WorldWideScience

Sample records for glomerata spreng asteraceae

  1. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  2. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  3. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  4. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  5. Hypnotic effect of ecdysterone isolated from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fenner

    Full Text Available In this study the depressant effect of fractions from P. glomerata was initially evaluated using the mice barbiturate sleeping time test as reference. The fractions tested were the CHCl3, the EtOAc, the n-BuOH and the aqueous fraction obtained from P. glomerata subterraneous parts. Only the pretreatment with the lipophilic fraction (CHCl3: EtOAc, 1:1, w/w increased the barbiturate sleeping time (i.p 500 mg/kg; v.o. 1000 mg/kg. Ecdysterone, the main substance isolated from this lipophilic fraction, was identified by spectroscopic methods and its content in the ethanol extract was determined as 1.4% (w/w by HPLC. In order to investigate the hypothesis of ecdysterone displaying a depressant effect on nervous central system, an evaluation toward the hypnotic-sedative and anxiolytic effects of this drug was carried out. Ecdysterone 100 mg/kg, i.p, increased the barbiturate sleeping time without provoking hypothermia; when administered by oral route its minimal effective dose was 400 mg/kg. On the other hand, ecdysterone (100 mg/kg, i.p; 400 mg/kg, p.o did not impair motor coordination and was ineffective on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, elevated plus-maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests, indicating that at these doses the drug does not present an anxiolytic profile and does not cause manifest neurotoxic effects as well. In conclusion, the lipophilic fraction from P. glomerata presents a hypnotic effect being ecdysterone one of the compounds responsible for this CNS activity.

  6. Mikania glomerata Spreng: desenvolvimento de um produto fitoterápico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha

    Full Text Available Apesar da atividade farmacológica de Mikania glomerata Spreng. ser conhecida desde longa data, existem poucos estudos visando a preparação de produtos padronizados que garantam uma produção uniforme, doses eficazes e estabilidade. Nesse trabalho, foram realizados ensaios objetivando a otimização do processo extrativo; tratamento da droga vegetal para o preparo de tinturas; determinação da melhor forma de estocagem e otimização da preparação da forma farmacêutica (xarope.

  7. Avaliação da atividade anti-inflamatória intestinal de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen

    OpenAIRE

    Tanimoto, Alexandre [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen (“ginseng brasileiro”) é uma planta medicinal que apresenta um amplo espectro de usos como tônico, antiestresse e afrodisíaco. Esta espécie pertence ao complexo grupo de plantas medicinais conhecidas como “ginseng” e compõe um grupo específico de plantas denominadas adaptógenas, definidas como produtos capazes de aumentar a resistência não específica do organismo frente a diferentes estímulos estressores; considerando-se tal definição, é previsível que os ...

  8. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  9. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito hipinótico de ecdisterona isolada de Pfaffi a glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen

    OpenAIRE

    Fenner, Raquel; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Neves, Gilda Angela; Kliemann, Michele Patricia; Gosmann, Grace; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi avaliado, em roedores, o efeito depressor das frações clorofórmio (CHCl3), acetato de etila (EtOAc) e n-butanol, obtidas das partes subterrâneas de Pfaffi a glomerata, empregando-se o teste de tempo de sono barbitúrico como referência. Somente a fração lipofílica (CHCl3:EtOAc, 1:1, m/m) (i.p. 500 mg/kg; v.o. 1000 mg/kg) potenciou o tempo de sono induzido por pentobarbital. A ecdisterona foi isolada e identifi cada como constituinte majoritário (1,4% m/m) desta fração, atrav...

  11. Changes in root morphology and dry matter production in Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen accessions in response to excessive zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BERNARDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.

  12. Seasonal changes of fructans in dimorphic roots of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Blake (Asteraceae) growing in Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lorrayne Veloso; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Seraphin, José Carlos; de Moraes, Moemy Gomes

    2017-11-15

    Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses. Asteraceae species accumulate fructans in storage organs, which are not only reserve, but also protecting compounds against the effects of cold and drought. Ichthyothere terminalis is one Asteraceae species abundant in cerrado rupestre, with underground organs consisting of thickened orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots. The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year. I. terminalis accumulates inulin-type fructans in 10-40% of the dry mass in both root types. Fructan dynamics have similar patterns described for other Asteraceae species, exhibiting a proportional increase of polysaccharides with the senescence of the aerial organs. Multivariate analyzes showed that, as rainfall decreased, environmental factors had a stronger influence on metabolite levels than phenological shifts in both root types. Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation. However, these small differences may reflect distinct microclimatic conditions in both root types and also represent the influence of sink strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sacarose e período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de ginseng brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. Pedersen Sucrose and duration of in vitro growth on ex vitro acclimatization of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. Pedersen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiane Caldeira Skrebsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma planta extensivamente usada na medicina popular em decorrência de possuir propriedades fitoterápicas. Devido à sua baixa capacidade fotossintética, as plantas cultivadas in vitro requerem uma fonte extra de carboidratos para suprir suas necessidades metabólicas. O tempo de cultivo in vitro influencia as taxas de crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea de P. glomerata. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os efeitos da sacarose e do período de cultivo in vitro na aclimatização ex vitro de plântulas de P. glomerata. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma combinação bifatorial (5x2 entre cinco concentrações de sacarose (15, 30, 45, 60 e 75g L-1 e dois períodos de cultivo in vitro (25 e 32 dias após a inoculação. No cultivo in vitro, a parcela experimental consistiu de um tubo de ensaio contendo 10mL de meio MS e um segmento nodal, obtidos de plântulas mantidas in vitro, de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas. O procedimento de aclimatização consistiu de quatro fases sucessivas de cultivo ex vitro: (i abertura dos tubos de ensaio e exposição das plântulas ao ambiente de câmara climatizada por três dias; (ii transplantio para substrato Plantmax e cultivo em condições de câmara climatizada por 21 dias; (iii transferência das mudas para ambiente natural parcialmente sombreado, com duração de 24 dias; e (iv transplantio para solo em condições de cultivo a campo. O maior crescimento das plantas obtido pelo aumento da disponibilidade de sacarose (concentrações entre 45 e 60g L-1 no cultivo in vitro contribuiu para a aclimatização. Independente do período de retirada das plantas do cultivo in vitro, as mudas obtiveram adequada aclimatização. O procedimento de aclimatização foi 100% eficiente na produção de mudas de P. glomerata.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is an extensively used plant in popular medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. Due to low

  14. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a propagação sexuada e assexuada de Pfaffia glomerata (ginseng brasileiro. As sementes foram pré-embebidas por 24 horas em KNO3 1%; ácido giberélico 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1 ; emágua e as sementes que não receberam tratamento serviram como testemunha. A semeadura foi em placas de petri sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro e a incubação a 25ºC, sob iluminação constante e na ausência de luz. As estacas com º15 cm foram imersas durante 6 horas em IAA 250 e IBA 500 mg L-1, ácido bórico 1% e em água e plantadas em embalagem plástica, contendo terra+areia (1:1. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 (níveis de luz x 6 (tratamento de pré-embebição em 4 repetições de 20 sementes. O segundo em DIC com 5 tratamentos, 4 repetições de 15 estacas por repetição. As sementes de ginseng brasileiro necessitam de tratamento de pré-embebição para acelerar a germinação, sendo a imersão em KNO3 o método mais eficiente, proporcionando 63% de germinação. Apresentam fotoblastismo neutro, com germinação média de 45%. As estacas de ginseng brasileiro imersas apenas em água apresentaram 100% de enraizamento, maior número de brotos (2,5 e maior comprimento de raiz (8,6 cm. A espécie apresenta potencial para ambos os métodos de propagação.The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual and asexual propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Brazilian Ginseng. The seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in KNO3 1% , gibberellic acid 50, 100, 200 mg L-1 , and in water. Untreated seeds served as control. Sowing was accomplished in petri dishes on 2 sheets of filter paper, at 25ºC incubation, under constant illumination, and in the absence of light. The cuttings with º1,5 cm were immersed for 6 hours in IAA 250 and 500mg L-1, boric acid1% ,and in water. Soon after they were planted in plastic containers with soil + sand (1:1. The

  15. Phytochemical and molluscicidal activity of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae in different lifestages of Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata on the land snail Subulina octona and to assess the changes caused on the snail's fecundity, growth, hatchability and the offspring produced after exposure. Eggs, newly hatched and 30 day old snails were exposed to the sublethal concentration of M. glomerata extract for 24 and 48 h and the observations were made for 120 days. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins were shown by phytochemical tests. The extract reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from the exposed eggs. The eggs exposed for 48 h presented lower hatchability rates. There was a reduction on survival and growth of newly hatched and 30-days old snails exposed to the extract. These results indicated that the aqueous extract of M. glomerata could be applied as an alternative molluscicide for the control of this snail species efficiently.

  16. Efficacy of guaco mouthwashes (Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata on the disinfection of toothbrushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. R. Lessa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Guaco Mikania glomerata Spreng. and M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, has antimicrobial activity and may be helpful in reducing the incidence of oral diseases. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of guaco mouthwashes on the disinfection of toothbrushes used by preschool children, tested positive for mutans streptococci (MS, as well as the quantification of its coumarin contents by high performance liquid chromatography. Ethanol extracts were obtained by percolation. The mouthwashes were prepared with 2.5% g/mL M. glomerata and M. laevigata ethanol extracts, standardized for their coumarin content (% mg/mg. Antimicrobial effect of the mouthwashes and extracts were assessed in vitro against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175TM, using 2.4 to 500 µg/mL to calculate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. For the in vivo study, 24 patients were randomly assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a one-week interval between each stage. All solutions were used in all stages by a different group of children. After brushing without toothpaste, toothbrushes (n=96 were sprayed with water and solutions of M. glomerata (2.5%, M. laevigata (2.5% and chlorhexidine (0.12%. Microbiological analysis was carried out after 4 h and 30 days, respectively. MIC values were 400, 125 and 14 µg/mL, respectively, for both crude ethanol extracts, mouthwashes of M. glomerata and M. laevigata. Statistical analysis showed that all solutions decreased contamination of toothbrushes by mutans streptococci (chlorhexidine 50.7±17.7%; M. glomerata 37.3±23.7% and M. laevigata 28.7±25.1% of inhibition. Treatment with chlorhexidine and M. glomerata were statistically similar (p>0.05. M. glomerata mouthwash could be useful in herbal strategy programs against mutans streptococci and the marker coumarin may be not related to the activity observed.

  17. Efficacy of guaco mouthwashes (Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata on the disinfection of toothbrushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. R. Lessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaco Mikania glomerata Spreng. and M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, has antimicrobial activity and may be helpful in reducing the incidence of oral diseases. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of guaco mouthwashes on the disinfection of toothbrushes used by preschool children, tested positive for mutans streptococci (MS, as well as the quantification of its coumarin contents by high performance liquid chromatography. Ethanol extracts were obtained by percolation. The mouthwashes were prepared with 2.5% g/mL M. glomerata and M. laevigata ethanol extracts, standardized for their coumarin content (% mg/mg. Antimicrobial effect of the mouthwashes and extracts were assessed in vitro against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175TM, using 2.4 to 500 µg/mL to calculate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. For the in vivo study, 24 patients were randomly assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a one-week interval between each stage. All solutions were used in all stages by a different group of children. After brushing without toothpaste, toothbrushes (n=96 were sprayed with water and solutions of M. glomerata (2.5%, M. laevigata (2.5% and chlorhexidine (0.12%. Microbiological analysis was carried out after 4 h and 30 days, respectively. MIC values were 400, 125 and 14 µg/mL, respectively, for both crude ethanol extracts, mouthwashes of M. glomerata and M. laevigata. Statistical analysis showed that all solutions decreased contamination of toothbrushes by mutans streptococci (chlorhexidine 50.7±17.7%; M. glomerata 37.3±23.7% and M. laevigata 28.7±25.1% of inhibition. Treatment with chlorhexidine and M. glomerata were statistically similar (p>0.05. M. glomerata mouthwash could be useful in herbal strategy programs against mutans streptococci and the marker coumarin may be not related to the activity observed.

  18. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  19. Validação da metodologia de quantificação espectrofotométrica das saponinas de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen - Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.S. Vigo

    Full Text Available Realizou-se validação analítica espectrofotométrica das saponinas totais das raízes de Pfaffia glomerata. Em testes iniciais utilizou-se saponina Merck em cinco concentrações (0,08-0,28 mg/ml para obtenção da curva de calibração e verificação da linearidade, repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade. As raízes foram avaliadas em extratos hidroalcoólicos purificados com n-butanol. O reagente cromogênico escolhido foi Cloreto de Cobalto 0,2% em pico experimental em 284nm. O tempo de leitura ideal foi de 10-20 minutos após o início da reação. O método mostrou linearidade para a faixa de concentrações utilizadas (R²= 0,9963. A precisão (coeficientes de variação situou-se entre 7-12%, indicando boa reprodutibilidade. O limite de quantificação situou-se em 0,08 mg/ml e o limite de detecção em 0,02 mg/ml. A exatidão do procedimento forneceu erro relativo de 6,3; 3,4; 3,5; 1,8 e 0,3% para as concentrações utilizadas. Os dados da curva-padrão foram aplicados em várias amostras de raízes levando ao valor média de 13,5±2,0%. Os dados obtidos permitem a quantificação espectrofotométrica das saponinas totais das raízes de P. glomerata.

  20. Influência de diferentes meios de cultura sobre o crescimento de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae para conservação in vitro Influence of different culture media on the growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pendersen (Amaranthaceae for conservation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B.N. Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata ocorre em vários estados do Brasil e países limítrofes da região Sul às margens de rios e nas orlas das matas de galerias, é espécie hidrófita e heliófita. As raízes de espécies do gênero Pfaffia são usadas na medicina popular brasileira, especialmente como tônico, afrodisíaco e no controle do diabete. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um banco de germoplasma in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata. O experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado foi conduzido com seis tratamentos: 1 MS + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol; 2 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol; 3 MS + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 de pantotenato de cálcio; 4 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio; 5 MS + 2% de sacarose + 3% de manitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio; 6 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 3% de manitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de separação de médias de Scott Knott. Os tratamentos um, três e quatro apresentaram, significativamente, o maior número de segmentos nodais por haste, quando comparados com os tratamentos dois, cinco e seis. O tratamento dois foi o mais indicado para a conservação in vitro da espécie por ter promovido menor crescimento das plantas (altura de 3,1±1,9 cm, alto índice de sobrevivência, 100% de explantes com brotação e o maior número de brotos por explante, após seis meses de cultivo. Todas as plântulas produziram raízes e não houve formação de calos, também não ocorreu hiperhidricidade nos tratamentos avaliados. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência no ambiente ex vitro. A manutenção de acessos de P. glomerata no banco de germoplasma in vitro é viável tanto do ponto de vista da conservação quanto economicamente.Pfaffia glomerata occurs in several states of Brazil and its neighboring countries in the south region at riverbanks

  1. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae envenomation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Stuani Floriano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control; Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant linical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 929-937. Epub 2009 December 01.El envenamiento crotálico representa el número más alto de muertes cuando es comparado con envenenamientos por mordeduras de otras serpientes de interés médico. El veneno crotálico tiene importantes características de acción neurotóxica, miotoxicidad, nefrotoxicidad, coagulación y acción hemolítica. Este trabajo evaluó los aspectos clínicos y de laboratorio del envenenamiento experimental con el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus durissus terrificus en las ratas Wistar tratadas con suero antiofídico y extracto acuoso de M

  2. Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Lubi

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido desta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1% foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco.

  3. Thermal pyrolysis characteristics of macroalgae Cladophora glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Kefu; Zeng, Jinsong; Xu, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) is a kind of widely distributed macroalgae in the freshwater ecosystems. It primarily consists of carbohydrates that can be converted into biofuel by pyrolysis. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal behavior and kinetics of C. glomerata during the pyrolysis process. The results showed that heating rates slightly affect the decomposition properties of C. glomerata; with the heating rates increasing, the maximum peak of weight loss rate shifted to higher temperatures. The activation energies of C. glomerata pyrolysis reaction were 244.25 and 238.07kJ/mol, respectively, as calculated by Friedman and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods. The pre-exponential factor and reaction order were determined by Coats-Redfern model, and applied to simulate the pyrolysis process of C. glomerata. The model calculated data and experimental data were consistent. This study could provide theoretical supports for designing C. glomerata conversion processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fungal Pathogen of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Thomas L.; Rogenmuser, Kurt

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Acremonium kiliense (Fungi Imperfecti) produced a water-soluble, dialyzable, heat-stable agent that rendered Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta) chlorotic and inhibited its growth. PMID:16345663

  5. COMPRIMENTO DA ESTACA DE RAMO NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE GINSENG BRASILEIRO (Pfaffia glomerata SHOOT CUTTING LENGTH ON ROOTING OF BRAZILIAN GINSENG (Pfaffia glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma dentre várias espécies conhecidas como ginseng brasileiro e é usada como planta medicinal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar se o comprimento da estaca de ramo influencia o enraizamento da P. glomerata. Os tratamentos usados consistiram de três comprimentos de estacas (10, 15 e 20cm; ± 1cm de variação. As estacas foram obtidas dos 70cm basais de ramos, com 80 a 140cm de comprimento, de plantas possuindo dois anos de idade, cultivadas no Jardim Botânico da UFSM. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e 30 estacas por unidade experimental. O bloco experimental consistiu de uma bandeja plástica com capacidade para 36 litros de solução nutritiva. O experimento foi instalado no dia 15 de julho de 1998 e conduzido por 44 dias sob condições controladas de temperatura, luminosidade e umidade do ar. Os resultados indicaram que (i o tamanho da estaca não afeta a percentagem de enraizamento, a produção de massa seca de folhas e raízes. Por outro lado, as mudas obtidas de estacas de 10cm apresentam maior número de brotações, comprimento das brotações, massa seca de talos e massa seca total produzida por estaca que as de 20cm; e (ii o uso de estacas com 10cm de comprimento é viável e, conseqüentemente, possibilita a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por ramo.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is among several species known as Brazilian ginsengs and it is used as medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate the length of the shoot cuttings on rooting of P. glomerata. Treatments consisted of three length of cuttings (10, 15, and 20cm; ± 1cm of variation. Cuttings were obtained from the 70cm of the basal portion from shoots of 80 to 140cm of length, from two-year-old plants grown in the Botanical Garden at State University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized block design with

  6. Determination of trace metals in Cladophora glomerata: C. glomerata as a potential biological monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeny, W.L.; Breck, W.G.; Vanloon, G.W.; Page, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method has been developed for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in Cladophora glomerata. The method has been applied to samples taken in August from a remote island in Lake Ontario (Main Duck) and a shore site near Kingston, Ontario (Deadman Bay). It is postulated that C. glomerata can act as a biological monitor, concentrating the trace metals present in the aqueous environment with a reasonably constant CF for each element.

