fenestral plugs are the primary site of the glomerular filtration barrier - albeit highly speculative, nevertheless a logical location...... - and consequently that the glomerular filtration process is a 'tangential-flow' as opposed to a 'dead-end' filtration process. A tangential-flow filtration would minimize 'clogging' and 'concentration polarization' in the 'filter'....

  17. Glomerular nerve endings in corial papillae of the pig lip skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovský, L; Pác, L; Krivánková, L

    1982-01-01

    In the tops of corial papillae of the pig lip skin the authors sometimes observed besides typical sensory corpuscles also glomerular nerve endings. They are formed by one axon or they are polyaxon. The nerve fibres are richly branched in the formation. In electronogrammes a large number of axons is visible in cross sections round some of which there are more or less formed lamellous systems up to four lamellae. Between the axons there are nuclei of Schwann cells, on the surface there is a thin capsule of fibrocyte character. In non-primate mammals the typical receptor in the corium of the skin are simple corpuscles, in primates glomerular nerve endings. As concerns sensory corpuscles it is the other way round. The authors are of the opinion that the observed glomerular endings represent morphologically a transitory formation. With respect to the occurrence of lamellous complexes in the glomeruli, they can be considered as equivalent to simple sensory corpuscles with rapid adaptation.

  18. Perfil das doenças glomerulares em um hospital público do Distrito Federal Profile of glomerular diseases in a public hospital of Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Humberto Ribeiro Paes Ferraz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As doenças glomerulares são uma causa frequente de doença renal crônica, sobretudo nos países em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil destas glomerulopatias em um hospital público da cidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 121 biopsias renais pela equipe de nefrologia do Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (HRAN entre agosto de 2005 e maio de 2009. Foram excluídas oito biopsias realizadas em pacientes transplantados renais e analisados os prontuários dos 113 pacientes restantes. Dados analisados: sexo, idade, exames laboratoriais, síndrome glomerular, diagnóstico clínico, grau de fibrose intersticial, uso de imunossupressores, necessidade de diálise e desfecho clínico. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 34,9 ± 16,2 anos, com predomínio masculino (51,3%. As principais síndromes glomerulares foram: síndrome nefrótica (41,6% e glomerulonefrite rapidamente progressiva (35,4%. Entre as glomerulopatias primárias, houve predomínio da glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal (26,9% e da nefropatia por IgA (25% e entre as secundárias a nefrite lúpica (50% e a glomerulonefrite proliferativa exsudativa difusa (34,2%. A maioria dos pacientes fez uso de imunossupressores (68,1% e quase um terço deles (29,2% necessitou de diálise durante a internação. Evoluíram para terapia dialítica crônica 13,3% dos pacientes e 10,6% evoluíram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo poderá contribuir para melhor entendimento epidemiológico das doenças glomerulares no Distrito Federal, orientando na adoção de políticas públicas visando permitir rápido diagnóstico e manejo clínico das mesmas.INTRODUCTION: Glomerular diseases are a frequent etiology of chronic kidney disease, especially in the developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the profile of such glomerulopathies in a public hospital located in the city of Brasilia, Federal District. METHODS: 121 renal biopsies in

  19. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Renal Pathology Initiative: Classification of Glomerular Diseases in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, R E; Mohr, F C; Aresu, L; Brown, C A; James, C; Jansen, J H; Spangler, W L; van der Lugt, J J; Kass, P H; Brovida, C; Cowgill, L D; Heiene, R; Polzin, D J; Syme, H; Vaden, S L; van Dongen, A M; Lees, G E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of canine renal biopsy tissue has generally relied on light microscopic (LM) evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections ranging in thickness from 3 to 5 µm. Advanced modalities, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (IF), have been used sporadically or retrospectively. Diagnostic algorithms of glomerular diseases have been extrapolated from the World Health Organization classification scheme for human glomerular disease. With the recent establishment of 2 veterinary nephropathology services that evaluate 3-µm sections with a panel of histochemical stains and routinely perform TEM and IF, a standardized objective species-specific approach for the diagnosis of canine glomerular disease was needed. Eight veterinary pathologists evaluated 114 parameters (lesions) in renal biopsy specimens from 89 dogs. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the data revealed 2 large categories of glomerular disease based on the presence or absence of immune complex deposition: The immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) category included cases with histologic lesions of membranoproliferative or membranous patterns. The second category included control dogs and dogs with non-ICGN (glomerular amyloidosis or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). Cluster analysis performed on only the LM parameters led to misdiagnosis of 22 of the 89 cases-that is, ICGN cases moved to the non-ICGN branch of the dendrogram or vice versa, thereby emphasizing the importance of advanced diagnostic modalities in the evaluation of canine glomerular disease. Salient LM, TEM, and IF features for each pattern of disease were identified, and a preliminary investigation of related clinicopathologic data was performed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Nocturnal polyuria is related to absent circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guchtenaere, A; Vande Walle, C; Van Sintjan, P; Raes, A; Donckerwolcke, R; Van Laecke, E; Hoebeke, P; Vande Walle, J

    2007-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with nocturnal polyuria and low urinary osmolality during the night. Initial studies found decreased vasopressin levels associated with low urinary osmolality overnight. Together with the documented desmopressin response, this was suggestive of a primary role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of enuresis in the absence of bladder dysfunction. Recent studies no longer confirm this primary role of vasopressin. Other pathogenetic factors such as disordered renal sodium handling, hypercalciuria, increased prostaglandins and/or osmotic excretion might have a role. So far, little attention has been given to abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and diuresis in children with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. We evaluated 15 children (9 boys) 9 to 14 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria resistant to desmopressin treatment. The control group consisted of 25 children (12 boys) 9 to 16 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Compared to the control population, children with nocturnal polyuria lost their circadian rhythm not only for diuresis and sodium excretion but also for glomerular filtration rate. Patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria lack a normal circadian rhythm for diuresis and sodium excretion, and the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate is absent. This absence of circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and/or sodium handling cannot be explained by a primary role of vasopressin, but rather by a disorder in circadian rhythm of renal glomerular and/or tubular functions.

  1. Deficiency of the Angiotensinase Aminopeptidase A Increases Susceptibility to Glomerular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Juan Carlos Q; Arif, Ehtesham; Rodgers, Jessalyn; Hicks, Megan P; Arthur, John M; Nihalani, Deepak; Bruner, Evelyn T; Budisavljevic, Milos N; Atkinson, Carl; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Janech, Michael G

    2017-07-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) is expressed in glomerular podocytes and tubular epithelia and metabolizes angiotensin II (AngII), a peptide known to promote glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we tested whether APA expression changes in response to progressive nephron loss or whether APA exerts a protective role against glomerular damage and during AngII-mediated hypertensive kidney injury. At advanced stages of FSGS, fawn-hooded hypertensive rat kidneys exhibited distinctly increased APA staining in areas of intact glomerular capillary loops. Moreover, BALB/c APA-knockout (KO) mice injected with a nephrotoxic serum showed persistent glomerular hyalinosis and albuminuria 96 hours after injection, whereas wild-type controls achieved virtually full recovery. We then tested the effect of 4-week infusion of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute) in APA-KO and wild-type mice. Although we observed no significant difference in achieved systolic BP, AngII-treated APA-KO mice developed a significant rise in albuminuria not observed in AngII-treated wild-type mice along with increased segmental and global sclerosis and/or collapse of juxtamedullary glomeruli, microcystic tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In parallel, AngII treatment significantly increased the kidney AngII content and attenuated the expression of podocyte nephrin in APA-KO mice but not in wild-type controls. These data show that deficiency of APA increases susceptibility to glomerular injury in BALB/c mice. The augmented AngII-mediated kidney injury observed in association with increased intrarenal AngII accumulation in the absence of APA suggests a protective metabolizing role of APA in AngII-mediated glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  3. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate by impulse synthesis: Clinical validation and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagi, B.; Verga, P.; Broggi, A.; Picozzi, R.; Villa, F.; Guzzini, F.; Cozzi, C.; Tomasi, A.

    1988-01-01

    Impulse synthesis is a technique which relies upon the logic of continuous infusion but extracts the clearance value from single-injection data by shifting and adding them until an asymptotic value is attained. This study has been aimed at validating and optimizing clinically the measurement of glomerular filtration rate by impulse synthesis. A single intravenous injection of 51 Cr-EDTA has been made in 32 patients and plasma activity monitored over the next 6 h. Glomerular filtration rate computed by a single-exponential fit method (GFR-SEF) has been shown to be significantly (p [de

  4. Clinical use of estimated glomerular filtration rate for evaluation of kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Bo; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter

    2013-01-01

    is a significant predictor for cardiovascular disease and may along with classical cardiovascular risk factors add useful information to risk estimation. Several cautions need to be taken into account, e.g. rapid changes in kidney function, dialysis, high age, obesity, underweight and diverging and unanticipated......Estimating glomerular filtration rate by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formulas gives a reasonable estimate of kidney function for e.g. classification of chronic kidney disease. Additionally the estimated glomerular filtration rate...

  5. Pathways to nephron loss starting from glomerular diseases-insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Wilhelm; LeHir, Michel

    2005-02-01

    Studies of glomerular diseases in animal models show that progression toward nephron loss starts with extracapillary lesions, whereby podocytes play the central role. If injuries remain bound within the endocapillary compartment, they will undergo recovery or be repaired by scaring. Degenerative, inflammatory and dysregulative mechanisms leading to nephron loss are distinguished. In addition to several other unique features, the dysregulative mechanisms leading to collapsing glomerulopathy are particular in that glomeruli and tubules are affected in parallel. In contrast, in degenerative and inflammatory diseases, tubular injury is secondary to glomerular lesions. In both of the latter groups of diseases, the progression starts in the glomerulus with the loss of the separation between the tuft and Bowman's capsule by forming cell bridges (parietal cells and/or podocytes) between the glomerular and the parietal basement membranes. Cell bridges develop into tuft adhesions to Bowman's capsule, which initiate the formation of crescents, either by misdirected filtration (proteinaceous crescents) or by epithelial cell proliferation (cellular crescents). Crescents may spread over the entire circumference of the glomerulus and, via the glomerulotubular junction, may extend onto the tubule. Two mechanisms concerning the transfer of a glomerular injury onto the tubulointerstitium are discussed: (1) direct encroachment of extracapillary lesions and (2) protein leakage into tubular urine, resulting in injury to the tubule and the interstitium. There is evidence that direct encroachment is the crucial mechanism. Progression of chronic renal disease is underlain by a vicious cycle which passes on the damage from lost and/or damaged nephrons to so far healthy nephrons. Presently, two mechanisms are discussed: (1) the loss of nephrons leads to compensatory mechanisms in the remaining nephrons (glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, hypertrophy) which increase their

  6. Transitory cell attachments in the differentiating glomerular epithelium of the opossum metanephros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W J; Cutts, J H

    1980-01-01

    Numerous transitory intercellular attachments are observed between the central, lateral surfaces of adjacent glomerular epithelial cells in the differentiating renal corpuscle. The junctions are characterized by an increased electron density of the adjacent cell membranes and cytoplasm. The intervening intercellular space may contain an amorphous material of moderate electron density. The distribution and position of such temporary cell attachments, together with their modification and subsequent loss during the differentiation of podocytes, suggest that they play an important role in the histogenesis of the glomerular epithelium.

  7. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla, E-mail: kpaj@novonordisk.com [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nielsen, Malik Nygaard [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Hansen, Troels Krarup [Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Williams, Julie M. [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  8. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Malik Nygaard; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Williams, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  9. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail: aadebiyi@uthsc.edu; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  10. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  11. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J.; Ruegg, Markus A.; Dijkman, Henri; Van De Velden, Thea J.; Buskens, Carin A.; Van Den Born, Jacob; Assmann, Karel J.; Monnens, Leo A.; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P.

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane

  12. Glomerular and tubular damage markers are elevated in patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Ferdau L.; Boertien, Wendy E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Goor, Harry; van Oeveren, Wim; de Jong, Paul E.; Bilo, Henk; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated in a cross-sectional study the levels of serum and urinary damage markers in diabetic patients (n = 94) and nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) to study the association of glomerular (IgG), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule [KIM]-1, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase

  13. Resolution of the three dimensional structure of components of the glomerular filtration barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkill, Kenton P; Qvortrup, Klaus; Starborg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The human glomerulus is the primary filtration unit of the kidney, and contains the Glomerular Filtration Barrier (GFB). The GFB had been thought to comprise 3 layers - the endothelium, the basement membrane and the podocyte foot processes. However, recent studies have suggested that at least two...

  14. Comparative evaluation of quantitative glomerular filtration rate measured by isotopic and nonisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.; Toguri, A.G.; Petrusick, T.W.; Abbott, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Good correlation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured isotopically from plasma disappearance of Tc-99m-DTPA (Sn) was shown with inulin clearance, creatinine clearance, and graded radionuclide imaging. The isotopic GFR is a simple, urineless technique not requiring continuous infusion that enables one to perform simultaneous renal imaging with one radiotracer

  15. Antibody response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.A.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Ham, V. van; Trouw, L.A.; Vlag, J. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kooten, C. van; Paul, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) of renal allografts is still the most important cause of graft loss. A subset of these patients have transplant glomerulopathy (TGP), characterized by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) duplications, but of unknown etiology. Recently, a role for the immune system

  16. Prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration and nephromegaly in normo- and microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnoli, G; Signorini, A M; Tanganelli, I; Fondelli, C; Borgogni, P; Borgogni, L; Vattimo, A; Ferrari, F; Guercia, M

    1993-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration, correlated with nephromegaly, is a frequent finding in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. In type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, very few studies have been performed, and the results have been inconclusive. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and kidney volume, using 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy and ultrasonography, respectively, were evaluated in 58 control subjects and 163 type 2 diabetic patients; 79 of whom were normoalbuminuric and 84 microalbuminuric. In the two groups of patients, these parameters did not differ significantly from those of controls, even when hypertensive subjects were excluded. Glomerular hyperfiltration was observed in 10 cases; all were normotensive (9.8%), of whom 7 were normoalbuminuric and 3 microalbuminuric. Nephromegaly was observed in 3 other normotensive microalbuminuric diabetic patients. Hypertensive subjects showed a lower GFR than normotensive patients and control subjects. Multivariate analysis showed a negative correlation between glomerular filtrate and systolic blood pressure (BP) in the overall population of patients and in normo- and microalbuminuric patients taken separately. It is concluded that the relationship between these variables forms a continuum in our type 2 diabetic patients; it may also be important in determining the low prevalence of hyperfiltration and nephromegaly found in our patients, who had BP levels higher than those of controls.

  17. TLR4 links podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate glomerular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Miriam C; Banas, Bernhard; Hudkins, Kelly L

    2008-01-01

    profile of chemokines. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by podocytes and is upregulated in MPGN, where it may mediate glomerular injury by modulating expression of chemokines; therefore, TLR4 may link podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate MPGN triggered...... by the deposition of immune complexes....

  18. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ESTIMATED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE AND RISK OF SURVIVAL IN ACUTE STROKE. E. I. Okaka, MBBS, FWACP, F. A. Imarhiagbe, MBChB, FMCP, F. E. Odiase, MBBS, FMCP, O. C. A. Okoye, MBBS, FWACP,. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

  19. QUANTIFICATION OF GLOMERULAR EPITHELIAL-CELL ADHESION BY USING ANTI-DNA ANTIBODIES IN ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COERS, W; SMEENK, RJT; SALANT, DJ; WEENING, JJ

    A sensitive and reproducible microassay is described for quantification of adhesion of cells to matrix-coated 96-wells plates under different experimental conditions. For this purpose glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GVEC) were used. Attached GVEC were fixed with methanol and incubated with a

  20. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Glomerular Endothelial Cells under Diabetic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Shunsuke; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Uchiyama, Takanobu; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic conditions promote glomerulosclerosis by mesangial cells but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The present study evaluated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in glomerular endothelial cells in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse (ICR-STZ) and the type 2 diabetic KK/TaJcl mouse which were fed a high fat diet feed (KK/Ta-HF). In the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF almost glomeruli were immunostained with anti-TLR4 but there was no glomerulus immunostained by ani-TLR4 in the control ICR and KK/Ta. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy showed that the TLR4-positive region did not coincide with the podoplanin-positive region but coincide with the PECAM-1- and VE-cadherin-positive regions in the glomeruli of the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF. The in situ hybridization showed that almost signals for TLR4 mRNA were present in the glomerulus of the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF to a stronger extent than in the control ICR and KK/Ta. These suggest that glomerular endothelial cells usually express the TLR4 gene and hyperglycemia in the diabetic condition induces the TLR4 protein expression in the glomerular capillary endothelial cells. Cytokine productions through the TLR signaling pathway in glomerular endothelial cells may allow mesangial cells to produce extracellular matrix proteins in the diabetic milieu

  1. Reduced glomerular angiotensin II receptor density in diabetes mellitus in the rat: time course and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Glomerular angiotensin II receptors are reduced in number in early diabetes mellitus, which may contribute to hyperfiltration and glomerular injury. The time course and role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathogenesis of the receptor abnormality were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats made diabetic with streptozotocin (65 mg, iv). Glomerular angiotensin II receptors were measured by Scatchard analysis; insulin, renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured by RIA. Diabetes mellitus was documented at 24 h by a rise in plasma glucose (vehicle-injected control, 133 +/- 4; diabetic, 482 +/- 22 mg/dl and a fall in plasma insulin (control, 53.1 +/- 5.7; diabetic, 35.6 +/- 4.0 microIU/ml. At 24 h glomerular angiotensin II receptor density was decreased by 26.5% in diabetic rats (control, 75.5 +/- 9.6 X 10(6); diabetic, 55.5 +/- 8.3 X 10(6) receptors/glomerulus. Receptor occupancy could not explain the defect, because there was reduced binding in diabetic glomeruli after pretreatment with 3 M MgCl 2 , a maneuver that caused dissociation of previously bound hormone. There was a progressive return of the receptor density toward normal over the 60 days following induction of diabetes, with diabetic glomeruli measuring 22.7%, 14.8%, and 3.7% fewer receptors than age-matched controls at 11 days, 1 month, and 2 months, respectively

  2. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate measurement with plasma sampling: a technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony W; Barnfield, Mark C; Waller, Michael L; Telford, Tania; Peters, A Michael

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews available radionuclide-based techniques for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement, focusing on clinical indications for GFR measurement, ideal GFR radiopharmaceutical tracer properties, and the 2 most common tracers in clinical use. Methods for full, 1-compartment, and single-sample renal clearance characterization are discussed. GFR normalization and the role of GFR measurement in chemotherapy dosing are also considered.

  3. Changes of the glomerular size during the human fetal kidney development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković-Bjelaković Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Newborns adaptation on postnatal conditions includes significant morphological and functional renal changes. Every kidney contains a constant number of nephrons, at the end of the nephrogenesis period, which extends from week 8 to 34 of gestation. Mature juxtamedullary nephrons possess higher filtration capacity than primitive superficial nephrons, which have insufficient vascularization. Objective. The objective of the study was to calculate an average glomerular diameter in cortical zones of the kidney during development, to define periods of their most intensive growth, and to record differences of glomerular size between different cortical zones. METHOD A total of 30 human fetal kidneys aged from IV to X lunar months were analyzed. Stereological methods were used for calculating the average glomerular diameter in superficial, intermediate and juxtamedullary zone of the kidney cortex. Results. Glomeruli in the superficial cortical zone had the lowest average diameter. The average glomerular diameter continually increased from IV lunar month (0.057±0.004 mm to X lunar month (0.082±0.004 mm, with highly significant correlation with gestational age (r=0.755; p<0.01. The average glomerular diameter in the intermediate zone increased from 0.081±0.004 mm (IV lunar month to 0.096±0.004 mm (X lunar month with low linear correlation with gestational age (r=0.161. Juxtamedullary glomeruli were the biggest ones. Their average diameter, during the IV LM ranged from 0.093±0.006 mm to 0.101±0.004 mm. In the newborns (X lunar month, juxtamedullary glomeruli had spherical structures with an average diameter of 0.103±0.004 mm, and low negative correlation (r=-0.032 with gestational age. In the IV and V lunar months of gestation, there was significant difference (p<0.01; p<0.05 between the average glomerular diameter in the different zones of the kidney cortex. Conclusion. Superficial glomeruli had the smallest diameter, while

  4. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  5. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Delimont

    Full Text Available It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  6. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  7. Existing creatinine-based equations overestimate glomerular filtration rate in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Horio, Masaru; Kumar, Vinod; Sahni, Nancy; Gupta, Krishan L; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Jha, Vivekanand

    2018-02-01

    Accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for diagnosis and risk stratification in chronic kidney disease and for selection of living donors. Ethnic differences have required correction factors in the originally developed creatinine-based GFR estimation equations for populations around the world. Existing equations have not been validated in the vegetarian Indian population. We examined the performance of creatinine and cystatin-based GFR estimating equations in Indians. GFR was measured by urinary clearance of inulin. Serum creatinine was measured using IDMS-traceable Jaffe's and enzymatic assays, and cystatin C by colloidal gold immunoassay. Dietary protein intake was calculated by measuring urinary nitrogen appearance. Bias, precision and accuracy were calculated for the eGFR equations. A total of 130 participants (63 healthy kidney donors and 67 with CKD) were studied. About 50% were vegetarians, and the remainder ate meat 3.8 times every month. The average creatinine excretion were 14.7 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 13.5 to 15.9 mg/kg/day) and 12.4 mg/kg/day (95% CI: 11.2 to 13.6 mg/kg/day) in males and females, respectively. The average daily protein intake was 46.1 g/day (95% CI: 43.2 to 48.8 g/day). The mean mGFR in the study population was 51.66 ± 31.68 ml/min/1.73m 2 . All creatinine-based eGFR equations overestimated GFR (p < 0.01 for each creatinine based eGFR equation). However, eGFR by CKD-EPI Cys was not significantly different from mGFR (p = 0.38). The CKD-EPI Cys exhibited lowest bias [mean bias: -3.53 ± 14.70 ml/min/1.73m 2 (95% CI: -0.608 to -0.98)] and highest accuracy (P 30 : 74.6%). The GFR in the healthy population was 79.44 ± 20.19 (range: 41.90-134.50) ml/min/1.73m 2 . Existing creatinine-based GFR estimating equations overestimate GFR in Indians. An appropriately powered study is needed to develop either a correction factor or a new equation for accurate assessment of kidney function in the

  8. Design of Smart Charging Infrastructure Hardware and Firmware Design of the Various Current Multiplexing Charging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-07

    Currently, when Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charging, they only have the option to charge at a selected current or not charge. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. There is a need for technology that controls the current being disbursed to these electric vehicles. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control. The smart charging infrastructure includes the server and the smart charging station. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV management system

  9. Measurement of renal glomerular filtration rate using labelled substances with compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    Using a model for the two-compartmental open system and experiments on animals (rabbits and dogs) as well as on human healthy volunteers, an attempt was made to study the advantages and limitations of different radionuclide methods for glomerular filtration rate determination. Labelled compounds used in different combinations were: 3 H-inulin, sup(113m)In-EDTA, 131 I-iothalamate, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and 14 C-creatinine. The results of the study lead to some working hypotheses concerning the value of creatinine and other labelled substances in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. The advantages and disadvantages of individual methods summarized in the final report are generally in agreement with the present views of many research workers. Also the hypothesis can be justified that the different labelled compounds which have been studied might be handled independently by the membranes involved but at the long run produce similar homeostatic balance

  10. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  11. Estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Caitano Fontela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the glomerular filtration using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations, and serum creatinine in the screening of reduced renal function in patients with type two diabetes (T2DM enrolled in the Family Health Strategy (ESF, Brazilian federal health-care program. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The protocol consisted of sociodemographics, physical examination and biochemical tests. Renal function was analyzed through serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimated according to the CG, MDRD and CKD-EPI equations, available on the websites of the Brazilian Nephrology Society (SBN and the (NKF. Results: 146 patients aged 60.9±8.9 years were evaluated; 64.4% were women. The prevalence of serum creatinine >1.2 mg/dL was 18.5% and GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 totaled 25.3, 36.3 and 34.2% when evaluated by the equations CG, MDRD and CKD-EPI, respectively. Diabetic patients with reduced renal function were older, had long-term T2DM diagnosis, higher systolic blood pressure and higher levels of fasting glucose, compared to diabetics with normal renal function. Creatinine showed strong negative correlation with the glomerular filtration rate estimated using CG, MDRD and CKD-EPI (-0.64, -0.87, -0.89 equations, respectively. Conclusion: the prevalence of individuals with reduced renal function based on serum creatinine was lower, reinforcing the need to follow the recommendations of the SBN and the National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP in estimating the value of the glomerular filtration rate as a complement to the results of serum creatinine to better assess the renal function of patients.

  12. Radiation induced changes in the expression of fibronectin, Pai-1, MMP in rat glomerular epithelial cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Zheng, Ying; Ha, Tae Sun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Sung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moon June [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Renal irradiation can lead to the development of radiation nephropathy, and this is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and final fibrosis. To determine the possible role of the glomerular epithelial cell, the radiation-induced changes in the expression of its genes associated with the extracellular matrix were analyzed. Rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) were irradiated with a single dose of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Gy with using 6 MV LINAC (Siemens, USA), and the samples were collected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation, respectively. Northern blotting, western blotting and zymography were used to measure the expression level of fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy resulted in a significant increase in Fn mRNA since 24 hours post-irradiation, and a single dose of 5 and 10 Gy significantly increased the Fn immunoreactive protein measured 48 hours post-irradiation. An increase in Pai-mRNA and protein was also observed and especially, a single dose of 10 Gy significantly increased the mRNA measured 24 and 48 hours post-irradiation. The active MMP-2 measured 24 hours post-irradiation slightly increased in a dose dependent manner, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. The levels of MMP-9, TIMP-2, t-PA and u-PA appeared unaltered after irradiation. Irradiation of the glomerular epithelial cells altered the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix, implying that the glomerular epithelial cell may be involved in the development of radiation nephropathy.

  13. Glomerular hypertrophy in subjects with low nephron number: contributions of sex, body size and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Zimanyi, Monika A; Armitage, James A; Hughson, Michael D; Kerr, Peter G; Bertram, John F

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that low nephron number (Nglom) is a strong determinant of individual glomerular volume (IGV) in male Americans. However, whether the same pattern is present in female Americans remains unclear. The contributions of body surface area (BSA) and race to IGV in the context of Nglom also require further evaluation. Kidneys without overt renal disease were collected at autopsy in Mississippi, USA. The extremes of female Nglom were used to define high and low Nglom for both sexes. Nglom and IGV were estimated by design-based stereology. A total of 24 African and Caucasian American females (n = 12 per race; 6 per Nglom extreme) were included. These subjects were subsequently matched to 24 comparable males by age and Nglom and to 18 additional males by age, Nglom and BSA. IGV average and variance were very similar in female African and Caucasian Americans with high and low Nglom. Males with low Nglom from both races showed greater IGV average and variance than comparable females matched by age and Nglom. These differences in IGV between sexes were not observed in Caucasian Americans with low Nglom that were matched by age, Nglom and BSA. In contrast, glomeruli from African Americans were larger than those from Caucasian Americans, especially in subjects with high Nglom. While female Americans with low Nglom did not show glomerular hypertrophy, comparable males with low Nglom showed marked glomerular hypertrophy that was closely associated with high BSA. Glomerular size in African Americans may be confounded by multiple additional factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation induced changes in the expression of fibronectin, Pai-1, MMP in rat glomerular epithelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Zheng, Ying; Ha, Tae Sun; Kim, Jae Sung; Cho, Moon June

    2006-01-01

    Renal irradiation can lead to the development of radiation nephropathy, and this is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and final fibrosis. To determine the possible role of the glomerular epithelial cell, the radiation-induced changes in the expression of its genes associated with the extracellular matrix were analyzed. Rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) were irradiated with a single dose of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 Gy with using 6 MV LINAC (Siemens, USA), and the samples were collected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation, respectively. Northern blotting, western blotting and zymography were used to measure the expression level of fibronectin (Fn), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Pai-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy resulted in a significant increase in Fn mRNA since 24 hours post-irradiation, and a single dose of 5 and 10 Gy significantly increased the Fn immunoreactive protein measured 48 hours post-irradiation. An increase in Pai-mRNA and protein was also observed and especially, a single dose of 10 Gy significantly increased the mRNA measured 24 and 48 hours post-irradiation. The active MMP-2 measured 24 hours post-irradiation slightly increased in a dose dependent manner, but this increase did not reach statistical significance. The levels of MMP-9, TIMP-2, t-PA and u-PA appeared unaltered after irradiation. Irradiation of the glomerular epithelial cells altered the expression of genes associated with the extracellular matrix, implying that the glomerular epithelial cell may be involved in the development of radiation nephropathy

  15. Circadian Rhythm of Glomerular Filtration and Solute Handling Related to Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossche, L; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P; De Bruyne, P; Vande Walle, J

    2016-01-01

    Although nocturnal polyuria in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis can largely be explained by the decreased nocturnal vasopressin secretion hypothesis, other circadian rhythms in the kidney also seem to have a role. We recently documented an absent day/night rhythm in a subgroup of desmopressin refractory cases. We explore the importance of abnormal circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration and tubular (sodium, potassium) parameters in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis. In this retrospective study of a tertiary enuresis population we collected data subsequent to a standardized screening (International Children's Continence Society questionnaire), 14-day diary for nocturnal enuresis and diuresis, and 24-hour concentration profile. The study population consisted of 139 children with nocturnal enuresis who were 5 years or older. Children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were used as controls. There was a maintained circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium, osmotic excretion and diuresis rate in children with monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and there was no difference between the 2 groups. Secondary analysis revealed that in patients with nocturnal polyuria (with monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis) circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium and osmotic excretion, and diuresis rate was diminished in contrast to those without nocturnal polyuria (p Circadian rhythm of the kidney does not differ between patients with nonmonosymptomatic and monosymptomatic enuresis. However, the subgroup with enuresis and nocturnal polyuria has a diminished circadian rhythm of nocturnal diuresis, sodium excretion and glomerular filtration in contrast to children without nocturnal polyuria. This observation cannot be explained by the vasopressin theory alone. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate during the first weeks following heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, M; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Gustafsson, F

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that a decrease in renal function is seen immediately after heart transplantation (HTX) with little recovery over time. Twelve consecutive patients had their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured using (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) measured GFR (mGFR) before tr...... risk factor for the rapid and sustained decrease in renal function supports the need for more studies on renoprotective strategies immediately after HTX....

  17. Did Creatinine Standardization Give Benefits to the Evaluation of Glomerular Filtration Rate?

    OpenAIRE

    Piéroni, Laurence; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Delanaye, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, a lot of efforts has been made to improve the evaluation of renal functions. Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) remains the only valuable test to confirm or confute the status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recommended by Kidney Disease Global Outcomes guidelines when estimation of GFR is not reliable. However, in routine clinical practice, serum creatinine remains the one of the most prescribed biological parameters and is an undeniable factor, alone or...