  7. Interview with Professor Dr. Daniel Spreng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, C.; Kilchmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    This interview with Professor Dr. Daniel Spreng of the Center for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE) in Zuerich, Switzerland, deals with questions concerning research in the area of energy economics. In particular, the situation in Switzerland, where mains-connected sources of energy such as electricity and gas play an important role in energy supply, is looked at in the light of market liberalisation. Various approaches to the liberalisation of gas and electricity systems are discussed and the costs of liberalised supply systems are compared with those of the present monopolistic situation. Also, energy reserves and the use of the gas distribution system in a future hydrogen-based energy supply scenario are looked at. Projects currently being worked on at the CEPE are reviewed

  8. Rcdisterona de Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng.) Hicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimoto,Nobushigue; Shiobara,Yoshinori; Inoue,Shun-suke; Fujino,Masumi; Takemoto,Tsunematsu; Yeoh,Cheow Lin; Hashimoto,Goro

    1986-01-01

    As raízes secas da espécie brasileira Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng.) Hicken foram submetidas a extração com metanol. Deste extrato metanólico foram isolados a ecdisterona e o ácido oleanólico, através de processos de separação por HPLC e cromatografia em coluna. Tanto a ecdisterona como o ácido oleanólico foram identificados comparativamenve com os respec­tivos padrões. Análise quantitativa por HPLC mostrou 0,23% de ecdisterona. Este teor foi corsiderado baixo em relação a outra espécie, também b...

  9. Rcdisterona de Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobushigue Nishimoto

    Full Text Available As raízes secas da espécie brasileira Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng. Hicken foram submetidas a extração com metanol. Deste extrato metanólico foram isolados a ecdisterona e o ácido oleanólico, através de processos de separação por HPLC e cromatografia em coluna. Tanto a ecdisterona como o ácido oleanólico foram identificados comparativamenve com os respectivos padrões. Análise quantitativa por HPLC mostrou 0,23% de ecdisterona. Este teor foi corsiderado baixo em relação a outra espécie, também brasileira, a Pfaffia iresinoides.

  10. Rcdisterona de Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng.) Hicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimoto, Nobushigue; Shiobara, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shun-suke; Fujino, Masumi; Takemoto, Tsunematsu; Yeoh, Cheow Lin; Hashimoto, Goro

    1986-01-01

    As raízes secas da espécie brasileira Pfaffia tuberosa (Spreng.) Hicken foram submetidas a extração com metanol. Deste extrato metanólico foram isolados a ecdisterona e o ácido oleanólico, através de processos de separação por HPLC e cromatografia em coluna. Tanto a ecdisterona como o ácido oleanólico foram identificados comparativamenve com os respectivos padrões. Análise quantitativa por HPLC mostrou 0,23% de ecdisterona. Este teor foi corsiderado baixo em relação a outra espécie, também br...

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GYMNOSPERMA GLUTINOSUM (SPRENG.) LESS. (ASTERACEAE) METHANOL EXTRACTS AGAINST HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Espinosa-Ramos, David; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Barr?n-Gonzalez, Mar?a Porfiria; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged use of antibiotics may lead to the selection of drug-resistant bacteria; as a result, efforts are being made to identify new and effective antimicrobial agents, particularly, from medicinal plants, against bacterial infections. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnosperma glutinosum against Helicobacter pylori has not yet been reported. Materials and methods: The antibacterial in vitro effect of Gymnosperma glutinosum methanol leaf extracts against Helicobacter pylori (ATCC 435...

  12. Foliar micromorphology of Lippia javanica (Burm.F) Spreng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng is an aromatic indigenous South African plant with culinary and medicinal values. This study investigated the foliar morphology and elemental composition of the plant because not much data concerning the anatomical and micro-morphological features can be found in ...

  13. HS-SPME-GC-MS ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMI-VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM DRIED LEAVES OF Mikania glomerata Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeraldo A. Cappelaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the identification of volatile and semi-volatile compounds and a comparison of the chromatographic profiles obtained by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction/Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry detection (HS-SPME-GC-MS of dried leaves of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae, also known as 'guaco.' Three different types of commercial SPME fibers were tested: polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB and polyacrylate (PA. Fifty-nine compounds were fully identified by HS-SPME-HRGC-MS, including coumarin, a marker for the quality control of guaco-based phytomedicines; most of the other identified compounds were mono- and sesquiterpenes. PA fibers performed better in the analysis of coumarin, while PDMS-DVB proved to be the best choice for a general and non-selective analysis of volatile and semi-volatile guaco-based compounds. The SPME method is faster and requires a smaller sample than conventional hydrodistillation of essential oils, providing a general overview of the volatile and semi-volatile compounds of M. glomerata.

  14. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  15. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Greetha Arumugam; Mallappa Kumara Swamy; Uma Rani Sinniah

    2016-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to trea...

  16. Regrowth of cocksfoot, Dactylis glomerata (L.) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent clipping of Dactylis glomerata after 15-, 30- and 45-day regrowth periods showed that higher foliage yields and better root development are obtained after the longer periods of regrowth. While these longer periods of regrowth, larger quantities of available carbohydrates were translocated to the roots. Clipping at ...

  17. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Cladophora glomerata (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladophora is one of the largest filamentous green-algal genus and has a widespread distribution in Caspian Sea Coast. This study aimed at assaying the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cladophora glomerata in South of Caspian sea. The antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated, including the total ...

  18. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  19. Atractylosides in Callilepis laureola (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, K.B.; Candy, H.A.; Pegel, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to the previously reported atractyloside, three more kaurenoid glucosides have been found in the root-stock of Callilepis laureola. These are carboxyatractyloside and the 6'-isovaleryl esters of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the two 6'-isovalerates. The #betta#-glucosidic nature of these poisonous Asteraceae atractylosides has been confirmed by 1 H and 13 C n.m.r. spectroscopic and molecular rotation evidence

  20. Aktivitas Antioksidan Danangiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor oleh Yogurt dengan Ekstrak Daun Ficus glomerata Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Rani Dewi Wulandani

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRAK  Ficus glomerata Roxb. telah diketahui memiliki senyawa flavonoid. Senyawa flavonoid yang terdapat didalam tanaman diketahui memiliki kemampuan sebagai antioksidan dan mampu sebagai Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor. Penelitian ini diawali dengan melakukan ekstraksi dengan menggunakan air pada daun Ficus glomerata Roxb untuk mendapatkan profil senyawa phenolik pada ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb [gallic acid, flavonol (quercetin dan rutin, flavanol (catechin, dan flavanone]. Tahap berikutnya adalah inokulasi dan perbanyakan starter yogurt untuk selanjutnya melakukan proses pembuatan yogurt dengan penambahan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb. Pengujian aktivitas antioksidan, pengujian terhadap nilai o-phthalaldehyde (OPA dan pengujan terhadap angiotensin converting enzyme I- inhibitor dilakukan terhadap yogurt dengan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama proses penyimpanan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari kemampuan aktivitas antioksidan dan Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor pada yogurt dengan penambahan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama penyimpanan (1, 7, 14, 21, dan 28 hari pada suhu 4 °C. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas antioksidan, nilai o-phthalaldehyde (OPA dan Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor pada yogurt dengan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama proses penyimpanan di dalam refrigerator (4 °C adalah lebih tinggi dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (p < 0,05 dibandingkan dengan plain yogurt yang mencapai optimalnya pada hari ke-7 penyimpanan. Kata kunci: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ficus glomerata Roxb; yogurt

  1. Atividade antioxidante e toxicidade preliminar do extrato e frações obtidas das folhas e cascas do caule de Dasyphyllum tomentosum (Spreng. Cabrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dasyphyllum tomentosum (Spreng. Cabrera, açucará ou espinho-de-agulha, pertence à família Asteraceae, a qual compreende muitas espécies com propriedades terapêuticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar extratos e frações de folhas e de cascas do caule de D. tomentosum, com relação as atividade antioxidante, citotóxica e hemolítica em testes in vitro. Todas as amostras apresentaram atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição de DPPH, com destaque para a fração acetato de etila obtida das folhas cuja atividade foi comparável à dos padrões ácido ascórbico e rutina. Com relação à redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, observou-se que esta mesma fração foi semelhante somente a rutina enquanto a fração obtida das cascas do caule apresentou resultado superior. Não foi observada atividade citotóxica e hemolítica frente aos modelos utilizados com os extratos e frações. Os resultados obtidos demonstram o potencial antioxidante da espécie sem apresentar toxicidade.

  2. Carotenoids retention in processed curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Varnashree Boraiah; Subban, Nagarajan

    2013-02-01

    Lutein content and β-carotene content of dried curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng) by various methods [microwave, combo, infrared (IR), hot air oven, freeze drying, cross flow tray drying, sun and shade drying] have been evaluated. The dried leaves were treated with ice-cold acetone to get the extracts (0.69-3.64% w/w) on dry weight basis. Lutein content and β-carotene content of all these extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using an established method and found in the range of 8.2-99.5 mg/100 g and 2.9-19.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The results indicated that the microwave processed leaves contain higher levels of lutein (99.4 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (19.2 mg/100 g) compared with other drying methods. The cross flow dried (8.2 mg/100 g and 3.5 mg/100 g) and IR dried samples (23 mg/100 g and 2.9 mg/100 g) retained minimum amount of lutein and β-carotene, respectively.

  3. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greetha Arumugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  4. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-03-30

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  5. Vitamina C em "cabeludinha" (Myrciaria glomerata Berg Vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soubihe Sobrinho

    1955-01-01

    " é a fonte mais rica de vitamina C entre as mirtáceas nacionais e de tôdas as frutas brasileiras. Comparando-se a "cabeludinha" com outras frutas exóticas, ricas em ácido ascórbico, nota-se que somente a cereja das Antilhas (Malpighia spp. lhe leva vantagem.The studies on the vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata Berg, reported in this paper were complementary to the breeding work on fruit plantas of Myrtacex, carried out cooperatively by the Seção de Frutas Tropicais, Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, and Seção de Genética, E.S.A. "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba. The ascorbic acid content was determined in the blend obtained by running the pitted fruits in a blendor for 2 minutes in presence of a 0.4 per cent oxalic acid protecting solution. The quantitative determinations were made with an EEL portable colorimeter. The total vitamin C content in fresh fruits from trees exposed to full sunlight were as follows (in mg/100 g : tree n.° 1, 2,417 ; tree n.° 2, 2,389 ; tree n.° 3, 2,322. Assays made with fruits at different stages of maturity gave the following results : green fruits, 2,716 ; full developed fruits, 2,391 ; ripe fruits, 2,417. Green fruits had thus a higher vitamin C content than either partially or completely ripe fruits ; the difference between the last two types was not significant. Different parts of the fruit that were assayed separately had the following vitamin C content (mg/100 g : peel, 2,482 ; pulp (without seed, 3,018. The pulp which is the edible part of the fruit is thus richer than the peel. Vitamin C determinations in ripe fresh fruits from four shaded trees gave the following results (mg/100 g : tree n.° 1, 717.28 ; tree n.° 2, 838.66 ; tree n.° 3, 560.83 ; tree n.° 4, 713.38. Fruits produced on shaded trees are therefore poorer in ascorbic acid than those from trees exposed to full sunlight. The variations between trees in the shaded group may be ascribed to genetic origin. Myrciaria glomerata fruits have the

  6. Animal diversity in Baltic rocky shore macroalgae: can Cladophora glomerata compensate for lost Fucus vesiculosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Salovius, Sonja

    2004-10-01

    The substitution of canopy-forming perennial algae by annual filamentous algae is a common phenomenon on eutrophicated rocky shores with potential consequences for marine biodiversity. In the upper littoral of the northern Baltic Sea, this process is exemplified by decreased occurrence of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus and increased amounts of filamentous algae (e.g. Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis). In this study, macrofauna communities of F. vesiculosus and C. glomerata during summer have been compared and the effects on littoral macroinvertebrates of a total or partial replacement of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata have been estimated. The animal abundance and biomass were higher in C. glomerata than in corresponding amounts of F. vesiculosus (g dwt). Similar results were also obtained when animal abundance and biomass were extrapolated to algal cover per m 2 rocky substrate in the study area. Margalef's species richness was, on the other hand, higher in F. vesiculosus, whereas the Shannon-Wiener diversity was the same. The results indicate that C. glomerata maintains a high diversity of macroinvertebrates in the upper littoral zone of the northern Baltic Sea during summer. A possible substitution of F. vesiculosus by C. glomerata does not immediately affect macroinvertebrate diversity negatively in the littoral zone, although, it is difficult to assess the full consequences due to lack of comparable algal data at wider temporal and spatial scales.

  7. Bioactive phenolic compounds from aerial parts of Plinia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Cláudia; Nart, Viviane; Malheiros, Angela; de Souza, Márcia Maria; Fischer, Luiz; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Della Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the antinociceptive properties and chemical composition of the aerial parts of Plinia glomerata (Myrtaceae). Both of the extracts evaluated, acetonic and methanolic, showed potent antinociceptive action, when analyzed against acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice, with calculated ID50 (mg/kg, i. p.) values of 24.8 and 3.3, respectively. Through usual chromatographic techniques with an acetonic extract, the following compounds were obtained: 3,4,3'-trimethoxy flavellagic acid (1), 3,4,3'-trimethoxy flavellagic acid 4'-O-glucoside (3) and quercitrin (4), which were identified based on spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 (ID50 = 3.9 mg/kg, i. p., or 10.8 micromol/kg) and 3 (ID50 = 1.3 mg/kg or 2.5 micromol/kg) were notably more active than some well-known analgesic drugs used here for comparison.

  8. Reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of Cladophora glomerata, induced by overlying canopies of Lemna spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, L B; Perkins, R G; Mason, C F

    2002-04-01

    The duckweeds Lemna minor L. and L. minuscula Herter reduced PSII quantum efficiency (F'q/F'm) of the filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata Kützing by up to 42% over seven days when floating above mats of C. glomerata in containers. Dissolved oxygen (DO) increased by 23% at 30 degrees C in containers with C. glomerata over controls. But when the water surface in the containers was covered with Lemna spp. floating above C. glomerata, DO was 83% lower at 30 degrees C over seven days than in control samples with no duckweed or alga. Dissolved oxygen was lower beneath a thick mat (1 cm) of either Lemna spp. covering the surface than under a thin layer (single-frond canopy). PAM fluorimetry showed that maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) of C. glomerata in containers was reduced under a canopy of L. minor by 17% over seven days, and under L. minuscula by 22%. F'q/F'm of C. glomerata in containers exposed to 51 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPFD decreased under a canopy of L. minor by 16% over seven days, and under L. minuscula by 19% compared to controls. When light response curves were compared, F'q/F'm was significantly reduced under canopies of L. minor at the highest temperatures tested (28 degrees C and 30 degrees C). L. minor significantly reduced relative electron transport rate (rel. ETR) of the controls by up to 71% at 30 degrees C. Relative electron transport rate did not reach light saturation point (Esat) except at 28 degrees and 30 degrees C under mats of L. minor. Whereas the highest rate of production (rel. ETRmax) and Esat increased with temperature in controls, under a canopy of Lemna, decreases were observed. It is suggested that, during periods of high summer temperature and irradiance, shading inhibits oxygenic photosynthesis in mats of C. glomerata beneath canopies of Lenma spp. This results in less oxygen being produced by the C. glomerata (oxygen produced by Lemna spp. is not released into the water), and this may further inhibit the C. glomerata by

  9. Morpho-anatomy of the leaf of Myrciaria glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemes Veiga Pacheco-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Myrciaria glomerata O. Berg., Myrtaceae, popularly known as "cabeludinha", has high content of ascorbic acid and anti-inflammatory property and is used in folk medicine. The objectives of this study were the morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaves. Leaf studies were made with optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The collection of botanical material was held at the Tijuca Forest, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Histochemical tests aimed the identification of lipids, starch grains, phenolic compounds and crystals. The leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate, pinnate, hairy, with involute margins, hypostomatic and dorsiventral. The stomata are anomocytic. The epidermis presents simple trichomes. Epidermal cells show uneven thickening of their periclinal outer walls, mainly on the adaxial side of the leaf. Secretory cavities of essential oils are subepidermal and exceed, in height, the palisade parenchyma, formed by one cell layer. Four to five cellular layers, rich in phenolic compounds and lipids form the spongy parenchyma. The bundles are collateral and there are many crystals of calcium oxalate spread throughout the mesophyll. In the midrib and petiole the bundles are bicollateral. Analysis by scanning electron revealed epicuticular wax rod-shaped and as grains. In confocal microscopy, the adaxial epidermis, the fibers and the secretory epithelium of the cavities show autofluorescence. The data obtained are important in quality control exams of samples of this species.

  10. Phytochemical Analysis of Pfaffia glomerata Inflorescences by LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Felipe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata contains high levels of β-ecdysone, which has shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study demonstrated that inflorescences of P. glomerata contain other important bioactive compounds in addition to β-ecdysone. The identification of compounds from inflorescences using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS was performed for the first time. The eight compounds identified were β-ecdysone, flavonoid glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl-glucoside, oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins such as ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsusaponin IV, in addition to oleanonic acid and gluconic acid. This study provided information on the phytochemicals contained in P. glomerata inflorescences revealing the potential application of this plant part as raw material for the phytotherapeutic and cosmetic industries.

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Gracilaria gracilis and Cladophora glomerata macro-algae for biocrude production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mehran; Jalilzadeh, Hamoon; Pazoki, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Reza; Abduli, MohammadAli

    2018-02-01

    The potential of Gracilaria gracilis (G. gracilis) and Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) macro-algae species harvested from Caspian Sea for biocrude oil production under Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) reaction at 350 °C and 15 min has been investigated. Furthermore, the effect of using recycled aqueous phase as the HTL reaction solvent was studied. The biocrude yield for G. gracilis and C. glomerata was 15.7 and 16.9 wt%, respectively with higher heating value (HHV) of 36.01 and 33.06 MJ/kg. The sources of each existing component in bio-oil were identified by GC-MS based on their suggested reaction pathways. Moreover, after two series of aqueous solution recycling, experiments showed that the bio-oil yield significantly increased compared with the initial condition. This increasing directly relates with recovery of carbon content from the aqueous solution residue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaf epidermis of Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae Microscopia eletrônica de varredura da epiderme foliar de Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria Maria Saiter Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data on leaf micromorphology of 13 species of Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, a neotropical genus with numerous endemic species. Greatest species richness is found in Central and Southern Brazil, with 41 of the 46 species described. Species were collected in the field at the localities: Itatiaia National Park and Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro State; Fontes do Ipiranga State Park, São Paulo state; Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo State and Rio Doce State Park, Minas Gerais State. Dried plant material came from the herbarium at the São Paulo Botany Institute. The presence of prickles, silica bodies and macro hairs may be especially useful in delimiting species.São apresentados dados relativos à micromorfologia foliar de 13 espécies de Merostachys Spreng. (Poaceae:Bambusoideae, um gênero neotropical, com numerosas espécies endêmicas, que tem sua maior diversidade nas regiões central e sul do Brasil, onde ocorrem 41 das 46 espécies descritas. O material coletado foi obtido nas seguintes localidades: Parque Nacional do Itatiaia e Parque Nacional da Tijuca (RJ; Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (SP; Propriedade dos Irmãos Martinelli, Vargem Alta, Santa Teresa (ES e Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (MG. As espécies herborizadas são provenientes do herbário do Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo (SP. Atenção especial é dada à presença de cerdas, corpúsculos silicosos e macropêlos, características que podem ser úteis na delimitação das espécies.

  13. ANATOMIA DO XILEMA SECUNDÁRIO DE Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth

  14. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decr...

  15. A comparison of cellulose nanofibrils produced from Cladophora glomerata algae and bleached eucalyptus pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhouyang Xiang; Wenhua Gao; Liheng Chen; Wu Lan; Junyong Zhu; Troy Runge

    2016-01-01

    Cladophora, a fresh-water green macroalgae, has unique cellulose properties and thus may be promising for production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Cellulose was extracted from Cladophora glomerata and subjected to microfluidization with or without enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment to produce CNFs. Increasing...

  16. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The epiphytic microbiota of the globally widespread macroalga Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifly, Shahrizim; Hanshew, Alissa; Young, Erica B; Lee, Philip; Graham, Melissa E; Graham, Michael E; Piotrowski, Michael; Graham, Linda E

    2012-09-01

    The filamentous chlorophyte Cladophora produces abundant nearshore populations in marine and freshwaters worldwide, often dominating periphyton communities and producing nuisance growths under eutrophic conditions. High surface area and environmental persistence foster such high functional and taxonomic diversity of epiphytic microfauna and microalgae that Cladophora has been labeled an ecological engineer. We tested the hypotheses that (1) Cladophora supports a structurally and functionally diverse epiphytic prokaryotic microbiota that influences materials cycling and (2) mutualistic host-microbe interactions occur. Because previous molecular sequencing-based analyses of the microbiota of C. glomerata found as western Lake Michigan beach drift had identified pathogenic associates such as Escherichia coli, we also asked if actively growing lentic C. glomerata harbors known pathogens. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the microbiota of C. glomerata of Lake Mendota, Dane, Wisconsin, United States, during the growing season of 2011, at the genus- or species-level to infer functional phenotypes. We used correlative scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy to describe major prokaryotic morphotypes. We found microscopic evidence for diverse bacterial morphotypes, and molecular evidence for ca. 100 distinct sequence types classifiable to genus at the 80% confidence level or species at the 96-97% level within nine bacterial phyla, but not E. coli or related human pathogens. We inferred that bacterial epiphytes of lentic C. glomerata have diverse functions in materials cycling, with traits that indicate the occurrence of mutualistic interactions with the algal host.

  18. Virus incidence in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted over the course of three years (2014-2016) for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-MAV and BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV), and Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. There was an ...

  19. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  20. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bartoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  1. Phytotoxic Potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Varela Montoya, Rosa; González Molinillo, José María; Macías Domínguez, Francisco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of alle...

  2. Evolutionary origin of the Asteraceae capitulum: Insights from Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozner, Raúl; Zanotti, Christian; Johnson, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies based on molecular data are revealing that generalizations about complex morphological structures often obscure variation and developmental patterns important for understanding the evolution of forms, as is the case for inflorescence morphology within the well-supported MGCA clade (Menyanthaceae + Goodeniaceae + Calyceraceae + Asteraceae). While the basal families share a basic thyrsic/thyrsoid structure of their inflorescences, Asteraceae possesses a capitulum that is widely interpreted as a racemose, condensed inflorescence. Elucidating the poorly known inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae, sister to Asteraceae, should help clarify how the Asteraceae capitulum evolved from thyrsic/thyrsoid inflorescences. The early development and structure of the inflorescence of eight species (five genera) of Calyceraceae were studied by SEM, and patterns of evolutionary change were interpreted via phylogenetic character mapping. The basic inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae is a cephalioid (a very condensed botryoid/thyrsoid). Optimization of inflorescence characters on a DNA sequence-derived tree suggests that the Asteraceae capitulum derives from a simple cephalioid through two morphological changes: loss of the terminal flower and suppression of the cymose branching pattern in the peripheral branches. Widely understood as a condensed raceme, the Asteraceae capitulum is the evolutionary result of a very reduced, condensed thyrsoid. Starting from that point, evolution worked separately only on the racemose developmental control/pattern within Asteraceae and mainly on the cymose developmental control/pattern within Calyceraceae, producing head-like inflorescences in both groups but with very different diversification potential. We also discuss possible remnants of the ancestral cephalioid structure in some Asteraceae.

  3. Adubação mineral do angico-amarelo (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. Mineral fertilization of Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Venturin

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar as exigências nutricionais no desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Usou-se como substrato um latossolo vermelho-amarelo com baixa disponibilidade de nutrientes, utilizando-se 10 tratamentos, sob a técnica do elemento faltante. Foram aplicados um tratamento completo (com N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B e Zn, outros com omissão de um nutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B e -Zn e uma testemunha (solo natural. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura, diâmetro, peso de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, e teor de nutrientes na matéria seca da parte aérea. Concluiu-se que as plantas do angico-amarelo apresentam elevada exigência nutricional; os nutrientes P, N, S e o Ca seguidos pelo Mg, K e pelo B são limitantes ao crescimento das plantas; as omissões de K, Ca e de Mg afetam a absorção de S pelas plantas.A greenhouse experiment was carried out with seedlings of the tropical tree Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. in order to study its nutritional requirements. As substrate an oxisol with low nutrient availability was used and distributed in 10 treatments: a complete one (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, the others lacking one element in each treatment (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B and -Zn and a control (natural soil. The following characteristcs were assessed: plant height and diameter growth, dry matter production and levels of nutrient into dry matter of shoots. It was concluded that seedlings are affected by the omission of all nutrients in the following order: P > N > S > Ca > Mg > K > B. The omission of K, Ca and Mg affects S absorption by plants.

  4. Constituintes voláteis de Mentha pulegium L. e Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng Volatile constituents of Mentha pulegium L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi investigado a composição química de óleos essenciais de duas plantas medicinais cultivadas em Ilhéus, Brasil, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. (hortelã-grosso e Mentha pulegium L. (poejo. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos das folhas frescas por hidrodestilação e foram analisados por CG/FID e CG-EM, na primavera e no inverno. P. amboinicus forneceu, tanto na primavera como no inverno, 0,10% de óleo sendo timol o componente majoritário. M. pulegium forneceu na primavera 0,20% de óleo e no inverno 0,09%. Os componentes majoritários dos óleos foram pulegona e trans-cariofileno; borneol, mentol e piperitona foram identificados em menores quantidades. No inverno foram observados maiores quantidades de mentol e isomentol. Acetatos de neoisomentila, de mentila e de isometila foram observados somente no inverno. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das espécies vegetais cultivadas na região do sul da BahiaThis work investigated the chemical composition of the essential oils of two medicinal plants grown in Ilhéus Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (Mexican mint and Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal. The essential oils were extracted from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, in the spring and in the winter. In both seasons, P. amboinicus yielded 0.10% oil and had thymol as major component. M. pulegium yielded 0.20% and 0.09% oil in the spring and winter, respectively. The major components were pulegone and trans-caryophyllene, whereas borneol, menthol and piperitone were identified at small quantities. Higher menthol and isomenthol levels were detected in the winter. In addition, neoisomenthyl, menthyl and isomenthyl acetates were only observed in the winter. This work contributes to the knowledge of plant species grown in southern Bahia

  5. Plasticidade fenotípica de Baccharis genistelloides subsp. crispa (Spreng. Joch. Müll. (2006 - Asteraceae - sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho, relacionado a produção orgânica, utilizou preparados homeopáticos visando incremento na biomassa e no teor de flavonóides em plantas dióicas de carqueja. Os tratamentos foram: controle com água, controle com álcool 70%, Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH, e a combinação destas homeopatias. Variações fenotípicas foram registradas a partir da análise de crescimento, realizada quinzenalmente durante 60 dias e dos caracteres morfológicos, tais como: como altura, número de ramificações, comprimento do ramo principal, diâmetro do caule e ala caulinar mediana. Na colheita foram medidos: a fitomassa fresca/seca e o volume de raiz. Posteriormente, foi quantificado o teor de flavonóides totais conforme as análises prescritas pela Farmacopéia Brasileira. O experimento foi avaliado em delineamento de blocos casualizados (2x5x2, sendo suas médias avaliadas pelo teste Tukey e o coeficiente de variação ambiental para estimar a plasticidade. Quanto ao estudo do crescimento da planta ao longo do tempo, verificou-se aumento linear simples para a maioria das variáveis nos dois sexos. Foram detectadas respostas plásticas na maioria dos caracteres avaliados. De acordo com os resultados, em ambos os sexos, 60 dias de cultivo são suficientes para obtenção de matéria prima com teor aceitável de flavonóides, bem como para verificação dos efeitos de patogenesia e similitude na aplicação de preparados homeopáticos Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH e sua combinação Phosphorus 12CH + Sulphur 6CH. A fitomassa e o teor de flavonóides totais foram semelhantes entre plantas dióicas durante o período de estudo.

  6. Kuidas maikrahv uued rõivad sai. Leopold von Pezoldi "Maikrahvi sissesõit Tallinna" ja Theodor Albert Sprengeli "Reformatsiooni algus Tallinnas" avalik konserveerimine = How the May King got his new clother. Public conservation of Leopold von Pezol

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aas, Kristina, 1988-

    2015-01-01

    Ülevaade baltisaksa kunstnike Leopold von Pezoldi ja Theodor Albert Sprengeli maalidest Suurgildi hoones, nende varasematest restaureerimistest, avalikust konserveerimisest ja tehnilistest uuringutest.

  7. ECOLOGY OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA (L.) KÜTZ IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, V J; McLarty, D A

    1967-06-01

    Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. was the dominant attached alga in streams and along lake shores in southern Ontario. Maximum production occurred in summer and resulted from 2 short periods of intensive vegetative growth (June and September). Optimum habitat conditions consist of a firm substrate in shallow alkaline water. These conditions are provided by harbor facilities where man-made structures supplement naturally occurring rock outcrops or cobble beaches and where nutrients are available from tributaries draining agricultural and urban land areas. Periodicity appears to be related to temperature; the interval between the 2 periods of intensive growth during warm weather decreases at successively more northern locations. Frequent observation of Cladophora growing at a single stream station revealed that variations in thallus morphology and relative cell dimensions of C. glomerata are greater than has generally been recognized. These variations can be attributed to changes in environmental conditions and events in the annual life cycle of the alga.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of the Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata: Insights into Molluscan Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole G Ertl

    Full Text Available Oysters have important ecological functions in their natural environment, acting as global carbon sinks and improving water quality by removing excess nutrients from the water column. During their life-time oysters are exposed to a variety of pathogens that can cause severe mortality in a range of oyster species. Environmental stressors encountered in their habitat can increase the susceptibility of oysters to these pathogens and in general have been shown to impact on oyster immunity, making immune parameters expressed in these marine animals an important research topic.Paired-end Illumina high throughput sequencing of six S. glomerata tissues exposed to different environmental stressors resulted in a total of 484,121,702 paired-end reads. When reads and assembled transcripts were compared to the C. gigas genome, an overall low level of similarity at the nucleotide level, but a relatively high similarity at the protein level was observed. Examination of the tissue expression pattern showed that some transcripts coding for cathepsins, heat shock proteins and antioxidant proteins were exclusively expressed in the haemolymph of S. glomerata, suggesting a role in innate immunity. Furthermore, analysis of the S. glomerata ORFs showed a wide range of genes potentially involved in innate immunity, from pattern recognition receptors, components of the Toll-like signalling and apoptosis pathways to a complex antioxidant defence mechanism.This is the first large scale RNA-Seq study carried out in S. glomerata, showing the complex network of innate immune components that exist in this species. The results confirmed that many of the innate immune system components observed in mammals are also conserved in oysters; however, some, such as the TLR adaptors MAL, TRIF and TRAM are either missing or have been modified significantly. The components identified in this study could help explain the oysters' natural resilience against pathogenic microorganisms

  9. Local plant responses to global problems: Dactylis glomerata responses to different traffic pollutants on roadsides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M D; de Torre, R; Mola, I; Casado, M A; Balaguer, L

    2018-04-15

    The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO 2 in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO 2 and its interactions on different plant traits. Accordingly, we analyzed the photosynthetic response by field A/Ci Response Curves, SLA, pigment pools, foliar nitrogen, carbohydrates and morphological traits in plants at three distances to the road. Secondly, we wanted to know if Dactylis glomerata plants can accumulate metals present on the roadside (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sr) in their tissues and rhizosphere, and the effect of these metals on morphological traits. The MANCOVA whole model results shown: 1) a significant effect of road ambient CO 2 concentration on morphological traits (not affected by traffic intensity, P interaction CO2 x traffic intensity >0.05), that was mainly driven by a significant negative relationship between the inflorescence number and ambient CO 2 ; 2) a positive and significant relationship between ambient CO 2 and the starch content in leaves (unaffected by traffic intensity); 3) a reduction in J max (electron transport rate) at high traffic intensity. These lines of evidences suggest a decreased photosynthetic capacity due to high traffic intensity and high levels of ambient CO 2 . In addition, Pb, Cu, Zn and Sr were detected in Dactylis glomerata tissues, and Cu accumulated in roots. Finally, we observed that Dactylis glomerata individuals growing at the roadside under high levels of CO 2 and in the presence of metal pollutants, reduced their production of inflorescences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  12. Composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Senecio selloi Spreng DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N.S. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial parts of Senecio selloi Spreng. DC. was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, representing 99.9% of the total. The main compounds were found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (71.3%, most of them with a bisabolane skeleton (59.4%. The major constituent was α-zingiberene (54%, followed by monoterpene α-isolimonene (16%. The essential oil was also tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacterial species, three yeasts, and an algae. From the strains assayed, only Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed susceptibility (MIC and MBC = 4400 µg/mL to the essential oil.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  14. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity. PMID:24250136

  15. Ocean acidification narrows the acute thermal and salinity tolerance of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; Scanes, Elliot; O'Connor, Wayne A; Coleman, Ross A; Byrne, Maria; Pörtner, Hans-O; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-09-15

    Coastal and estuarine environments are characterised by acute changes in temperature and salinity. Organisms living within these environments are adapted to withstand such changes, yet near-future ocean acidification (OA) may challenge their physiological capacity to respond. We tested the impact of CO 2 -induced OA on the acute thermal and salinity tolerance, energy metabolism and acid-base regulation capacity of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata. Adult S. glomerata were acclimated to three CO 2 levels (ambient 380μatm, moderate 856μatm, high 1500μatm) for 5weeks (24°C, salinity 34.6) before being exposed to a series of acute temperature (15-33°C) and salinity (34.2-20) treatments. Oysters acclimated to elevated CO 2 showed a significant metabolic depression and extracellular acidosis with acute exposure to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, especially at the highest CO 2 of 1500μatm. Our results suggest that the acute thermal and salinity tolerance of S. glomerata and thus its distribution will reduce as OA continues to worsen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  17. Leaf dynamics of Festulolium and Dactylis glomerata L. at the end of the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Skládanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the assessment of leaf extension rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR and leaf senescence rate (LSR in the Festulolium (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. × Lolium multiflorum Lam. and in the Dactylis glomerata L. at the end of the growing season from the end of September to the beginning of December. In summer, the swards were used for a single cut (beginning of June or for a double cut (beginning of June and end of July. Measurements were made in three periods from 14 Sept. to 11 Oct., from 11 Oct. to 29 Oct., and from 29 Oct. to 6 Dec. In the first period, LER was higher in Dactylis glomerata L. (3.770 mm tiller−1 d−1 than in Festulolium (2.376 mm tiller−1 d−1. In the second and third period, LER was higher in Festulolium (0.859 resp. 0.271 mm tiller−1 d−1 than in Dactylis glomerata L. (0.694, resp. 0.199 mm tiller−1 d−1. LAR values measured in Festulolium in the studied pe­riods were 0.277 leaf tiller−1 d−1, 0.079 leaf tiller−1 d−1 and 0.038 leaf tiller−1 d−1 and LAR values of Dactylis glomerata L. were 0.225 leaf tiller−1 d−1, 0.054 leaf tiller−1 d−1 and 0.027 leaf tiller−1 d−1. In the course of the whole pe­riod of study, LSR showed the highest values in Dactylis glomerata L. (7.869 mm til­ler−1 d−1, 5.947 mm til­ler−1 d−1 and 4.757 mm tiller−1 d−1 while the LSR values of Festulolium were lower (2.904 mm tiller−1 d−1, 2.375 mm tiller−1 d−1 and 1.205 mm tiller−1 d−1. The influence of both the species and the period of measurement on the LER, LAR and LSR values was statistically highly significant (P < 0.01 to very highly significant (P < 0.001. The interaction between the species and the period of measurement was very highly significant (P < 0.001 in the LER characteristic. The influence of the intensity of sward use in summer on the LSR values was very highly significant (P < 0.001, too.