  18. Alternator control for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  19. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  20. A novel podocyte gene, semaphorin 3G, protects glomerular podocyte from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Ryoichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; He, Peng; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Tsurutani, Yuya; Ide, Shintaro; Ide, Kana; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tryggvason, Karl; Betsholtz, Christer; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-05-16

    Kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy have become huge medical problems, although its precise mechanisms are still far from understood. In order to increase our knowledge about the patho-physiology of kidney, we have previously identified >300 kidney glomerulus-enriched transcripts through large-scale sequencing and microarray profiling of the mouse glomerular transcriptome. One of the glomerulus-specific transcripts identified was semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) which belongs to the semaphorin family. The aim of this study was to analyze both the in vivo and in vitro functions of Sema3G in the kidney. Sema3G was expressed in glomerular podocytes. Although Sema3G knockout mice did not show obvious glomerular defects, ultrastructural analyses revealed partially aberrant podocyte foot processes structures. When these mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce acute inflammation or streptozotocin to induce diabetes, the lack of Sema3G resulted in increased albuminuria. The lack of Sema3G in podocytes also enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines including chemokine ligand 2 and interleukin 6. On the other hand, the presence of Sema3G attenuated their expression through the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll like receptor 4 signaling. Taken together, our results surmise that the Sema3G protein is secreted by podocytes and protects podocytes from inflammatory kidney diseases and diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Treatment of resistant glomerular diseases with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Canetta, Pietro A; Beck, Laurence H; Ayalon, Rivka; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has shown promising results in glomerular diseases resistant to conventional therapies, but the reported data have solely been from retrospective, observational studies. In this prospective, open-label study (NCT01129284), 15 subjects with resistant glomerular diseases were treated with ACTH gel (80 units subcutaneously twice weekly) for 6 months. Resistant membranous nephropathy (MN), minimal change disease (MCD), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were defined as failure to achieve sustained remission of proteinuria off immunosuppressive therapy with at least 2 treatment regimens; resistant IgA nephropathy was defined as >1 g/g urine protein:creatinine ratio despite maximally tolerated RAAS blockade. Remission was defined as stable or improved renal function with ≥50% reduction in proteinuria to 50% reductions in proteinuria while on ACTH, with proteinuria consistently <1 g/g by 6 months. Three of 15 subjects reported significant steroid-like adverse effects with ACTH, including weight gain and hyperglycemia, prompting early termination of therapy without any clinical response. ACTH gel is a promising treatment for resistant glomerular diseases and should be studied further in controlled trials against currently available therapies for resistant disease. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludens, J H; Clark, M A; Lawson, J A

    1995-06-01

    Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly decreased the osmolality of renal papillary interstitial fluid, indicative of an effect in the medullary portion of the diluting segment. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-sensitive K+ channels, possibly those located at the apical boarder, play a pivotal role in Na+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

  3. Glomerular parietal epithelial cell activation induces collagen secretion and thickening of Bowman's capsule in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderied, Alexander; Romoli, Simone; Eberhard, Jonathan; Konrad, Lukas A; Devarapu, Satish K; Marschner, Julian A; Müller, Susanna; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-03-01

    The metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in diabetes activate podocytes to increase extracellular matrix (ECM) production, leading to thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We hypothesized that diabetes would activate parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in a similar manner and cause thickening of Bowman's capsules. Periodic acid Schiff staining of human kidney biopsies of 30 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) revealed a significantly thicker Bowman's capsule as compared with 20 non-diabetic controls. The average thickness was 4.55±0.21 μm in the group of patients with DN compared with 2.92±0.21 μm in the group of non-diabetic controls (PBowman's capsule showed strong association with CD44-positive PECs. In summary, metabolic alterations in diabetes activate PECs to increase the expression and secretion of Bowman's capsule proteins. This process may contribute to the thickening of the Bowman's capsule, similar to the thickening of the GBM that is driven by activated podocytes. These data may also imply that activated PECs contribute to ECM production once they migrate to the glomerular tuft, a process resulting in glomerular scaring, for example, in diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

  4. Common histological patterns in glomerular epithelial cells in secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppe, Christoph; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Ostendorf, Tammo; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Boor, Peter; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2015-11-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are involved in the development of sclerotic lesions in primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, the role of PECs was explored in the more common secondary FSGS lesions in 68 patient biopsies, diagnosed with 11 different frequently or rarely encountered glomerular pathologies and additional secondary FSGS lesions. For each biopsy, one section was quadruple stained for PECs (ANXA3), podocytes (synaptopodin), PEC matrix (LKIV69), and Hoechst (nuclei), and a second was quadruple stained for activated PECs (CD44 and cytokeratin-19), PEC matrix, and nuclei. In all lesions, cellular adhesions (synechiae) between Bowman's capsule and the tuft were formed by cells expressing podocyte and/or PEC markers. Cells expressing PEC markers were detected in all FSGS lesions independent of the underlying glomerular disease and often stained positive for markers of activation. Small FSGS lesions, which were hardly identified on PAS sections previously, were detectable by immunofluorescent staining using PEC markers, potentially improving the diagnostic sensitivity to identify these lesions. Thus, similar patterns of cells expressing podocyte and/or PEC markers were found in the formation of secondary FSGS lesions independent of the underlying glomerular disease. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis that FSGS lesions follow a final cellular pathway to nephron loss that includes involvement of cells expressing PEC markers.

  5. A fine structural localization of the non-specific cholinesterase activity in glomerular nerve formations (endings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubový, P

    1990-01-01

    Snout glabrous skin (rhinarium) of the cat is innervated not only by typical simple lamellar corpuscles but also glomerular formations. In contrast to simple lamellar corpuscles, glomerular nerve formations are located away the dermal papillae. In cross sections, glomerular nerve formation consists of several axonal profiles enveloped by 1-2 cytoplasmic lamellae of Schwann cells. The space among them is filled by collagenous microfibrils and the basal lamina-like material. Capsule was composed from fibroblast-like cells without definite basal lamina. An electron-dense reaction product due to non-specific cholinesterase activity was associated with Schwann cells and their processes surrounding unmyelinated terminal portion of the sensory axons. Abundant reaction product was bound to the collagenous microfibrils and was deposited in extracellular matrix between Schwann cell processes. These results are further evidence for the presence of the non-specific cholinesterase molecules as integral component of the extracellular matrix in sensory corpuscles. On the basis of histochemical study two possible explanation are considered for functional involving of this enzyme in sensory nerve formations.

  6. A SAGE based approach to human glomerular endothelium : defining the transcriptome, finding a novel molecule and highlighting endothelial diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengoelge, Guerkan; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Kupczok, Anne; von Haeseler, Arndt; Schuster, Michael; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul; Weltermann, Ansgar; Blake, Sophia; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large scale transcript analysis of human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (HGMEC) has never been accomplished. We designed this study to define the transcriptome of HGMEC and facilitate a better characterization of these endothelial cells with unique features. Serial analysis

  7. Asbestos: selected cancers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    ...: Selected Health Effects. This committee was charged with addressing whether asbestos exposure is causally related to adverse health consequences in addition to asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Asbestos...

  8. Glomerular filtration rate estimated from the uptake phase of 99mTc-DTPA renography in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea.......The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea....

  9. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  10. Association between serum bilirubin levels and decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate among patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Yu, Caizheng; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Chen, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    Studies indicate that elevated serum total bilirubin (TBil) levels are associated with lower risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Few studies examined the associations of direct bilirubin (DBil) and indirect bilirubin (IBil) with the development of DKD. Type 2 diabetes patients (n=2,958) with estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR)≥60mlmin(-1) 1.73m(-2) from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were selected and followed up for 5years. Development of DKD was defined as decline in eGFR≥30% during follow-up. Generalize linear model was used to assess the associations of bilirubin levels with DKD development. Compared with those in the first tertile of serum TBil, the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident eGFR decline for tertile 2 to 3 were 0.83 (0.64-1.09) and 0.74 (0.56-0.98), Ptrend=0.04. The counterpart RRs (95% CIs) in IBil were 0.74 (0.57-0.97) and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), Ptrend=0.04. No significant associations were observed in DBil. Moreover, TBil and IBil interacted with smoking, the bilirubin-DKD associations were evident in ever smokers. Our findings suggest that elevation of serum TBil or IBil levels are independent protective factors for development of DKD, particularly in smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  12. Glomerular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in the urine and elevated levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen in the blood, thus indicating reduced kidney function. High blood pressure frequently accompanies reduced kidney function in ...

  13. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  14. The associations of Bmi-1 with progression of glomerular chronic kidney disease
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Bai, Ming; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Feng; Liu, Limin; Liu, Ting; Liu, Minna; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren

    2018-02-01

    Our previous studies indicated that Bmi-1 plays an important role in hypoxia-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the development of kidney fibrosis in cellular and animal models. However, circulating Bmi-1 levels in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their relation to progression remains unknown. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study. The blood samples and clinical data of 230 patients with glomerular CKD and 67 healthy adults were prospectively collected between January 2010 and June 2012. Serum Bmi-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CKD patients had significantly higher serum Bmi-1 concentrations than the healthy controls (496.4 (363.1 - 675.4) pg/mL compared with 257.3 (235.4 - 303.8) pg/mL, p Bmi-1 level inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.346, p Bmi-1 levels and serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C concentration, and the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (r = 0.248, p Bmi-1 level was associated with a shorter duration of renal survival. Cox multivariate analyses further demonstrated that serum Bmi-1 concentration was an independent prognostic factor for CKD patients (HR = 6.48, p Bmi-1 levels were associated with adverse kidney disease outcome, suggesting that Bmi-1 is a novel biomarker for glomerular CKD progression. More data from larger longitudinal studies are required to validate our findings.
.

  15. HYDROXYUREA TREATMENT DECREASES GLOMERULAR HYPERFILTRATION IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Banu; Mortier, Nicole A.; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Shulkin, Barry L.; Hankins, Jane S.; Ware, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomerular hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria/proteinuria are early manifestations of sickle nephropathy. The effects of hydroxyurea therapy on these renal manifestations of sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well defined. Objective To investigate the effects of hydroxyurea on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by 99mTc-DTPA clearance, and on microalbuminuria/proteinuria in children with SCA. Study Design Hydroxyurea Study of Long-Term Effects (HUSTLE) is a prospective study (NCT00305175) with the goal of describing the long-term cellular, molecular, and clinical effects of hydroxyurea therapy in SCA. Glomerular filtration rate, urine microalbumin, and serum cystatin C were measured before initiating hydroxyurea therapy and then repeated after 3 years. Baseline and Year 3 values for HUSTLE subjects were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Associations between continuous variables were evaluated using Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Twenty-three children with SCA (median age 7.5 years, range 2.5–14.0 years) received hydroxyurea at maximum tolerated dose (MTD, 24.4 ± 4.5 mg/kg/day, range 15.3–30.6 mg/kg/day). After three years of treatment, GFR measured by 99mTc-DTPA decreased significantly from 167 ± 46 mL/min/1.73m2 to 145 ± 27 mL/min/1.73m2 (p=0.016). This decrease in GFR was significantly associated with increase in fetal hemoglobin (p= 0.042) and decrease in lactate dehydrogenase levels (p=0.035). Urine microalbumin and cystatin C levels did not change significantly. Conclusions Hydroxyurea at MTD is associated with a decrease in hyperfiltration in young children with SCA. PMID:23255310

  16. Changes in glomerular parietal epithelial cells in mouse kidneys with advanced age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Sebastian S.; Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana G.; Kaverina, Natalya; Sunseri, Maria W.; McNicholas, Bairbre A.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Engel, Felix B.; Daniel, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Lichtnekert, Julia; Pippin, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney aging is accompanied by characteristic changes in the glomerulus, but little is known about the effect of aging on glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs), nor if the characteristic glomerular changes in humans and rats also occur in very old mice. Accordingly, a descriptive analysis was undertaken in 27-mo-old C57B6 mice, considered advanced age. PEC density was significantly lower in older mice compared with young mice (aged 3 mo), and the decrease was more pronounced in juxtamedullary glomeruli compared with outer cortical glomeruli. In addition to segmental and global glomerulosclerosis in older mice, staining for matrix proteins collagen type IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycan were markedly increased in Bowman's capsules of older mouse glomeruli, consistent with increased extracellular matrix production by PECs. De novo staining for CD44, a marker of activated and profibrotic PECs, was significantly increased in aged glomeruli. CD44 staining was more pronounced in the juxtamedullary region and colocalized with phosphorylated ERK. Additionally, a subset of aged PECs de novo expressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers α-smooth muscle and vimentin, with no changes in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mural cell markers neural/glial antigen 2, PDGF receptor-β, and CD146 as well as Notch 3 were also substantially increased in aged PECs. These data show that mice can be used to better understand the aging kidney and that PECs undergo substantial changes, especially in juxtamedullary glomeruli, that may participate in the overall decline in glomerular structure and function with advancing age. PMID:26017974

  17. The glomerular parietal epithelial cell's responses are influenced by SM22 alpha levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Shokichi; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2014-11-06

    Studies have shown in several diseases initially affecting podocytes, that the neighboring glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are secondarily involved. The PEC response might be reparative under certain circumstances, yet injurious under others. The factors governing these are not well understood. We have shown that SM22α, an actin-binding protein considered a marker of smooth muscle differentiation, is upregulated in podocytes and PECs in several models of podocyte disease. However, the impact of SM22α levels on PECs is not known. Experimental glomerular disease, characterized by primary podocyte injury, was induced in aged-matched SM22α+/+ and SM22α-/-mice by intraperitoneal injection of sheep anti-rabbit glomeruli antibody. Immunostaining methods were employed on days 7 and 14 of disease. The number of PEC transition cells, defined as cells co-expressing a PEC protein (PAX2) and podocyte protein (Synaptopodin) was higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared with SM22α+/+mice. WT1 staining along Bowman's capsule is higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice. This was accompanied by increased PEC proliferation (measured by ki-67 staining), and an increase in immunostaining for the progenitor marker NCAM, in a subpopulation of PECs in diseased SM22α-/-mice. In addition, immunostaining for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin, markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was lower in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared to diseased SM22α+/+mice. SM22α levels may impact how PECs respond following a primary podocyte injury in experimental glomerular disease. Absent/lower levels favor an increase in PEC transition cells and PECs expressing a progenitor marker, and a lower EMT rate compared to SM22α+/+mice, where SM22 levels are markedly increased in PECs.

  18. Changes in glomerular parietal epithelial cells in mouse kidneys with advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Sebastian S; Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana G; Kaverina, Natalya; Sunseri, Maria W; McNicholas, Bairbre A; Rabinovitch, Peter; Engel, Felix B; Daniel, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Lichtnekert, Julia; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-07-15

    Kidney aging is accompanied by characteristic changes in the glomerulus, but little is known about the effect of aging on glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs), nor if the characteristic glomerular changes in humans and rats also occur in very old mice. Accordingly, a descriptive analysis was undertaken in 27-mo-old C57B6 mice, considered advanced age. PEC density was significantly lower in older mice compared with young mice (aged 3 mo), and the decrease was more pronounced in juxtamedullary glomeruli compared with outer cortical glomeruli. In addition to segmental and global glomerulosclerosis in older mice, staining for matrix proteins collagen type IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycan were markedly increased in Bowman's capsules of older mouse glomeruli, consistent with increased extracellular matrix production by PECs. De novo staining for CD44, a marker of activated and profibrotic PECs, was significantly increased in aged glomeruli. CD44 staining was more pronounced in the juxtamedullary region and colocalized with phosphorylated ERK. Additionally, a subset of aged PECs de novo expressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers α-smooth muscle and vimentin, with no changes in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mural cell markers neural/glial antigen 2, PDGF receptor-β, and CD146 as well as Notch 3 were also substantially increased in aged PECs. These data show that mice can be used to better understand the aging kidney and that PECs undergo substantial changes, especially in juxtamedullary glomeruli, that may participate in the overall decline in glomerular structure and function with advancing age. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Novel therapeutic approaches for chronic kidney disease due to glomerular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nogal-Avila, Maria; Donoro-Blazquez, Hector; Saha, Manish K; Marshall, Caroline B; Clement, Lionel C; Macé, Camille E A; Chugh, Sumant S

    2016-07-01

    Improved understanding of glomerular disease mechanisms over the past decade has led to the emergence of new and targeted therapeutic strategies for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most promising among these are the administration of recombinant mutated human angiopoietin-like 4, sialic acid-related sugars that induce sialylation in vivo, compounds related to Bis-T-23, and immune depletion of the soluble urokinase receptor from the circulation. Taking these therapeutic strategies into clinical trials will be the first step away from repurposed and relatively toxic drugs currently used for treating kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate during the first weeks following heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, M; Andersen, M; Gustafsson, F

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that a decrease in renal function is seen immediately after heart transplantation (HTX) with little recovery over time. Twelve consecutive patients had their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured using (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) measured GFR (mGFR) before...... transplantation and at 1, 2, 3, and 26 weeks after transplantation. The mGFR decreased by 28% and 24% during the first 3 and 26 weeks, respectively, with mean blood cyclosporine concentration as an independent risk factor for the decrease in mGFR. The identification of cyclosporine A (CsA) as the most important...

  1. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  2. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in children using technetium-99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaronson, I.A.; Mann, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    During the past 5 years, we have measured the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the slope-clearance method using technetium-99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid technetium-99m-DTPA in 130 infants and children. The results in 22 children have been compared with inulin clearance, and a very good correlation between the two methods of measurement of GFR was demonstrated (r = 0,9616; P less than 0,0001). This study provides further evidence that technetium-99m-DTPA is a satisfactory agent for the clinical measurement of GFR in children

  3. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  4. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG) in basement membranes of almost all adult tissues. However, an exception to this ubiquitous distribution was found in the kidney, where BM-CSPG was absent from the glomerular capillary......, the present study used light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of BM-CSPG and basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (BM-HSPG) during prenatal and postnatal renal development in the rat. Our results show that the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of BM...

  5. Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Contribution of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Janka-Zires, Marcela; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The development of metabolic syndrome has been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus as the disease progresses over time. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome, albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, in a group of Mexican patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional study that included patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who were diagnosed over 10 years ago and who are seen at the Diabetes Intensive Control Clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. The presence of metabolic syndrome was determined by using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. A total of 81 individuals were studied. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 18.5% (n = 15). A higher albuminuria was found in subjects with metabolic syndrome (34.9 mg/24 hours; 8.3-169.3) than in those without metabolic syndrome (9.0 mg/24 hours; 5.0-27.0; p = 0.02). Glomerular filtration rate was lower in patients with metabolic syndrome (95.3 ml/minute; [64.9-107.2] vs. 110.2 ml/minute [88.1-120.3]; p = 0.04). After classifying the population according to the number of metabolic syndrome criteria, a progressive increase in albuminuria and a progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate were found with each additional metabolic syndrome criterion (p = 0.008 and p = 0.032, respectively). After adjusting for age, time from diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, we found that age, time from diagnosis, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol were independent factors associated with glomerular filtration rate (R2 = 0.286; p diabetes mellitus. Metabolic syndrome was present in 18.5% of this group of Mexican individuals with type 1 diabetes

  6. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... or estimates of renal function in these patients, in order to accurately and safely dose immunosuppressive medication and perform and adjust the treatment and prophylaxis of renal dysfunction. This is a short overview and discussion of relevant studies and possible caveats of estimated glomerular filtration...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  7. Comparative study between 99Tcm-MDP renal dynamic imaging and measurement of serum cystatin C in evaluation of glomerular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zeqiang; Miao Weibing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between 99 Tcm-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renal dynamic imaging and measurement of serum cystatin C in evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods: One hundred patients were selected at random, 38 cases with hypertension, 35 with nephrosis, 10 with arteriosclerosis obliterans, 9 with diabetes and 8 with other diseases. Evaluation of patients' GFR was made separately by 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging and measurement of serum cystatin C. Results: No significant difference of GFR was found between the two methods (t=1.591, P>0.05 ), and linear correlation was showed as well (r=0.809, P 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging could reveal the individual renal function and provide a more comprehensive evaluation of renal function while the measurement of serum cystatin C was simple and convenient, timesaving, economic, and more suit-able for screening patients' renal function clinically. (authors)

  8. Urological disorders in chronic kidney disease in children cohort: clinical characteristics and estimation of glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jennifer L; Jerry-Fluker, Judith V; Ng, Derek K; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Schwartz, George J; Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L

    2011-10-01

    Urological disorders are the most common cause of pediatric chronic kidney disease. We determined the characteristics of children with urological disorders and assessed the agreement between the newly developed bedside glomerular filtration rate estimating formula with measured glomerular filtration rate in 586 patients in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study is a prospective, observational cohort of children recruited from 48 sites in the United States and Canada. Eligibility requirements include age 1 to 16 years and estimated glomerular filtration rate by original Schwartz formula 30 to 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Baseline demographics, clinical variables and glomerular filtration rate were assessed. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement between estimated and measured glomerular filtration rates. Of the 586 participants with at least 1 glomerular filtration rate measurement 348 (59%) had an underlying urological diagnosis (obstructive uropathy in 118, aplastic/hypoplastic/dysplastic kidneys in 104, reflux in 87 and other condition in 39). Among these patients median age was 9 years, duration of chronic kidney disease was 7 years and age at first visit with a urologist was less than 1 year. Of the patients 67% were male, 67% were white and 21% had a low birth weight. Median height was in the 24th percentile. Median glomerular filtration rate as measured by iohexol plasma disappearance was 44.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Median glomerular filtration rate as estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children bedside equation was 44.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (bias = -0.5, 95% CI -1.7 to 0.7, p = 0.44). Underlying urological causes of chronic kidney disease were present in 59% of study participants. These children were diagnosed early in life, and many had low birth weight and growth delay. There is good agreement between the newly developed Chronic Kidney Disease in Children estimating equations and measured

  9. Effects of CTLA4-Fc on glomerular injury in humorally-mediated glomerulonephritis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, A R; Huang, X R; Ruth, A-J; Tipping, P G; Holdsworth, S R

    2002-06-01

    The effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule 4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4-Fc) on humorally-mediated glomerulonephritis was studied in accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis induced in BALB/c mice. This strain of mice develops antibody and complement dependent glomerulonephritis under this protocol. Sensitized BALB/c mice developed high levels of circulating autologous antibody titres, intense glomerular deposition of mouse immunoglobulin and complement, significant proteinuria, renal impairment, significant glomerular necrosis and a minor component of crescent formation 10 days after challenge with a nephritogenic antigen (sheep anti-GBM globulin). Early treatment during the primary immune response, or continuous treatment throughout the disease with CTLA4-Fc, significantly suppressed mouse anti-sheep globulin antibody titres in serum, and immunoglobulin and complement deposition in glomeruli. The degree of glomerular necrosis was improved and proteinuria was reduced, particularly in the earlier stages of disease. Late treatment by CTLA4-Fc starting one day after challenge with sheep anti-mouse GBM did not affect antibody production and did not attenuate glomerulonephritis. The low level of crescent formation found in BALB/c mice developing glomerulonephritis was not prevented by the administration of CTLA4-Fc. These results demonstrate that CTLA4-Fc is of benefit in this model of glomerulonephritis by its capacity to attenuate antibody production, without affecting the minor degree of cell-mediated glomerular injury.

  10. Do Anesthetic Techniques Influence the Threshold for Glomerular Capillary Hemorrhage Induced in Rats by Contrast-Enhanced Diagnostic Ultrasound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Lu, Xiaofang; Fabiilli, Mario; Dou, Chunyan

    2016-02-01

    Glomerular capillary hemorrhage can be induced by ultrasonic cavitation during contrast-enhanced diagnostic ultrasound (US) exposure, an important nonthermal US bioeffect. Recent studies of pulmonary US exposure have shown that thresholds for another nonthermal bioeffect of US, pulmonary capillary hemorrhage, is strongly influenced by whether xylazine is included in the specific anesthetic technique. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of xylazine on contrast-enhanced diagnostic US-induced glomerular capillary hemorrhage. In this study, anesthesia with ketamine only was compared to ketamine plus xylazine for induction of glomerular capillary hemorrhage in rats by 1.6-MHz intermittent diagnostic US with a microsphere contrast agent (similar to Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc, North Billerica, MA). Glomerular capillary hemorrhage was measured as a percentage of glomeruli with hemorrhage found in histologic sections for groups of rats scanned at different peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes. There was a significant difference between the magnitude of the glomerular capillary hemorrhage between the anesthetics at 2.3 MPa, with 45.6% hemorrhage for ketamine only, increasing to 63.2% hemorrhage for ketamine plus xylazine (P Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Glomerulonefritis fibrilar: Una rara forma de enfermedad glomerular por depósitos organizados Fibrillary glomerulo-nephritis: A rare form of glomerular disease with organized deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta B. Cabrera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de una mujer de 67 años de edad que consultó por debilidad y astenia, constatándose proteinuria de rango nefrótico y dislipemia. Se realizó punción para biopsia renal, la que se analizó por microscopia óptica, inmunofluorescencia y microscopia electrónica de transmisión. El análisis ultra-estructural reveló la existencia de depósitos fibrilares organizados, rectos, no ramificados, cuyo espesor osciló entre 15 y 20 nm. Dichas fibrillas ópticamente se veían como una expansión mesangial discretamente nodular, ligeramente PAS positiva, rojo Congo negativa y débilmente positiva para IgG. El diagnóstico fue glomerulonefritis fibrilar. Las enfermedades glomerulares por depósitos organizados pueden exhibir superposición sindrómica e histopatológica. Por tal motivo, resulta de importancia una primera separación entre aquellas rojo Congo positivas o negativas, siendo en este último caso la microscopia electrónica de transmisión la que diferencia dos entidades: la glomerulonefritis fibrilar y la glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide. Esta diferencia se apoya no sólo en las características ultraestructurales, sino en sus características clínicas. La glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide muestra una fuerte asociación con procesos linfoproliferativos, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con la glomerulonefritis fibrilar.We describe the case of a 67 year-old female who presented weakness and fatigue. Laboratory data showed nephrotic level of proteinuria and dyslipidemia. A renal biopsy was performed, and studied by light microscopy, immuno-fluorescence and electron microscopy. Ultra-structural analysis revealed the existence of organized fibrillary deposits, straight and without ramifications, the thickness of which ranged from 15 to 20 nm. These fibres were identified, by light microscopy, as slightly nodular mesangial expansions PAS positive, Congo red negative and weakly positive for IgG. Given the above findings, the

  12. Glomerular filtration rate by {sup 51}chomium and {sup 113m}indium labeled EDTA in horses; Taxa de filtracao glomerular pelo EDTA marcado com {sup 51}cromo e com {sup 113m}indio em equinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.; D' Almeida, J.; Pellegrini, P.M.; Schimit, T.S. [Hospital Central do Exercito (HCE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Pinho, W.R. [Centro de Ensino Superior, Valenca, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria; Lima, J.E.T. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The glomerular filtration rate was determined in nine healthy horses, six male and three female, aged two to 12-year-old, by means of {sup 51}Cr and {sup 113m}In labeled EDTA single injection technique. The glomerular filtration rate was calculated from the plasma disappearance curve and the volume of distribution of the radiotracer, {sup 51}Cr-EDTA or {sup 113m}In-EDTA. The result (mean +- standard deviation) was 148.80 +- 26.42 m L.min{sup -1}.100 kg. It is concluded that the measurement of glomerular filtration rate by {sup 51}Cr-EDTA or {sup 113m}In-EDTA by single injection technique eliminates the bladder catheterization, and for its simplicity, convenience, accuracy, and low dose of radiation, can be used in horses as a method of choice in clinical routine. (author)

  13. Transcriptional profiling reveals progeroid Ercc1(-/Δ) mice as a model system for glomerular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Bernhard; Bartels, Valerie; Frommolt, Peter; Habermann, Bianca; Braun, Fabian; Schultze, Joachim L; Roodbergen, Marianne; Hoeijmakers, Jan Hj; Schumacher, Björn; Nürnberg, Peter; Dollé, Martijn Et; Benzing, Thomas; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Kurschat, Christine E

    2013-08-16

    Aging-related kidney diseases are a major health concern. Currently, models to study renal aging are lacking. Due to a reduced life-span progeroid models hold the promise to facilitate aging studies and allow examination of tissue-specific changes. Defects in genome maintenance in the Ercc1(-/Δ) progeroid mouse model result in premature aging and typical age-related pathologies. Here, we compared the glomerular transcriptome of young and aged Ercc1-deficient mice to young and aged WT mice in order to establish a novel model for research of aging-related kidney disease. In a principal component analysis, age and genotype emerged as first and second principal components. Hierarchical clustering of all 521 genes differentially regulated between young and old WT and young and old Ercc1(-/Δ) mice showed cluster formation between young WT and Ercc1(-/Δ) as well as old WT and Ercc1(-/Δ) samples. An unexpectedly high number of 77 genes were differentially regulated in both WT and Ercc1(-/Δ) mice (p aging glomerulus. At the level of the transcriptome, the pattern of gene activities is similar in the progeroid Ercc1(-/Δ) mouse model constituting a valuable tool for future studies of aging-associated glomerular pathologies.

  14. Focused ultrasound-modulated glomerular ultrafiltration assessed by functional changes in renal arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS to modulate glomerular ultrafiltration by renal artery sonication and determine if protein-creatinine ratios are estimated through vascular parameters. All animal experiments were approved by our Animal Care and Use Committee. The renal arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically exposed and sonicated at various acoustic power levels using a FUS transducer with a resonant frequency of 1 MHz. The mean peak systolic velocity (PSV of the blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound imaging. Urinary protein-creatinine ratios were calculated during the experiments. Histological examination of renal arteries and whole kidneys was performed. The PSV, pulsatility index, and resistance index of blood flow significantly increased in the arteries after FUS sonication without microbubbles (p<0.05. The change in normalized protein-creatinine ratios significantly increased with increasing acoustic power, but such was not observed when microbubbles were administered. Furthermore, no histological changes were observed in the hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections. Glomerular ultrafiltration is regulated temporarily by renal artery sonication without microbubbles. Monitoring vascular parameters are useful in estimating the normalized change in protein-creatinine ratios.

  15. Compound effects of aging and experimental FSGS on glomerular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Remington R S; Eng, Diana G; Kutz, J Nathan; Sweetwyne, Mariya T; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2017-02-17

    Advanced age portends a poorer prognosis in FSGS. To understand the impact of age on glomerular podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs), experimental FSGS was induced in 3m-old mice (20-year old human age) and 27m-old mice (78-year old human age) by abruptly depleting podocytes with a cytopathic anti-podocyte antibody. Despite similar binding of the disease-inducing antibody, podocyte density was lower in aged FSGS mice compared to young FSGS mice. Activated PEC density was higher in aged versus young FSGS mice, as was the percentage of total activated PECs. Additionally, the percentage of glomeruli containing PECs with evidence of phosphorylated ERK and EMT was higher in aged FSGS mice. Extracellular matrix, measured by collagen IV and silver staining, was higher in aged FSGS mice along Bowman's capsule. However, collagen IV accumulation in the glomerular tufts alone and in glomeruli with both tuft and Bowman's capsule accumulation were similar in young FSGS and aged FSGS mice. Thus, the major difference in collagen IV staining in FSGS was along Bowman's capsule in aged mice. The significant differences in podocytes, PECs and extracellular matrix accumulation between young mice and old mice with FSGS might explain the differences in outcomes in FSGS based on age.

  16. [Expression of glomerular heparan sulfate domains in pediatric patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Qun; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Ping; Guo, Yan-Nan; Wu, Jin; Feng, Shi-Pin; Li, Sha

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the expression of glomerular heparin sulfate (HS) in paediatric patients with minimal change nephritic syndrome (MCNS). The kidyney tissues were collected by biopsy from 13 paediatric patients with MCNS, while 5 normal renal biopsy samples were used as control. HS in glomeruli was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence staining using four different monoclonal antibodies, Hepss1, 3G10, JM403 and 10E4, which all recognize distinct HS species and each interacts with a specific HS domain. The concentrations of urine heparan sulfate also were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Expression of HS fine domains was aberrant in paediatric patients compared with control subjects. Children with MCNS in replase showed a decreased glomerular expression of 10E4, JM403 and Hepss1 (P peadiatric patients with MCNS when compared with that in control subjects (P < 0.01). These results suggest that loss of heparan sulphate in renal tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of MCNS proteinuria.