  18. Investigation on resistance to drought and efficiency of water usage in two range species, Dactylis glomerata and Eragrostis curvula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, M.; Saiedian, F.; Heydari, H.; Azarnayvand, H.; Farzaneh, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Determination of water efficiency and resistance to drought in range plants are important factors that have essential role in selection of range development methods. As there is not any comprehensive study in resistance to drought, present research was done with selection of two range species. Selected species were two kinds of Gramineae, namely Dactylis glomerata and Eragrostis curvula. Some parameters such as used water, length, width and number of leaves, dry mass of leaves were studies. Obtained results showed that length and width of leaves were not under stress in irrigation periods, but number of leaves, dry mass of leaf and stem decreased under drought stress. Amount of decrease in Eragrostis curvula was less than Dactylis glomerata Increment of irrigation periods, increased root growth rather than stem, but root growth in Dactylis glomerata was more than Eragrostis curvula for production of dry matter, Dactylis glomerata species has less water requirement and higher water usage efficiency in terms of amount of water usage. In terms of resistance to drought, Eragrostis curvula has more resistance rather than Dactylis glomerata because of high water potential and lower witt ing point

  19. The causes and consequences of algal blooms: the Cladophora glomerata bloom and the Neva Estuary (eastern Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelit, Yulia I; Berezina, Nadezhda A

    2010-01-01

    The biomass dynamics of the green alga Cladophora glomerata was studied in the shallow-water littoral zone of the Neva estuary during May-October of 2003-2005. Additionally, the average production rate of C. glomerata, the biomass of drifting algae and oxygen depletion were examined during period of algae decomposition. Two peaks in C. glomerata biomass, in July and in September, were observed during all years studied, reaching a maximum 300+/-100 g DW m(-2). The primary production of C. glomerata varied from 3.6 to 7.9 g C m(-2) contributing to around 90% of the total primary production in this habitat. From the middle of July to late August the biomass of drifting C. glomerata exceeded the biomass of the attached algae, accounting for 62% of the total algal biomass in shallow areas (0-1m). The hypoxia (a minimum oxygen level of 5% or 0.62 mg dm(-3)) in the water was recorded near shore (to 20-m distance from the shore), negatively influencing the quality of shallow-water habitats. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The origin of the bifurcating style in Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinas, Liliana; Hernández, Marcelo P; Arambarri, Ana M; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-05-01

    The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) exhibits remarkable morphological variation in the styles of its members. Lack of studies on the styles of the sister families to Asteraceae, Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae, obscures our understanding of the origin and evolution of this reproductive feature in these groups. The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of style morphology and to discuss the relevance of important features in the evolution of Asteraceae and its sister families. The histochemistry, venation and general morphology of the styles of members of Goodeniaceae, Calyceraceae and early branching lineages of Asteraceae were analysed and put in a phylogenetic framework to discuss the relevance of style features in the evolution of these families. The location of lipophilic substances allowed differentiation of receptive from non-receptive style papillae, and the style venation in Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae proved to be distinctive. There were several stages of style evolution from Goodeniaceae to Asteraceae involving connation and elongation of veins, development of bilobation from an initially cup-shaped style, and a redistribution of the receptive and non-receptive papillae. These developments resulted in bifurcation in the styles of Asteraceae, with each branch face having a different function, and it is suggested here as a mechanism that promoted outcrossing, which in turn led to the great diversification in the family. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of freshwater green algae, Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa, from Nan River in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warawut Chulalaksananukul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic solvent and hot water extracts of freshwater macroalgae, Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa, harvested from Nan River in northern Thailand were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activities using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition of proliferation of the KB human oral cancer cell lines respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of C. glomerata showed the highest total phenol content (18.1±2.3 mg GAE/g, radical scavenging activity (49.8±2.7% DPPH scavenging at 100 g/ml and in vitro growth inhibition (IC50=1420.0±66 g/g of the KB cell lines. These results indicate that C. glomerata could be a source of valuable bioactive materials.

  3. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  4. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  5. Chemical composition and spasmolytic activity of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L. Spreng. (Poaceae essential oil from Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of genus Cymbopogon are well known for their use in traditional medicine and for their high content of essential oils that are widely used as flavoring agents, fragrances, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Essential oils isolated from the dried stems and inflorescence of cultivated Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L. Spreng. (Poaceae collected from Khartoum state (Sudan in two periods were studied. The results of chemical analysis of C. schoenanthus revealed that this plant is rich in essential oil which is a valuable source of the commercially important monoterpene, piperitone (47.7-71.5%. Other abundant constituents of the oils were intermedeol (6.1-17.3%, δ-2-carene (4.5-10.0% and elemol (2.7-9.0%. The essential oil from the inflorescence was tested for spasmolytic activity using three different experimental models: against spontaneous contractions, contractions induced with acetylcholine and contractions induced with potassium chloride. The oil exhibited strong, significant and dose-dependent spasmolytic activity, indicating the possibility for further investigations of this essential oil for its medicinal purposes or application in food industry. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no.173021 and Grant no. III41018

  6. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. VOLUME INCREMENT OF Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. MEZ ON A MIXED RAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique da Silva Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is studied the growth of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez species through a sampler compounded by eleven dominant trees selected from a rainforest in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul. The mathematical model which better represents the growth trend in percentage volume was described as iv%=(b0+b1.ln d2, fitting individually per tree, being possible to describe the variations of slope (b1 and intercept (b0 coefficients between trees with the relation height – diameter (h/d, diameter increment measured on the last 5 cm on bore increment (id5 sampled on diameter breast height (d, exposition (EXPOS, corrected Basal Area Large (BALcor and crown length exposed to sunlight (Lc, considering the following expressions: b1= 0,41739 + 4,16179.id5 - 6,29332.h/d + 0,37823.EXPOS - 0,11519Ir + 5,80419.BALcor – 0,06858.Lc, with determination coefficient equal to 0,9979 and standard error in percentage of the mean of –1,73%, and b0= 2,62466 –13,37024.id5 + 22,08329.h/d – 1,33161.EXPOS + 0,34689.Ir –23,88899.BALcor + 0,25692.L, with determination coefficient fitting on 0,9907 and standard error in percentage of the mean of 2,71%.

  8. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Efeitos do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de analisar as alterações na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi quando cultivadas em ambientes de sombra moderada ou densa, simulando as condições naturais encontradas em sistemas agroflorestais tradicionais do sul da Bahia, Brasil. Plantas das duas espécies, com aproximadamente um ano de idade, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob quatro níveis de sombreamento (25%, 17%, 10% e 5%. Estudos anatômicos do limbo foliar foram realizados a partir de material incluído em parafina e seccionado em micrótomo rotativo. Os diferentes níveis de sombreamento ocasionaram alterações na estrutura do mesofilo de ambas as espécies, com diferenças significativas na espessura do parênquima paliçádico, limbo foliar, e densidade estomática. Nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado os resultados obtidos indicaram que G. integrifolia apresenta maior capacidade de aclimatação a ambientes de sombra moderada e densa do que S. terebinthifolius, sendo mais indicada para o cultivo em sistemas agroflorestais pré-estabelecidos.

  10. Selectivity of Some Herbicides to Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L., Grown for Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine selectivity of some herbicides to cocksfoot(Dactylis glomerata L., and their influence on the seed production, during the years 2008-2010. The trial was set on the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, onslightly leached chernozem. As a result of the research the following was found: herbicidesArat (500 g/l dicamba + 250 g/l tritosulfuron at the dose of 100 ml/ha, Korida 75 VDG (750g/kg tribenuron-methyl – 15 g/ha and Cambio SL (320 g/l bentazon + 90 g/l dicamba –1250 ml/ha and Grasp 25SK (250 g/l tralkoxyidim + Atplus at rate of 1000 + 1000 ml/ha hadhigh selectivity to cocksfoot, applied at 2-4 leaf stage during establishing year of the stand,and until the stage of the beginning of shooting up in seed production year.Herbicide Topik 080EK (80 g/l clodinofop – propargyl + antidote at rate of 300 ml/ha,showed phytotoxic effect to D. glomerata and caused the reduction of seed and dry biomassproductivity.

  11. AN ECOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA (CHLOROPHYTA) IN THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Scott N; Malkin, Sairah Y; Todd Howell, E; Guildford, Stephanie J; Campbell, Linda; Hiriart-Baer, Veronique; Hecky, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. is, potentially, the most widely distributed macroalga throughout the world's freshwater ecosystems. C. glomerata has been described throughout North America, Europe, the Atlantic Islands, the Caribbean Islands, Asia, Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. Cladophora blooms were a common feature of the lower North American Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, Ontario) from the 1950s through the early 1980s and were largely eradicated through the implementation of a multibillion-dollar phosphorus (P) abatement program. The return of widespread blooms in these lakes since the mid-1990s, however, was not associated with increases in P loading. Instead, current evidence indicates that the resurgence in blooms was directly related to ecosystem level changes in substratum availability, water clarity, and P recycling associated with the establishment of dense colonies of invasive dreissenid mussels. These results support the hypothesis that dreissenid mussel invasions may induce dramatic shifts in energy and nutrient flow from pelagic zones to the benthic zone. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  12. IN VIVO STUDIES AND STABILITY STUDY OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA EXTRACT AS A COSMETIC ACTIVE INGREDIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrowska, Joanna; Kapuscinska, Alicja; Leska, Boguslawa; Feliksik-Skrobich, Katarzyna; Nowak, Izabela

    2017-03-01

    Marine algae are widely used as cosmetics raw materials. Likewise, freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata may be a good source of fatty acids and others bioactive agents. The aims of this study was to find out if the addition of the extract from the freshwater C. glonerata affects the stability of prepared cosmetic emulsions and to investigate in vivo effects of the extract in cosmetic formulations on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Extract from the freshwater C. glonierata was obtained using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Two forms of O/W emulsions were prepared: placebo and emulsion containing 0.5% of Cladophora SFE extract. The stability of obtained emulsions was investigated by using Turbiscan Lab Expert. Emulsions were applied by .volunteers daily. Corneometer was used to evaluate skin hydration and cutometer to examine skin elasticity. Measurements were conducted at reference point (week 0) and after 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of application. The addition of Cladophora extract insignificantly affected stability of the emulsion. The extract from C. glomerata in the emulsion influenced the improvement of both skin hydration and its elasticity. Thus, freshwater C. glonierata extract prepared via SFE method may be considered as an effective cosmetic raw material used as a moisturizing and firming agent.

  13. Phylogenetic and Diversity Analysis of Dactylis glomerata Subspecies Using SSR and IT-ISJ Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Defei; Zhao, Xinxin; Cheng, Yajuan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2016-10-31

    The genus Dactylis , an important forage crop, has a wide geographical distribution in temperate regions. While this genus is thought to include a single species, Dactylis glomerata , this species encompasses many subspecies whose relationships have not been fully characterized. In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of nine representative Dactylis subspecies were examined using SSR and IT-ISJ markers. In total, 21 pairs of SSR primers and 15 pairs of IT-ISJ primers were used to amplify 295 polymorphic bands with polymorphic rates of 100%. The average polymorphic information contents (PICs) of SSR and IT-ISJ markers were 0.909 and 0.780, respectively. The combined data of the two markers indicated a high level of genetic diversity among the nine D. glomerata subspecies, with a Nei's gene diversity index value of 0.283 and Shannon's diversity of 0.448. Preliminarily phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the 20 accessions could be divided into three groups (A, B, C). Furthermore, they could be divided into five clusters, which is similar to the structure analysis with K = 5. Phylogenetic placement in these three groups may be related to the distribution ranges and the climate types of the subspecies in each group. Group A contained eight accessions of four subspecies, originating from the west Mediterranean, while Group B contained seven accessions of three subspecies, originating from the east Mediterranean.

  14. Soil mycoflora as a factor limiting the occurrence of fungi pathogenic for 3 varieties of Dactylis glomerata L. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kutrzeba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned fungal associations found in the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and on roots of three varieties of Dactylis glomerata: 'Brudzyńska', 'Motycka' and 'Nakielska' infected with Fusarium avenaceum and F. culmorum and subsequently planted in sterilized and unsterilizes soil. The value of particular varieties in neahing and environment giving good plant health was examined.

  15. Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    availabilities of their respective food sources (bacteria and fungi ), were also unaffected-or-increasing in soil with CL-20 treatments. This is...ENERGETIC MATERIALS EFFECTS ON ESSENTIAL SOIL PROCESSES: DECOMPOSITION OF ORCHARD...GRASS (DACTYLIS GLOMERATA) LITTER IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH ENERGETIC MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1199 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  16. Innate responses of the parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to volatiles from different plant-herbivore complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geervliet, J.B.F.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    1996-01-01

    To determine and compare innate preferences of the parasitoid species Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula for different plant-herbivore complexes, long-range (1-m) foraging behavior was studied in dual-choice experiments in a wind tunnel. In this study we tested the hypothesis that naive females of

  17. Three-dimensional organization of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the parasitoid wasps Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Bleeker, M.A.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, differ in their use of associative learning. To investigate the neural basis underlying these differences, it is necessary to describe the olfactory pathway of both wasp species. This paper focuses on the organization of

  18. Phytotoxic potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of allelopathic secondary metabolites with phytotoxicity to explain their invasive behavior. Phytotoxic activity was tested using etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation of two flavonoids, pectolarigenin (1) and scutellarein 4'-methyl ether (2), and two sesquiterpene lactones, elemanolide 11(13)-dehydromelitensin β-hydroxyisobutyrate (3) and acanthiolide (4). All compounds were isolated for the first time from O. acanthium, and acanthiolide (4) is described for the first time. Compound 3 strongly inhibited the growth of wheat coleoptiles and 1 showed an intermediate effect. The results indicate that these compounds could contribute to the invasion of O. acanthium in ecological systems and agricultural fields. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  20. Enhanced nitrogen deposition exacerbates the negative effect of increasing background ozone in Dactylis glomerata, but not Ranunculus acris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyness, Kirsten, E-mail: kirnes@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Newcastle Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability - NIRES, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Mills, Gina; Jones, Laurence [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Barnes, Jeremy D. [Newcastle Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability - NIRES, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Jones, Davey L. [School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The combined impacts of simulated increased nitrogen (N) deposition (75 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) and increasing background ozone (O{sub 3}) were studied using two mesotrophic grassland species (Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris) in solardomes, by means of eight O{sub 3} treatments ranging from 15.5 ppb to 92.7 ppb (24 h average mean). A-C{sub i} curves were constructed for each species to gauge effects on photosynthetic efficiency and capacity, and effects on biomass partitioning were determined after 14 weeks. Increasing the background concentration of O{sub 3} reduced the healthy above ground and root biomass of both species, and increased senesced biomass. N fertilisation increased biomass production in D. glomerata, and a significantly greater than additive effect of O{sub 3} and N on root biomass was evident. In contrast, R. acris biomass was not affected by high N. The study shows the combined effects of these pollutants have differential implications for carbon allocation patterns in common grassland species. - Highlights: > Dactylis glomerata and Ranunculus acris enhanced senescence with increasing O{sub 3}. > Ozone effects on root biomass were larger than on shoot biomass in both species. > N deposition exacerbated the negative O{sub 3} effect on D. glomerata root biomass. > Inter-specific differences in the response to O{sub 3} and N combined exposure. - Synergistic effects of elevated O{sub 3} and N were observed in below ground C-partitioning in the grass Dactylis glomerata, but not in the forb Ranunculus acris.

  1. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  2. Comparative analysis of five DNA isolation protocols and three drying methods for leaves samples of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Severo da Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish a DNA isolation protocol Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez., able to obtain samples of high yield and quality for use in genomic analysis. A commercial kit and four classical methods of DNA extraction were tested, including three cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-based and one sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-based methods. Three drying methods for leaves samples were also evaluated including drying at room temperature (RT, in an oven at 40ºC (S40, and in a microwave oven (FMO. The DNA solutions obtained from different types of leaves samples using the five protocols were assessed in terms of cost, execution time, and quality and yield of extracted DNA. The commercial kit did not extract DNA with sufficient quantity or quality for successful PCR reactions. Among the classic methods, only the protocols of Dellaporta and of Khanuja yielded DNA extractions for all three types of foliar samples that resulted in successful PCR reactions and subsequent enzyme restriction assays. Based on the evaluated variables, the most appropriate DNA extraction method for Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez. was that of Dellaporta, regardless of the method used to dry the samples. The selected method has a relatively low cost and total execution time. Moreover, the quality and quantity of DNA extracted using this method was sufficient for DNA sequence amplification using PCR reactions and to get restriction fragments.

  3. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jia Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2 in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation.

  4. Comparison of the nodule vs. root transcriptome of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata: actinorhizal nodules contain a specific class of defensins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Demina

    Full Text Available Actinorhizal root nodule symbioses are very diverse, and the symbiosis of Datisca glomerata has previously been shown to have many unusual aspects. In order to gain molecular information on the infection mechanism, nodule development and nodule metabolism, we compared the transcriptomes of D. glomerata roots and nodules. Root and nodule libraries representing the 3'-ends of cDNAs were subjected to high-throughput parallel 454 sequencing. To identify the corresponding genes and to improve the assembly, Illumina sequencing of the nodule transcriptome was performed as well. The evaluation revealed 406 differentially regulated genes, 295 of which (72.7% could be assigned a function based on homology. Analysis of the nodule transcriptome showed that genes encoding components of the common symbiosis signaling pathway were present in nodules of D. glomerata, which in combination with the previously established function of SymRK in D. glomerata nodulation suggests that this pathway is also active in actinorhizal Cucurbitales. Furthermore, comparison of the D. glomerata nodule transcriptome with nodule transcriptomes from actinorhizal Fagales revealed a new subgroup of nodule-specific defensins that might play a role specific to actinorhizal symbioses. The D. glomerata members of this defensin subgroup contain an acidic C-terminal domain that was never found in plant defensins before.

  5. Ocean acidification but not warming alters sex determination in the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Byrne, Maria; Dove, Michael; Coleman, Ross A; Pörtner, Hans-O; Scanes, Elliot; Virtue, Patti; Gibbs, Mitchell; Ross, Pauline M

    2018-02-14

    Whether sex determination of marine organisms can be altered by ocean acidification and warming during this century remains a significant, unanswered question. Here, we show that exposure of the protandric hermaphrodite oyster, Saccostrea glomerata to ocean acidification, but not warming, alters sex determination resulting in changes in sex ratios. After just one reproductive cycle there were 16% more females than males. The rate of gametogenesis, gonad area, fecundity, shell length, extracellular pH and survival decreased in response to ocean acidification. Warming as a sole stressor slightly increased the rate of gametogenesis, gonad area and fecundity, but this increase was masked by the impact of ocean acidification at a level predicted for this century. Alterations to sex determination, sex ratios and reproductive capacity will have flow on effects to reduce larval supply and population size of oysters and potentially other marine organisms. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Adsorption studies on fruits of Gular (Ficus glomerata): Removal of Cr(VI) from synthetic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Rifaqat A.K.; Rehman, Fouzia

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of Cr(VI) was studied in batch system using fruits of Ficus glomerata as adsorbent. The effect of temperature, pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration and time was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate surface morphology and active functional groups present on the adsorbent surface. Thermodynamic parameters like free energy change (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy (ΔH 0 ) and entropy (ΔS 0 ) indicate the spontaneous, endothermic and increased randomness nature of Cr(VI) adsorption. Equilibrium data were fitted well with Langmuir isotherm at 50 deg. C. The magnitude of mean free energy indicates chemical nature of adsorption. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 23.1 mg g -1 respectively. The applicability of the adsorbent has been demonstrated by removing Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of Cladophora glomerata Kützing and Microspora floccosa Thuret in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahprathanchai, Prannapus; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; Aritajat, Salika

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Cladophora glomerata and Microspora floccosa ethanolic extracts in rats. Acute toxicity was tested with a single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 25 g/kg bd wt. Mortality, behavior, amount of food intake, body weight, and any abnormalities of the visceral organs, were observed. The results showed that the extract caused neither mortality, nor abnormalities. Subchronic toxicity was tested by administering the extract at doses of 0.5 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg for 60 days. Differences in body weight, hematology and blood biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; blood urea nitrogen, BUN and creatinine, Cre) were not detected among the control and treatment groups. Although the packed cell volume of the male rats treated with 1.0 g/kg extract was significantly lower than the controls (p< or =0.05), the level was in the standard range for rat hematocrit.

  8. Purification and partial characterization of haloperoxidase from fresh water algae Cladophora glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, E F; Kline, P C; Wani, S; Woods, A E

    2000-02-01

    Many haloperoxidases have been purified from diverse organisms, including lichen, fungi, bacteria, and marine algae. In this study a haloperoxidase was purified from the fresh water algae, Cladophora glomerata, by homogenization and centrifugation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular weight was determined by SDS-PAGE and by size exclusion HPLC and found to be approximately 43 kDa. The isoelectric point was determined to be approximately 8.1 by isoelectric focusing. The UV spectrum of the peroxidase showed a strong absorbance in the Soret band indicating a heme protein, unlike vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases from marine algae. Fresh water algal haloperoxidase catalyzed the iodination of tyrosine at a pH of 3.1. This haloperoxidase also catalyzes the oxidation of guaiacol and oxidation of iodide as well as catalyzing a peroxide-dependent reaction in both the presence and absence of chloride and bromide ions.

  9. Structural studies of chemical constituents of Thithonia Tagetiflora Desv (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Huynh, Vinh; Nguyen Thi Hoai, Thu; Phi Phung Nguyen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tithonia tagetiflora Desv. (Asteraceae) is a widespread plant in Vietnam, and the species of Tithonia are known as plants containing many biologically active compounds. However, T. tagetiflora's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report the structural elucidation of tw...

  10. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  11. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  12. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  13. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris).

  14. Taxonomic position and identity of Stenocephalum monticola (Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Stenocephalum (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) includes six South American species that have cylindrical heads, 4–11 florets by capitula, cymose inflorescences and type ‘C’ pollen. Until now, Stenocephalum monticola has been considered as a synonym of S. apiculatum. However, the analysis of the

  15. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  16. Avaliação do potencial antimicrobiano de Plinia glomerata (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Serafin

    Full Text Available A planta Plinia glomerata (Myrtaceae, popularmente conhecida como cabeludinha ou " jabuticaba-amarela" , ocorre amplamente no sul do Brasil e é cultivada como ornamental e frutífera comestível. O presente trabalho avaliou as propriedades antimicrobianas dos extratos, frações e substâncias puras isoladas da planta contra bactérias e fungos patogênicos. As concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIM foram determinadas através do método de diluição em ágar. As frações acetato de etila (AE e fração aquosa (AQ demonstraram a melhor atividade contra Staphylococcus aureus. A fração AQ também foi efetiva contra Escherichia coli. As substâncias puras, ácido 3,4,3’-trimetóxi-flavelágico-4’-O-glicosídeo e ácido 3,4,3’-trimetóxi-flavelágico foram inativas até a concentração de 500 µg/mL contra os microrganismos testados. Em relação aos resultados antifúngicos, os extratos metanólico (EM e acetônico (EA e a fração aquosa (AQ mostraram boa atividade somente contra dermatófitos. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que a Plinia glomerata possui princípios ativos com ação antimicrobiana, sugerindo que outras substâncias da planta estão agindo contra os microrganismos indicados ou a existência de efeitos sinérgicos.

  17. The Influence of Land Use Intensity on the Plant-Associated Microbiome of Dactylis glomerata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Estendorfer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the impact of different land use intensities (LUI on the root-associated microbiome of Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass. For this purpose, eight sampling sites with different land use intensity levels but comparable soil properties were selected in the southwest of Germany. Experimental plots covered land use levels from natural grassland up to intensively managed meadows. We used 16S rRNA gene based barcoding to assess the plant-associated community structure in the endosphere, rhizosphere and bulk soil of D. glomerata. Samples were taken at the reproductive stage of the plant in early summer. Our data indicated that roots harbor a distinct bacterial community, which clearly differed from the microbiome of the rhizosphere and bulk soil. Our results revealed Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Comamonadaceae as the most abundant endophytes independently of land use intensity. Rhizosphere and bulk soil were dominated also by Proteobacteria, but the most abundant families differed from those obtained from root samples. In the soil, the effect of land use intensity was more pronounced compared to root endophytes leading to a clearly distinct pattern of bacterial communities under different LUI from rhizosphere and bulk soil vs. endophytes. Overall, a change of community structure on the plant–soil interface was observed, as the number of shared OTUs between all three compartments investigated increased with decreasing land use intensity. Thus, our findings suggest a stronger interaction of the plant with its surrounding soil under low land use intensity. Furthermore, the amount and quality of available nitrogen was identified as a major driver for shifts in the microbiome structure in all compartments.

  18. Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ∼8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

  19. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. estabelecimento in vitro de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiana Scherer Bassan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. is a heliopylous, a native forest species with wide geografic dispersion, occuping a pioneer role in open areas, hencoops and degradated woods. Showing a fast growth, it adapts easily and it is highly recommended for homogeneous reforest. The timber is used in industrial furniture, civilian, naval and military constructions. The micropropagation is a technique used succesfully, allowing a fast increase of the number of plants genetically identical considering the superior types. The work’s objectives are: to evaluate the effect of the light on phenolic oxydation and to determinate the most appropriate nutritive medium and type of explant for in vitro establishment of Peltophorum dubium. Two experiments were accomplished. In the first one, apical segments were cultivated in MS base medium at 25±3°C, during seven days in the dark; after that, they remained in the presence of light (photoperiod of 16h for 14 days. In the other treatment, the explants stayed under light during the whole experiment (21 days. Completely random design with five replicates and four experimental units (EU were used. Phenolic oxydation did not occur in any of the analyzed treatments. In the second assay, apical segments and nodal segments were cultivated in MS base medium and WPM medium. The explants stayed in the growth room during 16h of photoperiod and luminous intensity of 20 µmol.m2.s-1, supplied with cool white fluorescent lamps, at 25±3°C. The EU was composed by one 150mL flask with 30mL of nutritive medium and one explant. Completely random design with factorial outline 2 x 2 (nutritive medium and type of explant and five replicates by treatment, each replicate with four EU, were used. After 49 days, the following elements were evaluated: survival, establishment, root presence, calli presence, numbers of nodes, number of leaves and shoot height (mm. The data of survival, establishment, root presence and calli presence were

  1. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Salovius-Laurén, S.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Saarela, K.-E.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4 m depth in a water column of 8 m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D′ M . For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al > Ti > Fe ≫ Mn > Ni, Cu > Ba, Cr, Zn ≫ Rb > K, Sr > Pb ≫ Ca ≫ Na > Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring. - Highlights: ► Elemental concentrations in P. littoralis and C. glomerata from the Archipelago Sea in Finland were measured during decomposition. ► PIXE and PIGE were successfully used for chemical analysis of 24 elements. ► The chemical affinity of different elements to the algae was established by calculation of conditional

  2. Palinotaxonomia de Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker e Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae Palynotaxonomy of Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker and Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Férras Peçanha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. tem sido, tradicionalmente, aceito como sinônimo de Eremanthus Less. e o gênero Albertinia Spreng. foi estabelecido para abrigar Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. O presente trabalho propõe a caracterização polínica de Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa e Eremanthus bicolor e fornece subsídios para futuros estudos taxonômicos. Foram utilizados grãos de pólen de espécimens coletados em diferentes herbários. As duas primeiras espécies são encontradas no Rio de Janeiro enquanto Eremanthus Less. não. Assim, optou-se por utilizar a espécie-tipo do gênero na análise polínica. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados usando microscopia de luz. Grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram usados para análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O resultado do estudo polínico mostrou que as espécies podem ser separadas utilizandose, principalmente, as características das aberturas e da ornamentação da exina e revelou uma gradação evolutiva interespecífica dos caracteres polínicos. Com relação à taxonomia das espécies estudadas, os dados palinológicos comprovam a posição taxonômica de Albertinia brasiliensis, porém não reforça a sinonimização de Vanillosmopsis em Eremanthus.Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. has been traditionally accepted as a synonym of Eremanthus Less., and Albertinia Spreng. was established to include Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. This paper characterizes the pollen of Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa and Eremanthus bicolor and provides information for future taxonomic studies. Pollen grains of specimens collected in different herbaria were used in this study. The two first species are found in Rio de Janeiro, but Eremanthus is not found in this state. For this reason, the type species of this genus was used for pollen analysis. Pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described and illustrated using optical

  3. Hydrothermal gasification of Cladophora glomerata macroalgae over its hydrochar as a catalyst for hydrogen-rich gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Farid; Norouzi, Omid; Tavasoli, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    A tubular batch micro-reactor system was used for hydrothermal gasification (HTG) of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as green macroalgae found in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for hydrogen production. Hydrochar, as a solid residue of non-catalytic HTG was characterized by BET, FESEM, and ICP-OES methods to determine its physiochemical properties. Surface area and pore volume of C. glomerata increased drastically after HTG. Also, the aqueous products were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID methods. Hydrochar was loaded to the reactor to determine its catalytic effect on HTG. HTG was promoted by inorganic compounds in the hydrochar and its porosity. The maximum hydrogen yield of 9.63mmol/g was observed in the presence of algal hydrochar with the weight ratio of 0.4 to feedstock. Also, acids production was inhibited while phenol production was promoted in the presence of hydrochar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, beta-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, beta-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The composi-tions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  5. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  6. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  7. Molecular evolution across the Asteraceae: micro- and macroevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nolan C; Barker, Michael S; Zhan, Shing H; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-12-01

    The Asteraceae (Compositae) is a large family of over 20,000 wild, weedy, and domesticated species that comprise approximately 10% of all angiosperms, including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and trees, and species on every continent except Antarctica. As a result, the Asteraceae provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolutionary genomics of lineage radiation and diversification at numerous phylogenetic scales. Using publicly available expressed sequence tags from 22 species representing four of the major Asteraceae lineages, we assessed neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes across this diverse plant family. We used bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes under selection in each species. Evolution at silent and coding sites were assessed for different Gene Ontology functional categories to compare rates of evolution over both short and long evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that patterns of molecular change across the family are surprisingly consistent on a macroevolutionary timescale and much more so more than would be predicted from the analysis of one (or many) examples of microevolution. These analyses also point to particular classes of genes that may be crucial in shaping the radiation of this diverse plant family. Similar analyses of nuclear and chloroplast genes in six other plant families confirm that many of these patterns are common features of the plant kingdom.

  8. Proteomic discovery of biomarkers of metal contamination in Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Emma L., E-mail: emma.thompson@mq.edu.au [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Chowder Bay, NSW 2088 (Australia); Taylor, Daisy A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Chowder Bay, NSW 2088 (Australia); Nair, Sham V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Birch, Gavin [Department of Geochemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Haynes, Paul A. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Raftos, David A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Chowder Bay, NSW 2088 (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    In the current study we examined the effects of metal contamination on the protein complement of Sydney Rock oysters. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed for 4 days to three environmentally relevant concentrations (100 {mu}g/l, 50 {mu}g/l and 5 {mu}g/l) of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. Protein abundances in oyster haemolymph from metal-exposed oysters were compared to those from non-exposed controls using two-dimensional electrophoresis to display differentially expressed proteins. Differentially expressed proteins were subsequently identified using tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to assign their putative biological functions. Unique sets of differentially expressed proteins were affected by each metal, in addition to proteins that were affected by more than one metal. The proteins identified included some that are commonly associated with environmental monitoring, such as HSP 70, and other novel proteins not previously considered as candidates for molecular biomonitoring. The most common biological functions of proteins were associated with stress response, cytoskeletal activity and protein synthesis.

  9. Proteomic analysis of Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) exposed to metal contamination in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Emma L.; Taylor, Daisy A.; Nair, Sham V.; Birch, Gavin; Hose, Grant C.; Raftos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used proteomics to assess the impacts of metal contamination in the field on Sydney Rock oysters. Oysters were transplanted into Lake Macquarie, NSW, for two weeks in both 2009 and 2010. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified changes in protein expression profiles of oyster haemolymph between control and metal contaminated sites. There were unique protein expression profiles for each field trial. Principal components analysis attributed these differences in oyster proteomes to the different combinations and concentrations of metals and other environmental variables present during the three field trials. Identification of differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins associated with cytoskeletal activity and stress responses were the most commonly affected biological functions in the Sydney Rock oyster. Overall, the data show that proteomics combined with multivariate analysis has the potential to link the effects of contaminants with biological consequences. - Highlights: ► Sydney Rock oyster haemolymph was analysed by proteomics after metal exposure in 3 field trials. ► 2-DE analysis was used to compare protein profiles between control and contaminated sites. ► Different protein expression profiles were revealed per field trial. ► Principal components analysis attributed profiles to different suites of metals and environmental variables per trial. ► The study highlights the need to do multiple field trials and to combine proteomic and enviro. data. - This study used proteomics to analyse impacts of metal contamination on Sydney Rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) haemolymph in multiple field trials.

  10. Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, massive avian die-offs from Clostridium botulinum type E infection have occurred in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) area of Lake Michigan. These outbreaks have been coincidental with massive blooms of the green algae Cladophora, mostly Cladophora glomerata. We tested the hypothesis that Clostridium botulinum type E can grow under suitable conditions in these algal mats. In a lab mesocosm study, Cladophora from four outbreak-impacted beaches from SLBE were compared with four unimpacted beaches in the Milwaukee–Racine area for bontE gene of Clostridium botulinum. Frequency of the bontE gene was higher after incubation (25 °C for up to 6 weeks) of Cladophora from impacted vs. the unimpacted area. Since no type E gene was detected initially in Cladophora from any of the eight locations, we infer that the increased occurrence of type E gene arose from spore germination or vegetative Clostridium growth within the existing algal mats of SLBE. Moreover, we found that the congener Clostridium perfringens readily grows in mesocosms containing Cladophora.