  17. Automatic Reporting of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children: Is this Feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lunn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine, although widely used as a biomarker to measure renal function, has long been known as an insensitive marker of renal impairment. Patients with reduced renal function can have a creatinine level within the normal range, with a rapid rise when renal function is significantly reduced. As of 1976, the correlation between height, the reciprocal of creatinine, and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR in children has been described. It has been used to derive a simple formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR that could be used at the bedside as a more sensitive method of identifying children with renal impairment. Formulae based on this association, with modifications over time as creatinine assay methods have changed, are still widely used clinically at the bedside and in research studies to assess the degree of renal impairment in children. Adult practice has moved in many countries to computer-generated results that report eGFR alongside creatinine results using more complex, but potentially more accurate estimates of GFR, which are independent of height. This permits early identification of patients with chronic kidney disease. This review assesses the feasibility of automated reporting of eGFR and the advantages and disadvantages of this in children.

  18. Glomerular barrier behaves as an atomically precise bandpass filter in a sub-nanometre regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bujie; Jiang, Xingya; Das, Anindita; Zhou, Qinhan; Yu, Mengxiao; Jin, Rongchao; Zheng, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier is known as a 'size cutoff' slit, which retains nanoparticles or proteins larger than 6-8 nm in the body and rapidly excretes smaller ones through the kidneys. However, in the sub-nanometre size regime, we have found that this barrier behaves as an atomically precise 'bandpass' filter to significantly slow down renal clearance of few-atom gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with the same surface ligands but different sizes (Au18, Au15 and Au10-11). Compared to Au25 (∼1.0 nm), just few-atom decreases in size result in four- to ninefold reductions in renal clearance efficiency in the early elimination stage, because the smaller AuNCs are more readily trapped by the glomerular glycocalyx than larger ones. This unique in vivo nano-bio interaction in the sub-nanometre regime also slows down the extravasation of sub-nanometre AuNCs from normal blood vessels and enhances their passive targeting to cancerous tissues through an enhanced permeability and retention effect. This discovery highlights the size precision in the body's response to nanoparticles and opens a new pathway to develop nanomedicines for many diseases associated with glycocalyx dysfunction.

  19. Implementation of Olfactory Bulb Glomerular Layer Computations in a Digital Neurosynaptic Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil eImam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a biomimetic system that captures essential functional properties of the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb, specifically including its capacity to decorrelate similar odor representations without foreknowledge of the statistical distributions of analyte features. Our system is based on a digital neuromorphic chip consisting of 256 leaky-integrate-and-fire neurons, 1024x256 crossbar synapses, and AER communication circuits. The neural circuits configured in the chip reflect established connections among mitral cells, periglomerular cells, external tufted cells and superficial short axon cells within the olfactory bulb, and accept input from convergent sets of sensors configured as olfactory sensory neurons. This configuration generates functional transformations comparable to those observed in the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb. Our circuits, consuming only 45 pJ of active power per spike with a power supply voltage of 0.85V, can be used as the first stage of processing in low-power artificial chemical sensing devices inspired by natural olfactory systems.

  20. Implementation of olfactory bulb glomerular-layer computations in a digital neurosynaptic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Nabil; Cleland, Thomas A; Manohar, Rajit; Merolla, Paul A; Arthur, John V; Akopyan, Filipp; Modha, Dharmendra S

    2012-01-01

    We present a biomimetic system that captures essential functional properties of the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb, specifically including its capacity to decorrelate similar odor representations without foreknowledge of the statistical distributions of analyte features. Our system is based on a digital neuromorphic chip consisting of 256 leaky-integrate-and-fire neurons, 1024 × 256 crossbar synapses, and address-event representation communication circuits. The neural circuits configured in the chip reflect established connections among mitral cells, periglomerular cells, external tufted cells, and superficial short-axon cells within the olfactory bulb, and accept input from convergent sets of sensors configured as olfactory sensory neurons. This configuration generates functional transformations comparable to those observed in the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb. Our circuits, consuming only 45 pJ of active power per spike with a power supply of 0.85 V, can be used as the first stage of processing in low-power artificial chemical sensing devices inspired by natural olfactory systems.

  1. Transcriptional profiling reveals progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice as a model system for glomerular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging-related kidney diseases are a major health concern. Currently, models to study renal aging are lacking. Due to a reduced life-span progeroid models hold the promise to facilitate aging studies and allow examination of tissue-specific changes. Defects in genome maintenance in the Ercc1-/Δ progeroid mouse model result in premature aging and typical age-related pathologies. Here, we compared the glomerular transcriptome of young and aged Ercc1-deficient mice to young and aged WT mice in order to establish a novel model for research of aging-related kidney disease. Results In a principal component analysis, age and genotype emerged as first and second principal components. Hierarchical clustering of all 521 genes differentially regulated between young and old WT and young and old Ercc1-/Δ mice showed cluster formation between young WT and Ercc1-/Δ as well as old WT and Ercc1-/Δ samples. An unexpectedly high number of 77 genes were differentially regulated in both WT and Ercc1-/Δ mice (p aging glomerulus. At the level of the transcriptome, the pattern of gene activities is similar in the progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mouse model constituting a valuable tool for future studies of aging-associated glomerular pathologies. PMID:23947592

  2. Sex steroids do not affect shigatoxin cytotoxicity on human renal tubular or glomerular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohan Donald E

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The greater susceptibility of children to renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS may be related, at least in part, to heightened renal cell sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxin (Stx, the putative mediator of kidney damage in HUS. We hypothesized that sexual maturation, which coincides with a falling incidence of HUS, may induce a relatively Stx-resistant state in the renal cells. Methods Cultured human glomerular endothelial (HGEN, human glomerular visceral epithelial (HGEC and human proximal tubule (HPT cells were exposed to Stx-1 after pre-incubation with progesterone, β-estradiol or testosterone followed by determination of cytotoxicity. Results Under basal conditions, Stx-1 potently and dose-dependently killed HPT and HGEC, but had relatively little effect on HGEN. Pre-incubation for 1, 2 or 7 days with physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations of progesterone, β-estradiol or testosterone had no effect on Stx-1 cytotoxicity dose-response on any cell type. In addition, no steroid altered Gb3 expression (Stx receptor by any cell type at any time point. Conclusion These data do not support the notion that hormonal changes associated with puberty induce an Stx-resistant state within kidney cells.

  3. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, A J; Ruegg, M A; Dijkman, H; van de Velden, T J; Buskens, C A; van den Born, J; Assmann, K J; Monnens, L A; Veerkamp, J H; van den Heuvel, L P

    1998-01-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane (GBM). This is in addition to perlecan, a previously characterized HSPG of basement membranes. Antibodies against agrin and against an unidentified GBM HSPG produced a strong staining of the GBM and the NMJ, different from that observed with anti-perlecan antibodies. In addition, anti-agrin antisera recognized purified GBM HSPG and competed with an anti-GBM HSPG monoclonal antibody in ELISA. Furthermore, both antibodies recognized a molecule that migrated in SDS-PAGE as a smear and had a molecular mass of approximately 200-210 kD after deglycosylation. In immunoelectron microscopy, agrin showed a linear distribution along the GBM and was present throughout the width of the GBM. This was again different from perlecan, which was exclusively present on the endothelial side of the GBM and was distributed in a nonlinear manner. Quantitative ELISA showed that, compared with perlecan, the agrin-like GBM HSPG showed a sixfold higher molarity in crude glomerular extract. These results show that agrin is a major component of the GBM, indicating that it may play a role in renal ultrafiltration and cell matrix interaction. (J Histochem Cytochem 46:19-27, 1998)

  4. Contrast media and glomerular filtration: dose dependence of clearance for three agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, S.E.K.; Krutzen, E.; Nilsson-Ehle, P.

    1988-01-01

    Determination of plasma clearance of contrast agents has been advocated as a means to assess glomerular filtration rate. To evaluate the feasibility of different agents for this purpose, we have compared, in healthy volunteers, the dose dependence of plasma clearance for three contrast media (iohexol, a nonionic agent, and iothalamate and metrizoate, which are ionic substances), with special emphasis on the lower dose range (2-20 mL corresponding to 0.9-12.9 g, depending on dose and agent). Iohexol and iothalamate were cleared at constant rates, irrespective of given dose, whereas metrizoate clearance increased significantly at lower doses. In general, the clearances or iothalamate and metrizoate were, respectively, moderately and markedly higher than that of iohexol. The clearance of different doses of metrizoate (2 mL versus a radiographic dose of 40 mL or more) was also compared with the clearance of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in two groups of patients with reduced renal function. When compared with [ 51 Cr]EDTA in patients with renal dysfunction, metrizoate was cleared significantly faster after a 2-mL dose, whereas clearances were identical when the metrizoate dose was 40 mL or more. These findings indicate that tubular secretion plays an active role in the elimination of metrizoate. The pharmacokinetic properties of iohexol, in combination with its low toxicity, make it a suitable agent for determination of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice

  5. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells contribute to adult podocyte regeneration in experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Diana G.; Sunseri, Maria W.; Kaverina, Natalya; Roeder, Sebastian S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Since adult podocytes cannot adequately proliferate following depletion in disease states there has been interest in the potential role of progenitors in podocyte repair and regeneration. To determine if parietal epithelial cells (PECs) can serve as adult podocyte progenitors following disease-induced podocyte depletion, PECs were permanently labeled in adult PECrtTA/LC1/R26 reporter mice. In normal mice, labeled PECs were confined to Bowman's capsule, while in disease (cytotoxic sheep anti-podocyte antibody), labeled PECs were found in the glomerular tuft in progressively higher numbers by days 7, 14 and 28. Early in disease, the majority of PECs in the tuft co-expressed CD44. By day 28, when podocyte numbers were significantly higher and disease severity was significantly lower, the majority of labeled PECs co-expressed podocyte proteins but not CD44. Neither labeled PECs on the tuft, nor podocytes stained for the proliferation marker BrdU. The de novo expression of phospho-ERK colocalized to CD44 expressing PECs, but not to PECs expressing podocyte markers. Thus, in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis typified by abrupt podocyte depletion followed by regeneration, PECs undergo two phenotypic changes once they migrate to the glomerular tuft. Initially these cells are predominantly activated CD44 expressing cells coinciding with glomerulosclerosis, and later they predominantly exhibit a podocyte phenotype which is likely reparative. PMID:25993321

  6. A systematic review of glomerular hyperfiltration assessment and definition in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Francois; Combescure, Christophe; Cauderay, Michel; Girardin, Eric; Chehade, Hassib

    2015-03-06

    Evaluation of glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) is difficult; the variable reported definitions impede comparisons between studies. A clear and universal definition of GH would help in comparing results of trials aimed at reducing GH. This study assessed how GH is measured and defined in the literature. Three databases (Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL) were systematically searched using the terms "hyperfiltration" or "glomerular hyperfiltration". All studies reporting a GH threshold or studying the effect of a high GFR in a continuous manner against another outcome of interest were included. The literature search was performed from November 2012 to February 2013 and updated in August 2014. From 2013 retrieved studies, 405 studies were included. Threshold use to define GH was reported in 55.6% of studies. Of these, 88.4% used a single threshold and 11.6% used numerous thresholds adapted to participant sex or age. In 29.8% of the studies, the choice of a GH threshold was not based on a control group or literature references. After 2004, the use of GH threshold use increased (Psex-matched control group should be used to define a GH threshold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Pentoxifylline Ameliorates Glomerular Basement Membrane Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Gentamicin Administration in Rats

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    Nenad Stojiljković

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is commonly used for the treatment of severe gram negative bacterial infections but inevi-tably cause renal failure during prolonged use. The aim of our study was to emphasize protective effects of pentoxifylline on glomerular basement membrane (GBM alterations induced by gentamicin in rats. Experiments were done on 40 male Wistar rats divided in three experimental groups. GM-group was treated daily with gentamicin in dose of 100 mg/kg during 8 days. PTX-group was treated daily with pentoxifylline in dose of 45 mg/kg and the same dose of gentamicin as in GM-group during 8 days. The control group received 1 ml/day saline intraperitoneally. Morphometric parameter measured during the analysis was glomerular basement membrane thickness. In GM-group of animals glomeruli were en-larged and GMB was diffusely and unequally thickened with neutrophil cells infiltration. In proximal tu-bules epithelial cells, vacuolization of cytoplasm with coagulation-type necrosis were observed. In PTX-group of animals glomeruli were somewhat enlarged and GBM was thickened only in some segments. Coagulation-type necrosis was not found. Blood urea and serum creatinine concentration in GM-group were significantly elevated in comparison with PTX-group while potassium level was decreased. Our results suggest that PTX has protective effects on GBM and proximal tubules in GM-treated rats.

  8. The Effect of Alium Satium Extract on the Glomerular Diameter of STZ -induced Sprague dawley Rats

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    Susilorini Susilorini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exert toxic effect in kidney.The aim of this study was to investigate the short term effect of ethanolic extract of garlic in preventing nephropathy following streptozotocin (STZ induced rats. Twenty male Sprague dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 group, all group induced induced by single dose intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg kg-1 of streptozotocin (STZ. Treatment with 3 doses ethanolic extract of garlic (0,1; 0,25; 0,5 mg kg-1 day-1 was followed for 14 days, then the left kidneys were excised and histhopathological studies were carried out using scanner 3D Hitech and Panoramic view software. Statistical analysis have been done using non parametric analysis Kruskall Wallis. The study revealed that glomerular diameter of the treatment rats was significantly different from the control group (p=0,0001. Increasing doses didn’t make difference. The ethanolic extract of garlic (Allium sativum influences the diameter glomeruli but increasing doses has no effect on the glomerular diameter.

  9. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells contribute to adult podocyte regeneration in experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Diana G; Sunseri, Maria W; Kaverina, Natalya V; Roeder, Sebastian S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    As adult podocytes cannot adequately proliferate following depletion in disease states, there has been interest in the potential role of progenitors in podocyte repair and regeneration. To determine whether parietal epithelial cells (PECs) can serve as adult podocyte progenitors following disease-induced podocyte depletion, PECs were permanently labeled in adult PEC-rtTA/LC1/R26 reporter mice. In normal mice, labeled PECs were confined to Bowman's capsule, whereas in disease (cytotoxic sheep anti-podocyte antibody) labeled PECs were found in the glomerular tuft in progressively higher numbers by days 7, 14, and 28. Early in disease, the majority of PECs in the tuft coexpressed CD44. By day 28, when podocyte numbers were significantly higher and disease severity was significantly lower, the majority of labeled PECs coexpressed podocyte proteins but not CD44. Neither labeled PECs on the tuft nor podocytes stained for the proliferation marker BrdU. The de novo expression of phospho-ERK colocalized to CD44 expressing PECs, but not to PECs expressing podocyte markers. Thus, in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis typified by abrupt podocyte depletion followed by regeneration, PECs undergo two phenotypic changes once they migrate to the glomerular tuft. Initially these cells are predominantly activated CD44 expressing cells coinciding with glomerulosclerosis, and later they predominantly exhibit a podocyte phenotype, which is likely reparative.

  10. Focal glomerular immune complex deposition: possible role of periglomerular fibrosis/atubular glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoskar, Anjali A; Calomeni, Edward; Bott, Cherri; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2009-02-01

    Consensus exists among renal pathologists that, in biopsies with immune complex glomerulonephritis, even a single glomerulus with open capillary loops may be sufficient for immunofluorescence and/or electron microscopy evaluation because immune complex deposition is a diffuse phenomenon. However, we have encountered renal biopsies with focal absence of immune complexes in glomeruli on either immunofluorescence or electron microscopy examination despite presence of open glomerular capillary loops. To evaluate renal biopsies with focal immune complex deposition and look for any subtle or unusual morphologic changes in the glomeruli (and in the biopsy in general). Native and transplant renal biopsies were reviewed. All biopsies had been triaged and processed according to our routine protocol for light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy examination. Of 2018 renal biopsies from December 2005 to December 2007, we found 10 such biopsies; 5 native and 5 transplant kidney biopsies. We found that the glomeruli with absent immune complex deposits had periglomerular fibrosis with open, albeit, wrinkled appearing capillary loops but no glomerular sclerosis. We hypothesize that these histologic features are indicative of nonfunctional glomeruli and may be associated with disconnection between the Bowman capsule and proximal tubule (atubular glomeruli). These glomeruli may not have effective filtration, despite some degree of circulation through the open capillary loops, and therefore are unable to accumulate immune complex deposits. If biopsies are small and only such glomeruli are available for immunofluorescence or electron microscopy examination, the absence of immune complex deposition in them should be evaluated carefully.

  11. Clinico-pathological study of glomerular diseases in patients with significant proteinuria in North India

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    Irneet Mundi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteinuria is a common manifestation of renal disease. The present study was carried out to analyze the clinic-pathological correlation, assess the value of histopathology and immunofluorescence (IF as well as note the spectrum of renal diseases in patients with significant proteinuria. Fifty consecutive patients having proteinuria >1 g/24 h underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy. Clinical information was correlated with the pathological findings and the results were analyzed. The patients were in the age range of 12-79 years. Males (60% outnumbered females (40% in all the disease categories except lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy. The most common clinical presentation was the nephrotic syndrome, seen in 31 cases (62%. Primary glomerular diseases (72% were more common than secondary glomerular diseases (24% and tubulointerstitial diseases (4%. Overall, the most common pathological diag-nosis was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (20%, followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN (18%. In young patients (age 60 years it was FSGS (60%. IF modified the diagnosis in 12% of the cases. The concordance between clinical diagnosis and pathological diagnosis was 66%. The difference between clinical diagnosis and final diagnosis was statistically significant. Our study further reinforces the knowledge that renal biopsy helps in accurate diagnosis and, thus, helps in appropriate management of the patients. IF provides additional information that can make the morphologic diagnosis considerably more precise.

  12. Controlling retention, selectivity and magnitude of EOF by segmented monolithic columns consisting of octadecyl and naphthyl monolithic segments--applications to RP-CEC of both neutral and charged solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenga, Samuel; El Rassi, Ziad

    2011-04-01

    Monolithic capillaries made of two adjoining segments each filled with a different monolith were introduced for the control and manipulation of the electroosmotic flow (EOF), retention and selectivity in reversed phase-capillary electrochromatography (RP-CEC). These columns were called segmented monolithic columns (SMCs) where one segment was filled with a naphthyl methacrylate monolith (NMM) to provide hydrophobic and π-interactions, while the other segment was filled with an octadecyl acrylate monolith (ODM) to provide solely hydrophobic interaction. The ODM segment not only provided hydrophobic interactions but also functioned as the EOF accelerator segment. The average EOF of the SMC increased linearly with increasing the fractional length of the ODM segment. The neutral SMC provided a convenient way for tuning EOF, selectivity and retention in the absence of annoying electrostatic interactions and irreversible solute adsorption. The SMCs allowed the separation of a wide range of neutral solutes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are difficult to separate using conventional alkyl-bonded stationary phases. In all cases, the k' of a given solute was a linear function of the fractional length of the ODM or NMM segment in the SMCs, thus facilitating the tailoring of a given SMC to solve a given separation problem. At some ODM fractional length, the fabricated SMC allowed the separation of charged solutes such as peptides and proteins that could not otherwise be achieved on a monolithic column made from NMM as an isotropic stationary phase due to the lower EOF exhibited by this monolith. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Aluminum-containing dense deposits of the glomerular basement membrane: identification by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M. Jr.; Pitcock, J.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals, including gold, mercury, lead, bismuth, and cadmium, have the potential to cause renal disease. With the development of X-ray microanalysis, these heavy metals can now be identified in tissue deposits. This report describes a case of renal failure, probably related to dysproteinemia, in which granular, electron-opaque dense deposits were present in the glomerular basement membranes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that these dense deposits contained aluminum. An analysis of this patient's history in relation to the current knowledge of aluminum metabolism suggests that the aluminum deposition occurred secondary to previous glomerular injury. This case emphasizes the need to utilize heavy metal identification technology whenever granular, electron-opaque dense deposits are identified and represents, to our knowledge, the first study to document aluminum deposits within the glomerular basement membrane of humans

  14. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  15. Plasma Gelsolin Induced Glomerular Fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads Signal Transduction Pathway in IgA Nephropathy

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    Lei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular fibrosis has been shown to be closely related to the progression and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN. However, mechanism underlying IgAN glomerular fibrosis remains unclear. Recently, our study showed that plasma gelsolin (pGSN was decreased in the serum of an IgAN mouse model and that pGSN deposition was found in the glomeruli. Another cytokine, TGF-β1, which is closely related to glomerular fibrosis, was also found to be highly expressed in the glomeruli. In the present study, we report that pGSN induces glomerular fibrosis through the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This is supported by the following findings: human mesangial cells (HMCs show remarkable morphological changes and proliferation in response to co-stimulation with pGSN and polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1 from IgAN patients compared to other controls. Moreover, ELISA assays showed that more TGF-β1 secretion was found in HMCs supernatants in the co-stimulation group. Further experiments showed increased TGF-β1, Smad3, p-Smad2/3, Smad4, and collagen 1 and decreased Smad7 expression in the co-stimulation group. Our present study implied that the synergistic effect of pGSN and pIgA induced glomerular fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This might be a potential mechanism for the glomerular fibrosis observed in IgAN patients.

  16. Plasma Gelsolin Induced Glomerular Fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads Signal Transduction Pathway in IgA Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Han, Changsong; Ye, Fei; He, Yan; Jin, Yinji; Wang, Tianzhen; Wu, Yiqi; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Fengmin; Jin, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular fibrosis has been shown to be closely related to the progression and prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, mechanism underlying IgAN glomerular fibrosis remains unclear. Recently, our study showed that plasma gelsolin (pGSN) was decreased in the serum of an IgAN mouse model and that pGSN deposition was found in the glomeruli. Another cytokine, TGF-β1, which is closely related to glomerular fibrosis, was also found to be highly expressed in the glomeruli. In the present study, we report that pGSN induces glomerular fibrosis through the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This is supported by the following findings: human mesangial cells (HMCs) show remarkable morphological changes and proliferation in response to co-stimulation with pGSN and polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) from IgAN patients compared to other controls. Moreover, ELISA assays showed that more TGF-β1 secretion was found in HMCs supernatants in the co-stimulation group. Further experiments showed increased TGF-β1, Smad3, p-Smad2/3, Smad4, and collagen 1 and decreased Smad7 expression in the co-stimulation group. Our present study implied that the synergistic effect of pGSN and pIgA induced glomerular fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction pathway. This might be a potential mechanism for the glomerular fibrosis observed in IgAN patients. PMID:28208683

  17. Pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population: A single-center, five-year retrospective study

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    Z Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular diseases continue to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD globally. Hence, it is important to recognize the pattern of glomerular diseases in different geographical areas in order to understand the patho-biology, incidence and progression of the disorder. Published studies from different centers in Saudi Arabia have reported contradicting results. In this retrospective study, we report our experience at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 348 native renal biopsies performed at our center on patients with proteinuria >1 g, hematuria and/or renal impairment during a period of 5 years (between January 2005 and December 2009 were studied by a histopathologist using light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and were categorized. Results showed that primary glomerular disease accounted for 55.1% of all renal biopsies. The most common histological lesion was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (27.6%, followed by minimal change disease (MCD (17.7% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (13.0%. Secondary glomerular disease accounted for 37.9% of the glomerular diseases, with lupus nephritis (LN being the most common lesion (54.5%, followed by hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22%, post-infectious glomerulonephritis (7.5%, diabetic nephropathy (DN (6.8% and vasculitides (4.5%. Four percent of all biopsies turned out to be ESRD while biopsy was inadequate in 2.8% of the cases. In conclusion, our study showed that FSGS was the most common primary GN encountered, while LN was the most common secondary GN. We encountered 14 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Also, the prevalence of MPGN, MCD, IgA nephropathy and membranous GN was many folds higher in males when compared with the Western data. We believe that it is mandatory to maintain a Saudi Arabian Renal Biopsy Registry to understand better the pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population and to follow

  18. PF-1355, a mechanism-based myeloperoxidase inhibitor, prevents immune complex vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Warner, Roscoe; Ruggeri, Roger; Su, Chunyan; Cortes, Christian; Skoura, Athanasia; Ward, Jessica; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit; Sun, Dexue; Maurer, Tristan S; Bonin, Paul D; Okerberg, Carlin; Bobrowski, Walter; Kawabe, Thomas; Zhang, Yanwei; Coskran, Timothy; Bell, Sammy; Kapoor, Bhupesh; Johnson, Kent; Buckbinder, Leonard

    2015-05-01

    Small vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening condition and patients typically present with renal and pulmonary injury. Disease pathogenesis is associated with neutrophil accumulation, activation, and oxidative damage, the latter being driven in large part by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid among other oxidants. MPO has been associated with vasculitis, disseminated vascular inflammation typically involving pulmonary and renal microvasculature and often resulting in critical consequences. MPO contributes to vascular injury by 1) catabolizing nitric oxide, impairing vasomotor function; 2) causing oxidative damage to lipoproteins and endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis; and 3) stimulating formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, resulting in vessel occlusion and thrombosis. Here we report a selective 2-thiouracil mechanism-based MPO inhibitor (PF-1355 [2-(6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide) and demonstrate that MPO is a critical mediator of vasculitis in mouse disease models. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response model of PF-1355 exposure in relation with MPO activity was derived from mouse peritonitis. The contribution of MPO activity to vasculitis was then examined in an immune complex model of pulmonary disease. Oral administration of PF-1355 reduced plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. In a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, formerly known as Goodpasture disease, albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction were completely suppressed by PF-1355 treatment. This study shows that MPO activity is critical in driving immune complex vasculitis and provides confidence in testing the hypothesis that MPO inhibition will provide benefit in treating human vasculitic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Albuminuria and neck circumference are determinate factors of successful accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate in high cardiovascular risk patients.

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    Po-Jen Hsiao

    Full Text Available Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR is used for diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The eGFR models based on serum creatinine or cystatin C are used more in clinical practice. Albuminuria and neck circumference are associated with CKD and may have correlations with eGFR.We explored the correlations and modelling formulates among various indicators such as serum creatinine, cystatin C, albuminuria, and neck circumference for eGFR.Cross-sectional study.We reviewed the records of patients with high cardiovascular risk from 2010 to 2011 in Taiwan. 24-hour urine creatinine clearance was used as the standard. We utilized a decision tree to select for variables and adopted a stepwise regression method to generate five models. Model 1 was based on only serum creatinine and was adjusted for age and gender. Model 2 added serum cystatin C, models 3 and 4 added albuminuria and neck circumference, respectively. Model 5 simultaneously added both albuminuria and neck circumference.Total 177 patients were recruited in this study. In model 1, the bias was 2.01 and its precision was 14.04. In model 2, the bias was reduced to 1.86 with a precision of 13.48. The bias of model 3 was 1.49 with a precision of 12.89, and the bias for model 4 was 1.74 with a precision of 12.97. In model 5, the bias could be lower to 1.40 with a precision of 12.53.In this study, the predicting ability of eGFR was improved after the addition of serum cystatin C compared to serum creatinine alone. The bias was more significantly reduced by the calculation of albuminuria. Furthermore, the model generated by combined albuminuria and neck circumference could provide the best eGFR predictions among these five eGFR models. Neck circumference can be investigated potentially in the further studies.

  20. Tubular markers do not predict the decline in glomerular filtration rate in type 1 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine E; Andersen, Steen; Zdunek, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP), and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in a 3-year intervention study of 63 type 1 diabetic patients with kidney disease. The baseline mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 87 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and urinary......Recent studies have shown that both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage are important factors in the pathophysiology and progression of diabetic nephropathy. To examine whether markers of tubular damage are useful in monitoring the progression of disease, we measured urinary levels...

  1. Sleep duration and quality in relation to chronic kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Won Kim

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether sleep duration and quality are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration. The aim of this study was to examine the association of sleep duration and quality with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration in young and middle-aged adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and women who underwent a health checkup examination, including assessment of sleep duration and quality (n = 241,607. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR above the age-/sex-specific 95th percentile.In a multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant confounders, the adjusted prevalence ratios for CKD (95% confidence interval comparing sleep durations of ≤ 5, 6, 8, and 9 hours with 7 hours were 1.22 (0.95-1.55, 0.93 (0.75-1.14, 0.97 (0.75-1.26, and 1.56 (1.06-2.30 in men and 0.98 (0.68-1.43, 1.03 (0.72-1.46, 1.39 (0.97-2.00, and 1.31 (0.78-2.22 in women, respectively. The corresponding prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval for glomerular hyperfiltration were 1.00 (0.93-1.08, 0.97 (0.91-1.03, 1.03 (0.94-1.13, and 1.39 (1.13-1.72 in men and 1.04 (0.95-1.14, 0.96 (0.90-1.04, 1.11 (1.02-1.20, and 1.28 (1.14-1.45 in women, respectively. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in men and women.In this large study of young and middle-aged adults, we found that long sleep duration was associated with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration. Additionally, poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration, suggesting the importance of adequate quantity and quality of sleep for kidney function.

  2. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; pcorn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; pcorn silk aqueous extract is diuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt. and kaliuretic at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg body wt. In water-loaded conscious rats (5.0 ml/100 g body wt.), corn silk aqueous extract is kaliuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt., but glomerular filtration and filtered load decrease without affecting proximal tubular function, Na+, or uric acid excretion.

  3. Charge Transfer and Catalysis at the Metal Support Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lawrence Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Kinetic, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of model Pt–support systems are used to demonstrate the relationship between charge transfer and catalytic activity and selectivity. The results show that charge flow controls the activity and selectivity of supported metal catalysts. This dissertation builds on extensive existing knowledge of metal–support interactions in heterogeneous catalysis. The results show the prominent role of charge transfer at catalytic interfaces to determine catalytic activity and selectivity. Further, this research demonstrates the possibility of selectively driving catalytic chemistry by controlling charge flow and presents solid-state devices and doped supports as novel methods for obtaining electronic control over catalytic reaction kinetics.

  4. Changes in glomerular filtration rate, lithium clearance and plasma protein clearances in the early phase after unilateral nephrectomy in living healthy renal transplant donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Kamper, A; Skaarup, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Glomerular and tubular function was studied before and 2 months after unilateral nephrectomy in 14 healthy kidney donors by measurement of the clearances of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetra-acetate, lithium, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and immunoglobulin G. 2. The glomerular filtration rat...

  5. Tubular and glomerular injury in diabetes and the impact of ACE inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine E; Sugaya, Takeshi; Tarnow, Lise

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied tubular and glomerular damage in type 1 diabetic patients by measuring urinary-liver fatty acid binding protein (U-LFABP) and albuminuria. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of ACE inhibition on U-LFABP in patients with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We...... studied Caucasians with type 1 diabetes: 58 with normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin or =300 mg/24 h). A control group consisted of 57 healthy individuals. The groups were matched by sex...... and duration of diabetes. In addition, U-LFABP was measured in 48 type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy in a randomized crossover trial consisting of 2 months of treatment with 20, 40, and 60 mg lisinopril once daily in random order. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, levels of U-LFABP were...

  6. [Estimating glomerular filtration rate in 2012: which adding value for the CKD-EPI equation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Mariat, Christophe; Moranne, Olivier; Cavalier, Etienne; Flamant, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Measuring or estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is still considered as the best way to apprehend global renal function. In 2009, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation has been proposed as a better estimator of GFR than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. This new equation is supposed to underestimate GFR to a lesser degree in higher GFR levels. In this review, we will present and deeply discuss the performances of this equation. Based on articles published between 2009 and 2012, this review will underline advantages, notably the better knowledge of chronic kidney disease prevalence, but also limitations of this new equation, especially in some specific populations. We eventually insist on the fact that all these equations are estimations and nephrologists should remain cautious in their interpretation. Copyright © 2012 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with at least three serum creatinine measurements and corresponding body weight measurements from 2004 onwards. METHODS:: CKD was defined as either confirmed (two measurements >/=3 months apart) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or below for persons with baseline eGFR of above...... cumulative exposure to tenofovir [incidence rate ratio (IRR) per year 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.25, P ... increased rate of CKD. Consistent results were observed in wide-ranging sensitivity analyses, although of marginal statistical significance for lopinavir/r. No other antiretroviral dugs were associated with increased incidence of CKD. CONCLUSION:: In this nonrandomized large cohort, increasing exposure...

  8. Current status and methodological aspects on the measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, M.; Hignette, C.; Kolar, P.; Prigent, A.; Paillard, M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) contribute to our understanding of kidney physiology and pathophysiology . Moreover, determination of GFR is of clinical importance in assessing the diagnosis and the progression of renal disease. The purpose of this article is to review the technical performance and results of GFR measurements, including the classical inulin clearance technique and more recent alternative clearance techniques using radioisotope-labelled filtration markers, bolus infusion and spontaneous bladder emptying. Some simplified techniques avoiding urinary collection are also described. We conclude that estimation of GFR from renal and in some cases plasmatic clearances is accurate and more convenient than the classical inulin clearance technique. Such measurements of GFR should be included both in clinical practice and clinical research. (authors). 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Glomerular filtration in kidney recipients measured by plasma clearance of 169Yb-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stribrna, J.; Oppelt, A.; Jirickova, E.; Janata, V.; Kocandrle, V.; Sup, I.; Woller, P.; Franke, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Values of 169 Yb-DTPA clearance (C DTPA ) calculated after a single injection were compared in 26 recipients of kidneys with renal clearance of inulin (C in ), polyfructosan S (C pf ) and creatinine (C cr ). In 21 patients the examinations were made simultaneously, in 5 patients C DTPA was measured within a short interval after the examination of renal clearance. The mean C DTPA values did not significantly differ from C cr but were significantly higher (p in and C pf (by 33% on average). Investigation of changes in C DTPA as compared with C in and C pf showed no significant difference in glomerular filtration (GF). This was measured using inulin and polyfructosan. The results showed that the differing molecular weight of inulin and polyfructosan S had no detectable effect on the GF of kidney recipients. The plasma clearance of 169 Yb-DTPA similarly to C cr overestimates the GF measured by inulin and polyfructosan clearance. (author)

  10. Aging and physiological changes of the kidneys including changes in glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water-soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Uhlig, Sandra; Fuss, Astrid; Mooren, Fieke; Wetzels, Jack F M; Floege, Jürgen; Moeller, Marcus J

    2009-12-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in the nephrotoxic nephritis model of inflammatory crescentic glomerulonephritis. In addition, we traced the fate of genetically labeled PECs in the Thy-1.1 transgenic mouse model of collapsing glomerulopathy. In both models, cellular bridges composed of PECs were observed between Bowman's capsule and the glomerular tuft. Genetically labeled PECs also populated larger, more advanced cellular lesions. In these lesions, we detected de novo expression of CD44 in activated PECs. In contrast, we rarely identified genetically labeled podocytes within the cellular lesions of crescentic glomerulonephritis. In conclusion, PECs constitute the majority of cells that compose early extracapillary proliferative lesions in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy, suggesting similar pathomechanisms in both diseases.

  12. Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Ngwa, Julius S.; Renström, Frida; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ganna, Andrea; Hallmans, Göran; Houston, Denise K.; Jacques, Paul F.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Manichaikul, Ani; North, Kari E.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Sonestedt, Emily; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Djoussé, Luc; Grigoriou, Efi; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lohman, Kurt K.; Pankow, James S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Riserus, Ulf; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Hassanali, Neelam; Liu, Yongmei; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Viikari, Jorma; Groves, Christopher J.; Hofman, Albert; Lind, Lars; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mikkilä, Vera; Mukamal, Kenneth; Franco, Oscar H.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dedoussis, George V.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hu, Frank B.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kähönen, Mika; Kao, W. H. Linda; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Prokopenko, Inga; Rotter, Jerome I.; Siscovick, David S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = −0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.013, −0.005), P magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted. PMID:23343670

  13. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  14. Zika Virus Infection of the Human Glomerular Cells: Implications for Viral Reservoirs and Renal Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcendor, Donald J

    2017-07-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the human renal compartment has not been reported. Several clinical reports have describe high-level persistent viral shedding in the urine of infected patients, but the associated mechanisms have not been explored until now. The current study examined cellular components of the glomerulus of the human kidney for ZIKV infectivity. I infected primary human podocytes, renal glomerular endothelial cells (GECs), and mesangial cells with ZIKV. Viral infectivity was analyzed by means of microscopy, immunofluorescence, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β, interferon β, and RANTES (regulated on activation of normal T cells expressed and secreted) were assessed using qRT-PCR. I show that glomerular podocytes, renal GECs, and mesangial cells are permissive for ZIKV infection. ZIKV infectivity was confirmed in all 3 cell types by means of immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, and qRT-PCR, and qRT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcriptional induction of interleukin 1β, interferon β, and RANTES in ZIKV-infected podocytes at 72 hours, compared with renal GECs and mesangial cells. The findings of this study support the notion that the glomerulus may serve as an amplification reservoir for ZIKV in the renal compartment. The impact of ZIKV infection in the human renal compartment is unknown and will require further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Renal scintigraphy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Early glomerular and urologic dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.Y.; Moisan, A.; Le Cloirec, J.; Siemen, C.; Yaouanq, J.; Edan, G.; Herry, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous injection of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 131I-Hippuran in 115 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with albumin excretion rates (AER) less than 200 micrograms/min, and in 45 normal subjects. Separate kidney function and urinary elimination were estimated by renography. GFR was increased in the diabetic patients (152 +/- 24 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. 128 +/- 15) and correlated significantly with RPF (r = 0.5; p less than 10(-9)). No relationship was found between GFR and the duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, or AER. Fifty patients were hyperfiltering with RPF and filtration fraction higher than those in the normofiltering group. Slow intrarenal or pyeloureteral elimination, either unilateral or bilateral, was observed in 3 controls and 60 diabetic subjects (24 hyperfiltering; 36 normofiltering) and did not disappear with the patient in the standing position. In these 60 patients, mean age, duration of diabetes, blood glucose, HbA1c, 24 h albumin excretion rate, and frequency of peripheral or autonomic neuropathy did not differ from patients with normal scintigraphy; GFR was lower in the group with slow elimination, but not significantly so. 99mTc-DTPA renal uptake was symmetric in all the controls; asymmetric renal uptake with asymmetric GFR was observed in 13 patients (7 hyperfiltering; 6 normofiltering) and often associated with slower elimination. No evidence for renal stenotic atheroma or parenchymatous disease was found on the angiopyleoureterography. The results suggest that incipient uropathy is a very common phenomenon that occurs irrespective of glomerular dysfunction

  16. WY14,643, a PPARα ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D C; Frkanec, J T; Cromwell, J; Clopton, P; Cunard, R

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands are medications used to treat hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these agents are immunosuppressive. In the following studies we demonstrate that WY14,643, a PPARα ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (AGBMD). C57BL/6 mice were fed 0·05% WY14,643 or control food and immunized with the non-collagenous domain of the α3 chain of Type IV collagen [α3(IV) NC1] in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). WY14,643 reduced proteinuria and greatly improved glomerular and tubulo-interstitial lesions. However, the PPARα ligand did not alter the extent of IgG-binding to the GBM. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the prominent tubulo-interstitial infiltrates in the control-fed mice consisted predominately of F4/80+ macrophages and WY14,643-feeding decreased significantly the number of renal macrophages. The synthetic PPARα ligand also reduced significantly expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2. Sera from mice immunized with AGBMD were also evaluated for antigen-specific IgGs. There was a significant increase in the IgG1 : IgG2c ratio and a decline in the intrarenal and splenocyte interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA expression in the WY14,643-fed mice, suggesting that the PPARα ligand could skew the immune response to a less inflammatory T helper 2-type of response. These studies suggest that PPARα ligands may be a novel treatment for inflammatory renal disease. PMID:17888025

  17. WY14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D C; Frkanec, J T; Cromwell, J; Clopton, P; Cunard, R

    2007-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ligands are medications used to treat hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these agents are immunosuppressive. In the following studies we demonstrate that WY14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (AGBMD). C57BL/6 mice were fed 0.05% WY14,643 or control food and immunized with the non-collagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of Type IV collagen [alpha3(IV) NC1] in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). WY14,643 reduced proteinuria and greatly improved glomerular and tubulo-interstitial lesions. However, the PPARalpha ligand did not alter the extent of IgG-binding to the GBM. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the prominent tubulo-interstitial infiltrates in the control-fed mice consisted predominately of F4/80(+) macrophages and WY14,643-feeding decreased significantly the number of renal macrophages. The synthetic PPARalpha ligand also reduced significantly expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2. Sera from mice immunized with AGBMD were also evaluated for antigen-specific IgGs. There was a significant increase in the IgG1 : IgG2c ratio and a decline in the intrarenal and splenocyte interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA expression in the WY14,643-fed mice, suggesting that the PPARalpha ligand could skew the immune response to a less inflammatory T helper 2-type of response. These studies suggest that PPARalpha ligands may be a novel treatment for inflammatory renal disease.

  18. Glomerular filtration and tubular secretion of MAG-3 in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Suur, R.M.; Mueller-Suur, C.

    1989-01-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) has recently been introduced as a new radiopharmaceutical for dynamic renal scintigraphy. To elucidate the mechanism of renal excretion, micropuncture experiments were performed in rat kidneys for direct measurements of glomerular filtration and tubular secretory capacity. Fluid of Bowman space was collected from superficial glomeruli and analyzed for its contents of [99mTc]MAG-3, [125I]hippurate and [3H]inulin during constant infusion of these compounds. The ratio of activity of ultrafiltrate to that of arterial plasma was 0.23 for MAG-3, 0.68 for hippurate and 1.04 for inulin which demonstrates that the filtrated amount of MAG-3 is only 23% of that of inulin, presumably because of higher plasma protein binding which was also measured in vitro and found to be 80 +/- 1.5% for MAG-3 and 32 +/- 2% for [125I]hippurate. Proximal and distal tubules were also micropunctured and their tubular fluid as well as the final urine analyzed for the activity of hippurate and MAG-3. The tubular fluid to plasma ratio values along the nephron and in the final urine were all lower for MAG-3 than for hippurate, indicating a lower secretory capacity. From measurements of whole renal clearance, GFR and plasma protein binding the filtered amount of MAG-3 was 0.26 and of hippurate 0.87 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.001) and the secreted amount 2.01 and 2.38 ml/min.g kidney weight (p less than 0.05), respectively. We conclude that MAG-3 is predominantly excreted by tubular secretion and that the lower renal clearance of MAG-3 as compared with that of hippurate is a result both of a substantially decreased glomerular filtration and of a lower tubular secretion

  19. Glomerular cell death and inflammation with high-protein diet and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rick L; LeBoeuf, Renee C; Saha, Sandeep A; Alpers, Charles E; Hudkins, Kelly L; Cooney, Sheryl K; Anderberg, Robert J; Tuttle, Katherine R

    2013-07-01

    Overfeeding amino acids (AAs) increases cellular exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a mechanism for protein intake to worsen diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study assessed receptor for AGE (RAGE)-mediated apoptosis and inflammation in glomerular cells exposed to metabolic stressors characteristic of high-protein diets and/or diabetes in vitro with proof-of-concept appraisal in vivo. Mouse podocytes and mesangial cells were cultured under control and metabolic stressor conditions: (i) no addition; (ii) increased AAs (4-6-fold>control); (iii) high glucose (HG, 30.5 mM); (iv) AA/HG combination; (v) AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, 300 µg/mL); (vi) BSA (300 µg/mL). RAGE was inhibited by blocking antibody. Diabetic (streptozotocin) and nondiabetic mice (C57BL/6J) consumed diets with protein calories of 20 or 40% (high) for 20 weeks. People with DKD and controls provided 24-h urine samples. In podocytes and mesangial cells, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL) increased in all metabolic stressor conditions. Both inflammatory mediator expression (real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: serum amyloid A, caspase-4, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and RAGE (immunostaining) also increased. RAGE inhibition prevented apoptosis and inflammation in podocytes. Among mice fed high protein, podocyte number (WT-1 immunostaining) decreased in the diabetic group, and only these diabetic mice developed albuminuria. Protein intake (urea nitrogen) correlated with AGE excretion (carboxymethyllysine) in people with DKD and controls. High-protein diet and/or diabetes-like conditions increased glomerular cell death and inflammation, responses mediated by RAGEs in podocytes. The concept that high-protein diets exacerbate early indicators of DKD is supported by data from mice and people.

  20. The Application of Digital Pathology to Improve Accuracy in Glomerular Enumeration in Renal Biopsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Z Rosenberg

    Full Text Available In renal biopsy reporting, quantitative measurements, such as glomerular number and percentage of globally sclerotic glomeruli, is central to diagnostic accuracy and prognosis. The aim of this study is to determine the number of glomeruli and percent globally sclerotic in renal biopsies by means of registration of serial tissue sections and manual enumeration, compared to the numbers in pathology reports from routine light microscopic assessment.We reviewed 277 biopsies from the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE digital pathology repository, enumerating 9,379 glomeruli by means of whole slide imaging. Glomerular number and the percentage of globally sclerotic glomeruli are values routinely recorded in the official renal biopsy pathology report from the 25 participating centers. Two general trends in reporting were noted: total number per biopsy or average number per level/section. Both of these approaches were assessed for their accuracy in comparison to the analogous numbers of annotated glomeruli on WSI.The number of glomeruli annotated was consistently higher than those reported (p<0.001; this difference was proportional to the number of glomeruli. In contrast, percent globally sclerotic were similar when calculated on total glomeruli, but greater in FSGS when calculated on average number of glomeruli (p<0.01. The difference in percent globally sclerotic between annotated and those recorded in pathology reports was significant when global sclerosis is greater than 40%.Although glass slides were not available for direct comparison to whole slide image annotation, this study indicates that routine manual light microscopy assessment of number of glomeruli is inaccurate, and the magnitude of this error is proportional to the total number of glomeruli.

  1. Rat glomerular epithelial cells in culture. Parietal or visceral epithelial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Isolated glomeruli from rats were explanted under standard culture conditions and outgrowths were studied by light and electron microscopy in order to identify the cells. Rat glomerular samples contained 20 to 30% structurally well-preserved encapsulated glomeruli which had a large rate of attachment to the substrate and very constantly gave rise to cellular outgrowth. In order to label cells from which outgrowth originated the glomerular incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine was studied in the preattachment phase. By light and electron microscope autoradiograph it was demonstrated that label was located only over visceral and parietal epithelial cells during the first 3 days of culture. Incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine was seen in mesangial cells after 5 days, i.e., after the glomeruli had attached to the culture vessels and the initial outgrowth had appeared. Consequently the first cells to grow out were of epithelial origin. Glomeruli were then incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for the first 2 1/2 days of culture in order to label the epithelial cells, then were allowed to attach to the substrate and induce cell outgrowth. By light microscope autoradiography performed with the outgrowths in situ two types of cells with labeled nuclei were seen: (a) a small, polyhedral ciliated cell which grew in colonies where the cells were joined by junctional complexes (type I), and (b) a second very large, often multinucleated cell (type II). Based on the structural resemblance with their counterparts in situ and on comparisons with positively identified visceral epithelial cells in outgrowths from other species it is suggested that type I cells are derived from the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and type II cells from the visceral epithelium

  2. A “Mini-Epidemic” of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Clinical and epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody disease is rare, estimated to occur in fewer than one case per million population and accounts for less than 20% of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The prevalence among patients evaluated for potential glomerular disease is lower. It accounts for fewer than 3% of all kidney biopsies done with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Cases of anti-GBM disease occurring in a cluster have rarely been reported. All biopsy proven anti-GBM disease cases were collected from January 2015 to March 2015 at our Institute. All cases were analyzed for demographic and clinical profile, pathological findings, treatment received and for any common environmental antigenic source. A total of 11 new biopsy proven anti-GBM cases were seen within a span of three months. Age group varied from 17–80 years. Seven were males and four were females. All were dialysis dependent at presentation. Seven had active cellular crescents, and four had fibrocellular. Only one patient was a smoker and none had a history of exposure to any forms of hydrocarbons. The peak seen from January 2015 to March 2015 does not correlate with any of seasonal occurrence of infections in southern India. Although there was clustering of cases to southern territories of Karnataka state, no common etiological agents could be identified. No patient had any previous urological surgeries. All patients received methylprednisolone with plasmapheresis 5–7 sessions and cyclophosphamide. All 11 patients were dialysis dependent at the end of three months. We conclude anti-GBM disease cannot be regarded as a rare cause of renal failure and lung hemorrhage. The occurrence of such epidemic within a short period suggests a possible unidentified environmental factor like infection or occupational agents as inciting agents. Identification of such inciting agents could help us in instituting appropriate preventing measures.

  3. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  4. MDRD or CKD-EPI for glomerular filtration rate estimation in living kidney donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Burballa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The evaluation of the measured Glomerular Filtration Rate (mGFR or estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR is key in the proper assessment of the renal function of potential kidney donors. We aim to study the correlation between glomerular filtration rate estimation equations and the measured methods for determining renal function. Material and methods: We analyzed the relationship between baseline GFR values measured by Tc-99m-DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate and those estimated by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD4 and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations in a series of living donors at our institution. Results: We included 64 donors (70.6% females; mean age 48.3 ± 11 years. Baseline creatinine was 0.8 ± 0.1 mg/dl and it was 1.1 ± 0.2 mg/dl one year after donation. The equations underestimated GFR when measured by Tc99m-DTPA (MDRD4 – 9.4 ± 25 ml/min, P < .05, and CKD-EPI – 4.4 ± 21 ml/min. The correlation between estimation equations and the measured method was superior for CKD-EPI (r = .41; P < .004 than for MDRD4 (r = .27; P < .05. eGFR decreased to 59.6 ± 11 (MDRD4 and 66.2 ± 14 ml/min (CKD-EPI one year after donation. This means a mean eGFR reduction of 28.2 ± 16.7 ml/min (MDRD4 and 27.31 ± 14.4 ml/min (CKD-EPI at one year. Conclusions: In our experience, CKD-EPI is the equation that better correlates with mGFR-Tc99m-DTPA when assessing renal function for donor screening purposes. Resumen: Introducción: El estudio del filtrado glomerular medido (FGm o del estimado (FGe es el eje de la evaluación adecuada de la función renal en la valoración de un potencial donante vivo renal. Nos planteamos estudiar la correlación entre las fórmulas de estimación del FG y los métodos de medición para

  5. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  6. Increased kidney size, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in short-term insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, JS; Gammelgaard, J; Frandsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and kidney volume were measured in thirteen male subjects (mean age 30 years) with short-term insulin-dependent diabetes (mean duration of disease 2.4 years) and fourteen normal male subjects (mean age 29 years). GFR and RPF were measured...

  7. Glomerular filtration rate estimation from plasma creatinine after inhibition of tubular secretion: relevance of the creatinine assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, F. A.; Silberbusch, J.; Slaats, E. H.; van Zanten, A. P.; Weber, J. A.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine concentration after inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion with cimetidine provides a good assessment in patients with various nephropathies and with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The aim of this

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF GBM HEPARAN-SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN CORE PROTEIN AND SIDE-CHAINS IN HUMAN GLOMERULAR-DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBORN, J; VANDENHEUVEL, LPWJ; BAKKER, MAH; VEERKAMP, JH; ASSMANN, KJM; WEENING, JJ; BERDEN, JHM

    Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing either the core protein or the heparan sulfate (HS) side chain of human GBM heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), we investigated their glomerular distribution on cryostat sections of human kidney tissues. The study involved 95 biopsies comprising twelve

  9. Mutation in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis causes severe glomerular proteinuria and is rescued by N-acetylmannosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Belinda; Klootwijk, Riko; Manoli, Irini; Sun, MaoSen; Ciccone, Carla; Darvish, Daniel; Starost, Matthew F; Zerfas, Patricia M; Hoffmann, Victoria J; Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley; Krasnewich, Donna M; Gahl, William A; Huizing, Marjan

    2007-06-01

    Mutations in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) kinase (GNE/MNK), result in hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM), an adult-onset, progressive neuromuscular disorder. We created knockin mice harboring the M712T Gne/Mnk mutation. Homozygous mutant (Gne(M712T/M712T)) mice did not survive beyond P3. At P2, significantly decreased Gne-epimerase activity was observed in Gne(M712T/M712T) muscle, but no myopathic features were apparent. Rather, homozygous mutant mice had glomerular hematuria, proteinuria, and podocytopathy. Renal findings included segmental splitting of the glomerular basement membrane, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and reduced sialylation of the major podocyte sialoprotein, podocalyxin. ManNAc administration yielded survival beyond P3 in 43% of the Gne(M712T/M712T) pups. Survivors exhibited improved renal histology, increased sialylation of podocalyxin, and increased Gne/Mnk protein expression and Gne-epimerase activities. These findings establish this Gne(M712T/M712T) knockin mouse as what we believe to be the first genetic model of podocyte injury and segmental glomerular basement membrane splitting due to hyposialylation. The results also support evaluation of ManNAc as a treatment not only for HIBM but also for renal disorders involving proteinuria and hematuria due to podocytopathy and/or segmental splitting of the glomerular basement membrane.

  10. A comparison between cystatin C, plasma creatinine and the Cockcroft and Gault formula for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Frans J.; Kemperman, Frits A. W.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often estimated from plasma creatinine. Several studies have shown cystatin C (cys C) to be a better parameter for the diagnosis of impaired renal function. No data are available, however, on the performance of cys C in

  11. Glomerular and Mitral-Granule Cell Microcircuits Coordinate Temporal and Spatial Information Processing in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarretta, Francesco; Marasco, Addolorata; Hines, Michael L; Shepherd, Gordon M; Migliore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory bulb processes inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) through two levels: the glomerular layer at the site of input, and the granule cell level at the site of output to the olfactory cortex. The sequence of action of these two levels has not yet been examined. We analyze this issue using a novel computational framework that is scaled up, in three-dimensions (3D), with realistic representations of the interactions between layers, activated by simulated natural odors, and constrained by experimental and theoretical analyses. We suggest that the postulated functions of glomerular circuits have as their primary role transforming a complex and disorganized input into a contrast-enhanced and normalized representation, but cannot provide for synchronization of the distributed glomerular outputs. By contrast, at the granule cell layer, the dendrodendritic interactions mediate temporal decorrelation, which we show is dependent on the preceding contrast enhancement by the glomerular layer. The results provide the first insights into the successive operations in the olfactory bulb, and demonstrate the significance of the modular organization around glomeruli. This layered organization is especially important for natural odor inputs, because they activate many overlapping glomeruli.

  12. Clinical study of GFR and split renal GFR in evaluating the glomerular function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hongliang; Li Jinsong; Li Jianing; Wu Jingchuan; Yang Shurong; Gu Zhenhui; Zou Renjian; Shi Haihong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess glomerular filtration function in patients with type 2 diabetes by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and split GFR, namely left GFR (LGFR) and right GFR (RGFR). Methods: Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes were classified by urine albumin analysis into three groups, normalalbuminuria group (NA), microalbuminuria group(MA) and macroalbuminuria group (MAA) . Twelve patients without diabetes were included into control group. 99 Tc m -DTPA renography was performed on all these cases. GFR and split GFR were calculated by Gates formula. Results: 1) GFR, LGFR and RGFR of NA group were lower than that of the control group. 2) GFR, LGFR and RGFR were significantly correlated with the urine albumin level (r=-0.457, -0.412, -0.424, respectively, P all < 0.01). 3) In all 51 cases, there were 5 cases whose GFR were normal while split GFR were abnormal. Conclusions: 1) GFR and split GFR measurement can detect the incipient damage of glomerular function more sensitively than urine albumin analysis and show the degree of the damage correctly. 2) Split GFR measurement can improve the evaluation of the glomerular function in type 2 diabetes patients

  13. Salt sensitivity of renin secretion, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, G L; Stubbe, J; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that in normal rats in metabolic steady state, (i) the plasma renin concentration (PRC) is log-linearly related to Na(+) intake (NaI), (ii) the concurrent changes in mean arterial pressure (MABP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are negligible and (iii) the function PRC...

  14. Estimating glomerular filtration rate: Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas compared to renal inulin clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botev, R.; Mallie, J.P.; Couchoud, C.; Schuck, O.; Fauvel, J.P.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Lee, N.; Santo, N.G. De; Cirillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of renal function by estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is very important for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas are the

  15. Early-Onset Diabetic E1-DN Mice Develop Albuminuria and Glomerular Injury Typical of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi E. Hyvönen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic E1-DN mice express a kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor in their pancreatic islets and are diabetic from two weeks of age due to impaired postnatal growth of β-cell mass. Here, we characterize the development of hyperglycaemia-induced renal injury in the E1-DN mice. Homozygous mice showed increased albumin excretion rate (AER at the age of 10 weeks; the albuminuria increased over time and correlated with blood glucose. Morphometric analysis of PAS-stained histological sections and electron microscopy images revealed mesangial expansion in homozygous E1-DN mice, and glomerular sclerosis was observed in the most hyperglycaemic mice. The albuminuric homozygous mice developed also other structural changes in the glomeruli, including thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and widening of podocyte foot processes that are typical for diabetic nephropathy. Increased apoptosis of podocytes was identified as one mechanism contributing to glomerular injury. In addition, nephrin expression was reduced in the podocytes of albuminuric homozygous E1-DN mice. Tubular changes included altered epithelial cell morphology and increased proliferation. In conclusion, hyperglycaemic E1-DN mice develop albuminuria and glomerular and tubular injury typical of human diabetic nephropathy and can serve as a new model to study the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Monitoring renal function in children with Fabry disease: comparisons of measured and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tøndel, Camilla; Ramaswami, Uma; Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Wijburg, Frits; Bouwman, Machtelt; Svarstad, Einar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on renal function in children with Fabry disease have mainly been done using estimated creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The aim of this study was to compare estimated creatinine-based GFR (eGFR) with measured GFR (mGFR) in children with Fabry disease and normal renal

  17. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  18. Glomerular and mitral-granule cell microcircuits coordinate temporal and spatial information processing in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cavarretta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb processes inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs through two levels: the glomerular layer at the site of input, and the granule cell level at the site of output to the olfactory cortex. The sequence of action of these two levels has not yet been examined. We analyze this issue using a novel computational framework that is scaled up, in three-dimensions (3D, with realistic representations of the interactions between layers, activated by simulated natural odors, and constrained by experimental and theoretical analyses. We suggest that the postulated functions of glomerular circuits have as their primary role transforming a complex and disorganized input into a contrast-enhanced and normalized representation, but cannot provide for synchronization of the distributed glomerular outputs. By contrast, at the granule cell layer, the dendrodendritic interactions mediate temporal decorrelation, which we show is dependent on the preceding contrast enhancement by the glomerular layer. The results provide the first insights into the successive operations in the olfactory bulb, and demonstrate the significance of the modular organization around glomeruli. This layered organization is especially important for natural odor inputs, because they activate many overlapping glomeruli.

  19. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  20. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  1. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  2. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  3. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  4. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-05-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  5. Variability of glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in elderly Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xun Liu,1,2,* Mu-hua Cheng,3,* Cheng-gang Shi,1 Cheng Wang,1 Cai-lian Cheng,1 Jin-xia Chen,1 Hua Tang,1 Zhu-jiang Chen,1 Zeng-chun Ye,1 Tan-qi Lou11Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-sun University, Guangzhou, China; 2College of Biology Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-sun University, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this paperBackground: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is recognized worldwide as a public health problem, and its prevalence increases as the population ages. However, the applicability of formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR based on serum creatinine (SC levels in elderly Chinese patients with CKD is limited.Materials and methods: Based on values obtained with the technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method, 319 elderly Chinese patients with CKD were enrolled in this study. Serum creatinine was determined by the enzymatic method. The GFR was estimated using the Cockroft–Gault (CG equation, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equations, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, the Jelliffe-1973 equation, and the Hull equation.Results: The median of difference ranged from −0.3–4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2. The interquartile range (IQR of differences ranged from 13.9–17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. Accuracy with a deviation less than 15% ranged from 27.6%–32.9%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 30% ranged from 53.6%–57.7%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 50% ranged from 74.9%–81.5%. None of the equations had accuracy up to the 70% level with a deviation less than 30% from the standard glomerular filtration rate (sGFR. Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean difference ranged from −3.0–2.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, the

  6. Coulombic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  7. Investigation of electron-beam charging for inertial-confinement-fusion targets. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 3-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1982-04-01

    Techniques for charging inertial confinement fusion targets using electron beam are investigated. A brief review of the various possible charging techniques is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. The reasons for selecting the electron beam charging and a physical picture of the charging mechanism are described. Experimental results are presented and compared with the theoretical predictions

  8. Automating and estimating glomerular filtration rate for dosing medications and staging chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinkley KE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Katy E Trinkley,1 S Michelle Nikels,2 Robert L Page II,1 Melanie S Joy11Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Objective: The purpose of this paper is to serve as a review for primary care providers on the bedside methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR for dosing and chronic kidney disease (CKD staging and to discuss how automated health information technologies (HIT can enhance clinical documentation of staging and reduce medication errors in patients with CKD.Methods: A nonsystematic search of PubMed (through March 2013 was conducted to determine the optimal approach to estimate GFR for dosing and CKD staging and to identify examples of how automated HITs can improve health outcomes in patients with CKD. Papers known to the authors were included, as were scientific statements. Articles were chosen based on the judgment of the authors.Results: Drug-dosing decisions should be based on the method used in the published studies and package labeling that have been determined to be safe, which is most often the Cockcroft–Gault formula unadjusted for body weight. Although Modification of Diet in Renal Disease is more commonly used in practice for staging, the CKD–Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD–EPI equation is the most accurate formula for estimating the CKD staging, especially at higher GFR values. Automated HITs offer a solution to the complexity of determining which equation to use for a given clinical scenario. HITs can educate providers on which formula to use and how to apply the formula in a given clinical situation, ultimately improving appropriate medication and medical management in CKD patients.Conclusion: Appropriate estimation of GFR is key to optimal health outcomes. HITs assist clinicians in both choosing the most appropriate GFR estimation formula and in applying the results of the GFR estimation in practice. Key limitations of the

  9. Deletion of pro-angiogenic factor vasohibin-2 ameliorates glomerular alterations in a mouse diabetic nephropathy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kana; Ujike, Haruyo; Hinamoto, Norikazu; Miyake, Hiromasa; Tanimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Yasufumi; Maeshima, Yohei; Wada, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Angiogenesis has been implicated in glomerular alterations in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. We previously reported the renoprotective effects of vasohibin-1 (VASH1), which is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor derived from endothelial cells, on diabetic nephropathy progression. Vasohibin-2 (VASH2) was originally identified as a VASH1 homolog and possesses pro-angiogenic activity in contrast to VASH1. In addition, VASH2 was recently shown to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhanced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling in cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the pathogenic roles of VASH2 in diabetic nephropathy using VAHS2-deficient mice. The type 1 diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin in VASH2 homozygous knockout (VASH2LacZ/LacZ) or wild-type mice. These mice were euthanized 16 weeks after inducing hyperglycemia. Increased urine albumin excretion and creatinine clearance observed in diabetic wild-type mice were significantly prevented in diabetic VASH2-deficient mice. Accordingly, diabetes-induced increase in glomerular volume and reduction in glomerular slit-diaphragm density were significantly improved in VASH2 knockout mice. Increased glomerular endothelial area was also suppressed in VASH2-deficient mice, in association with inhibition of enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2), but not VEGF level. Furthermore, glomerular accumulation of mesangial matrix, including type IV collagen, and increased expression of TGF-β were improved in diabetic VASH2 knockout mice compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Based on the immunofluorescence findings, endogenous VASH2 localization in glomeruli was consistent with mesangial cells. Human mesangial cells (HMCs) were cultured under high glucose condition in in vitro experiments. Transfection of VASH2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the HMCs resulted in the suppression of type IV collagen production induced by high glucose

  10. Estimation in adults of the glomerular filtration rate in [99mTc] DTPA renography - the rate constant method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Ove

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design an alternative and robust method for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in [ 99 mTc]-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ([ 99 mTc] -DTPA renography with a reliability not significantly lower than that of the conventional Gates' method. Methods: The method is based on renographies lasting 40 min in which regions of interest (ROIs) are manually created over selected parts of certain blood pools (e.g. heart, lungs, spleen, and liver). For each ROI the corresponding time-activity curve (TAC) was generated, decay corrected and exposed to a monoexponential fit in the time interval 10 to 40 min postinjection. The rate constant in min-1 of the monoexponential fit was denoted BETA. Following an iterative procedure comprising usually 5-10 manually created ROIs, the monoexponential fit with the maximum rate constant (BETA max ) was used for estimation of GFR. Results: In a patient material of 54 adult subjects in whom GFR was determined with multiple or one sample techniques with [ 51 Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([ 51 Cr]-EDTA) the regression curve of standard GFR (GFR std ) (i.e. GFR adjusted to 1.73 m 2 body surface area) showed a close, non-linear relationship with BETA max with a correlation coefficient of 95%. The standard errors of estimate (SEE) were 6.6, 10.6 and 16.8 for GFR std equal to 30, 60, and 120 ml/(min .73 m 2 ), respectively. The corresponding SEE values for almost the same patient material using Gates' method were 8.4, 11.9, and 16.8 ml/(min 1.73 m 2 ). Conclusions: The alternative rate constant method yields estimates of GFR std with SEE values equal to or slightly smaller than in Gates' method. The two methods provide statistically uncorrelated estimates of GFR std . Therefore, pooled estimates of GFR std can be calculated with SEE values approximately 1.41 times smaller than those mentioned above. The reliabilities of the pooled estimate of GFR std separately and of the multiple samples method

  11. Age- and sex-specific reference limits for creatinine, cystatin C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Dittmann, Kathleen; Spielhagen, Christin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Rettig, Rainer; Endlich, Karlhans; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Nauck, Matthias

    2011-11-14

    Early detection of patients with chronic kidney disease is of great importance. This study developed reference limits for serum creatinine and serum cystatin C concentrations and for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in healthy subjects from the general population aged 25-65 years. This study defined a reference population including 985 subjects from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum creatinine was measured with a modified kinetic Jaffé method. Serum cystatin C was measured with a nephelometric assay. The eGFR was calculated from serum creatinine according to the Cockcroft-Gault (eGFR(CG)) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFR(MDRD)) equation, respectively, as well as from serum cystatin C according to the formula by Larsson (eGFR(Larsson)). Non-parametric quantile regression was used to estimate the reference limits. For serum creatinine and serum cystatin C the 95th percentile and for eGFR(CG), eGFR(MDRD) and eGFR(Larsson) the 5th percentile were selected as reference limits. All data was weighted to reflect the age- and sex-structure of the German population in 2008. The reference limits for serum creatinine (men: 1.11-1.23 mg/dL; women: 0.93-1.00 mg/dL) and serum cystatin C levels (men: 0.92-1.04 mg/L; women: 0.84-1.02 mg/L) increased with advancing age. The reference limits for eGFR decreased with increasing age (eGFR(CG) men: 106.0-64.7 mL/min, women 84.4-57.9 mL/min; eGFR(MDRD) men: 82.5-62.2 mL/min/1.73 m², women 75.0-58.2 mL/min/1.73 m²; eGFR(Larsson) men: 85.5-72.9 mL/min, women 94.5-75.7 mL/min). This study presents age- and sex-specific reference limits for five measures of renal function based on quantile regression models.