  11. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc in the green alga, Cladophora glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, B M; George, J J

    1990-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc in Cladophora glomerata from two populations in the River Roding, Essex, UK, were examined in experimental laboratory flowing-water channels. Plants were subjected to zinc concentrations ranging from 0 to 4.0 mg litre(-1) at current velocities of 20-33 cm s(-1) for up to 3 h. Zinc in algal tissue was then quantified and toxicity was assessed by the ability of the alga to grow in a recovery medium after the experimental treatment. There was little difference in zinc bioaccumulation between Cladophora from the site showing mild organic pollution and that from the site subjected to considerable inputs from urban and motorway runoff. Uptake of zinc increased with increasing concentration in the test solution and was linear and proportional up to 0.4 mg litre(-1). Three stages of uptake were identified with the most dramatic accumulation occurring in the first 10 min. Experimental concentration factors ranged from 1.9-5.2 x 10(3), which were in agreement with those previously obtained in the field. Cellular damage was evident in Cladophora subjected to 0.4 mg litre(-1) zinc, and this increased with increasing zinc concentration, thus leading to the conclusion that, at times, the levels of zinc found in the river could be potentially damaging.

  12. Structural characterization of sulfated arabinans extracted from Cladophora glomerata Kützing and their macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surayot, Utoomporn; Hun Lee, Ju; Kanongnuch, Chartchai; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee; Park, WooJung; You, SangGuan

    2016-05-01

    Water-soluble sulfated heteropolysaccharides were extracted from Cladophora glomerata Kützing and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography, which yielded two subfractions, F1 and F2. The crude and fractionated polysaccharides (F1 and F2) mostly consisted of carbohydrates (62.8-74.5%) with various amounts of proteins (9.00-17.3%) and sulfates (16.5-23.5%), including different levels of arabinose (41.7-54.4%), galactose (13.5-39.0%), glucose (0.80-10.6%), xylose (6.84-13.4%), and rhamnose (0.20-2.83%). Based on the size exclusion chromatography (SEC) profiles, the crude and fractions mainly contained one peak with shoulders having molecular weight (Mw) ranges of 358-1,501 × 10(3). The F1 fraction stimulated RAW264.7 cells to produce considerable amounts of nitric oxide and cytokines compared to the crude and F2 fraction. The backbone of the most potent immunostimulating fraction (F1) was α-(1→4)-L-arabinopyranoside with galactose and xylose residues as branches at O-2 position, and sulfates mainly at O-2 position as well.

  13. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  14. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  15. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Salovius-Lauren, S. [Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Artillerig. 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Rajander, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Saarela, K.-E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4 m depth in a water column of 8 m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D Prime {sub M}. For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al > Ti > Fe Much-Greater-Than Mn > Ni, Cu > Ba, Cr, Zn Much-Greater-Than Rb > K, Sr > Pb Much-Greater-Than Ca Much-Greater-Than Na > Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental concentrations in P. littoralis and C. glomerata from the Archipelago Sea in Finland were measured during decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIXE and PIGE were successfully used for chemical analysis of 24 elements

  16. Physicochemical and immunologic characterization of low-molecular-weight allergoids of Dactylis glomerata pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, T D; Bukilica, M N; Gavrović, M D; Vujcić, Z M; Petrović, S; Jankov, R M

    1999-02-01

    Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) pollen proteins were chemically modified by means of acid anhydrides (maleic and succinic anhydride) to obtain low-molecular-weight allergoids. Chemical modification in both cases led to the replacement of one positive charge (epsilon amino group of Lys) by one negative charge, yielding proteins with changed physicochemical properties in comparison to the native orchard grass-pollen proteins. Physicochemical characterization of derivatives was done by gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and isoelectric focusing. To examine the IgE-binding properties of these derivatives, we carried out immunoblotting. To examine the ability of derivatives to induce IgG production, we immunized rabbits. Skin prick testing with the allergoids was performed on 15 individuals allergic to orchard grass pollens and on two healthy subjects. It was shown that the modified proteins retain their original molecular weights, but change pI to more acidic values. In the case of allergoids, a strong reduction in IgE binding was found. Immunization of rabbits with allergoids showed that the derivatives retain the ability to induce IgG production, and that the antisera obtained in such a way react to native (unmodified) extract. The ability of derivatives to induce allergic reaction was significantly reduced. The patients (86.6%) included in our study exhibited less than 50% of native extract response. Among them, 53.3% had no response to one or both allergoids. These modification procedures yield allergoids with a reduced allergenic activity and preserved immunogenic potential suitable for use in immunotherapy.

  17. Longitudinal study of winter mortality disease in Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Zoe B; Gabor, Melinda; Fell, Shayne A; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dove, Michael; O'Connor, Wayne; Frances, Jane; Go, Jeffrey; Marsh, Ian B; Jenkins, Cheryl

    2014-07-24

    Winter mortality (WM) is a poorly studied disease affecting Sydney rock oysters Saccostrea glomerata in estuaries in New South Wales, Australia, where it can cause significant losses. WM is more severe in oysters cultured deeper in the water column and appears linked to higher salinities. Current dogma is that WM is caused by the microcell parasite Bonamia roughleyi, but evidence linking clinical signs and histopathology to molecular data identifying bonamiasis is lacking. We conducted a longitudinal study between February and November 2010 in 2 estuaries where WM has occurred (Georges and Shoalhaven Rivers). Results from molecular testing of experimental oysters for Bonamia spp. were compared to clinical disease signs and histopathology. Available environmental data from the study sites were also collated and compared. Oyster condition declined over the study period, coinciding with decreasing water temperatures, and was inversely correlated with the presence of histological lesions. While mortalities occurred in both estuaries, only oysters from the Georges River study site showed gross clinical signs and histological changes characteristic of WM (lesions were prevalent and intralesional microcell-like structures were sometimes noted). PCR testing for Bonamia spp. revealed the presence of an organism belonging to the B. exitiosa-B. roughleyi clade in some samples; however, the very low prevalence of this organism relative to histological changes and the lack of reactivity of affected oysters in subsequent in situ hybridisation experiments led us to conclude that this Bonamia sp. is not responsible for WM. Another aetiological agent and a confluence of environmental factors are a more likely explanation for the disease.

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the bacterial microbiota on lacustrine Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Michael J; Graham, Linda E; Whitman, Thea L

    2017-12-01

    The branched periphytic green alga Cladophora glomerata, often abundant in nearshore waters of lakes and rivers worldwide, plays important ecosystem roles, some mediated by epibiotic microbiota that benefit from host-provided surface, organic C, and O 2 . Previous microscopy and high-throughput sequencing studies have indicated surprising epibiont taxonomic and functional diversity, but have not included adequate consideration of sample replication or the potential for spatial and temporal variation. Here, we report the results of 16S rRNA amplicon-based phylum-to-genus taxonomic analysis of Cladophora-associated bacterial epibiota sampled in replicate from three microsites and at six times during the open-water season of 2014, from the same lake locale (Picnic Point, Lake Mendota, Dane Co., WI, USA) explored by high-throughput sequencing studies in two previous years. Statistical methods were used to test null hypotheses that the bacterial community: (i) is homogeneous across microsites tested, and (ii) does not change over the course of a growth season or among successive years. Results indicated a dynamic microbial community that is more strongly influenced by sampling day during the growth season than by microsite variation. A surprising diversity of bacterial genera known to be associated with the key function of methane-oxidation (methanotrophy), including relatively high-abundance of Crenothrix, Methylomonas, Methylovulum, and Methylocaldum-showed intraseasonal and interannual variability possibly related to temperature differences, and microsite preferences possibly related to variation in methane abundance. By contrast, a core assemblage of bacterial genera seems to persist over a growth season and from year to year, possibly transmitted by a persistent attached host resting stage. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Comportamiento productivo del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. en respuesta al pastoreo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogonio Jesús Hernández-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los patrones de variación en los componentes de la productividad forrajera del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. bajo pastoreo. En Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México, de junio 2005 a junio 2006, se estudió la combinación de tres frecuencias (21, 28 y 35 días y dos intensidades (5-7 y 9-11 cm en el forraje residual de pastoreo, en un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento anual y la distribución estacional de forraje, tasa de crecimiento, composición botánica y morfológica y densidad de tallos. La frecuencia de pastoreo de 35 días superó a las de 21 y 28 (P<0,05 en el rendimiento anual, durante primavera y verano. Independientemente de la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo, el rendimiento estacional se distribuyó de la siguiente forma: 49,5, 31,6, 14,1 y 4,8% para primavera, verano, invierno y otoño, respectivamente. La mayor tasa de crecimiento se registró en primavera al pastorear cada 35 días y la menor en otoño al pastorear cada 28 días (P<0,01. Durante invierno se dio mayor presencia de otras especies, siendo el pastoreo cada veintiún días a una intensidad ligera el que originó un aporte al rendimiento de otras especies del 60%. No se presentaron efectos de intensidad ni de frecuencia de pastoreo en la densidad de tallos. El mayor rendimiento y tasa de crecimiento se obtuvieron al pastorear cada 35 días.

  20. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  1. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2016-01-01

    Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  2. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  3. Response of Biomass Development, Essential Oil, and Composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. to Irrigation Frequency and Harvest Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Ali S; Astatkie, Tessema; Alataway, Abed; Mahmoud, Abeer A; Gendy, Ahmed S H; Said-Al Ahl, Hussein A H; Tkachenko, Kirill G

    2018-03-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of four irrigation intervals (4, 8, 12, and 16 days) and six harvests (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months after transplanting) on biomass, essential oil content, and composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Fresh weight and essential oil yield decreased with increasing irrigation interval; whereas, essential oil content was stimulated by water stress and increased as the irrigation interval increased. Fresh weight of Plectranthus amboinicus irrigated every 4 days peaked when harvested at 6 months, but essential oil content peaked when irrigated every 16 days and harvested at 2 months after transplantation. On the other hand, essential oil yield peaked when irrigated every 8 days and harvested at 6 months. Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene were the major compounds, and they peaked at different irrigation intervals and harvest times. This study showed biomass, essential oil content, and yield as well as the major and minor constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus are influenced by irrigation interval and the timing of harvest. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Variability in growth, nutrition and phytochemical constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. as influenced by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevanan Rajeshkumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted under greenhouse nursery condition on the efficacy of seven indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in the improvement of growth, biomass, nutrition and phytochemical constituents, namely total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins, in the roots and leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng. Seedlings were raised in polythene bags containing soil inoculated with isolates of seven different indigenous AM fungi, viz. Acaulospora bireticulata, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus aggregatum, G. mosseae, G. geosporum, and Scutellospora heterogama. P. amboinicus seedlings raised in the presence of AM fungi generally showed an increase in plant growth, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents over those grown in the absence of AM fungi. The extent of growth, biomass, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents enhanced by AM fungi varied with the species of AM fungi inhabiting the roots and leaves of P. amboinicus seedlings. Considering the various plant growth parameters, nutritional status of the plant, total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, alkaloids , flavonoids , tannins, and saponins in the roots and leaves, it was observed that Gigaspora margarita is the best AM symbiont for P. amboinicus used in this experiment.

  5. Renoprotective Effects of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke in C57BL/6 LDLr-Null Mice Undergoing High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei de Oliveira Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke is used in Brazilian folk medicine as hypolipidemic drug no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible renoprotective activity of methanolic extract obtained from Vitex megapotamica (MEVM using C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice submitted to high fat diet (HFD. MEVM was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, for three weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diuretic activity were measured weekly. At the end of experiments the serum lipids, atherogenic index serum (AIS, oxidative stress, and markers of renal function were determined. HFD induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, increase in AIS, and lipid peroxidation accompanied by an important reduction in renal function. Treatment with MEVM was able to prevent increase in SBP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AIS, urea, and creatinine levels in LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and renal injury. The data reported here support the potential of Vitex megapotamica as candidate to be an herbal medicine used in cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  6. THE EFFECT OF SOIL CONDITIONERS ON CELLULOSE, HEMICELLULOSE, AND THE ADL FIBRE FRACTION CONCENTRATION IN DACTYLIS GLOMERATA AND LOLIUM PERENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Truba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Replicated three times, the research was conducted in the experimental field between 2011 and 2014. Three soil conditioners with the following trade names: UGmax, Eko-Użyźniacz, and Humus Active Papka were used in the experiment, separately or together with NPK fertilisers. They were all used on plots sown with two species of grass, Dactylis glomerata of the Bora variety and Lolium perenne of the Info variety. The plant material from both grass species was tested for the concentration of ADL fraction (% DM, cellulose (% DM, and hemicellulose (% DM. It was found that the concentration of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and the ADL fraction was significantly higher in the biomass of Dactylis glomerata than in the biomass of Lolium perenne. The grass from the plot with the UGmax soil conditioner applied had the highest amount of cellulose and hemicellulose. The lowest amount of those organic compounds was found in the grass treated with UGmax together with mineral fertilisers and in plants treated with Humus Active, together with mineral fertilisers. However, the fertilisers and conditioners did not increase the ADL content in both grass species.

  7. Seed characters and their usefulness in the separation of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes Batista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on seed structure of Asteraceae have received little attention of botanists. Seed structure in Asteraceae is analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of characters in the separation of species through the analysis of nine weedy species. Seeds originate from anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate ovules. The partial collapse of the developing seed coat is a common characteristic in the Asteraceae species studied. The testa consists of crushed and thin-walled cells in almost all of the species studied herein, except for Elephantopus mollis and Parthenium hysterophorus, which showed exotesta cells with U-shaped thickening. The analysis revealed high uniformity in seed characters.

  8. Mechanistic insights into induction of vitellogenin gene expression by estrogens in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; O'Connor, Wayne A; Yu, Richard Man Kit

    2016-05-01

    Marine molluscs, such as oysters, respond to estrogenic compounds with the induction of the egg yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg), availing a biomarker for estrogenic pollution. Despite this application, the precise molecular mechanism through which estrogens exert their action to induce molluscan vitellogenesis is unknown. As a first step to address this question, we cloned a gene encoding Vtg from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (sgVtg). Using primers designed from a partial sgVtg cDNA sequence available in Genbank, a full-length sgVtg cDNA of 8498bp was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of sgVtg was determined to be 7980bp, which is substantially longer than the orthologs of other oyster species. Its deduced protein sequence shares the highest homology at the N- and C-terminal regions with other molluscan Vtgs. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of sgVtg was obtained by genomic PCR and genome walking targeting the gene body and flanking regions, respectively. The genomic sequence spans 20kb and consists of 30 exons and 29 introns. Computer analysis identified three closely spaced half-estrogen responsive elements (EREs) in the promoter region and a 210-bp CpG island 62bp downstream of the transcription start site. Upregulation of sgVtg mRNA expression was observed in the ovaries following in vitro (explants) and in vivo (tank) exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2). Notably, treatment with an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist in vitro abolished the upregulation, suggesting a requirement for an estrogen-dependent receptor for transcriptional activation. DNA methylation of the 5' CpG island was analysed using bisulfite genomic sequencing of the in vivo exposed ovaries. The CpG island was found to be hypomethylated (with 0-3% methylcytosines) in both control and E2-exposed oysters. However, no significant differential methylation or any correlation between methylation and sgVtg expression levels was observed. Overall, the

  9. Persistence of Positive Carryover Effects in the Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, following Transgenerational Exposure to Ocean Acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Parker

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is predicted to have widespread implications for marine organisms, yet the capacity for species to acclimate or adapt over this century remains unknown. Recent transgenerational studies have shown that for some marine species, exposure of adults to OA can facilitate positive carryover effects to their larval and juvenile offspring that help them to survive in acidifying oceanic conditions. But whether these positive carryover effects can persist into adulthood or the next generation is unknown. Here we tested whether positive carryover effects found in larvae of the oyster, Saccostrea glomerata following transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2, could persist into adulthood and whether subsequent transgenerational exposure of adults to elevated CO2 would facilitate similar adaptive responses in the next generation of larvae and juveniles. Following our previous transgenerational exposure of parental adults and first generation (F1 larvae to ambient (385 μatm and elevated (856 μatm CO2, newly settled F1 juveniles were transferred to the field at ambient CO2 for 14 months, until they reached reproductive maturity. At this time, the F1 adults were returned to the laboratory and the previous transgenerational CO2 exposure was repeated to produce F2 offspring. We found that the capacity of adults to regulate extracellular pH at elevated CO2 was improved if they had a prior history of transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2. In addition, subsequent transgenerational exposure of these adults led to an increase in the resilience of their larval and juvenile offspring. Offspring with a history of transgenerational exposure to elevated CO2 had a lower percentage abnormality, faster development rate, faster shell growth and increased heart rate at elevated CO2 compared with F2 offspring with no prior history of exposure to elevated CO2. Our results suggest that positive carryover effects originating during parental and larval

  10. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de extratos de alho nirá (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. In vitro antibacterial activity of "Nira" garlic extracts (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex-Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Araújo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de demonstrar a influência da condimentação sobre a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos do diagnóstico de bactérias transmissíveis por alimentos, determinou-se, in vitro, a intensidade de atividade de inibição bacteriana (IINIB e a intensidade de atividade de inativação bacteriana (IINAB de três acessos de Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. - Liliaceae - alho "nirá", originários da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. O extrato etanólico à 50% destes diferentes acessos (alcoolaturas com evaporação do etanol em sistema rotavapor com reconstituição hídrica sob assepsia foi testado, através de testes de diluição em sistema de tubos múltiplos, sobre inóculos padronizados de Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25.923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19.433, Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11.076, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11.229. Os testes revelaram atividade antibacteriana seletiva sobre os diferentes inóculos Gram-negativos, que atingiram inibição e inativação máximas e permanentes para Salmonella após 48 horas, e, para Escherichia coli, após 72 horas de exposição. As bactérias Gram-positivas, Staphylococcus e Enterococcus, apresentaram resistência total frente aos extratos etanólicos Não houve diferença significativa entre si quanto aos tempos de atuação, quanto a Salmonella e Escherichia, quanto à presença ou ausência de desinibidores bacterianos, havendo, entretanto, diferença significativa entre os acessos de alho nirá.To demonstrate the influence of seasoning on the Predictive Validity of Negative Results in the diagnosis of bacteria transmissible through food, the intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB and the intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB were determined in vitro for three sources of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. - Liliaceae ("Nira" Garlic from the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The 50% ethanol

  11. A cryptic taxon rather than a hybrid species of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mavrodiev, E. V.; Krahulec, František; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-141 ISSN 0075-5974 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA-sequence polyformism * nuclear ribosomal DNA * miscellus Asteraceae * evolution * fertility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This

  13. Seasonal differences in the content of phenols and pigments in thalli of freshwater Cladophora glomerata and its habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrowska, Joanna; Messyasz, Beata; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Wilińska, Patrycja; Łęska, Bogusława

    2018-05-15

    Polyphenols are chemicals that primarily inhibit the growth of various autotrophic organisms. The presence of these metabolites greatly boosts the ecological dominance of eg. Cladophora, which creates large surface mats. The main goal of our work was to quantify the phenol and polyphenols (allelopathic substances) secreted by the macroalgae as a result of exposure to biotic stress caused by competition. The research was carried out on the Cladophora glomerata biomass collected from two freshwater ecosystems located in Wielkopolska Region (Poland, Fig. 1): Oporzynskie Lake (N52° 55', E 17° 9') and Nielba River (N52˚48', E 17° 12'). Seasonal variability (May-October 2015) in the properties of C. glomerata mats in the river and lake ecosystem was also analyzed in relation to the physicochemical parameters of water. In addition, the content of pigments in the analyzed biomass was determined during the appearance of algae mats in water reservoirs. Biomass extraction was performed to determine the phenolic and carotenoid contents (chlorophyll and carotenoids) by using two extraction methods: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). After isolation of the phenols from the thalli (mats) and the habitat, they were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with some modifications, while the pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) was evaluated by the spectrophotometric method Liechtenthaler (1987) with some variations. Analysis of the content of these components in algae extracts indicates that the tendency of changes in their contents was similar or the same. Growth and decrease of phenolic content (Cladophora T MAE and Cladophora T SFE) and pigments (MAE chlorophyll, SFE and MAE carotenoids) at the same time were independent of the insulation method used. The mats formed by C. glomerata on the surface of Lake Oporzyńskie were more stable and larger surface area than those on the Nielba River, which could explain

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ferraz Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality-selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality.