  12. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  13. Efectos de la circulación extracorpórea sobre el filtrado glomerular en la cirugía cardiovascular pediátrica Effects of extracorporeal circulation on glomerular filtration in pediatric cardiovascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Facenda; Antolín Romero; Junior M Lima; Cruz M Contreras; Heilyn del Valle Montero; Manuel G Lima Montero

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: conocer como afecta la circulación extracorpórea la función renal tomando como marcador la alteración del filtrado glomerular. Material y método: se realizó un estudio prospectivo, analítico y observacional en 63 pacientes pediátricos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca electiva con circulación extracorpórea en el Cardiocentro Pediátrico «William Soler» entre octubre de 2009 y abril de 2010. Se calcularon las variaciones del filtrado glomerular durante la circulación extracorpórea por el m...

  14. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  15. Contractor Software Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... Examples of computer software costs that contractors charge through indirect rates are material management systems, security systems, labor accounting systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing...

  16. Beta thalassemia major: The effect of age on glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Malaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia is a common hereditary hemoglobinopathy disorder that affects many organs in the body. Estimation of kidney function is important, as it is the vital organ that plays the major role in the elimination of accumulated iron as well as the chelating drugs that have to be used as therapy. Sixty- three patients aged 1-29 years, with a mean ± SD of 14 ± 6.7 years, affected with beta- thalassemia major in Tabriz Children′s Hospital were evaluated for their renal function on the basis of their age, serum iron, serum ferritin and serum creatinine levels along with two methods of estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR; by Schwartz method for those under 18 years old and using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula for those who were 18 years and above. Elevation of serum creatinine denoting renal dysfunction was not seen in our patients, but hyperfiltration was a common finding. An increasing GFR was observed, which corresponded to age, but no relationships were seen between serum iron, serum ferritin, regular blood transfusion, chelating therapy to GFR.

  17. Measurement of single-kidney glomerular filtration function from magnetic resonance perfusion renography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Meiying; Cheng, Yingsheng [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhao, Binghui, E-mail: binghuizhao@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MRPR monitors the transit of contrast material through nephron. • MRPR could reveal renal physiological characteristics in quality and quantity. • This review outlines the basics and future challenges of DCE MRPR. - Abstract: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) describes the flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney, and is considered to be the reference standard in the evaluation of renal function. There are many ways to test the GFR clinically, such as serum creatinine concentration, blood urea nitrogen and SPECT renography, however, they’re all not a good standard to evaluate the early damage of renal function. In recent years, the improvement of MRI hardware and software makes it possible to reveal physiological characteristics such as renal blood flow or GFR by dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance perfusion renography (DEC MRPR). MRPR is a method used to monitor the transit of contrast material, typically a gadolinium chelate, through the renal cortex, the medulla, and the collecting system. This review outlines the basics of DCE MRPR included acquisition of dynamic MR perfusion imaging, calculation of the contrast concentration from signal intensity and compartment models, and some challenges of MRPR method faced in prospective clinical application.

  18. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  19. Transcutaneous measurement of glomerular filtration rate in small rodents: through the skin for the win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Cai, Xiaochu; Walker, David D; Dickinson, Hayley; Kett, Michelle M

    2015-03-01

    Rodent models of renal physiology and pathology are crucial to our understanding of the molecular, histological and functional sequelae that contribute to kidney diseases. One of the most important measures of renal function is glomerular filtration rate (GFR). While the accurate determination of GFR is pivotal to understanding the progression of disease and/or the benefits of treatment strategies, in rodents the conventional methods for assessment of GFR are inconvenient and cumbersome, not the least because they involve stress and often anaesthesia. The legitimacy of assay-based assessment of plasma and urine markers of GFR in mice has also been heavily scrutinized for their insensitivity to minor declines in GFR and inaccurate detection of renal biomarkers. While infusion-based clearance methods of GFR assessment are thus the gold standard in terms of accuracy, they are limited by the fact that they are primarily non-recovery procedures. This presents a dilemma when trying to document the progression of renal disease, as these measures cannot be taken in the same experimental subject. Here we review a technique of transcutaneous measurement of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled sinistrin to calculate GFR in small rodents, using a non-invasive clearance device (NIC-Kidney Device). This is a recently validated non-invasive technique for measuring GFR in small rodents that allows for the real-time measurement of GFR in conscious animals, without the need for plasma and urine assays. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Radioisotopic measurement of glomerular filtration rate in severe chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrance, N.D.; Drew, H.H.; Walser, M.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the best method for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in severe renal failure, we compared simultaneously the urinary clearances of [/sup 99m/Tc] diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) (UD), [ 125 I]iothalamate (UI), 24-hr creatinine clearance (UC) and plasma clearance of [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA (PD), based on three plasma samples. In 60 studies in 22 patients with serum creatinine values of 2 to 8 mg/dl, UD and UI were almost identical: UD = 0.358 +/- 0.976 UI +/- 0.87 ml/min, r = 0.990. However, PD overestimated UD by a large and variable extent: PD = 11.3 +/- 0.843 UD +/- 5.5 ml/min, r = 0.694, and was inconsistent in sequential measurements in individual patients. UC also overestimated urinary isotope clearance: UC = 4.2 + 0.95 UI +/- 3.9 ml/min, r = 0.865. Sequential measurements of GFR in five patients with severe but stable renal failure (mean GFR 5.9 ml/min) showed an average standard deviation of only 0.83 ml/min. Thus both UD and UI appear to be reliable and precise measures of GFR in severe renal failure

  1. Effect angiotensin II receptor blockers on glomerular filtration rate in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, T.; Ajdinovic, B.; Endocrinology Clinic

    2004-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy with an aim to evaluate the effect of angiotensin receptor blockator valsartan on GFR stabilisation to physiological levels. Investigation was done as a prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study, on 20 patients with diabetes mellitus, type I (age 25 years, disease lasting 14 years). In all patients was detected incipient diabetic nephropathy with daily urinary albumin excretion in range from 30 mg to 300 mg. Patients were randomised in two groups: 10 patients were treated with 80 mg /day valsartan, during 6 months, second group (10 patients) were on placebo at the same period. GFR, as a clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, was calculated at the start and at the end of the study. In the first patients group during investigation period, GFR was decreased from 150, 1 ml/min/1.73m 2 to physiological level of 127 ml/min/1,73m 2 (p 2 at the start, 139,9 ml/min/l.73m 2 at the end of the study).On the basis of these results it was concluded that 80 mg/day in 6 month valsartan therapy decreased GFR to physiological levels in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  2. Glomerular Podocytes Express Type 1 Adenylate Cyclase: Inactivation Results in Susceptibility to Proteinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhijie; He, Liqun; Takemoto, Minoru; Jalanko, Hannu; Chan, Guy C.; Storm, Daniel R.; Betsholtz, Christer; Tryggvason, Karl; Patrakka, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The organization of actin cytoskeleton in podocyte foot processes plays a critical role in the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. The cAMP pathway is an important regulator of the actin network assembly in cells. However, the role of the cAMP pathway in podocytes is not well understood. Type 1 adenylate cyclase (Adcy1), previously thought to be specific for neuronal tissue, is a member of the family of enzymes that catalyses the formation of cAMP. In this study, we characterized the expression and role of Adcy1 in the kidney. Methods Expression of Adcy1 was studied by RT-PCR, Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. The role of Adcy1 in podocytes was investigated by analyzing Adcy1 knockout mice (Adcy1–/–). Results and Conclusion: Adcy1 is expressed in the kidney specifically by podocytes. In the kidney, Adcy1 does not have a critical role in normal physiological functioning as kidney histology and function are normal in Adcy1–/– mice. However, albumin overload resulted in severe albuminuria in Adcy1–/– mice, whereas wild-type control mice showed only mild albumin leakage to urine. In conclusion, we have identified Adcy1 as a novel podocyte signaling protein that seems to have a role in compensatory physiological processes in the glomerulus. PMID:21196775

  3. Rac1 in podocytes promotes glomerular repair and limits the formation of sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Rin; Seki, Takuto; Takagi, Miyuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Fumiko; Hosoe-Nagai, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Eriko; Trejo, Juan Alejandro Oliva; Yamamoto-Nonaka, Kanae; Sasaki, Yu; Hidaka, Teruo; Ueno, Takashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Asanuma, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-22

    Rac1, a Rho family member, is ubiquitously expressed and participates in various biological processes. Rac1 expression is induced early in podocyte injury, but its role in repair is unclear. To investigate the role of Rac1 expression in podocytes under pathological conditions, we used podocyte-specific Rac1 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice administered adriamycin (ADR), which causes nephrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Larger areas of detached podocytes, more adhesion of the GBM to Bowman's capsule, and a higher ratio of sclerotic glomeruli were observed in Rac1 cKO mice than in control mice, whereas no differences were observed in glomerular podocyte numbers in both groups after ADR treatment. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which regulates the cell size, was more strongly suppressed in the podocytes of Rac1 cKO mice than in those of control mice under pathological conditions. In accordance with this result, the volumes of podocytes in Rac1 cKO mice were significantly reduced compared with those of control mice. Experiments using in vitro ADR-administered Rac1 knockdown podocytes also supported that a reduction in Rac1 suppressed mTOR activity in injured podocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that Rac1-associated mTOR activation in podocytes plays an important role in preventing the kidneys from developing glomerulosclerosis.

  4. Comparative study between in Vivo and Vitro radionuclide technique in measurement of Glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Moustafa, H.; Elhaddad, SH.; Taalab, KH.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty patients were referred to nuclear medicine department in NEMROCK center for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The group included 34 males and 16 females with a mean age of 38.3 ± 10.7 years. Estimation of GFR was done using 111-185 mBq of 99m Tc-DTPA with data collected on 128 x 128 matrix on IDAC computer every 15 seconds with calculation of renal uptake and GFR applying Gates method. 72 hours, a dose 3.7 mBq of 51 Cr-EDTA with 2 blood samples taken at 120, 240 minutes with estimation of plasma clearance using Russel et al., method (1985). The mean clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA was 79.61±22.4 ml/min compared to 84.34±26.3 ml/min. Using direct scintigraphic method with positive correlation using regression analysis (r=0.96). Also, both 51 Cr-EDTA and in vivo 99m Tc-DTPA were positively correlated with creatinine clearance (r=0.87 and 0.91 respectively). A modified regression formulas was used for correction of the results of 99m Tc-DTPA values GFR ( 99m Tc-DTPA) x 0.81 + 11 ± 6.4 ml/min. 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Glomerular filtration rate and functional decline in an acute geriatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR is associated with functional decline. Little is known on that association in hospitalized elderly. Objective: Determine if low eGFR is associated with functional decline. Methods: Prospective cohort study that included 1826 patients 60 years and older hospitalized in a Geriatric Acute Unit, admitted between January 2012 and August 2015. The outcome was functional status assessed four times by the Barthel Index (BI. Kidney function was estimated by MDRD-4 IDMS and was grouped into four categories according to eGFR (normal ≥90, mild 60-89, moderate 59-30, severe <30. Multivariate logistic regression models and GLIMMIX procedure for longitudinal analyzes were used. Results: Mean age was 82.3±7.2 years, 51 % were women. In multivariate logistic regression, a BI≤60 at admission was associated with age ≥80, female gender, high comorbidity, social deterioration, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, MMSE<19, while the presence of mild or moderate renal failure reduced this risk. In the longitudinal analysis, lower total BI at follow-up was associated with age ≥80, female gender, social deterioration, hospital stay ≥15 days, high comorbidity, hypoalbuminemia, MMSE<19. The presence of mild, moderate or severe renal impairment was associated with higher BI over time. Conclusions: A low eGFR was associated with lower risk for functional decline at admission and overtime. These findings differ from previous reports in the literature.

  6. Comparative study between in Vivo and Vitro radionuclide technique in measurement of Glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, G; Moustafa, H; Elhaddad, SH; Taalab, KH [Nuclear medicine department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo university, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Fifty patients were referred to nuclear medicine department in NEMROCK center for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The group included 34 males and 16 females with a mean age of 38.3 {+-} 10.7 years. Estimation of GFR was done using 111-185 mBq of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA with data collected on 128 x 128 matrix on IDAC computer every 15 seconds with calculation of renal uptake and GFR applying Gates method. 72 hours, a dose 3.7 mBq of {sup 51} Cr-EDTA with 2 blood samples taken at 120, 240 minutes with estimation of plasma clearance using Russel et al., method (1985). The mean clearance of {sup 51} Cr-EDTA was 79.61{+-}22.4 ml/min compared to 84.34{+-}26.3 ml/min. Using direct scintigraphic method with positive correlation using regression analysis (r=0.96). Also, both {sup 51} Cr-EDTA and in vivo {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA were positively correlated with creatinine clearance (r=0.87 and 0.91 respectively). A modified regression formulas was used for correction of the results of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA values GFR ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) x 0.81 + 11 {+-} 6.4 ml/min. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Differential specificity in the glomerular response profiles for alicyclic, bicyclic and heterocyclic odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett A.; Xu, Zhe; Pancoast, Paige; Kwok, Jennifer; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to relate stimulus to response in the olfactory system, we tested the hypothesis that the unique chemical structures and odors of various cyclic odorants would be associated with unique spatial response patterns in the glomerular layer of the rat olfactory bulb. To this end, rats were exposed to sets of odorants including monocyclic hydrocarbons, bicyclic compounds, and various heterocyclic structures containing oxygen or nitrogen in the ring. Relative activity across the entire layer was assessed by mapping uptake of 2-deoxyglucose into anatomically standardized data matrices. Whereas monocyclic hydrocarbons evoked patterns similar to those evoked by open-chained hydrocarbon odorants, a set of bicyclic compounds with structures and odors similar to camphor evoked uptake in paired ventral domains not previously associated with any other odorant chemical structures. Despite their unique odors as judged by humans, heterocyclic odorants either evoked uptake in previously characterized areas corresponding to their functional groups or stimulated weak or patchy patterns involving isolated glomeruli. While the patchiness of the patterns may be partly related to the rigidity of the compounds, which would be expected to restrict their interactions to only a few receptors, the weakness of the patterns suggests the possibility of species-specific odorant representations. We conclude that whereas some of the novel cyclic structures indeed were represented by unique patterns in the rat bulb, other unique structures were poorly represented, even when they evoked intense and unique odors in humans. PMID:16958095

  8. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  9. Protective effects of antioxidants on high Glucose-induced malfunctions in human glomerular mesangial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini R

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Altered functions of mesangial cells induced by high glucose concentrations are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore investigated the effect of high glucose (39.2 mM alone and in combination with taurine (500 µM or vitamin E (100 µM in serum free medium (RPMI 1640 on the proliferative growth response and turnover of type IV collagen by human glomerular mesangial cells (GMC. The results showed that the high glucose level decreases the proliferation of the GMC which is reversed by taurine and vitamin E. In order to control the osmotic effects of high glucose, the GMC were also cultured in the presence of manitol. Manitol had no effect on the proliferation of GMC. Furthermore, the results showed that addition of vitamin E or taurine to media containing high glucose could reverse and normalize the collagen turn-over by the cultured mesangial cells. These results suggest that taurie and vitamin E may function as endogenous agents in the kidney to limit the development of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic renal disease.

  10. The Role of Angiotensin II in Parietal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Crescent Formation in Glomerular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Novelli, Rubina; Rota, Cinzia; Gagliardini, Elena; Ruggiero, Barbara; Rottoli, Daniela; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a devastating disease with rapidly progressive deterioration in kidney function, which, histologically, manifests as crescent formation in most glomeruli. We previously found that crescents derive from the aberrant proliferation and migration of parietal epithelial cells (PECs)/progenitor cells, and that the angiotensin (ang) II/ang II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor pathway may participate, together with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis, in the development of those lesions. Herein, we elucidated sequential events and cellular and molecular interactions occurring during crescentic lesion onset and evolution. By analyzing kidney biopsy specimens of patients with extracapillary GN, divided according to the grade of glomerular lesions, we found that the accumulation of macrophages expressing matrix metalloproteinase-12 started manifesting in glomeruli affected by early-stage lesions, whereas AT 1 receptor expression could not be detected. In glomeruli with advanced lesions, AT 1 receptor expression increased markedly, and the up-regulation of SDF-1, and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 7, was documented on podocytes and PECs, respectively. In vitro studies were instrumental to demonstrating the role of ang II in inducing podocyte SDF-1 production, which ultimately activates PECs. The present findings support the possibility that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment might limit PEC activation and reduce the frequency and extension of crescents in extracapillary GN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of benazepril and robenacoxib and their combination on glomerular filtration rate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteri, A; Kukk, A; Desevaux, C; Seewald, W; King, J N

    2017-01-01

    Combined use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may induce acute kidney injury, especially when combined with diuretics. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of benazepril, robenacoxib and their combination in healthy dogs. In each of two studies (studies 1 and 2), 32 beagle dogs were randomized into one of four groups in a parallel-group design. Groups received once-daily oral treatment for 7 days with placebo, benazepril, robenacoxib or benazepril plus robenacoxib. In study 2, all dogs received additionally 2 mg/kg furosemide orally twice daily. The primary endpoint was the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from the plasma clearance of iohexol. Secondary endpoints included standard clinical monitoring and, in study 2, plasma renin activity, urine volume, specific gravity and aldosterone concentration and water intake. Administration of furosemide induced diuresis, reduced GFR and activated the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system. Benazepril and robenacoxib, administered alone or in combination, were tolerated well, did not decrease GFR with or without co-administration of furosemide and significantly reduced urinary aldosterone concentrations. No increased risk of acute kidney injury was identified with the combination of benazepril and robenacoxib in healthy dogs. Different effects might occur in dogs with heart or renal disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [ 35 S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [ 35 S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [ 35 S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  13. Prediction of hospital mortality by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Berzan, E

    2015-03-01

    Deterioration of physiological or laboratory variables may provide important prognostic information. We have studied whether a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value calculated using the (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula) over the hospital admission, would have predictive value. An analysis was performed on all emergency medical hospital episodes (N = 61964) admitted between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2011. A stepwise logistic regression model examined the relationship between mortality and change in renal function from admission to discharge. The fully adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for 5 classes of GFR deterioration showed a stepwise increased risk of 30-day death with OR\\'s of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 1.59 (1.27, 1.99), 2.71 (2.24, 3.27), 5.56 (4.54, 6.81) and 11.9 (9.0, 15.6) respectively. The change in eGFR during a clinical episode, following an emergency medical admission, powerfully predicts the outcome.

  14. Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation and Treated With Cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Gastélum-Cano, Jose M; Méndez-Huerta, Mariana A; Rodríguez-Gallegos, Alma B; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2018-06-15

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is partially impaired in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). When given chemotherapy before receiving hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, GFR might be further deteriorated. To measure the effect of cyclophosphamide on GFR in patients with MS who undergo chemotherapy. We estimated GFR based on creatinine and cystatin C plasma concentrations in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation to treat their MS. Baseline GFR values were lower in the 28 patients with MS than in the 20 healthy individuals. Also, according to the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) 2012 Creat-CysC equation criteria, 4 of 28 patients were classified as having chronic kidney disease (CKD) before receiving the chemotherapy drugs. After receiving 4 × 50 mg per kg body weight cyclophosphamide, abnormal GFR results were recorded in 12 of 28 patients. Renal function must be monitored in patients with MS undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation. Also, chemotherapy should be constrained as much as possible to prevent further deterioration of renal function.

  15. Effect of creatinine assay calibration on glomerular filtration rate prediction by MDRD equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Spessatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of renal function should be performed with glomerular filtration rate (GFR estimation employing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD study equation, which includes age, gender, ethnicity and serum creatinine. However, creatinine methods require traceability with standardized methods. Objective: To analyse the impact of creatinine calibration on MDRD calculated GFR. Methods: 140 samples of plasma with creatinine values <2,0 mg/dl were analysed by Jaffé’s reaction with Creatinina Modular P (Roche ®; method A; reference and Creatinina Advia 1650 (Bayer ®; method B; non-standardized. The results with the different methods were compared and aligned with standardized method through a conversion formula. MDRD GFR was estimated. Results: Values were higher for method B (1.03 ± 0.29 vs. 0.86 ± 0.32 mg/dl, P<0.001. This difference declined when methods were aligned with the equation y=1.07x -0.249, and the aligned values were 0,9 ± 0,31 mg/dl. Non-traceable creatinine methods misclassificaed chronic kidney disease in 10% more (false positive. This disagreement disappeared after the regression alignment. Conclusion: Creatinine method calibration has a large impact over the final results of serum creatinine and GFR. The alignment of the non-standardized results through conversion formulas is a reasonable alternative to harmonize serum creatinine results while waiting for the full implementation of international  standardization programs.

  16. [Consensus document: recommendations for the use of equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañés Bermúdez, R; Gràcia Garcia, S; Fraga Rodríguez, G M; Escribano Subias, J; Diez de Los Ríos Carrasco, M J; Alonso Melgar, A; García Nieto, V

    2014-05-01

    The appearance of the K/DOQI guidelines in 2002 on the definition, evaluation and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have led to a major change in how to assess renal function in adults and children. These guidelines, recently updated, recommended that the study of renal function is based, not only on measuring the serum creatinine concentration, but this must be accompanied by the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) obtained by an equation. However, the implementation of this recommendation in the clinical laboratory reports in the paediatric population has been negligible. Numerous studies have appeared in recent years on the importance of screening and monitoring of patients with CKD, the emergence of new equations for estimating GFR, and advances in clinical laboratories regarding the methods for measuring plasma creatinine and cystatin C, determined by the collaboration between the departments of paediatrics and clinical laboratories to establish recommendations based on the best scientific evidence on the use of equations to estimate GFR in this population. The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations on the evaluation of renal function and the use of equations to estimate GFR in children from birth to 18 years of age. The recipients of these recommendations are paediatricians, nephrologists, clinical biochemistry, clinical analysts, and all health professionals involved in the study and evaluation of renal function in this group of patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative.

  18. Proenkephalin, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Patients With Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanah; Hur, Mina; Lee, Seungho; Marino, Rossella; Magrini, Laura; Cardelli, Patrizia; Struck, Joachim; Bergmann, Andreas; Hartmann, Oliver; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2017-09-01

    Proenkephalin (PENK) has been suggested as a novel biomarker for kidney function. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utility of plasma PENK in comparison with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in septic patients. A total of 167 septic patients were enrolled: 99 with sepsis, 37 with septic shock, and 31 with suspected sepsis. PENK and NGAL concentrations were measured and GFR was estimated by using the isotope dilution mass spectrometry traceable-Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations: CKD-EPI(Cr), CDK-EPI(CysC), and CKD-EPI(Cr-CysC). The PENK, NGAL, and eGFR results were compared according to sepsis severity, presence or absence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and clinical outcomes. The PENK, NGAL, and eGFR results were significantly associated with sepsis severity and differed significantly between patients with and without AKI only in the sepsis group (all Psepsis. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  19. Paraffin-based immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of glomerular diseases in renal biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, M.U.; Khadim, M.T.; Atique, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine sensitivity and specificity of paraffin-based immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of glomerular diseases in renal biopsies using immunofluorescence as gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from August 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Seventy renal biopsy specimens fulfilling the inclusion criteria for light microscopy and immuno-fluorescence during the study period were evaluated. Antibodies to immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and components of complement system (C3) were applied on 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal biopsy specimens previously classified by means of light microscopy and immunofluorescence (IF). Staining for these antibodies was recorded as positive and negative for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and IF in paired proportions presuming IF as gold standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of individual antibody were calculated. Results: Of 70 patients, mean age was 33 +- 18 years ranging from 2 to 80 years. Forty five (64%) were males and 25 (36%) were females. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of individual antibodies to IgG, IgA, IgM and C3 were very low and generally in the range of 40 - 60%. Conclusion: The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal biopsy specimens were very low and therefore, not suitable for evaluation of renal biopsies in current circumstances. (author)

  20. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R

    1994-01-01

    exception being the normal glomerular capillary basement membrane (GBM), where it is absent. In the present study of mature kidneys we examined the distribution of BM-CSPG in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. We found BM-CSPG atypically associated with the GBM of diabetic animals as early as 1...... month after induction of diabetes mellitus. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of affected capillary loops showed BM-CSPG present in the subendothelial matrix in areas of GBM thickening and absent in areas where the GBM appears to be of normal thickness. Moreover, the association of BM-CSPG with regions...... of the pericapillary GBM affects the morphology of the capillary endothelial cells within these areas, directly displacing the cell body from the GBM proper and causing loss of fenestrae. These new data on BM-CSPG distribution reflect abnormal glomerular extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis/turnover in diabetes...

  1. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of 65 ml/min (median) was reduced to a nadir of 46 ml/min (p less than 0.01) during the first 2 h after infusion of cimetidine. GFR remained unchanged, and thus the fractional clearance of creatinine (CCr/CTh) was reduced from 1.43 (median) to 1.03 (p less than 0.01). CNa and the fractional excretion...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  2. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  3. Charge Screening in a Charged Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a highly dense system of helium-4 nuclei and electrons in which the helium-4 nuclei have condensed. We present the condensation mechanism in the framework of low energy effective field theory and discuss the screening of electric charge in the condensate.

  4. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  5. Protein structure and ionic selectivity in calcium channels: Selectivity filter size, not shape, matters

    OpenAIRE

    Malasics, Attila; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Henderson, Douglas; Eisenberg, Bob; Boda, Dezső

    2009-01-01

    Calcium channels have highly charged selectivity filters (4 COO− groups) that attract cations in to balance this charge and minimize free energy, forcing the cations (Na+ and Ca2+) to compete for space in the filter. A reduced model was developed to better understand the mechanism of ion selectivity in calcium channels. The charge/space competition (CSC) mechanism implies that Ca2+ is more efficient in balancing the charge of the filter because it provides twice the charge as Na+ while occupy...

  6. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  7. Local magnetic susceptibility, spin dynamics, and charge order in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor β -Li0.33V2O5 investigated by site-selective 51V NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Ichihiro; Itoh, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Touru; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Yutaka

    2017-11-01

    51V NMR measurements have been conducted on a single crystal of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor β -Li0.33V2O5 which undergoes a metal-insulator (MI) transition at TMI˜170 K. In the metallic phase, we obtain 51V Knight shift and electric field gradient tensors. From the analysis of the 51V Knight shifts, we find that the charge disproportionation appears even in the metallic state and the electronic structure is represented within a model of weakly coupled ladders containing two types of ladders with distinct carrier densities. Based on the 51V nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, we discuss the spin dynamics within the one-dimensional electron gas model. From the analysis of several nonmagnetic V5 + spectra observed in the insulating phase, we propose a possible charge-order pattern which has a superlattice modulation larger than those in other family members of β -A0.33V2O5 (A =Na and Ag). Finally, we discuss the A -ion dependence of the electronic structure, the charge disproportionation, and the charge order in β -A0.33V2O5 .

  8. Reduced glomerular filtration rate and its association with clinical outcome in older patients at risk of vascular events: secondary analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ford, Ian

    2009-01-20

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in young and middle aged individuals. Associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality in older people are less clearly established. We aimed to determine the predictive value of the GFR for mortality and morbidity using data from the 5,804 participants randomized in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER).

  9. Frequently relapsing anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease with changing clinical phenotype and antibody characteristics over time

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Bobby; Magil, Alex B.; Barbour, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is a typically monophasic autoimmune disease with severe pulmonary and renal involvement. We report an atypical case of frequently relapsing anti-GBM antibody disease with both anti-GBM antibody?positive flares with pulmonary and renal involvement, and anti-GBM antibody?negative flares that were pulmonary limited with no histologic renal disease. This is the first report of alternating disease phenotype and anti-GBM antibody status over...

  10. Diabetic kidney lesions of GIPRdn transgenic mice: podocyte hypertrophy and thickening of the GBM precede glomerular hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbach, Nadja; Schairer, Irene; Blutke, Andreas; Kautz, Sabine; Siebert, Angela; Göke, Burkhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Ruediger

    2009-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and the largest contributor to the total cost of diabetes care. Rodent models are excellent tools to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we characterize the age-related sequence of diabetes-associated kidney lesions in GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, a novel mouse model of early-onset diabetes mellitus. Clinical-chemical analyses as well as qualitative and quantitative morphological analyses of the kidneys of GIPR(dn) transgenic animals and nontransgenic littermate controls were performed at 3, 8, 20, and 28 wk of age. Early renal changes of transgenic mice consisted of podocyte hypertrophy, reduced numerical volume density of podocytes in glomeruli, and homogenous thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, followed by renal and glomerular hypertrophy as well as mesangial expansion and matrix accumulation. At 28 wk of age, glomerular damage was most prominent, including advanced glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial lesions, and proteinuria. Real-time PCR demonstrated increased glomerular expression of Col4a1, Fn1, and Tgfb1. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased mesangial deposition of collagen type IV, fibronectin, and laminin. The present study shows that GIPR(dn) transgenic mice exhibit renal changes that closely resemble diabetes-associated kidney alterations in humans. Data particularly from male transgenic mice indicate that podocyte hypertrophy is directly linked to hyperglycemia, without the influence of mechanical stress. GIPR(dn) transgenic mice are considered an excellent new tool to study the mechanisms involved in onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... tubular flow. This suggests that on-going cimetidine treatment must be taken into account when graft function is evaluated by the CCr alone....

  12. A SAGE based approach to human glomerular endothelium: defining the transcriptome, finding a novel molecule and highlighting endothelial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Guerkan; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Kupczok, Anne; von Haeseler, Arndt; Schuster, Michael; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul; Weltermann, Ansgar; Blake, Sophia; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2014-08-27

    Large scale transcript analysis of human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (HGMEC) has never been accomplished. We designed this study to define the transcriptome of HGMEC and facilitate a better characterization of these endothelial cells with unique features. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used for its unbiased approach to quantitative acquisition of transcripts. We generated a HGMEC SAGE library consisting of 68,987 transcript tags. Then taking advantage of large public databases and advanced bioinformatics we compared the HGMEC SAGE library with a SAGE library of non-cultured ex vivo human glomeruli (44,334 tags) which contained endothelial cells. The 823 tags common to both which would have the potential to be expressed in vivo were subsequently checked against 822,008 tags from 16 non-glomerular endothelial SAGE libraries. This resulted in 268 transcript tags differentially overexpressed in HGMEC compared to non-glomerular endothelia. These tags were filtered using a set of criteria: never before shown in kidney or any type of endothelial cell, absent in all nephron regions except the glomerulus, more highly expressed than statistically expected in HGMEC. Neurogranin, a direct target of thyroid hormone action which had been thought to be brain specific and never shown in endothelial cells before, fulfilled these criteria. Its expression in glomerular endothelium in vitro and in vivo was then verified by real-time-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry. Our results represent an extensive molecular characterization of HGMEC beyond a mere database, underline the endothelial heterogeneity, and propose neurogranin as a potential link in the kidney-thyroid axis.

  13. RENAL GLOMERULAR NUMBER AND SIZE IN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES, AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WHITE POPULATIONS FROM THE SAME LOCATIONS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Bertram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available End stage renal disease is a major health problem for Australian Aborigines and African Americans. Abnormally enlarged glomeruli are commonly observed in biopsies from Aborigines and African Americans and may represent a compensatory hypertrophic response to reduced nephron endowment. We have commenced a study examining glomerular number and size, and their associations in Australian Aborigines and whites, and US African Americans and whites. Kidneys at autopsy are perfusion-fixed and subsampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number (Nglom; using the physical disector/fractionator combination, and mean renal corpuscle (Vcorp and glomerular volume (Vglom. Kidneys from 58 people have been studied to date with ages ranging from newborn to 84 years. Preliminary findings are: (1 an almost 9-fold range in Nglom (from 210,332 to 1,825,380 with a mean of 762,302; (2 Nglom decreased with age in adult life (p = 0.014; (3 Vcorp varied 19-fold in the series and 5.5-fold in adults; (4 Vglom was inversely correlated with Nglom (p = 0.004; (5 total renal corpuscle volume (Nglom × Vcorp ranged by a factor of 13.2; (6 kidney weight was correlated with body surface area (BSA at all ages (p < 0.001; (7 BSA-corrected kidney weight did not vary with age, it ranged from 47 g/m2 to 175 g/m2, a 3.7 fold difference, with an average of 92 ± 25 g/m2. These preliminary results have revealed several new and important correlations. No racial differences in glomerular number or size have yet been identified, but with greater sample sizes such differences may be revealed.

  14. Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lethbridge

    Full Text Available Rat pup odor preference learning follows pairing of bulbar beta-adrenoceptor activation with olfactory input. We hypothesize that NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated olfactory input to mitral cells is enhanced during training, such that increased calcium facilitates and shapes the critical cAMP pattern. Here, we demonstrate, in vitro, that olfactory nerve stimulation, at sniffing frequencies, paired with beta-adrenoceptor activation, potentiates olfactory nerve-evoked mitral cell firing. This potentiation is blocked by a NMDAR antagonist and by increased inhibition. Glomerular disinhibition also induces NMDAR-sensitive potentiation. In vivo, in parallel, behavioral learning is prevented by glomerular infusion of an NMDAR antagonist or a GABA(A receptor agonist. A glomerular GABA(A receptor antagonist paired with odor can induce NMDAR-dependent learning. The NMDA GluN1 subunit is phosphorylated in odor-specific glomeruli within 5 min of training suggesting early activation, and enhanced calcium entry, during acquisition. The GluN1 subunit is down-regulated 3 h after learning; and at 24 h post-training the GluN2B subunit is down-regulated. These events may assist memory stability. Ex vivo experiments using bulbs from trained rat pups reveal an increase in the AMPA/NMDA EPSC ratio post-training, consistent with an increase in AMPA receptor insertion and/or the decrease in NMDAR subunits. These results support a model of a cAMP/NMDA interaction in generating rat pup odor preference learning.

  15. HIV-1 Tat reduces nephrin in human podocytes: a potential mechanism for enhanced glomerular permeability in HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Zennaro, Cristina; Spatola, Tiziana; Lupia, Enrico; Bottelli, Antonella; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Carraro, Michele; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-02-19

    To determine whether HIV-1 Tat may directly alter glomerular permeability in HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Heavy proteinuria is a hallmark of HIVAN. The slit diaphragm is the ultimate glomerular filtration barrier critical for maintaining the efficiency of the ultrafiltration unit of the kidney. In this study, we evaluated the direct effect of Tat protein on the permeability of isolated glomeruli and on the expression of nephrin, the main slit diaphragm component, by human cultured podocytes. Permeability was studied by measuring the permeability to albumin in isolated rat glomeruli. We also evaluated the expression of nephrin in human cultured podocytes by using immunofluorescence and Western blot. We found that Tat increased albumin permeability in isolated glomeruli, and rapidly induced the redistribution and loss of nephrin in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment of glomeruli and podocytes with blocking antibodies showed that Tat reduced nephrin expression by engaging vascular endothelial growth factor receptors types 2 and 3 and the integrin alphavbeta3. Pre-incubation of podocytes with two platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists prevented the loss and redistribution of nephrin induced by Tat, suggesting that PAF is an intracellular mediator of Tat action. Tat induced a rapid PAF synthesis by podocytes. When podocytes transfected to overexpress PAF-acetylhydrolase, the main catabolic enzyme of PAF, were stimulated with Tat, the redistribution and loss of nephrin was abrogated. The present results define a mechanism by which Tat may reduce nephrin expression in podocytes, thus increasing glomerular permeability. This provides new insights in the understanding of HIVAN pathogenesis.

  16. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Glomerular Endothelial Cells and Promotion of Diabetic Nephropathy by Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuruga, Eichi

    2014-01-01

    The toll-like receptor (TLR) has been suggested as a candidate cause for diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have reported the TLR4 expression in diabetic mouse glomerular endothelium. The study here investigates the effects of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is a ligand for TLR2 and TLR4 in diabetic nephropathy. In laser-scanning microscopy of glomeruli of streptozotocin- and a high fat diet feed-induced type I and type II diabetic mice, TLR2 localized on the glomerular endothelium and proximal tubule epithelium. The TLR2 mRNA was detected in diabetic mouse glomeruli by in situ hybridization and in real-time PCR of the renal cortex, the TLR2 mRNA amounts were larger in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. All diabetic mice subjected to repeated LPS administrations died within the survival period of all of the diabetic mice not administered LPS and of all of the non-diabetic LPS-administered mice. The LPS administration promoted the production of urinary protein, the accumulation of type I collagen in the glomeruli, and the increases in IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β in the renal cortex of the glomeruli of the diabetic mice. It is thought that blood TLR ligands like Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS induce the glomerular endothelium to produce cytokines which aid glomerulosclerosis. Periodontitis may promote diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24835775

  17. Dosimeter charging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, F.A.; Moorman, Ch.J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for charging a dosimeter which has a capacitor connected between first and second electrodes and a movable electrode in a chamber electrically connected to the first electrode. The movable electrode deflects varying amounts depending upon the charge present on said capacitor. The charger apparatus includes first and second charger electrodes couplable to the first and second dosimeter electrodes. To charge the dosimeter, it is urged downwardly into a charging socket on the charger apparatus. The second dosimeter electrode, which is the dosimeter housing, is electrically coupled to the second charger electrode through a conductive ring which is urged upwardly by a spring. As the dosimeter is urged into the socket, the ring moves downwardly, in contact with the second charger electrode. As the dosimeter is further urged downwardly, the first dosimeter electrode and first charger electrode contact one another, and an insulator post carrying the first and second charger electrodes is urged downwardly. Downward movement of the post effects the application of a charging potential between the first and second charger electrodes. After the charging potential has been applied, the dosimeter is moved further into the charging socket against the force of a relatively heavy biasing spring until the dosimeter reaches a mechanical stop in the charging socket

  18. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Charging of Large Spwc Structure• . in Polut Otbil.’" Prweedings of thre Air For’e Grespykirs fitrano, W4r4 nop em Natural Charging of large Space Stru, ures...3, p. 1433- 1440, 1991. Bowman, C., Bogorad, A., Brucker, G., Seehra, S., and Lloyd, T., "ITO-Coated RF Transparent Materials for Antenna Sunscreen

  19. Unilateral CHARGE association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J; van Stuijvenberg, M; Dikkers, FG; Pijnenburg, MWH

    A case with a predominantly unilateral CHARGE association is reported. The CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations. This boy had left-sided anomalies consisting of choanal atresia. coloboma and peripheral facial palsy. The infant had a frontal encephalocele. an anomaly

  20. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  1. Insulin's acute effects on glomerular filtration rate correlate with insulin sensitivity whereas insulin's acute effects on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption correlate with salt sensitivity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background. Insulin induces increasing distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Opposite effects of insulin to offset insulin-induced sodium retention are supposedly increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. Defects in these opposing effects

  2. Overexpression of TGF-β Inducible microRNA-143 in Zebrafish Leads to Impairment of the Glomerular Filtration Barrier by Targeting Proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Müller-Deile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: TGF-β is known as an important stress factor of podocytes in glomerular diseases. Apart from activation of direct pro-apoptotic pathways we wanted to analyze micro-RNA (miRs driven regulation of components involved in the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier induced by TGF-β. Since miR-143-3p (miR-143 is described as a TGF-β inducible miR in other cell types, we examined this specific miR and its ability to induce glomerular pathology. Methods: We analyzed miR-143 expression in cultured human podocytes after stimulation with TGF-β. We also microinjected zebrafish eggs with a miR-143 mimic or with morpholinos specific for its targets syndecan and versican and compared phenotype and proteinuria development. Results: We detected a time dependent, TGF-β inducible expression of miR-143 in human podocytes. Targets of miR-143 relevant in glomerular biology are syndecans and versican, which are known components of the glycocalyx. We found that syndecan 1 and 4 were predominantly expressed in podocytes while syndecan 3 was largely expressed in glomerular endothelial cells. Versican could be detected in both cell types. After injection of a miR-143 mimic in zebrafish larvae, syndecan 3, 4 and versican were significantly downregulated. Moreover, miR-143 overexpression or versican knockdown by morpholino caused loss of plasma proteins, edema, podocyte effacement and endothelial damage. In contrast, knockdown of syndecan 3 and syndecan 4 had no effects on glomerular filtration barrier. Conclusion: Expression of versican and syndecan isoforms is indispensable for proper barrier function. Podocyte-derived miR-143 is a mediator for paracrine and autocrine cross talk between podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells and can alter expression of glomerular glycocalyx proteins.

  3. Magnetically coupled resonance wireless charging technology principles and transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Wan, Jian; Ma, Yinping

    2017-05-01

    With the tenure of Electric-Vehicle rising around the world, the charging methods have been paid more and more attention, the current charging mode mainly has the charging posts and battery swapping station. The construction of the charging pile or battery swapping station not only require lots of manpower, material costs but the bare conductor is also easy to generate electric spark hidden safety problems, still occupies large space. Compared with the wired charging, wireless charging mode is flexible, unlimited space and location factors and charging for vehicle safety and quickly. It complements the traditional charging methods in adaptability and the independent charge deficiencies. So the researching the wireless charging system have an important practical significance and application value. In this paper, wireless charging system designed is divided into three parts: the primary side, secondary side and resonant coupling. The main function of the primary side is to generate high-frequency alternating current, so selecting CLASS-E amplifier inverter structure through the research on full bridge, half-bridge and power amplification circuit. Addition, the wireless charging system is susceptible to outside interference, frequency drift phenomenon. Combined with the wireless energy transmission characteristics, resonant parts adopt resonant coupling energy transmission scheme and the Series-Series coupling compensation structure. For the electric vehicle charging power and voltage requirements, the main circuit is a full bridge inverter and Boost circuit used as the secondary side.

  4. Measured glomerular filtration rate does not improve prediction of mortality by cystatin C and creatinine.

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    Sundin, Per-Ola; Sjöström, Per; Jones, Ian; Olsson, Lovisa A; Udumyan, Ruzan; Grubb, Anders; Lindström, Veronica; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR. A secondary aim was to evaluate the utility of combining cystatin C and creatinine to predict mortality risk. Cox regression was used to assess the associations of cystatin C and creatinine with mortality in 1157 individuals referred for assessment of plasma clearance of iohexol. Since cystatin C and creatinine are inversely related to mGFR, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 were used. After adjustment for mGFR, lower cystatin C - 1 (higher cystatin C concentration) and higher creatinine - 1 (lower creatinine concentration) were independently associated with increased mortality. When nested models were compared, avoiding the potential influence of multicollinearity, the independence of the associations was supported. Among models combining the markers of GFR, adjusted for demographic factors and comorbidity, cystatin C - 1 and creatinine - 1 combined explained the largest proportion of variance in associations with mortality risk ( R 2  = 0.61). Addition of mGFR did not improve the model. Our results suggest that both creatinine and cystatin C have independent associations with mortality not explained entirely by mGFR and that mGFR does not offer a more precise mortality risk assessment than these endogenous filtration markers combined. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. Glomerulonefritis fibrilar: Una rara forma de enfermedad glomerular por depósitos organizados

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    Marta B. Cabrera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de una mujer de 67 años de edad que consultó por debilidad y astenia, constatándose proteinuria de rango nefrótico y dislipemia. Se realizó punción para biopsia renal, la que se analizó por microscopia óptica, inmunofluorescencia y microscopia electrónica de transmisión. El análisis ultra-estructural reveló la existencia de depósitos fibrilares organizados, rectos, no ramificados, cuyo espesor osciló entre 15 y 20 nm. Dichas fibrillas ópticamente se veían como una expansión mesangial discretamente nodular, ligeramente PAS positiva, rojo Congo negativa y débilmente positiva para IgG. El diagnóstico fue glomerulonefritis fibrilar. Las enfermedades glomerulares por depósitos organizados pueden exhibir superposición sindrómica e histopatológica. Por tal motivo, resulta de importancia una primera separación entre aquellas rojo Congo positivas o negativas, siendo en este último caso la microscopia electrónica de transmisión la que diferencia dos entidades: la glomerulonefritis fibrilar y la glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide. Esta diferencia se apoya no sólo en las características ultraestructurales, sino en sus características clínicas. La glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide muestra una fuerte asociación con procesos linfoproliferativos, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con la glomerulonefritis fibrilar.

  6. Protein- and diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration: role of glucagon, vasopressin, and urea.

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    Bankir, Lise; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine

    2015-07-01

    A single protein-rich meal (or an infusion of amino acids) is known to increase the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for a few hours, a phenomenon known as "hyperfiltration." It is important to understand the factors that initiate this upregulation because it becomes maladaptive in the long term. Several mediators and paracrine factors have been shown to participate in this upregulation, but they are not directly triggered by protein intake. Here, we explain how a rise in glucagon and in vasopressin secretion, directly induced by protein ingestion, might be the initial factors triggering the hepatic and renal events leading to an increase in the GFR. Their effects include metabolic actions in the liver and stimulation of sodium chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb. Glucagon is not only a glucoregulatory hormone. It is also important for the excretion of nitrogen end products by stimulating both urea synthesis in the liver (along with gluconeogenesis from amino acids) and urea excretion by the kidney. Vasopressin allows the concentration of nitrogenous end products (urea, ammonia, etc.) and other protein-associated wastes in a hyperosmotic urine, thus allowing a very significant water economy characteristic of all terrestrial mammals. No hyperfiltration occurs in the absence of one or the other hormone. Experimental results suggest that the combined actions of these two hormones, along with the complex intrarenal handling of urea, lead to alter the composition of the tubular fluid at the macula densa and to reduce the intensity of the signal activating the tubuloglomerular feedback control of GFR, thus allowing GFR to raise. Altogether, glucagon, vasopressin, and urea contribute to set up the best compromise between efficient urea excretion and water economy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Single- versus multiple-sample method to measure glomerular filtration rate.

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    Delanaye, Pierre; Flamant, Martin; Dubourg, Laurence; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lemoine, Sandrine; Cavalier, Etienne; Schaeffner, Elke; Ebert, Natalie; Pottel, Hans

    2018-01-08

    There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the marker, but also the methodology may vary in many ways, including the use of urinary or plasma clearance, and, in the case of plasma clearance, the number of time points used to calculate the area under the concentration-time curve, ranging from only one (Jacobsson method) to eight (or more) blood samples. We collected the results obtained from 5106 plasma clearances (iohexol or 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) using three to four time points, allowing GFR calculation using the slope-intercept method and the Bröchner-Mortensen correction. For each time point, the Jacobsson formula was applied to obtain the single-sample GFR. We used Bland-Altman plots to determine the accuracy of the Jacobsson method at each time point. The single-sample method showed within 10% concordances with the multiple-sample method of 66.4%, 83.6%, 91.4% and 96.0% at the time points 120, 180, 240 and ≥300 min, respectively. Concordance was poorer at lower GFR levels, and this trend is in parallel with increasing age. Results were similar in males and females. Some discordance was found in the obese subjects. Single-sample GFR is highly concordant with a multiple-sample strategy, except in the low GFR range (<30 mL/min). © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Circulating CD34-positive cells, glomerular filtration rate and triglycerides in relation to hypertension.

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    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serum triglycerides have been reported to be independently associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is known to play a role in vascular disturbance. On the other hand, circulating CD34-positve cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, are reported to contribute to vascular repair. However, no studies have reported on the correlation between triglycerides and the number of CD34-positive cells. Since hypertension is well known factor for vascular impairment, the degree of correlation between serum triglycerides and circulating CD34-positve cells should account for hypertension status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 274 elderly Japanese men aged ≥ 60 years (range 60-79 years) undergoing general health checkups. Multiple linear regression analysis of non-hypertensive subjects adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors showed that although triglyceride levels (1SD increments; 64 mg/dL) did not significantly correlate with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (β = -2.06, p = 0.163), a significant positive correlation was seen between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells (β = 0.50, p = 0.004). In hypertensive subjects, a significant inverse correlation between triglycerides and GFR was observed (β = -2.66, p = 0.035), whereas no significant correlation between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells was noted (β = -0.004, p = 0.974). Since endothelial progenitor cells (CD34-positive cells) have been reported to contribute to vascular repair, our results indicate that in non-hypertensive subjects, triglycerides may stimulate an increase in circulating CD34-positive cells (vascular repair) by inducing vascular disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Measurement of Murine Single-Kidney Glomerular Filtration Rate Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Tang, Hui; Mishra, Prasanna K; Macura, Slobodan I; Lerman, Lilach O

    2018-06-01

    To develop and validate a method for measuring murine single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. A fast longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) measurement method was implemented to capture gadolinium dynamics (1 s/scan), and a modified two-compartment model was developed to quantify GFR as well as renal perfusion using 16.4T MRI in mice 2 weeks after unilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS, n = 6) or sham (n = 8) surgeries. This approach was validated by comparing model-derived GFR and perfusion to those obtained by fluorescein isothiocyanante (FITC)-inulin clearance and arterial spin labeling (ASL), respectively, using the Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlations and Bland-Altman analysis. The compartmental model provided a good fitting to measured gadolinium dynamics in both normal and RAS kidneys. The proposed DCE-MRI method offered assessment of single-kidney GFR and perfusion, comparable to the FITC-inulin clearance (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.95 and Spearman's correlation coefficient ρ = 0.94, P < 0.0001, and mean difference -7.0 ± 11.0 μL/min) and ASL (r = 0.92 and ρ = 0.84, P < 0.0001, and mean difference 4.4 ± 66.1 mL/100 g/min) methods. The proposed DCE-MRI method may be useful for reliable noninvasive measurements of single-kidney GFR and perfusion in mice. Magn Reson Med 79:2935-2943, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Validation of predictive equations for glomerular filtration rate in the Saudi population

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    Al Wakeel Jamal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictive equations provide a rapid method of assessing glomerular filtration rate (GFR. To compare the various predictive equations for the measurement of this parameter in the Saudi population, we measured GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Cockcroft-Gault formulas, cystatin C, reciprocal of cystatin C, creatinine clearance, reciprocal of creatinine, and inulin clearance in 32 Saudi subjects with different stages of renal disease. We com-pared GFR measured by inulin clearance and the estimated GFR by the equations. The study included 19 males (59.4% and 13 (40.6% females with a mean age of 42.3 ± 15.2 years and weight of 68.6 ± 17.7 kg. The mean serum creatinine was 199 ± 161 μmol/L. The GFR measured by inulin clearance was 50.9 ± 33.5 mL/min, and the estimated by Cockcroft-Gault and by MDRD equations was 56.3 ± 33.3 and 52.8 ± 32.0 mL/min, respectively. The GFR estimated by MDRD revealed the strongest correlation with the measured inulin clearance (r= 0.976, P= 0.0000 followed by the GFR estimated by Cockcroft-Gault, serum cystatin C, and serum creatinine (r= 0.953, P= 0.0000 (r= 0.787, P= 0.0001 (r= -0.678, P= 0.001, respectively. The reciprocal of cystatin C and serum creatinine revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.826 and 0.93, respectively. Cockroft-Gault for-mula overestimated the GFR by 5.40 ± 10.3 mL/min in comparison to the MDRD formula, which exhibited the best correlation with inulin clearance in different genders, age groups, body mass index, renal transplant recipients, chronic kidney disease stages when compared to other GFR predictive equations.

  12. Modulation of interferon-induced genes by lipoxin analogue in anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohse, Takamoto; Ota, Tatsuru; Kieran, Niamh; Godson, Catherine; Yamada, Koei; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2004-04-01

    Immune complex deposition is associated with the accumulation of neutrophils, which play an important role in the various immune-mediated diseases. A novel anti-inflammatory agent, the lipoxin A (LXA) analogue (15-epi-16-(FPhO)-LXA-Me)), a stable synthetic analogue of aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATLa), was used in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody nephritis in mice. ATLa was administered before the induction of the disease, and 2 h later, the animals were killed. ATLa reduced the infiltrating neutrophils and nitrotyrosine staining in glomeruli. Subsequent changes of gene expression in the early phase were evaluated, and 5674 genes were present under the basal conditions in kidneys from normal mice; 54 upregulated genes and 25 downregulated genes were detected in anti-GBM nephritis. Eighteen of these upregulated genes were those induced by IFN-gamma. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the results of the microarrays. To investigate a role of IFN-gamma in neutrophil infiltration, anti-GBM nephritis was induced in IFN-gamma knockout mice. The number of infiltrating neutrophils in these mice did not differ from those in wild-type mice. Also examined were CD11b expression on neutrophils from mice treated with ATLa by flow cytometry, but suppression of this adhesion molecule was not observed. Neutrophil infiltration was successfully inhibited by ATLa in the early phase of murine anti-GBM nephritis. Microarray analysis detected the change of mRNA expression in anti-GBM nephritis and demonstrated amelioration of various genes by ATLa, which may provide a clue to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in immune renal injury.

  13. Transcutaneous glomerular filtration rate measurement in a canine animal model of chronic kidney disease.

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    Mondritzki, Thomas; Steinbach, Sarah M L; Boehme, Philip; Hoffmann, Jessica; Kullmann, Maximilian; Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Vogel, Julia; Kolkhof, Peter; Sandner, Peter; Bischoff, Erwin; Hüser, Jörg; Dinh, Wilfried; Truebel, Hubert

    Quantitative assessment of renal function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important part of safety and efficacy evaluation in preclinical drug development. Existing methods are often time consuming, imprecise and associated with animal burden. Here we describe the comparison between GFR determinations with sinistrin (PS-GFR) and fluorescence-labelled sinistrin-application and its transcutaneous detection (TD-GFR) in a large animal model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). TD-GFR measurements compared to a standard method using i.v. sinistrin were performed in a canine model. Animals were treated with one-sided renal wrapping (RW) followed by renal artery occlusion (RO). Biomarker and remote hemodynamic measurements were performed. Plasma sinistrin in comparison to transcutaneous derived GFR data were determined during healthy conditions, after RW and RW+RO. RW alone did not led to any significant changes in renal function, neither with PS-GFR nor TD-GFR. Additional RO showed a rise in blood pressure (+68.0mmHg), plasma urea (+28.8mmol/l), creatinine (+224,4μmol/l) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA™; +12.6μg/dl). Plasma sinistrin derived data confirmed the expected drop (-44.7%, p<0.0001) in GFR. The calculated transcutaneous determined Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-sinistrin GFR showed no differences to plasma sinistrin GFR at all times. Both methods were equaly sensitive to diagnose renal dysfunction in the affected animals. Renal function assessment using TD-GFR is a valid method to improve preclinical drug discovery and development. Furthermore, TD-GFR method offers advantages in terms of reduced need for blood sampling and thus decreasing animal burden compared to standard procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate using inulin prepared from Vernonia herbacea, a Brazilian native species.

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    Dias-Tagliacozzo, G M; Dietrich, S M; Mello-Aires, M

    1996-10-01

    Vernonia herbacea (Vell.) Rusby (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb native to the cerrado vegetation of tropical areas in Brazil, which accumulates inulin in the underground reserve organs. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the inulin extracted from V. herbacea could replace commercial inulin for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Underground organs of vegetative plants were collected from a preserved area of the Brazilian cerrado. The inulin fraction utilized was obtained by ethanol precipitation after discarding the high molecular mass fructans in the freeze-thawing precipitate. GFR was determined in male Wistar rats anesthetized with inactin (100 mg/kg), which received intravenously commercial inulin obtained from Dahlia sp (Sigma) or Vernonia herbacea inulin (30 mg/100 g) as a priming dose and 0.05 mg min-1 100 g-1 as a sustaining dose in isotonic saline at the rate of 0/055 ml/min. Clearance was determined during 3 periods, with urine collected from the bladder and blood from the carotid artery. There was no significant difference in the GFR measured by clearance in inulin from both sources even when the plasma concentration of inulin from V. herbacea was doubled. The mean arterial pressure did not vary after the application of both inulins, indicating that they do not produce systemic side effects. The filtered load and the excreted amount of inulin from V. herbacea were equal, showing that the substance is not influenced by tubular function. These results demonstrate that the inulin from V. herbacea can substitute for imported inulin for the determination of GFR and in experiments of kidney microperfusion as a marker of tubular water reabsorption.

  15. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on glomerular filtration rate in essential hypertension: A radionuclide study

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    Cuocolo, A.; Volpe, M.; Mele, A.F.; Celentano, L.; Neumann, R.D.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Naples (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    A number of studies show that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) raises renal sodium excretion with a concomitant increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both experimental animals and normal humans. Studies using indirect evaluation of GFR have provided less consistent results in hypertensive patients. We studied the effects of intravenously administered (iv) {alpha}-human ANP on GFR in patients with hypertension by a radionuclide technique using technetium 99m diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid. In six patients (ANP group), GFR was determined under control conditions, during iv ANP (initial bolus of 0.5 {mu}g/kg followed by a 21-min maintenance infusion at 0.05 {mu}g.kg{sup -1}.min{sup -1}) and during a recovery phase. In six other patients (control group), GFR was determined under control conditions, during saline iv infusion and during recovery. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, basal blood pressure, heart rate or GFR. In the ANP group, the infusion of the peptide induced a significant decrease of mean blood pressure (from 133+-5 to 120+-5 mmHg, P<0.01), no change in heart rate and a significant increase in GFR (from 104+-4 to 125+-5 ml/min, P<0.01). During recovery, blood pressure, heart rate and GFR were not different from the values recorded under control conditions. No changes in blood pressure, heart rate or GFR (from 106+-5 to 108+-5 ml/min, n.s.) were detected during saline infusion in the control group. Our results demonstrated that in patients with essential hypertension, ANP induces an augmentation in GFR in spite of a decrease in blood pressure; this suggests a unique role for atrial peptide-related drugs in the treatment of human hypertension. (orig.).

  16. Serum C-reactive protein and thioredoxin levels in subjects with mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate

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    Ishimura Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a newly recognized high-risk condition for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and previous studies reported the changes in inflammation and oxidative stress in advanced stages of CKD. We compared the levels of serum biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress between subjects with normal and mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Methods The subjects were 182 participants of a health check-up program including those with normal (≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 79 and mildly reduced eGFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 103 which was calculated based on serum creatinine, age and sex. We excluded those with reduced eGFR 2. No one had proteinuria. We measured serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and thioredoxin (TRX as the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Results As compared with subjects with normal eGFR, those with mildly reduced eGFR had increased levels of both CRP and TRX. Also, eGFR was inversely correlated with these biomarkers. The associations of eGFR with these biomarkers remained significant after adjustment for age and sex. When adjustment was done for eight possible confounders, CRP showed significant association with systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and non-HDL-C, whereas TRX was associated with sex significantly, and with eGFR and systolic blood pressure at borderline significance. Conclusions We showed the increased levels of CRP and TRX in subjects with mildly reduced eGFR. The eGFR-CRP link and the eGFR-TRX link appeared to be mediated, at least partly, by the alterations in blood pressure and plasma lipids in these subjects.