  15. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2006-01-15

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15{alpha}-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3{beta}-ol, 15{alpha}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8{beta}-angeloyloxy-9{beta},10{beta}-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6{alpha}-olide, 3{beta}-hydroxyeicosan-1,5{beta}-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, while the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  16. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15α-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24α-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3β-ol, 15α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8β-angeloyloxy-9β,10β-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6α-olide, 3β-hydroxyeicosan-1,5β-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and α- and β-amyrin, while the mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  17. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  18. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  19. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  20. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs and extracellular microvesicles (MVs in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses.

  1. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III) Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs) and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Michalak, Izabela; Kocherova, Ievgeniia; Marędziak, Monika; Weiss, Christine

    2017-12-08

    This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III) trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) and extracellular microvesicles (MVs) in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR) were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III) induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses.

  2. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III) Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs) and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV’s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Marędziak, Monika; Weiss, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III) trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) and extracellular microvesicles (MVs) in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR) were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III) induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses. PMID:29292726

  3. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  4. Influence of salinity on uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs in the oyster crassostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Khan, S.; Chaghtai, F.; Akhter, P.; Jabbar, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes results of experiment on bioaccumulation and uptake rate of radiocesium /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in the flesh of the Oysters (Crassostrea glomerata) collected off Karachi coast. A radiotracer experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in the flesh of the Oyster. Oysters (size: 6-7 cm) were subjected to radiocesium activity of 24 Kilobecquerel per liter (kBq L/sup -1/) under three salinity Ievels (25, 30 and 35 ppt). The uptake of /sup 137/Cs was monitored for a period of seven days. The results showed that bioaccumulation and uptake of /sup 137/Cs in oysters were considerably dependent of salinity levels. Higher bioaccumulation factors and uptake rates were found at low salinity levels. (author)

  5. Elucidating the life cycle of Marteilia sydneyi, the aetiological agent of QX disease in the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlard, Robert D; Nolan, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Marteilia sydneyi (Phylum Paramyxea, Class Marteiliidea, Order Marteiliida) (the causative agent of QX disease) is recognised as the most severe parasite to infect Saccostrea glomerata, the Sydney rock oyster, on the east coast of Australia. Despite its potential impact on industry (>95% mortality), research towards lessening these effects has been hindered by the lack of an experimental laboratory model of infection as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of the life cycle of this parasite. Here, we explored the presence of this parasite in hosts other than a bivalve mollusc from two study sites on the Hawkesbury River, New South Wales, Australia. We employed PCR-based in situ hybridisation and sequence analysis of a portion of the first internal transcribed spacer of rDNA in an attempt to detect M. sydneyi DNA in 21 species of polychaete worm. Marteilia DNA was detected in 6% of 1247 samples examined by PCR; the analysis of all amplicons defined one distinct sequence type for first internal transcribed spacer, representing M. sydneyi. Of the polychaete operational taxonomic units test-positive in PCR, we examined 116 samples via in situ hybridisation DNA probe staining and identified M. sydneyi DNA in the epithelium of the intestine of two specimens of Nephtys australiensis. Two differing morphological forms were identified: a 'primordial' cell that contained a well-defined nucleus but had little differentiation in the cytoplasm, and a 'plasmodial' cell that showed an apparent syncytial structure. This finding represents the first known record of the identification of M. sydneyi being parasitic in an organism other than an oyster, and only the third record of any species of Marteilia identified from non-molluscan hosts. Future work aims at determining if N. australiensis and S. glomerata are the only hosts in the life cycle of this paramyxean, and the development of experimental models to aid the production of QX disease-resistant oysters. Copyright

  6. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V; Tellería, María C; Bremer, Kåre; Passalia, Mauro G; Passala, Mauro G; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate-imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae-Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously thought, which can be traced back at least 47·5

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of extracts of freshwater green algae, Cladophora glomerata Kützing andMicrospora floccosa (Vaucher Thuret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratiphan Laungsuwon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater macroalgae, Cladophora glomerata Kützing and Microspora floccosa (Vaucher Thuret, harvested from Nan River in northern Thailand, were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and hot water. The extracts were screened for antibacterial activities. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed the activities against Bacillus cereus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The extracts were further separated using column chromatography and chemically characterized by GC–MS in order to be tentative identify the compounds responsible for such activities. The main compositions were fatty acid and other organic compounds, in which have not been reported in these algae. These results indicate that extracts of C. glomerata and M. floccosa exhibited appreciable antimicrobial activity and could be a source of valuable bioactive materials for health products.

  8. Haematological profile of rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced BCG and provided leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Melva; Silitonga, Pasar M.

    2017-08-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng is a medicinal plant that has many benefits, such as an antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunostimulan. Immune status can be seen from hematological profile. This study aims to investigate hematology profile on rats induced BCG and leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. 24 male rats aged 3 months and weighing between 140-200 grams divided equally into six groups, P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5. P0 as controle was given aquadest. The P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 treatment groups were given 19 g / kg AEP + BCG, 31.5 g / kg AEP + BCG, 19g / kg AEP, 31.5 g / kg AEP and BCG consecutively. The BCG were used as antigen. The AEP was administered orally for 30 days and 100 µl BCG were intramusculary administered on day 14 th and day 21. On day 31st, the rats we decapitated and their blood were collected for hematology (leucocyte (WBC), Erythrocyte (RBC), thrombocyte (PLT) count, Haemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), MCV, MHC, and MHCH analysis. Data were analyzed with ANOVA. WBC increased significantly in treatment AEP 31.5 g / kg bw, 31.5 g AEP / kg bw + BCG and so were only given BCG. RBC tend to increase in all AEP treatment but tends to increase again when given a BCG. Hb increased in treatment P1, P2, T3 and P4, but the improvement was significant only in treatment P1. While PLT increase significantly in all treatments compared to the controls. HCT did not show significant differences but all of them were in the normal range. EAP without BCG and with the addition of BCG lowered ESR significantly, whereas BCG alone increased the ESR significantly. MCV increased significantly only in the treatment of P1 and show the same pattern with the MHC and MHCH. The conclusion that Plectranthus amboinicus Lour a positive impact on blood profiles with and without BCG. Plectranthus amboinicus Lour managed blood profile when administered together with BCG

  9. Emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taubert sob diferentes substratos Emergence and early growth of Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taubert seedlings under different substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taubert. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação pertencente ao Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Foram comparados os substratos areia lavada (T1; areia lavada + vermiculita na proporção de 1:1 (T2, 3:1 (T3 e 1:3 (T4; terra vegetal (T5, terra vegetal + areia lavada na proporção de 1:1 (T6, 3:1 (T7 e 1:3 (T8, terra vegetal + vermiculita na proporção de 1:1 (T9, 3:1 (T10 e 1:3 (T11, vermiculita (T12, bioclone® (T13, bioplant® (T14 e plugmix® (T15. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com 15 tratamentos (substratos e quatro repetições de 25 sementes. A avaliação do efeito foi feita através da determinação de: porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem, índice de velocidade, tempo médio e frequência relativa de emergência, comprimento e massa seca da raiz e parte aérea das plântulas. Diante dos resultados, constatou-se que os substratos comerciais puros vermiculita, bioclone®, bioplant® e plugmix®, bem como a mistura de areia lavada + vermiculita na proporção de 3:1, terra vegetal + areia lavada na proporção de 1:1 e terra vegetal + vermiculita na proporção de 1:3 são menos eficientes para condução de testes de emergência de plântulas de canafístula, enquanto o substrato areia lavada + vermiculita na proporção de 3:1 é mais eficiente em detectar diferenças de vigor nas sementes dos diferentes tratamentos.This work carried out to determine substrate for germination and vigor tests of Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taubert seeds. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the Laboratory of Vegetal Ecology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Were compared the substrates sand (T1; sand + vermiculite in

  10. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  11. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  12. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Shilin

    2010-10-26

    Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  13. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  14. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  16. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  17. Floral Visitors of Three Asteraceae Species in a Xeric Environment in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; González-Tochihuitl, Guadalupe; Rivas-Arancibia, Sombra Patricia; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum did not differ between low and high vegetation cover sites. Total abundance of insects visiting the inflorescences of F. ramosissima and abundance of Hymenoptera in all three Asteraceae were higher at the low vegetation coverage (LVC) site than at the high vegetation coverage (HVC) one. Diversity of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum was higher at the HVC site. However, in F. ramosissima diversity was higher at the LVC site. The communities of insects of each Asteraceae were dissimilar between sites. These differences can be attributed to variation in the abundance of Lepidophora (Diptera: Bombyliidae), Miridae (Hemiptera), Melyridae (Coleoptera), Tiphiidae (Hymenoptera), Myrmecocystus mexicanus Wesmael, and Dorymyrmex grandulus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The first three insect groups were sensitive to LVC, high temperature, and low humidity, whereas the last three tolerated those same environmental conditions. Changes in temperature, humidity, and resources associated with vegetation coverage seem to differentially affect each species of floral visitors of the three Asteraceae species studied. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. sob influência de sombreamento Initial development of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. saplings under shading influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Ribeiro da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento inicial de plântulas de Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (cupuaçu, em função de diferentes níveis de sombreamento. Ao final de 50 dias, após a emergência, as plântulas de cupuaçu foram submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento, sendo: 0% de sombreamento, 50% de sombreamento e Sombra Natural. O crescimento das mudas foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 15 repetições, sendo cada planta considerada como uma repetição. Foram avaliados a altura, o diâmetro e o número de folhas aos 60, 82, 103, 124, 145 dias após a emergência das plântulas. A Massa Seca de Folhas (MSF, Massa Seca do Caule (MSC, Massa Seca da Raiz (MSR e Massa Seca Total (MST, Relação parte aérea/raiz (PA/R e relação Altura da planta/Diâmetro do colo (A/D, foram avaliadas no final do experimento. O crescimento inicial de Theobroma grandiflorum foi corroborado com os padrões da espécie, que ocorre no interior das matas primárias, tendo melhor desenvolvimento dos parâmetros avaliados em condições de 50% de sombreamento. A condição de 50% de sombreamento pode ser recomendada para a formação de mudas de Theobroma grandiflorum, devido o seu melhor desempenho em altura, diâmetro, número de folhas e alocação de massa nas partes da planta.The objective of this work was to evaluate the initial growth of sapling of Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuaçú, in function of different levels of solar radiation. Fifty days, after the emergency, the saplings were submitted to three levels of shade, being: 0%, 50% and natural shade. Sapling development was carried out in randomized block design with 15 repetitions (15 saplings. The sapling height, lap diameter and the numbers of leaves being evaluated on the 60st, 82nd, 103rd, 124th, 145 days after sapling emergence. The Dry Mass of the leaves (DML, Dry Mass of the stem (DMS, Dry Mass of the root (DMR and Dry

  19. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Stevia (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae): an example of diversification in the Asteraceae in the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Takayama, Izumi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Nakazawa, Miyuki; Mishima, Misako; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-11-01

    The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6.6 Mya. The phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that an ancestor of Stevia was a small shrub in temperate pine-oak forests and the evolutionary change from a shrub state to a herb state occurred only once. A Brazilian clade was nested in a Mexican herb clade, and its origin was estimated to be 5.2 Mya, suggesting that the migration from North America to South America occurred after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. The species diversity in Mexico appears to reflect the habitat diversity within the temperate pine-oak forest zone. The presence of many conspecific diploid-polyploid clades in the phylogenetic tree reflects the high frequency of polyploidization among the perennial Stevia species.

  20. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  1. A utilização da Pfaffia glomerata no processo de cicatrização de feridas da pele Pfaffia glomerata in the process of healing of skin wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marileide Inacio da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Quando ocorre perda tecidual na pele surge a necessidade de reconstituir-se o tecido lesionado e atualmente cada vez mais surgem artifícios que se propõem neoformá-lo. O uso de fitoterápicos, como a Pfaffia glomerata, tem a finalidade de buscar nestes produtos princípios ativos que desempenhem efetivo papel no processo de cicatrização. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados da utilização da Pfaffia glomerata na cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos, nos quais realizaram-se feridas cirúrgicas com punch de 3 mm de diâmetro no dorso da parte superior direita onde nenhuma substância foi aplicada e nesses mesmos animais foram também realizadas feridas cirúrgicas na região inferior, onde foi aplicado o extrato do fitoterápico. Foram divididos em quatro subgrupos de 48 horas, uma, duas e três semanas em relação ao sacrifício. Foram tomadas as medidas na circunferência para analisar a contração da ferida macroscopicamente. Microscopicamente os resultados foram analisados utilizando-se a coloração de Hematoxilina-Eosina, para verificar o processo inflamatório; imunohistoquímica, fator VIII, para observar a densidade vascular; e tricrômio de Masson para estudar a fibrose. RESULTADOS: Macroscopicamente o grupo planta obteve resultados superiores ao grupo controle. A análise da variável fator VIII mostrou significância estatística no grupo de uma semana do fitoterápico. Na variável fibrose, constatou-se que no período de 48 horas o grupo controle apresentou 70% de casos com fibrose mínima, ao passo que o da planta, 90%. Em uma semana, o grupo controle apresentou 10% de casos com ausência de fibrose , 60% com fibrose mínima e 30% com fibrose moderada, enquanto que o grupo planta apresentou 70% de casos com fibrose mínima e 30% com fibrose moderada. Já no período de duas semanas, o grupo controle manteve 60% dos casos com fibrose mínima e aumentou para 40% os com

  2. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins (Monimiaceae in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da S. Novaes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng. Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalarifor perforation plates, ood parenchya scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees ay be due to the greater diaeters of their branches. ur results suggest that . glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.Este trabalho objetiva caracterizar a estrutura anatômica do lenho de Mollinedia glabra, ocorrente em duas formações vegetais contíguas na restinga da Praia Virgem, município de Rio das Ostras, RJ. Essas formações Arbustiva Aberta de Pal-mae (AAP e Arbustiva Fechada do Cordão Arenoso (AFCA estão sobre cordão arenoso e recebem precipitações anuais de 1.100-1.300 mm. Foram obtidas amostras do lenho das duas forações. São características anatôicas gerais da espécie: elementos de vasos solitários, em arranjos radiais ou cachos, de seção de circular a angular; placa de perfuração es

  3. Strontium, cessium, and cerium radioisotope concentration in water of superficial reservoirs as determined by their accumulation in alga Cladophora glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, L.I.; Gushchin, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    An indirect method of measuring concentrations of strontium-90,cesium-137 and cerium-144 in water is considered. The method is bsed on the accumulation of the nuclides in Cladophora glomerata Kutz, a fresh-water alga. During 10 days in the end of July, 1975, water samples (20 l) and alga samples (about 1 kg) were taken at 14 locations more or less evenly distributed along the bank of reservoir. Some locations were in coves or issues of small rivers so that almost all morphometric features of the reservoir were taken into account. The samples were processed and radiochemically analyzed, including the radiometry of standard techniques. The counting time was so selected that the statistical error did not exceed 10 %. The radionuclide concentration was calculated per unit weight of sample (pCi/l or pCi/kg of natural alga biomass). The method may be of particular importance for those radionuclides that are rapidly absorbed by bottom sediments and at the same time intensively accumulated by the hydrobios (radioisotopes of iron, cobalt, zinc, yttrium, zirconium and some others)

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities associated with Cladophora glomerata mats along the nearshore of Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Michael; Fernando, Dinesh M; Kumar, Ayush; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2017-05-01

    The alga Cladophora glomerata can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of Cladophora, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in Cladophora-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities, since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources. Statistically significant differences in aquatic bacterial abundance and ABR were found between down-gradient beach samples and up-gradient coastal wetland samples (ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test, p Cladophora sampled near the STP had the highest bacterial densities overall, including on ampicillin- and vancomycin-treated plates. However, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the ABR genes ampC, tetA, tetB, and vanA from environmental communities showed a different pattern. Some of the highest ABR gene levels occurred at the 2 coastal wetland sites (vanA). Overall, bacterial ABR profiles from environmental samples were distinguishable between living and decaying Cladophora, inferring that Cladophora may control bacterial ABR depending on its life-cycle stage. Our results also show how spatially and temporally dynamic ABR is in nearshore aquatic bacteria, which warrants further research.