  17. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

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    Akishi Momose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  18. The relationship of serum and urinary laminin and glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus

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    Li Jianlin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relationship of serum and urinary laminin and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetes mellitus. Methods: The level of serum and urinary laminin was measured by radioimmunoassay, GFR acquired by 99m Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA), renal dynamic imaging in 75 diabetes mellitus and 42 normal subjects. Results: (1) The level of serum LN (136.30 ± 11.20 ng/ml) and urinary LN (31.76 ± 5.77 ng/ml) in diabetic nephropathy was significantly higher than that in diabetes without nephrosis group (P<0.05) and control group (P<0.01), the level of serum LN (126.54 ± 6.98 ng/ml) and urinary LN (26.27 ± 3.81 ng/ml) in diabetes without nephrosis group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05); the GFR of diabetic nephropathy (78.84 ± 10.79 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that in diabetes without nephrosis group (P<0.05) and control group (P<0.01); the level of serum (131.49 ± 10.74 ng/ml) and urinary LN (29.05 ± 5.60 ng/ml) in diabetes mellitus was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05), but GFR was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). (2) The value of GFR in diabetes mellitus lasted less than 1 year was higher than that of control group (P<0.05), but inverse in diabetes mellitus more than 10 years (P<0.05). (3) The level of serum and urinary LN had significantly negative correlation with GFR (P<0.01). Conclusion: LN may accelerates the alteration of GFR and causes microangiopathy of diabetic nephropathy. It may be an important indicator in the diagnosis of the early diabetic nephropathy

  19. Current use of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in Spanish laboratories.

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    Gràcia-Garcia, Sílvia; Montañés-Bermúdez, Rosario; Morales-García, Luis J; Díez-de Los Ríos, M José; Jiménez-García, Juan Á; Macías-Blanco, Carlos; Martínez-López, Rosalina; Ruiz-Altarejos, Joaquín; Ruiz-Martín, Guadalupe; Sanz-Hernández, Sonia; Ventura-Pedret, Salvador

    2012-07-17

    In 2006 the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC) and the Spanish Society of Nephrology (S.E.N.) developed a consensus document in order to facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease with the incorporation of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) into laboratory reports. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting and the degree of adherence to these recommendations among clinical laboratories is unknown. We administered a national survey in 2010-11 to Spanish clinical laboratories. The survey was through e-mail or telephone to laboratories that participated in the SEQC’s Programme for External Quality Assurance, included in the National Hospitals Catalogue 2010, including both primary care and private laboratories. A total of 281 laboratories answered to the survey. Of these, 88.2% reported on the eGFR, with 61.9% reporting on the MDRD equation and 31.6% using the MDRD-IDMS equation. A total of 42.5% of laboratories always reported serum creatinine values, and other variables only when specifically requested. Regarding the way results were presented, 46.2% of laboratories reported the exact numerical value only when the filtration rate was below 60mL/min/1.73m2, while 50.6% reported all values regardless. In 56.3% of the cases reporting eGFR, an interpretive commentary of it was enclosed. Although a high percentage of Spanish laboratories have added eGFR in their reports, this metric is not universally used. Moreover, some aspects, such as the equation used and the correct expression of eGFR results, should be improved.

  20. Water-soluble vitamins in people with low glomerular filtration rate or on dialysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Catherine M; Ki, Vincent; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    People with low glomerular filtration rate and people on dialysis are spontaneously at risk for vitamin deficiency because of the potential for problems with decreased appetite and decreased sense of smell and taste, leading to decreased intake, and because decreased energy or decreased cognitive ability results in difficulties in shopping and cooking. Imposed dietary restrictions because of their renal dysfunction and because of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes exacerbate this problem. Finally, particularly for water-soluble vitamins, loss may occur into the dialysate. We did not identify any randomized trials of administering daily doses close to the recommended daily allowances of these vitamins. In people who are eating at all, deficiencies of B5 and B7 seem unlikely. It is unclear whether supplements of B2 and B3 are necessary. Because of dialyzability and documented evidence of insufficiency in dialysis patients, B1 supplementation is likely to be helpful. B6, B9, and B12 are implicated in the hyperhomocysteinemia observed in patients on dialysis. These vitamins have been studied in combinations, in high doses, with the hope of reducing cardiovascular outcomes. No reductions in patient-important outcomes were seen in adequately powered randomized trials. Because of their involvement in the homocysteine pathway, however, supplementation with lower doses, close to the recommended daily allowances, may be helpful. Vitamin C deficiency is common in patients on dialysis who are not taking supplements: low-dose supplements are warranted. Vitamins for dialysis patients contain most or all of the B vitamins and low-dose vitamin C. We are not aware of any medical reasons to choose one over another. © 2013. The Authors. Seminars in Dialysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

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    Ernesta Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%. For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%. Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy.

  2. Metabolic and Hormonal Determinants of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Hemodynamics in Severely Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Vitolo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. Methods: We measured GFR (mGFR by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects. Results: Compared with mGFR, the better performing EstForm was CKD-EPI (5.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 bias by Bland-Altman analysis. mGFR was directly related with RPF, total and incremental glucose AUC, and inversely with PTH and h8 cortisol. Patients with mGFR below the median shown significantly higher PTH and lower vitamin D3. Basal or dynamic renal resistive index, FMD, pulse wave velocity were not related with mGFR. In an adjusted regression model, renal diameter and plasma flow remained related with mGFR (R2 = 0.67, accounting for 15% and 21% of mGFR variance, respectively. Conclusions: CKD-EPI formula should be preferred in morbid obesity; glucose increments during oral glucose tolerance test correlate with hyperfiltration; RPF and diameter are independent determinants of mGFR; slightly high PTH values, frequent in obesity, might influence mGFR.

  3. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesenbach, Peter; Kain, Renate; Derfler, Kurt; Perkmann, Thomas; Soleiman, Afschin; Benharkou, Alexandra; Druml, Wilfred; Rees, Andrew; Säemann, Marcus D

    2014-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE) for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS) is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics. To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS. Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies. University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. 10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS. Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies. Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23) to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186). Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation. IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  4. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  5. Prostacyclin Synthase: Upregulation during Renal Development and in Glomerular Disease as well as Its Constitutive Expression in Cultured Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostacyclin (PGI2 plays a critical role in nephrogenesis and renal physiology. However, our understanding of how prostacyclin release in the kidney is regulated remains poorly defined. We studied expression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS in developing and adult human kidneys, and also in selected pediatric renal diseases. We also examined PGI2 formation in human mesangial cells in vitro. We observed abundant expression of PGIS in the nephrogenic cortex in humans and in situ hybridization revealed an identical pattern in mice. In the normal adult kidney, PGIS-immunoreactive protein and mRNA appear to localize to mesangial fields and endothelial and smooth muscle cells of arteries and peritubular capillaries. In kidney biopsies taken from pediatric patients, enhanced expression of PGIS-immunoreactive protein was noted mainly in endothelial cells of patients with IgA-nephropathy. Cultured human mesangial cells produce primarily PGI2 and prostaglandin E2, followed by prostaglandin F2α Cytokine stimulation increased PGI2 formation 24-fold. Under these conditions expression of PGIS mRNA and protein remained unaltered whereas mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 was markedly induced. In contrast to its constitutive expression in vitro, renal expression of prostacyclin-synthase appears to be regulated both during development and in glomerular disease. Further research is needed to identify the factors involved in regulation of PGIS-expression.

  6. Plasma horizons of a charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)

  7. Charge gradient microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2018-02-06

    A method for rapid imaging of a material specimen includes positioning a tip to contact the material specimen, and applying a force to a surface of the material specimen via the tip. In addition, the method includes moving the tip across the surface of the material specimen while removing electrical charge therefrom, generating a signal produced by contact between the tip and the surface, and detecting, based on the data, the removed electrical charge induced through the tip during movement of the tip across the surface. The method further includes measuring the detected electrical charge.

  8. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  9. Role of molecular charge in nucleocytoplasmic transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Goryaynov

    Full Text Available Transport of genetic materials and proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is mediated by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs. A selective barrier formed by phenylalanine-glycine (FG nucleoporins (Nups with net positive charges in the NPC allows for passive diffusion of signal-independent small molecules and transport-receptor facilitated translocation of signal-dependent cargo molecules. Recently, negative surface charge was postulated to be another essential criterion for selective passage through the NPC. However, the charge-driven mechanism in determining the transport kinetics and spatial transport route for either passive diffusion or facilitated translocation remains obscure. Here we employed high-speed single-molecule fluorescence microscopy with an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of 9 nm and 400 µs to uncover these mechanistic fundamentals for nuclear transport of charged substrates through native NPCs. We found that electrostatic interaction between negative surface charges on transiting molecules and the positively charged FG Nups, although enhancing their probability of binding to the NPC, never plays a dominant role in determining their nuclear transport mode or spatial transport route. A 3D reconstruction of transport routes revealed that small signal-dependent endogenous cargo protein constructs with high positive surface charges that are destined to the nucleus, rather than repelled from the NPC as suggested in previous models, passively diffused through an axial central channel of the NPC in the absence of transport receptors. Finally, we postulated a comprehensive map of interactions between transiting molecules and FG Nups during nucleocytoplasmic transport by combining the effects of molecular size, signal and surface charge.

  10. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  11. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  12. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  13. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  14. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  15. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-01-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to ''... produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles ...'' [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  16. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  17. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  18. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  19. Nuclear structure and the single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on meson-induced single-charge-exchange reactions on light nuclei is discussed within the context of the Glauber approximation. Selection rules which are expected to be approximately obeyed in elastic and inelastic pion and kaon scattering are proposed. Theoretical predictions are presented for (π + ,π 0 ) and (K + ,K 0 ) reactions on 13 C. 14 figures

  20. Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate of 99mTc-DTPA using PIP software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opazo, C.; Troncoso, M.; Gutierrez, E.; Guerrero, B.; Mena, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our purpose is to compare the measurement of glomerular filtration rate by DTPA Renogram (DTPA-GFR) using PIP software with those by 24-hour creatinine clearance (CC) in order to evaluate the results provided for the procedure and the software we used. The need for using this method well known from earlier eighties raised from the practical difficulties in getting an accurate CC in pediatric population specially in out patients as well as the fact there is not radiation, time, morbidity or discomfort added to the renogram. Methods: In a prospective study running from Sep-2001, up to now 18 patients aged 1 to 18 years underwent DTPA Renogram. DTPA-GFR was calculated from the renogram in a computer and PIP software system developed for the IAEA to be attached to analogical gammacameras The procedure involves 30 minutes DTPA renogram, full and empty DTPA syringe activity measure, input patient height and weight, to make ROIs around kidneys and background ROIs drawn below and in the lateral side of both kidneys. The results are provided automatically for the software using a kidney uptake index with Gates method. The results are expressed in ml/min for both and each kidney separately. No blood samples were used. All patients had CC measurement done at most 48 hours from the renogram using 24 hours urine collection and serum creatinine level. We make sure patients were well hydrated orally before starting renogram acquisition. Results: The DTPA-GFR mean was 81.6 ml/min (22.5-153.6). The CC mean was 78.8 ml/min (14.8-132). The comparison between DTPA-GFR and CC measurements showed an acceptable R2 coefficient (0.9228), a slope close to identity line (0.9504). The intercept was 6.75 ml/min and the T value was 0.2983. Conclusion: We have found an acceptable correlation between DTPA-GFR and CC with results obtained up to now. DTPA-GFR is a very easy procedure adding no extra time or cost to the renogram. The information provided can be useful to be considered by the

  1. [The contribution of endogenous vasodilators to the control of glomerular hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, S; Ito, S; Abe, K

    1994-06-01

    Preglomerular afferent (Af-) and postglomerular efferent arterioles (Ef-Arts) are crucial vascular segments in the control of glomerular hemodynamics. However, their vascular reactivity is not fully understood. We examined: 1) their responses to angiotensin II (AII) or norepinephrine (NE), and 2) the possible modulatory roles of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) in these responses. Rabbit Af- or Ef-Arts were microperfused in vitro. Ef-Arts were perfused in either the orthograde direction from the distal end of Af-Arts through the glomerulus (OP) or the retrograde direction from its distal end to eliminate the influence of the glomerulus (RP). Although AII and NE constricted both arterioles in a dose-dependent manner, sensitivity to AII was higher in Ef-Arts. AII began to cause significant (P Arts, and from 10(-11) M in Ef-Arts (OP; 11 +/- 4%, n = 9. RP; 10 +/- 2%, n = 5). In addition, both AII and NE produced stronger constriction of Ef-Arts in RP than OP; AII at 10(-8) M or NE at 10(-6) M decreased the diameter by 35 +/- 4% or 25 +/- 4% in OP and 74 +/- 4% or 62 +/- 7% in RP. NO synthesis inhibitor nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME; 10(-4) M) increased the sensitivity of Af-Art to AII without affecting the reactivity of Ef-Art; in L-NAME-pretreated Af-Arts, AII began to cause significant constriction from 10(-10) M (14 +/- 4%, n = 9, P Arts without affecting different vascular responses between OP and RP. Indomethacin (5 x 10(-5) M) significantly augmented the AII- or NE-induced Ef-Art constriction only in OP; AII at 10(-8) M or NE at 10(-6) M decreased the diameter by 72 +/- 5% (n = 8) or 48 +/- 3% (n = 7). Thus, indomethacin-pretreatment markedly diminished the differences in responses between OP and RP. These results suggest that 1) NO modulates AII action only in the Af-Art, contributing to the difference in sensitivity to AII between Af- and Ef-Art, and 2) the glomerulus controls vascular reactivity of the downstream Ef-Art by releasing PGs.

  2. Aging and decreased glomerular filtration rate: An elderly population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C R M Abdulkader

    Full Text Available Although a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR in old people has been attributed to physiologic aging, it may be associated with kidney disease or superimposed comorbidities. This study aims to assess the prevalence of decreased GFR in a geriatric population in a developing country and its prevalence in the absence of simultaneous diseases.This is a cross-sectional study of data from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento cohort study (SABE study[Health, Well-Being and Aging], a multiple cohorts study. A multistage cluster sample composed of 1,253 individuals representative of 1,249,388 inhabitants of São Paulo city aged ≥60 years in 2010 was analyzed. The participants answered a survey on socio-demographic factors and health, had blood pressure measured and urine and blood samples collected. GFR was estimated and defined as decreased when 0.20 g/g.The prevalence of GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 was 19.3%. Individuals with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 were older (75±1 versus 69±1 years, p<0.001, had lower schooling (18 versus 30% with complete 8-year basic cycle, p = 0.010, and higher prevalence of hypertension (82 versus 63%, p<0.001, diabetes (34 versus 26%, p = 0.021, cardiovascular disease (43 versus 24%, p<0.001 and kidney damage (35% versus 15%, p<0.001. Only 0.7% of the entire studied population had GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 without simultaneous diseases or kidney damage. Among the individuals with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2, 3.5% had neither renal damage nor associated comorbidities, whereas among those with GFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2, 11.0% had none of these conditions. Logistic regression showed that older age, cardiovascular disease and hypertension were associated with GFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2.Decreased GFR was highly prevalent among the geriatric population in a megalopolis of a developing country. It was rarely present without simultaneous chronic comorbidities or kidney damage.

  3. Effect of lemongrass tea consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    The existing research findings regarding the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on renal function indices are conflicting and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of infusions prepared from C citratus leaves on creatinine clearance rate (CCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in humans. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 35 years were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusions prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C citratus leaf powder once daily, for 30 days. Serum and urinary levels of urea, creatinine, pH, specific gravity, uric acid, electrolytes, diuretic indices, and eGFR were assessed at days 0, 10, and 30 after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. CCr and eGFR decreased significantly at day 30 in both male and female subjects in all the groups and in females treated with infusion prepared from 8 g of C citratus leaf powder for 10 days. At day 10, CCr and eGFR were unchanged in those treated with infusions prepared from 2 or 4 g of the leaf powder, whereas diuretic indices (urine volume, urination frequency, diuretic action, and saliuretic indices) increased above the baseline levels. Serum and urinary creatinine levels significantly increased (P < .05) in both male and female subjects in all the groups. Serum urea significantly increased in the groups treated with infusions prepared from 4 or 8 g of the leaf powder (P < .05) for 30 days. Serum electrolytes remained unchanged, but their urinary levels increased. We observed dose- and time-dependent adverse effects of C citratus on CCr and eGFR. At a high dose or with prolonged treatment with a low dose, eGFR decrease may be followed by a decline in the other renal function indices. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of benazepril, robenacoxib and their combination on glomerular filtration rate in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan N; Panteri, Alessandro; Graille, Melanie; Seewald, Wolfgang; Friton, Gabriele; Desevaux, Cyril

    2016-06-23

    Combined use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may induce acute kidney injury in humans, especially when combined with diuretics. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of benazepril, robenacoxib and their combination in healthy cats. In each of two studies (study 1 followed by study 2), 32 healthy cats were randomised to one of four groups (n = 4 male and 4 female cats per group) in a parallel-group design. The groups received orally once daily for 7 days either placebo (control group), benazepril, robenacoxib or benazepril plus robenacoxib. In study 2, all groups received in addition 0.5 mg/kg furosemide twice daily by subcutaneous injection for 7 days. Benazepril, robenacoxib and their combination were well tolerated as evidenced from lack of clinical signs and no negative effects on body weight, feed consumption and clinical chemistry, haematology and urinalysis variables. The primary endpoint of the study was the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which was estimated from the plasma clearance of iohexol. In the absence of furosemide, GFR was significantly higher in cats receiving the combination of benazepril plus robenacoxib compared to the other three groups, and was also significantly higher in females receiving only benazepril compared to the control. Administration of furosemide induced diuresis, reduced GFR and activated the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system, evidenced from increased plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentrations. Compared to the control group in cats treated with furosemide, GFR was increased by benazepril (females only) but decreased by robenacoxib (males only). Benazepril, robenacoxib and their combination significantly inhibited the increase in plasma aldosterone induced by furosemide. The combination of benazepril and robenacoxib was well tolerated and either increased or had a neutral effect on GFR in healthy cats without or with

  5. Measured glomerular filtration rate at dialysis initiation and clinical outcomes of Indian peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal time for dialysis initiation remains controversial. Studies have failed to show better outcomes with early initiation of hemodialysis; even a few had shown increased adverse outcomes including poorer survival. Few studies have examined the same in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD. Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR not creatinine-based estimated GFR is recommended as the measure of kidney function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. The objective of this observational study was to compare the outcomes of Indian patients initiated on PD with different residual renal function (RRF as measured by 24-h urinary clearance method. A total of 352 incident patients starting on chronic ambulatory PD as the first modality of renal replacement therapy were followed prospectively. Patients were categorized into three groups as per mGFR at the initiation of PD (≤5, >5–10, and> 10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Patient survival and technique survival were compared among the three groups. Patients with GFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR] - 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.85–6.30, P = 0.000 and> 5–10 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR - 2.16, 95% CI - 1.26–3.71, P = 0.005 had higher risk of mortality as compared to those with GFR of> 10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Each increment of 1 ml/min/1.73 m2 in baseline GFR was associated with 10% reduced risk of death (HR - 0.90, 95% CI - 0.85–0.96, P = 0.002. Technique survival was poor in those with an initial mGFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m2 as compared to other categories. RRF at the initiation was also an important factor predicting nutritional status at 1 year of follow-up. To conclude, initiation of PD at a lower baseline mGFR is associated with poorer patient and technique survival in Indian ESRD patients.

  6. Galectin-3 binding protein links circulating microparticles with electron dense glomerular deposits in lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C T; Østergaard, O; Rekvig, O P; Sturfelt, G; Jacobsen, S; Heegaard, N H H

    2015-10-01

    A high level of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) appears to distinguish circulating cell-derived microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study is to characterize the population of G3BP-positive microparticles from SLE patients compared to healthy controls, explore putative clinical correlates, and examine if G3BP is present in immune complex deposits in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. Numbers of annexin V-binding and G3BP-exposing plasma microparticles from 56 SLE patients and 36 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. Quantitation of microparticle-associated G3BP, C1q and immunoglobulins was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Correlations between microparticle-G3BP data and clinical parameters were analyzed. Co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG was examined in kidney biopsies from one non-SLE control and from patients with class IV (n = 2) and class V (n = 1) lupus nephritis using co-localization immune electron microscopy. Microparticle-G3BP, microparticle-C1q and microparticle-immunoglobulins were significantly (P microparticle populations could be discerned by flow cytometry, including two subpopulations that were significantly increased in SLE samples (P = 0.01 and P = 0.0002, respectively). No associations of G3BP-positive microparticles with clinical manifestations or disease activity were found. Immune electron microscopy showed co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG in glomerular electron dense immune complex deposits in all lupus nephritis biopsies. Both circulating microparticle-G3BP numbers as well as G3BP expression are increased in SLE patients corroborating G3BP being a feature of SLE microparticles. By demonstrating G3BP co-localized with deposited immune complexes in lupus nephritis, the study supports cell-derived microparticles as a major autoantigen source and provides a new understanding of the origin of

  7. Immunohistochmical Study of Glomerular Mesengial Collagen IV Expression in Diabetic Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Extra-cellular matrix and basement membrane play important roles in many developmental phenamenon during development and after birth. Among the components of the basement membrane, collagen fibers specially type IV, are the most important part of this area. As kidney is one of the target organs in diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end stage-renal disease and result an increase in morbidity and mortality of effected individuals, therefore early diagnosis leads to better treatment. The aim of this investigation was to study the primary diagnostic parameters by special regards to collagen IV fibers.Materials & Methods: In this study, 24 male balb/c mice were divided into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, the beta cells of Langerhance were chemically destroyed by an injection of 160 mg/kg alloxan and subdivided in experimental groups 1 and 2. Controls were kept untreated. Experimental group 1and 2 were sacrified 8 and 16 weeks after treatment with alloxan respectively. The same procedure was performed for control group. Immunohistochmical studies were carried out using monocolonal antibody against collagen type IV in Glomeruli. In addition, using morphometrical and stereological methods the volume of the glumerles was compared in all groups.Results: Our finding showed that in experimental groups with special regards in 16 weeks diabetic mice, the rate of collagen type IV in basement membrane around the parietal layer of Bowman capsule, mesangial cells and endothelium of capillary in glomerules increased significantly compared to controls and experimental group 1 (p<0.05, while there was not a significant difference among experimental group 2 and controls. Our data also revealed that the number of mesangial cells as well as glomerular volume increased significantly in experimental 2 (4.635±0.289×106µm3 compared to experimental 1 (3.504±0.189×106µm3 and controls (3.422

  8. Soluble CD40 ligand directly alters glomerular permeability and may act as a circulating permeability factor in FSGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Zennaro, Cristina; Musante, Luca; Spatola, Tiziana; Candiano, Giovanni; Bruschi, Maurizio; Besso, Luca; Cedrino, Massimo; Carraro, Michele; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Camussi, Giovanni; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) dyad, a co-stimulatory bi-molecular complex involved in the adaptive immune response, has also potent pro-inflammatory actions in haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. We describe here a novel role for soluble CD40L (sCD40L) as modifier of glomerular permselectivity directly acting on glomerular epithelial cells (GECs). We found that stimulation of CD40, constitutively expressed on GEC cell membrane, by the sCD40L rapidly induced redistribution and loss of nephrin in GECs, and increased albumin permeability in isolated rat glomeruli. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of CD40-CD40L interaction completely prevented these effects. Furthermore, in vivo injection of sCD40L induced a significant reduction of nephrin and podocin expression in mouse glomeruli, although no significant increase of urine protein/creatinine ratio was observed after in vivo injection. The same effects were induced by plasma factors partially purified from post-transplant plasma exchange eluates of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and were blocked by CD40-CD40L inhibitors. Moreover, 17 and 34 kDa sCD40L isoforms were detected in the same plasmapheresis eluates by Western blotting. Finally, the levels of sCD40Lwere significantly increased in serum of children both with steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS), and in adult patients with biopsy-proven FSGS, compared to healthy subjects, but neither in children with congenital NS nor in patients with membranous nephropathy. Our results demonstrate that sCD40L directly modifies nephrin and podocin distribution in GECs. Moreover, they suggest that sCD40L contained in plasmapheresis eluates from FSGS patients with post-transplant recurrence may contribute, presumably cooperating with other mediators, to FSGS pathogenesis by modulating glomerular permeability.

  9. Soluble CD40 ligand directly alters glomerular permeability and may act as a circulating permeability factor in FSGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Doublier

    Full Text Available CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L dyad, a co-stimulatory bi-molecular complex involved in the adaptive immune response, has also potent pro-inflammatory actions in haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells. We describe here a novel role for soluble CD40L (sCD40L as modifier of glomerular permselectivity directly acting on glomerular epithelial cells (GECs. We found that stimulation of CD40, constitutively expressed on GEC cell membrane, by the sCD40L rapidly induced redistribution and loss of nephrin in GECs, and increased albumin permeability in isolated rat glomeruli. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of CD40-CD40L interaction completely prevented these effects. Furthermore, in vivo injection of sCD40L induced a significant reduction of nephrin and podocin expression in mouse glomeruli, although no significant increase of urine protein/creatinine ratio was observed after in vivo injection. The same effects were induced by plasma factors partially purified from post-transplant plasma exchange eluates of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, and were blocked by CD40-CD40L inhibitors. Moreover, 17 and 34 kDa sCD40L isoforms were detected in the same plasmapheresis eluates by Western blotting. Finally, the levels of sCD40Lwere significantly increased in serum of children both with steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS, and in adult patients with biopsy-proven FSGS, compared to healthy subjects, but neither in children with congenital NS nor in patients with membranous nephropathy. Our results demonstrate that sCD40L directly modifies nephrin and podocin distribution in GECs. Moreover, they suggest that sCD40L contained in plasmapheresis eluates from FSGS patients with post-transplant recurrence may contribute, presumably cooperating with other mediators, to FSGS pathogenesis by modulating glomerular permeability.

  10. Effects of changes in analytic variables and contrast medium on estimation of glomerular filtration rates by computed tomography in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuri; Kishimoto, Miori; Kushida, Kazuya; Yamada, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Miki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of changes in analytic variables and contrast medium osmolality on glomerular filtration rate estimated by CT (CT-GFR) in dogs. ANIMALS 4 healthy anesthetized Beagles. PROCEDURES GFR was estimated by inulin clearance, and dogs underwent CT-GFR with iodinated contrast medium (iohexol or iodixanol) in a crossover-design study. Dynamic renal CT scanning was performed. Patlak plot analysis was used to calculate GFR with the renal cortex or whole kidney selected as the region of interest. The renal cortex was analyzed just prior to time of the second cortical attenuation peak. The whole kidney was analyzed 60, 80, 100, and 120 seconds after the appearance of contrast medium. Automated GFR calculations were performed with preinstalled perfusion software including 2 noise reduction levels (medium and strong). The CT-GFRs were compared with GFR estimated by inulin clearance. RESULTS There was no significant difference in CT-GFR with iohexol versus iodixanol in any analyses. The CT-GFR at the renal cortex, CT-GFR for the whole kidney 60 seconds after appearance of contrast medium, and CT-GFR calculated by perfusion software with medium noise reduction did not differ significantly from GFR estimated by inulin clearance. The CT-GFR was underestimated at ≥ 80 seconds after contrast medium appearance (whole kidney) and when strong noise reduction was used with perfusion CT software. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection of the renal cortex as region of interest or use of the 60-second time point for whole-kidney evaluation yielded the best CT-GFR results. The perfusion software used produced good results with appropriate noise reduction. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE The finding that excessive noise reduction caused underestimation of CT-GFR suggests that this factor should also be considered in CT-GFR examination of human patients.

  11. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamper, A.L.; Thomsen, H.S.; Nielsen, S.L.; Strandgaard, S.; Herlev Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51 Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P 99m Tc-DMSA increased by 10% (P<0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken up by the tubular cells from the peritubular capillaries since the uptake was unaffected by the acute decrease in GFR. (orig.)

  12. Multiple recurrences of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with variable antibody detection: can the laboratory be trusted?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Patricia; Waheed, Sana; Boujelbane, Lamya; Maursetter, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is commonly a monophasic illness. We present the case of multiple recurrences of anti-GBM disease with varying serum anti-GBM antibody findings. A 33-year-old female tobacco user presenting with hematuria was diagnosed with anti-GBM disease by renal biopsy. Five years later, she presented with alveolar hemorrhage and positive anti-GBM antibody. She presented a third time with alveolar hemorrhage but undetectable anti-GBM antibody. With each occu...

  13. Verification on the use of the Inoue method for precisely determining glomerular filtration rate in Philippine pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magcase, M. J. D. J.; Duyan, A. Q.; Carpio, J.; Carbonell, C. A.; Trono, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to validate the Inoue method so that it would be the preferential choice in determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in Philippine pediatrics. The study consisted of 36 patients ranging from ages 2 months to 19 years old. The subjects used were those who were previously subjected to in-vitro method. The scintigrams of the invitro method was obtained and processed for split percentage uptake and for parameters needed to obtain Inoue GFR. The result of this paper correlates the Inoue GFR and In-vitro method (r = 0.926). Thus, Inoue method is a viable, simple, and practical technique in determining GFR in pediatric patients.

  14. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  15. Comparison of inulin, iothalamate, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA for measurement of glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, G.L.; Crumb, C.K.; Boyd, C.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Rastogi, S.P.; Patterson, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Clearances of inulin, 125 I-iothalamate, and /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-DTPA were measured simultaneously in five mongrel dogs exhibiting a wide range of glomerular filtration rates (GFR). Standard constant-infusion inulin clearance was compared to radionuclide clearances after subcutaneous injection of the emitters mixed with aqueous epinephrine. All three substances were found to have virtually identical clearances. The accuracy, accessibility, low cost, low radiation hazard, and short half-life of /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-DTPA make it an excellent substance for measuring GFR. The subcutaneous technique offers an accuracy comparable to the more difficult constant-infusion method

  16. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic nephropathy using the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Rossing, P; Mathiesen, E R

    1998-01-01

    Plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA is widely used to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic nephropathy. Originally, the ratio between the intravenously injected amount of tracer and the total area under the plasma concentration curve was used for the calculation of total 51Cr...... and rate of decline in GFR based upon these three methods. Bland & Altman plots were used to illustrate the range of agreement. We investigated 76 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy. GFR was measured after a single intravenous injection of 3.7 MBq 51Cr...

  17. Enfermedad de depósito glomerular: a propósito de un caso de glomerulonefritis fibrilar

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge de Jesús Cantillo; Rocío del Pilar López; Rafael Enrique Andrade

    2009-01-01

    En el diagnóstico rutinario por biopsia renal encontramos enfermedades glomerulares que tienen depósitos estructurales fibrilares en la matriz extracelular del glomérulo, visibles por microscopía electrónica. La amiloidosis es la glomerulopatía más común con depósitos de estas características ultraestructurales. Sin embargo, hay otras glomerulopatías con depósitos similares, negativas con rojo Congo, pero positivas para inmunoglobulinas. La glomerulonefritis fibrilar es una entidad diagnós...

  18. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P less than 0.01), but renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA increased by 10% (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken......Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney...

  19. Charge exchange emission from solar wind helium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D; Hoekstra, R; Seredyuk, B; McCullough, RW; Jones, GH; Tielens, AGGM

    2006-01-01

    Charge exchange X-ray and far-ultraviolet (FUV) aurorae can provide detailed insight into the interaction between solar system plasmas. Using the two complementary experimental techniques of photon emission spectroscopy and translation energy spectroscopy, we have studied state-selective charge

  20. Glomerular filtration values obtained with 99mTc-DTPA v/s measurements of creatinine Clearance and calculation of the filtered glomerular using the Schwartz formula in a pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opazo, Claudio; Gutierrez, Elisa; Zamorano, Julio; Troncoso, TM

    2005-01-01

    We compare glomerular filtration rate by DTPA Renogram (DTPA-GFR) with creatinine clearance (CC) and Glomerular filtration rate from Schwartz formula (Schwartz-GFR). The need for using (DTPA-GFR) method raised from the practical difficulties in getting an accurate (CC) in pediatric population. From Sep-2001 to May-2005, 48 patients aged 1month to 18 years, underwent (DTPA-GFR) and (Schwartz-GFR). 18 had also (CC). Comparison were made among these measurements also accounting for age groups. We found a better correlation between (DTPA-GFR) and (CC) Pearson = 0,895. (Schwartz)/(CC) comparison showed a slightly lower correlation Pearson = 0,857. The worst correlation was found comparing (DTPA-GFR)/(Schwartz-GFR) in children < 3 yr Pearson = 0,560. As we found a better correlation between (DTPA-GFR)/(CC) than (DTPA-GFR)/(Schwartz-GFR), DTPA-GFR could be considered reliable method in evaluating renal function in children having difficulties to get a Creatinine Clearance (au)

  1. Creatinine Clearance Is Not Equal to Glomerular Filtration Rate and Cockcroft-Gault Equation Is Not Equal to CKD-EPI Collaboration Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Prado, Raul; Castillo-Rodriguez, Esmeralda; Velez-Arribas, Fernando Javier; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may require dose reduction or avoidance when glomerular filtration rate is low. However, glomerular filtration rate is not usually measured in routine clinical practice. Rather, equations that incorporate different variables use serum creatinine to estimate either creatinine clearance in mL/min or glomerular filtration rate in mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The Cockcroft-Gault equation estimates creatinine clearance and incorporates weight into the equation. By contrast, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations estimate glomerular filtration rate and incorporate ethnicity but not weight. As a result, an individual patient may have very different renal function estimates, depending on the equation used. We now highlight these differences and discuss the impact on routine clinical care for anticoagulation to prevent embolization in atrial fibrillation. Pivotal DOAC clinical trials used creatinine clearance as a criterion for patient enrollment, and dose adjustment and Federal Drug Administration recommendations are based on creatinine clearance. However, clinical biochemistry laboratories provide CKD-EPI glomerular filtration rate estimations, resulting in discrepancies between clinical trial and routine use of the drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilia Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1 control, (2 5/6NX, (3 5/6NX +CUR, and (4 CUR (n=8–10. Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  4. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  5. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  6. Charge pulse preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libs, Gerard.

    1973-01-01

    A charge pulse preamplifier with very low background noise is described. The inlet stage of that preamplifier comprises a cooled field-effect transistor receiving the signal to be amplified at its gate input. Preferably, the charge resistor of said transistor is a field effect transistor, the source inlet of which is connected to the drain inlet of the former transistor through a self-induction coil and a resistor mounted in series. This can be applied to the treatment of the signals delivered by a particle detector in the form of a semi-conductor [fr

  7. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  8. [Glomerular filtration and renal volume in type II diabetes (non-insulin-dependent): study in normal and microalbuminuria patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, A M; Tanganelli, I; Fondelli, C; Vattimo, A; Ferrari, F; Borgogni, P; Borgogni, L; Gragnoli, G

    1991-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased renal volume (RV), often accompanied to normo or microalbuminuria, were demonstrated. This condition is considered a pathogenetic factor for clinical nephropathy. As this topic is little studied in type 2 diabetes, we have investigated 73 type 2 diabetic patients (34 normo and 39 microalbuminuric), looking for a correlation between GFR, RV, hypertension, duration of diabetes and indexes of metabolic control. GFR was measured by a scintigraphy, after infusion of 99Tc-DTPA. Renal volume was determined by ultrasound scanning. Between the groups GFR and RV weren't different; elevated GFR was demonstrated in 3 patients; increased RV in 1 patient. In the hypertensive group GFR was lower than in normotensive group and in controls. Multivariate analysis in stepwise demonstrated that GFR presents a negative correlation to systolic blood pressure as in normo as in microalbuminuric patients. In the normotensive group GFR didn't correlate to the other variables. The present data suggest that in type 2 diabetes there is a little prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration and increased renal volume and that hypertension plays a role on GFR of hypertensive diabetic patients.

  9. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Wang, T; Brøndum, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary...... cava generated a pressure drop of 12 ± 2 mmHg. RI was 0.27. The renal capsule was durable with a calculated burst pressure of 600 mmHg. Plasma renin and AngII were 2.6 ± 0.5 mIU L(-1) and 9.1 ± 1.5 pg mL(-1) respectively. CONCLUSION: In giraffes, GFR, ERPF and RI appear much lower than expected based...... adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective...

  10. Serum Adiponectin and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ortega Moreno

    Full Text Available High serum adiponectin has been increased in several conditions of kidney disease. Only sparse and conflicting results have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, a subgroup of individuals who are at high risk for renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to fill up this gap of knowledge by investigating such association in a large sample of Italian diabetic patients. The association between serum adiponectin levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration CKD-EPI equation was investigated in 1,243 patients with T2D from two cross-sectional Italian studies: 878 from San Giovanni Rotondo (SGR and 365 from Foggia (FG. Serum adiponectin was inversely associated with eGFR in SGR [β (standard error, SE for 1 standard deviation (SD of adiponectin = -3.26 (0.64] and in FG [β(SE=-5.70(1.28] sample, as well as in the two studies combined [β(SE=-3.99(0.59];(p<0.0001 for all. In this combined analysis, the association was still significant after adjusting for sex, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR and anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic treatments [β (SE= -2.19 (0.59, p = 0.0001]. A stronger association between each SD adiponectin increment and low eGFR was observed among patients with micro-/macro-albuminuria, as compared to those with normo-albuminuria [adjusted β(SE=-4.42(1.16 ml/min/1.73m2 vs. -1.50 (0.67 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; p for adiponectin-by-albuminuric status = 0.022]. For each adiponectin SD increment, the odds of having eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 increased by 41% (odds ratio, OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.21-1.64 in SGR sample, 53% (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.21-1.94 in FG sample, and 44% (OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.27-1.64 in the two studies considered together (p<0.0001 for all. In the combined sample, further adjustment for the above

  11. Study on molecular modelling of the selectivity of catalysts for heavy petroleum fractions hydrocracking; Etude sur molecule modele des parametres regissant la selectivite des catalyseurs d'hydrocraquage des charges lourdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.

    2000-10-19

    Hydrocracking is a catalytic petroleum refining process that is commonly applied to upgrade the heavier fractions obtained from the distillation of crude oils. Nowadays the European demand for good quality middle distillates (kerosene and gas-oil) is high and one important goal for the refining is to transform selectively feedstocks into middle distillates. To understand how this transformation occurs, studies on model compounds have been investigated. Numerous studies have been devoted to paraffin hydrocracking. However theses molecules do not fully represent heavy petroleum fraction. Taking into account that the trend in the future will be to treat heavier feedstocks containing a large quantity of PNA (Polynuclear Aromatic hydrocarbons), the understanding of their transformation under hydrocracking conditions is a key point. In this study, we studied hydrocracking of phenanthrene over platinum on acid solids catalysts. Our main aim was to compare hydrocracking catalysts in term of catalytic activity and selectivity toward primary products thanks to our model reaction and to correlate these catalytic performances with acid solid properties and especially to rationalize the effects due to the acidity and the porosity of the acid solids. Catalytic experiments emphasised an effect of the porous structure on the selectivities. The acidity of the catalysts seemed to impose the catalytic activity but did not permit to explain the selectivities. This 'effect of the structure' has been clarified with the simulation of intermediate products adsorption and diffusion in the studied structures thanks to a molecular modelling study. Indeed, the selectivities obtained during phenanthrene hydrocracking have been linked up with the intermediate products adsorption energies in the structures. The results of this study permit to propose that the key-step for selectivities determination is the physical desorption of the primary products. (author)

  12. Charge transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent report (UCID 17346, ''Relativistic Particle Beam in a Semi-Infinite Axially Symmetric conducting channel extending from a perfectly conducting plane,'' Dec. 13, 1976) Cooper and Neil demonstrate that the net charge transported by a beam pulse injected into a channel of finite conductivity equals the charge of the beam itself. The channel is taken to be infinite in the positive z direction, has finite radius and is terminated by a conducting ground plane at z =0. This result is not an obvious one, and it is restricted in its applicability by the special model assumed for the channel. It is the purpose to explain the result of Cooper and Neil in more qualitative terms and to make similar calculations using several other channel models. It must be emphasized that these calculations are not concerned with the fate of the transported charge after the pulse has stopped, but rather with how much charge leaves the ground plane assuming the pulse does not stop

  13. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  14. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  15. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...

  16. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  17. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  18. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  19. Comparison of glomerular filtration rate measured by plasma sample technique, Cockroft Gault method and Gates’ method in voluntary kidney donors and renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hephzibah, Julie; Shanthly, Nylla; Oommen, Regi

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous methods for calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a crucial measurement to identify patients with renal disease. The aim of this study is to compare four different methods of GFR calculation. Clinical setup, prospective study. Data was collected from routine renal scans done for voluntary kidney donors (VKD) or renal transplant recipients 6 months after transplantation. Following technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta acetic acid injection, venous blood samples were collected from contralateral arm at 120, 180, and 240 min through an indwelling venous cannula and direct collection by syringe. A total volume of 1 ml of plasma from each sample and standards were counted in an automatic gamma counter for 1 min. Blood samples taken at 120 min and 240 min were used for double plasma sample method (DPSM) and a sample taken at 180 min for single plasma sample method (SPSM). Russell's formulae for SPSM and DPSM were used for GFR estimation. Gates’ method GFR was calculated by vendor provided software. Correlation analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation test. SPSM correlated well with DPSM. GFR value in healthy potential kidney donors has a significant role in the selection of donors. The mean GFR ± (standard deviation) in VKD using SPSM, DPSM, camera depth method and Cockroft Gault method was 134.6 (25.9), 137.5 (42.4), 98.6 (15.9), 83.5 (21.1) respectively. Gates’ GFR calculation did not correlate well with plasma sampling method. Calculation of GFR plays a vital role in the management of renal patients, hence it was noted that Gates GFR may not be a reliable method of calculation. SPSM was more reliable. DPSM is reliable but cumbersome. It is difficult to accurately calculate GFR without a gold standard

  20. Glomerular filtration rate equations overestimate creatinine clearance in older individuals enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging: impact on renal drug dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Thomas C; Wang, En-Shih; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sorkin, John D

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of kidney function estimation equations and to determine the frequency of drug dose discordance in an older population. Cross-sectional analysis of data from community-dwelling volunteers randomly selected from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010. A total of 269 men and women with a mean ± SD age of 81 ± 6 years, mean serum creatinine concentration (Scr ) of 1.1 ± 0.4 mg/dl, and mean 24-hour measured creatinine clearance (mClcr ) of 53 ± 13 ml/minute. Kidney function was estimated by using the following equations: Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI). The performance of each equation was assessed by measuring bias and precision relative to mClcr . Dose calculation errors (discordance) were determined for 10 drugs requiring renal dosage adjustments to avoid toxicity when compared with the dosages approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The CG equation was the least biased estimate of mClcr . The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations were significantly positively biased compared with CG (mean ± SD 34 ± 20% and 22 ± 15%, respectively, prenal impairment. Thus equations estimating glomerular filtration rate should not be substituted in place of the CG equation in older adults for the purpose of renal dosage adjustments. In addition, the common practice of rounding or replacing low Scr values with an arbitrary value of 1.0 mg/dl for use in the CG equation should be avoided. Additional studies that evaluate alternative eGFR equations in the older populations that incorporate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes measures are needed. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Electrostatic charging and control of droplets in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongbo; Yao, Shuhuai

    2013-03-07

    Precharged droplets can facilitate manipulation and control of low-volume liquids in droplet-based microfluidics. In this paper, we demonstrate non-contact electrostatic charging of droplets by polarizing a neutral droplet and splitting it into two oppositely charged daughter droplets in a T-junction microchannel. We performed numerical simulation to analyze the non-contact charging process and proposed a new design with a notch at the T-junction in aid of droplet splitting for more efficient charging. We experimentally characterized the induced charge in droplets in microfabricated devices. The experimental results agreed well with the simulation. Finally, we demonstrated highly effective droplet manipulation in a path selection unit appending to the droplet charging. We expect our work could enable precision manipulation of droplets for more complex liquid handling in microfluidics and promote electric-force based manipulation in 'lab-on-a-chip' systems.

  2. Short-term inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis has no effect on the elevated glomerular filtration rate of early insulin-dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Parving, H H

    1985-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (constant infusion technique using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran) were measured twice within a 1-week interval in nine young males with insulin-dependent diabetes of short duration (2-5 years). The study was performed in a randomized double...... +/- 43 versus 560 +/- 52 ml/min X 1.73 m2), when measured during placebo or indomethacin treatment, respectively. It is concluded that the steady-state enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow found in early insulin-dependent diabetes is not due to an excessive activity...

  3. Irrational Charge from Topological Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-10-01

    Topological or deconfined phases of matter exhibit emergent gauge fields and quasiparticles that carry a corresponding gauge charge. In systems with an intrinsic conserved U(1) charge, such as all electronic systems where the Coulombic charge plays this role, these quasiparticles are also characterized by their intrinsic charge. We show that one can take advantage of the topological order fairly generally to produce periodic Hamiltonians which endow the quasiparticles with continuously variable, generically irrational, intrinsic charges. Examples include various topologically ordered lattice models, the three-dimensional resonating valence bond liquid on bipartite lattices as well as water and spin ice. By contrast, the gauge charges of the quasiparticles retain their quantized values.

  4. Effects of Discrete Charge Clustering in Simulations of Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, John M A; Khan, Malek O

    2010-10-12

    A system of counterions between charged surfaces is investigated, with the surfaces represented by uniform charged planes and three different arrangements of discrete surface charges - an equispaced grid and two different clustered arrangements. The behaviors of a series of systems with identical net surface charge density are examined, with particular emphasis placed on the long ranged corrections via the method of "charged slabs" and the effects of the simulation cell size. Marked differences are observed in counterion distributions and the osmotic pressure dependent on the particular representation of the charged surfaces; the uniformly charged surfaces and equispaced grids of discrete charge behave in a broadly similar manner, but the clustered systems display a pronounced decrease in osmotic pressure as the simulation size is increased. The influence of the long ranged correction is shown to be minimal for all but the very smallest of system sizes.

  5. Trap-controlled charge transport in corona-charged Teflon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.; Giacometti, J.A.; Ferreira, G.F.L.; Moreno A, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of negatively charged Teflon electrets is discussed. It is stated that it can only be explained by the assumption that the transport of excess charge is trap - controlled rather than mobility - controlled. (I.C.R.) [pt

  6. Charge exchange cross-sections for multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midha, J.M.; Gupta, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new empirical relation for charge exchange cross-section has been proposed for different charge states of C, N and O colliding with neutral hydrogen. Results are compared with the experimental data. (Author)

  7. Development of a Microcontroller-based Battery Charge Controller for an Off-grid Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rina, Z. S.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rojan, M. A.; Zaman, I.

    2017-08-01

    A development of a microcontroller-based charge controller for a 12V battery has been explained in this paper. The system is designed based on a novel algorithm to couple existing solar photovoltaic (PV) charging and main grid supply charging power source. One of the main purposes of the hybrid charge controller is to supply a continuous charging power source to the battery. Furthermore, the hybrid charge controller was developed to shorten the battery charging time taken. The algorithm is programmed in an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller that monitors the battery voltage and generates appropriate commands for the charging power source selection. The solar energy is utilized whenever the solar irradiation is high. The main grid supply will be only consumed whenever the solar irradiation is low. This system ensures continuous charging power supply and faster charging of the battery.

  8. Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Michael Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Neutrinos are among the least understood particles in the standard model of particle physics. At neutrino energies in the 1 GeV range, neutrino properties are typically determined by observing the outgoing charged lepton produced in a charged current quasi-elastic interactions. The largest charged current background to these measurements comes from charged current pion production interactions, for which there is very little available data.

  9. Effects of Macroion Geometry and Charge Discretization in Charge Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arup K.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of discrete macroion surface charge distribution and valences of these surface charges and counterions on charge reversal have been studied for macroions of three different geometries and compared with those of continuous surface charge distributions. The geometry of the macroion has been observed to play an important role in overcharging in these cases. The interplay of valences of discrete microions and counterions have noticeable effects on overcharging efficiency. For some val...

  10. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr

  11. Charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ress, T I; Nolde, G V

    1974-11-25

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.

  12. Spacecraft Charge Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goembel, L.

    2003-12-01

    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  13. The quasilocalized charge approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P

    2005-01-01

    The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two

  14. Normal values of glomerular filtration rate in geriatrics in Bandung and its correlation with serum cystatin-C levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnaldi, A.; Yuliani, A.; Hidayat, B.; Kartamihardja, A.H.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Determination of the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an essential part of the evaluation of patient with kidney disease. GFR almost linearly decreases with age at a mean annual rate of 0.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 over the age of 30 years old. According to NHANES III mean GFR for population with age > 60 years was 80 mL/min/1.73 m2. It is recommended for each centre to determine their own normal values of GFR for different age groups particularly in geriatric population. Recently, serum cystatin-C has been proposed as a new endogenous marker of glomerular filtration rate. Aim of the study was to determination of normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in geriatrics in Bandung and its correlation with serum Cystatin-C levels. Subjects were 24 males and 36 females (mean age 66.71 ± 6.7 years; range 60-87 yrs), without any renal and/or systemic disease. Creatinine clearance was estimated by using Cockroft-Gault formula and serum cystatin-C level were determined by using particle enhanced immunonephelometric method, while GFR values were determined by external body counting methods using Tc-99m DTPA ( Gates' methods ). Pearson correlation was used to determine correlation between variables and a P value < 0.05 is considered significant. Results and Discussion. Mean total GFR was 67.57 ml/min/1.73 m2 (SD ± 16.02), range from 45 to 100 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean total GFR for male was 69.46 ml/min/1.73 m2, and female was 66.31 ml/min/1.73 m2, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The results were lower than NHANES III values. There was a better correlation between total GFR and cystatin-C level (r = -0.522 and p < 0.001) compared to total GFR and creatinine clearance (r 0.306 and p < 0.005). Mean creatinine clearance was 57.93 ml/min and serum cystatin-C was 0.97 mg/dl, the correlation was statistically significant (r -0.414 and p < 0.005). Conclusions: The normal values of GFR in geriatric population in Bandung were 69

  15. Extremally charged line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzner, Jirí; Žofka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a static, cylindrically symmetric Majumdar–Papapetrou-type solution of Einstein–Maxwell equations. We locate its singularities, establish its algebraic type, find its asymptotic properties and weak-field limit, study the structure of electrogeodesics, and determine the mass and charge of its sources. We provide an interpretation of the spacetime and discuss the parameter appearing in the metric. (paper)

  16. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  17. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  18. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n-1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed.

  19. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  20. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  1. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  2. Gravitational field of charged gyratons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri P [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Zelnikov, Andrei [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119 991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-21

    We study relativistic gyratons which carry an electric charge. The Einstein-Maxwell equations in arbitrary dimensions are solved exactly in the case of a charged gyraton propagating in an asymptotically flat metric.

  3. Glomerular filtration rate and renal recovery of [14C]-allantoin in Bali and Zebu cattle of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasitkusol, P.; Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.; Kyle, D.J.; Yusiati, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The urinary recovery of [ 14 C]-allantoin injected into the blood of Bali Cattle (Bos banteng) and Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of these animals, were determined. The cattle were fed with king grass at 95% of ad libitum intake. The recovery of [ 14 C]-allantoin in the urine was significantly higher for Bali (83 ± SE 0.94 %) than for Zebu Cattle (74 ± SE 0.79 %). There were no significant differences in GFR between Bali and Zebu cattle (302 ± SE23.8 and 285 ± SE18.7 L/d). Within each species, there was no significant effect of GFR on the [ 14 C]-allantoin recovery. It remains to be investigated whether the differences in [ 14 C]-allantoin recovery between species is affected by GFR. (author)

  4. Predictors of estimated glomerular filtration rate progression, stabilization or improvement after chronic renal impairment in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to investigate predictors of progression, stabilization or improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after development of chronic renal impairment (CRI) in HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS......: The Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study participants progressing to CRI defined as confirmed, at least 3 months apart, and eGFR 70 ml/min per 1.73 m or less were included in the analysis. The median of all eGFRs measured 24-36 months post-CRI was compared with the median e......GFR defining CRI, and changes were grouped into improvement (>+10 ml/min per 1.73 m), stabilization (-10 to +10 ml/min per 1.73 m) and progression (

  5. Anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies in the Brown Norway rat: detection by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.; Peters, D.K.; Lockwood, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described for the detection of IgG autoantibodies to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) induced in the Brown Norway rat by mercuric chloride. The assay involves the adsorption of a collagenase digest of GBM to plastic microtitre plates and detection of bound antibody with affinity purified radiolabelled rabbit anti-rat IgG. Comparison with existing immunofluorescence methods for detection of anti-GBM antibody showed that the solid-phase RIA is highly sensitive, allowing detection of antibody in solutions with as low as 0.5 ng protein/ml. The assay is suitable for detection of anti-GBM antibody both in serum and in eluates from nephritic kidneys. The assay proved to be specific in competitive studies of inhibition brought about by GBM, keyhole limpet antigen and ovalbumin. This solid-phase RIA is reproducible, robust and easy to perform. (Auth.)

  6. Rituximab for the treatment of refractory simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Ghassan; Jones, Bruce A; Li, Jian; Yee, Jerry; Umanath, Kausik

    2014-02-01

    Antibody-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs rarely in the presence of another B-cell disorder, membranous nephropathy. The coexistence of these two autoimmune disorders would be anticipated to require differing, specific therapies targeted to each disease process. We describe a case of concomitant membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease in which conventional therapy, including steroids, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide, failed to attenuate the anti-GBM disease, yet responded to an alternative treatment of rituximab. This B-cell directed, monoclonal, chimeric antibody treatment substantially reduced anti-GBM antibody titers and led to discontinuation of plasmapheresis, while maintaining the remission of membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease.

  7. Recombinant human erythropoietin in humans down-regulates proximal renal tubular reabsorption and causes a fall in glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Oturai, Peter

    2010-01-01

    HuEPO for 28 days in doses raising the hematocrit to 48.3 (4.1) %. Renal clearance studies with urine collections (N = 8) were done at baseline and at days 4, 11, 29, and 42. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured by (51)Cr-EDTA. Renal clearance of lithium (C(Li)) was used as an index of proximal...... tubular outflow and to assess segmental renal tubular handling of sodium and water. rHuEPO-induced increases in hematocrit occurred from day 10 onwards and was caused by both an increase in red cell volume and a fall in plasma volume. Well before that (from day 2 and throughout the treatment time), r...... and water (APR = GFR - C(Li), P

  8. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  9. Comparison of methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate in head and neck cancer patients treated with cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Lotte; Brødbæk, Kasper; Hägerström, Erik G

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Cisplatin induces nephrotoxicity and may lead to long-term reduction of kidney function. Consequently, determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used to monitor potential kidney damage. This study...... aimed to compare two commonly used algorithms for estimating GFR (eGFR) from plasma creatinine (PCr) with 51Cr-EDTA clearance (CrCl) as a reference method. This was a retrospective single center study of 94 head and neck cancer patients treated with cisplatin. CrCl was performed once before, during......, and after treatment, and PCr was measured concurrently. eGFR was assessed from PCr applying the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. Agreement was assessed applying the statistical methods of Bland and Altman. A predefined limit of clinically...

  10. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  11. Beneficial Effect of Conversion to Belatacept in Kidney-Transplant Patients with a Low Glomerular-Filtration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Belliere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Belatacept has been found to be efficient at preserving good kidney function in maintenance kidney-transplant patients. Herein, we report on the use of belatacept as a rescue therapy for two kidney-transplant patients presenting with severe adverse events after treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs and mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors. Two kidney-transplant patients developed severely impaired kidney function after receiving CNIs. The use of everolimus was associated with severe angioedema. Belatacept was then successfully used to improve kidney function in both cases, even though estimated glomerular-filtration rate before conversion was <20 mL/min. These case reports show that belatacept can be used as a rescue therapy, even if kidney function is very low in kidney-transplant patients who cannot tolerate CNIs and/or mTOR inhibitors.

  12. Fluorescent and radiolabelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane with a newly developed hydroxy-coumarin derivative (CASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand-Weaver, M.; Abuknesha, R.A.; Price, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane (pHGBM) with a newly developed fluorescent iodine acceptor 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-acetic acid N-hydroxysucciniimydyl ester (CASE) is described. The binding of a monoclonal antibody to pHGBM was assessed by radiobinding assays, and when directly iodinated pHGBM was used there was no apparent binding. When CASE was conjugated to pHGBM prior to iodination 11% binding was achieved. CASE acting as an iodine acceptor may be useful for proteins containing few or inaccessible tyrosine residues or which are destroyed by introduction of 125 I. Since CASE is fluorescent, small amounts of material can be detected during isolation prior to iodination. (orig.)

  13. Space charge effects of CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Xia Jiawen; Xu Xiangyang; Lu Xiaowen; Wu Junli

    2000-01-01

    Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), and upgrading program planned at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), will supply beams with higher quality and intensity. Space charge effects should be considered due to this magnitude of intensity in CSR. The concept and some phenomena of space charge effects are discussed. Space charge intensity limit and space charge tune shift of normal CSR operation are given. It is of significance for the construction and operation of the future facility

  14. A Case Report of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone to Treat Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis Post-transplantation and Biomarker Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar eSiddiq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (rFSGS in renal transplant recipients (RTR is difficult to predict and treat. Early rFSGS is likely from circulating factors and preformed antibodies. Methods: We present the case of a 23-year-old white man who presented with rFSGS and acute renal failure requiring dialysis 9-months after a 1-haplotype matched living-related transplant. We retrospectively analyzed serum samples from various clinical stages for rFSGS biomarkers: serum glomerular albumin permeability (Palb, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR serum level with suPAR-β3 integrin signaling on human podocytes, and angiotensin II type I receptor-antibody (AT1R-Ab titer. Results: All biomarkers were abnormal at 1-year pre-transplant prior to initiation of dialysis and at the time of transplant. After initiation of hemodialysis, β3 integrin activity on human podocytes, in response to patient serum, as well as AT1R-Ab were further elevated. At the time of biopsy-proven recurrence, all biomarkers were abnormally high. One week after therapy with aborted plasmapheresis (secondary to intolerance, and high dose steroids, the Palb and suPAR- β3 integrin activity remained significantly positive. After 12-weeks of treatment with high-dose steroids, rituximab, and galactose, the patient remained hemodialysis-dependent. Three-months after his initial presentation we commenced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, Acthar® Gel, 80 units subcutaneously twice weekly. Four-weeks later he was able to discontinue dialysis. After 8-months of maintenance ACTH therapy, his serum creatinine stabilized at 1.79 mg/dL with less than 1 gram of proteinuria. Conclusion: ACTH therapy was associated with improvement in renal function within 4 weeks. The use of rFSGS biomarkers may aid in predicting development of rFSGS.

  15. Novel subdomains of the mouse olfactory bulb defined by molecular heterogeneity in the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Golan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse olfactory system, the role of the olfactory bulb in guiding olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons to their targets is poorly understood. What cell types within the bulb are necessary for targeting is unknown. What genes are important for this process is also unknown. Although projection neurons are not required, other cell-types within the external plexiform and glomerular layers also form synapses with OSNs. We hypothesized that these cells are important for targeting, and express spatially differentially expressed guidance cues that act to guide OSN axons within the bulb. Results We used laser microdissection and microarray analysis to find genes that are differentially expressed along the dorsal-ventral, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior axes of the bulb. The expression patterns of these genes divide the bulb into previously unrecognized subdomains. Interestingly, some genes are expressed in both the medial and lateral bulb, showing for the first time the existence of symmetric expression along this axis. We use a regeneration paradigm to show that several of these genes are altered in expression in response to deafferentation, consistent with the interpretation that they are expressed in cells that interact with OSNs. Conclusion We demonstrate that the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers of the bulb can be divided into multiple domains based on the expression of these genes, several of which are known to function in axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis. These genes represent candidate guidance cues that may act to guide OSN axons within the bulb during targeting.

  16. Studies on binding and mitogenic effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in glomerular mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, F.G.; Striker, L.J.; Lesniak, M.A.; MacKay, K.; Roth, J.; Striker, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The mesangial cells are actively involved in regulating glomerular hemodynamics. Their overlying endothelium is fenestrated; therefore, these cells are directly exposed to plasma substances, including hormones such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). These peptides may contribute to the mesangial sclerosis and cellular hyperplasia that characterize diabetic glomerulopathy. We report herein the characterization of the receptors and the mitogenic effects of IGF-I and insulin on mouse glomerular mesangial cells in culture. The IGF-I receptor was characterized on intact cells. The Kd of the IGF-I receptor was 1.47 X 10(-9) M, and the estimated number of sites was 64,000 receptors/cell. The binding was time, temperature, and pH dependent, and the receptor showed down-regulation after exposure to serum. The expression of the receptor did not change on cells at different densities. The specific binding for insulin was too low to allow characterization of the insulin receptor on intact cells. However, it was possible to identify the insulin receptor in a wheat germ agglutinin-purified preparation of solubilized mesangial cells. This receptor showed the characteristic features of the insulin receptor, including pH dependence of binding and a curvilinear Scatchard plot. The mitogenic effects of insulin and IGF-I on mesangial cells were measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. IGF-I was more potent than insulin. The half-maximal response to IGF-I stimulation occurred at 1.3 X 10(-10) M, and a similar increase with insulin was observed at concentrations in the range of 10(-7) M, suggesting that this insulin action was mediated through the IGF-I receptor. These data show that the mouse microvascular smooth muscle cells of the glomerulus express a cell surface receptor for IGF-I in vitro and that this peptide is a potent mitogen for these mesangial cells

  17. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tong

    Full Text Available To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and minimal change disease (MCD.We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis.Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys.This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases.

  18. A clinicopathologic study of glomerular disease: A single-center, five-year retrospective study from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Beniwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies published from centers across India have reported different and contradicting patterns of glomerular disease. In this retrospective study, we report our experience from a Tertiary Care Center in Northwest India. A total of 702 renal biopsies performed between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed of which 80 were excluded from the study because of having insufficient records or if the biopsies were taken from an allograft. The study included 411 males (66.1 % and 211 females (33.9% with an age range of 12-70 years (mean 30.34 ± 7.04 years. Majority of the biopsies (93.9% showed some form of glomerulonephritis (GN, either primary (79.4% or secondary glomerular disease (SGD (14.5%. Minimal change disease (MCD was the most common type of primary GN (26.5% of primary GN, followed by membranous nephropathy (MN; 18.8% and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; 13.2%. Lupus nephritis (LN was the most frequent SGD (52.2% of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was found in 41.1% and diabetic glomerulosclerosis in 4.4%. LN was also the second most common diagnosis in females after MCD, seen in 19.4% of females. MCD followed by membranoproliferative GN and diffuse proliferative GN were the most common entities in individuals <20 years of age. In the 20-39 years age group, MN was the most common pathology seen. MN was again the most common pathology seen in patients aged above 40 years followed by amyloidosis and FSGS. In this study, MCD was the most common primary GN observed overall from this part of India. MN was the most common GN in individuals above 20 years of age presenting with the nephrotic syndrome. The geographical and regional differences in the pattern of GNs point to the necessity of having a central biopsy registry.

  19. Sodium bicarbonate loading limits tubular cast formation independent of glomerular injury and proteinuria in dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S C; Patel, B; Irsik, D L; Sun, J; Ocasio, H; Crislip, G R; Jin, C H; Chen, J K; Baban, B; Polichnowski, A J; O'Connor, P M

    2018-04-12

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) slows the decline in kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat develops hypertension and progressive renal injury when fed a high salt diet; however, the effect of alkali loading on kidney injury has never been investigated in this model. We hypothesized that 'NaHCO 3 protects from the development of renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats via luminal alkalization which limits the formation of tubular casts, which are a prominent pathological feature in this model. To examine this hypothesis, we determined blood pressure and renal injury responses in Dahl SS rats drinking vehicle (0.1M NaCl) or NaHCO 3 (0.1M) solutions as well as in Dahl SS rats lacking the voltage gated proton channel (Hv1). We found that oral NaHCO 3 reduced tubular NH 4 + production, tubular cast formation and interstitial fibrosis in rats fed a high salt diet for 2 weeks. This effect was independent of changes in blood pressure, glomerular injury or proteinuria and did not associate with changes in renal inflammatory status. We found that null mutation of Hv1 also limited cast formation in Dahl SS rats independent of proteinuria or glomerular injury. As Hv1 is localized to the luminal membrane of TAL, our data, suggest that alkalization of the luminal fluid within this segment limits cast formation in this model. Reduced cast formation, secondary to luminal alkalization within TAL segments may mediate some of the protective effects of alkali loading observed in CKD patients. ©2018 The Author(s).

  20. Charging Users for Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)