  5. Herbarium collection-based phylogenetics of the ragweeds (Ambrosia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Quiroz-Claros, Elva; Brush, Grace S; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Ambrosia (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically difficult genus of weedy, wind-pollinated plants with an apparent center of diversity in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Determining Ambrosia's evolutionary relationships has been the subject of much interest, with numerous studies using morphological characters, cytology, comparative phytochemistry, and chloroplast restriction site variation to produce conflicting accounts the relationships between Ambrosia species, as well as the classification of their close relatives in Franseria and Hymenoclea. To resolve undetermined intra-generic relationships within Ambrosia, we used DNA extracted from tissues obtained from seed banks and herbarium collections to generate multi-locus genetic data representing nearly all putative species, including four from South America. We performed Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of six chloroplast-genome and two nuclear-genome markers, enabling us to infer monophyly for the genus, resolve major infra-generic species clusters, as well as to resolve open questions about the evolutionary relationships of several Ambrosia species and former members of Franseria. We also provide molecular data supporting the hypothesis that A. sandersonii formed through the hybridization of A. eriocentra and A. salsola. The topology of our chloroplast DNA phylogeny is almost entirely congruent with the most recent molecular work based on chloroplast restriction site variation of a much more limited sampling of 14 North American species of Ambrosia, although our improved sampling of global Ambrosia diversity enables us to draw additional conclusions. As our study is the first direct DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Ambrosia, we analyze the data in relation to previous taxonomic studies and discuss several instances of chloroplast/nuclear incongruence that leave the precise geographic center of origin of Ambrosia in question. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae) in Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2014-06-02

    Considered a biodiversity hotspot, the Canary Islands have been the key subjects of numerous evolutionary studies concerning a large variety of organisms. The genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) represents one of the largest plant radiations in the Canarian archipelago. In contrast, only a few species occur in the Mediterranean region, the putative ancestral area of the genus. Here, our main aim was to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Cheirolophus with special focus on explaining the origin of the large Canarian radiation. We found significant incongruence in phylogenetic relationships between nuclear and plastid markers. Each dataset provided resolution at different levels in Cheirolophus: the nuclear markers resolved the backbone of the phylogeny while the plastid data provided better resolution within the Canarian clade. The origin of Cheirolophus was dated in the Mid-Late Miocene, followed by rapid diversification into the three main Mediterranean lineages and the Macaronesian clade. A decrease in diversification rates was inferred at the end of the Miocene, with a new increase in the Late Pliocene concurrent with the onset of the Mediterranean climate. Diversification within the Macaronesian clade started in the Early-Mid Pleistocene, with unusually high speciation rates giving rise to the extant insular diversity. Climate-driven diversification likely explains the early evolutionary history of Cheirolophus in the Mediterranean region. It appears that the exceptionally high diversification rate in the Canarian clade was mainly driven by allopatric speciation (including intra- and interisland diversification). Several intrinsic (e.g. breeding system, polyploid origin, seed dispersal syndrome) and extrinsic (e.g. fragmented landscape, isolated habitats, climatic and geological changes) factors probably contributed to the progressive differentiation of populations resulting in numerous microendemisms. Finally, hybridization events and

  7. Variation in chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in genetic resources of Lactuca L. species (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002

  8. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  10. Studies of a new hybrid taxon in the Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather D. Garrison; Leila M. Shultz; E. Durant McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Artemisia tridentata complex (ASTERACEAE: Anthemideae: Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae) have adapted to changing environmental conditions through geographic migration, introgression, and hybridization. These processes have resulted in morphologic and genetic variation. A presumed hybrid ("Bonneville" big sagebrush) of the complex occurs in the...

  11. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  12. Evolutionary transitions in the Asteraceae coincide with marked shifts in transposable element abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Burke, John M

    2015-08-20

    The transposable element (TE) content of the genomes of plant species varies from near zero in the genome of Utricularia gibba to more than 80% in many species. It is not well understood whether this variation in genome composition results from common mechanisms or stochastic variation. The major obstacles to investigating mechanisms of TE evolution have been a lack of comparative genomic data sets and efficient computational methods for measuring differences in TE composition between species. In this study, we describe patterns of TE evolution in 14 species in the flowering plant family Asteraceae and 1 outgroup species in the Calyceraceae to investigate phylogenetic patterns of TE dynamics in this important group of plants. Our findings indicate that TE families in the Asteraceae exhibit distinct patterns of non-neutral evolution, and that there has been a directional increase in copy number of Gypsy retrotransposons since the origin of the Asteraceae. Specifically, there is marked increase in Gypsy abundance at the origin of the Asteraceae and at the base of the tribe Heliantheae. This latter shift in genome composition has had a significant impact on the diversity and abundance distribution of TEs in a lineage-specific manner. We show that the TE-driven expansion of plant genomes can be facilitated by just a few TE families, and is likely accompanied by the modification and/or replacement of the TE community. Importantly, large shifts in TE composition may be correlated with major of phylogenetic transitions.

  13. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily...

  14. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  15. Baselines to detect population stability of the threatened alpine plant Packera franciscana (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Shaula Hedwall

    2015-01-01

    Population size and density estimates have traditionally been acceptable ways to track species’ response to changing environments; however, species' population centroid elevation has recently been an equally important metric. Packera franciscana (Greene) W.A. Weber and A. Love (Asteraceae; San Francisco Peaks ragwort) is a single mountain endemic plant found only...

  16. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  17. Comparative analysis of complete chloroplast genome sequence and inversion variation in Lasthenia burkei (Madieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph F; Zanis, Michael J; Emery, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    Complete chloroplast genome studies can help resolve relationships among large, complex plant lineages such as Asteraceae. We present the first whole plastome from the Madieae tribe and compare its sequence variation to other chloroplast genomes in Asteraceae. We used high throughput sequencing to obtain the Lasthenia burkei chloroplast genome. We compared sequence structure and rates of molecular evolution in the small single copy (SSC), large single copy (LSC), and inverted repeat (IR) regions to those for eight Asteraceae accessions and one Solanaceae accession. The chloroplast sequence of L. burkei is 150 746 bp and contains 81 unique protein coding genes and 4 coding ribosomal RNA sequences. We identified three major inversions in the L. burkei chloroplast, all of which have been found in other Asteraceae lineages, and a previously unreported inversion in Lactuca sativa. Regions flanking inversions contained tRNA sequences, but did not have particularly high G + C content. Substitution rates varied among the SSC, LSC, and IR regions, and rates of evolution within each region varied among species. Some observed differences in rates of molecular evolution may be explained by the relative proportion of coding to noncoding sequence within regions. Rates of molecular evolution vary substantially within and among chloroplast genomes, and major inversion events may be promoted by the presence of tRNAs. Collectively, these results provide insight into different mechanisms that may promote intramolecular recombination and the inversion of large genomic regions in the plastome.

  18. Composite aster Inula L. (Asteraceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam Sathiyaseelan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generic record for the flora of Nicobar Islands, Inula L. (Asteraceae represented by the species Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don DC., collected from Chowra Island, Great Nicobar Islands.  

  19. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the

  20. In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf aqueous and ethanol extracts on primed-oestrogenized rat uterine muscle. ... In vitro isometric contraction measurement of oestrogen-primed rat uterine strips showed a significant high aqueous extract-induced contractile effect from 0.03-1.97mg/ml: on the ...

  1. Candidatus Frankia Datiscae Dg1, the Actinobacterial Microsymbiont of Datisca glomerata, Expresses the Canonical nod Genes nodABC in Symbiosis with Its Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Battenberg, Kai; Demina, Irina V.; Vigil-Stenman, Theoden; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Pujic, Petar; Facciotti, Marc T.; Wilbanks, Elizabeth G.; O'Brien, Anna; Fournier, Pascale; Cruz Hernandez, Maria Antonia; Mendoza Herrera, Alberto; Médigue, Claudine; Normand, Philippe; Pawlowski, Katharina; Berry, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strains are nitrogen-fixing soil actinobacteria that can form root symbioses with actinorhizal plants. Phylogenetically, symbiotic frankiae can be divided into three clusters, and this division also corresponds to host specificity groups. The strains of cluster II which form symbioses with actinorhizal Rosales and Cucurbitales, thus displaying a broad host range, show suprisingly low genetic diversity and to date can not be cultured. The genome of the first representative of this cluster, Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 (Dg1), a microsymbiont of Datisca glomerata, was recently sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of 50 different housekeeping genes of Dg1 and three published Frankia genomes showed that cluster II is basal among the symbiotic Frankia clusters. Detailed analysis showed that nodules of D. glomerata, independent of the origin of the inoculum, contain several closely related cluster II Frankia operational taxonomic units. Actinorhizal plants and legumes both belong to the nitrogen-fixing plant clade, and bacterial signaling in both groups involves the common symbiotic pathway also used by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. However, so far, no molecules resembling rhizobial Nod factors could be isolated from Frankia cultures. Alone among Frankia genomes available to date, the genome of Dg1 contains the canonical nod genes nodA, nodB and nodC known from rhizobia, and these genes are arranged in two operons which are expressed in D. glomerata nodules. Furthermore, Frankia Dg1 nodC was able to partially complement a Rhizobium leguminosarum A34 nodC::Tn5 mutant. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Dg1 Nod proteins are positioned at the root of both α- and β-rhizobial NodABC proteins. NodA-like acyl transferases were found across the phylum Actinobacteria, but among Proteobacteria only in nodulators. Taken together, our evidence indicates an Actinobacterial origin of rhizobial Nod factors. PMID:26020781

  2. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants.

  3. Identification and validation of Asteraceae miRNAs by the expressed sequence tag analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavar Feshani, Aboozar; Mohammadi, Saeed; Frazier, Taylor P; Abbasi, Abbas; Abedini, Raha; Karimi Farsad, Laleh; Ehya, Farveh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Mardi, Mohsen

    2012-02-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Despite their identification in hundreds of plant species, few miRNAs have been identified in the Asteraceae, a large family that comprises approximately one tenth of all flowering plants. In this study, we used the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis to identify potential conserved miRNAs and their putative target genes in the Asteraceae. We applied quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm the expression of eight potential miRNAs in Carthamus tinctorius and Helianthus annuus. We also performed qRT-PCR analysis to investigate the differential expression pattern of five newly identified miRNAs during five different cotyledon growth stages in safflower. Using these methods, we successfully identified and characterized 151 potentially conserved miRNAs, belonging to 26 miRNA families, in 11 genus of Asteraceae. EST analysis predicted that the newly identified conserved Asteraceae miRNAs target 130 total protein-coding ESTs in sunflower and safflower, as well as 433 additional target genes in other plant species. We experimentally confirmed the existence of seven predicted miRNAs, (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR162, miR166, miR396, and miR398) in safflower and sunflower seedlings. We also observed that five out of eight miRNAs are differentially expressed during cotyledon development. Our results indicate that miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination and the formation of the cotyledons in the Asteraceae. The findings of this study might ultimately help in the understanding of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in important crop species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rendimiento y calidad de forraje del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. al variar la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Villareal González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el rendimiento y calidad del pasto ovillo ( Dactylis glomerata L., al variar la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo. Se evaluaron tres frecuencias (2, 3 y 4 semanas en primavera y verano y 4, 5 y 6 semanas durante otoño y dos intensidades de pastoreo (severa: 3 a 5 cm y ligera: 6 a 8 cm de altura de forr aje residual. Se evaluó el rendimiento de forraje, tasa de acumulación neta de forraje (TANF, composición morfoló gica y calidad del forraje. El mayor rendimiento acumulado y TANF se presentaron con pastoreo severo cada 4 y 6 sem anas y en ambas intensidades cada 3 y 5 semanas. El mayor rendimiento estacional (7,844; 7,699; 7114 kg MS ha -1 se presentó en verano en las mismas frecuencias e intensidades de pastoreo, respectivamente ( P <0.05. Durante primavera no se observaron dife rencias en rendimiento y TANF entre frecuencias de pastoreo. En otoño la frecuencia de 5 semanas superó a la de 4 ( P <0.05, pero no diferente a la de 6 semanas. En todas las estaciones del año la intensidad de pastoreo severo superó a la ligera, siendo diferentes en primavera y verano ( P <0.05. En general, el contenido de proteína total y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca tendieron a disminuir conforme aumentó el intervalo de pastoreo, siendo en promedio de 20 y 65 %, respectivamente. Se concluye que para obtener el mayor re ndimiento y calidad de forraje, los pastoreos deben realizarse cada 4 semanas durante primavera-verano y cada 5 semanas en otoño, a una intensidad severa.

  5. Two acid RNases from Dactylis glomerata seeds. Purification, properties and effect of polyamines and lectins on their activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Wiśniowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two glycoproteidic acid RNases (RNase I and RNase II were obtained and purified from the seeds of Dactylis glomerata by extraction with acetate buffer, fractionation with ammonium sulfate, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, DEAE-Sphadex, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose and gel filtration on Bio-Gel P60. RNase I with a specific activity of 2582 U•mg-1 protein and an optimum pH of 4.9 and RNase II with a specific activity of 1928 U• mg-1 protein and optimum pH of 4.6, were isolated. They lacked nuclease, phosphodi- and monoesterase activities. Both forms of the enzyme hydrolyzed pyrimidine homopolymers with a preference for poly U and exhibited a low specificity for purine homopolymers (poly G and poly A. RNase I acted with a 3-fold higher hydrolytic activity on poly C homopolymer than RNase IL The hydrolytic activity of both enzymes was inhibited by Zn+2, Fe+2, Cu+2 ions when yeast RNA was the substrate. The amines spermine, spermidine and tyramine at a concentration of 0.1 mM increased the enzymatic activity of both RNases by 20 to 60% of the relative activity. The hydrolytic activity of RNases I and II was stimulated by the presence of lentil lectin (LL, soybean lectin (SBA and potato lectin (STA, and inhibited by the presence of concanavalin A. The 20-200% stimulation and 40-60% inhibition depended on the proportion, on a weight basis, of enzyme to lectin and were reversible in the presence of receptor sugars.

  6. ent-Kaurenoic acid-rich extract from Mikania glomerata: In vitro activity against bacteria responsible for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Souza, Ariana Borges; Soares, Sandra; Bianchi, Thamires Chiquini; de Souza Eugênio, Daniele; Lemes, Danieli Cristina; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; da Silva Moraes, Thaís; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Ferreira, Natália Helen; Ambrósio, Sergio Ricardo; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that medicinal plant extracts can inhibit oral pathogen growth or adhesion to surfaces and therefore reduce dental caries formation. The addition of these extracts to oral products like mouthwashes and dentifrices is considered an important strategy in caries control. In this sense, we have developed a Mikania glomerata extract with high ent-kaurenoic acid content (KAMg). So, this work describes the preparation of such extract and the development of a validated HPLC-DAD method to determine its ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) content. Herein it is also described the KAMg in vitro antibacterial evaluation against several cariogenic bacteria in comparison with KA and the investigation of further aspects of the KAMg activity. Toxicological aspects of the developed extract were evaluated by assessing its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. KA and a KA-rich extract like KAMg showed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms responsible for dental caries at relatively low MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) values, albeit not as low as the MIC value obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate (CHD), the golden anticariogenic standard approved by the American Dental Association Council on Dental Therapeutics. However, KAMg was more effective to inhibit the formation of a Streptococcus mutans biofilm with four times lower MICB50 (minimum inhibitory concentration that reduces 50% of the biofilm) value as compared with CHD. Taking into account all these data and considering the absence of genotoxic and cytotoxic activity under the tested conditions, it is suggested that KAMg is a natural product to be considered as active ingredient in oral care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoacclimation in a tropical population of Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kützing 1843 (Chlorophyta) from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A I N; Necchi-Júnior, O

    2008-02-01

    Photoacclimation of photosynthesis was investigated in a tropical population of C. glomerata (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, 20 degrees 48' 24" S and 49 degrees 22' 24" W) by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll a content. Plants were acclimated to two levels of irradiance: low (65 +/- 5 micromol.m(-2).s(-1)) and high (300 +/- 10 micromol.m(-2).s(-1)) and exposed short-term (4 days) and long-term (28 days) under a light-dark cycle of 12:12 hours. Photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves revealed distinct strategies of photoacclimation. In long-term exposure, plants acclimated by altering the photosynthetic units (PSU) number and keeping fixed the PSU size, revealed by increased rates of maximum photosynthesis (Pmax), lower photosynthetic efficiency (alpha) and higher values of the saturation parameter (Ik) under high irradiance. The short-term acclimation strategy consisted of changing the PSU size, with a fixed number of PSUs, as revealed by similar Pmax but higher alpha and lower Ik under low irradiance. Chlorophyll a contents followed the general pattern reported in green algae of higher concentrations under lower irradiance. Dark/light induction curves revealed consistently higher values of potential quantum yield under low irradiance. Initial and final values showed a higher recovery capacity in the short (84.4-90.6%) term exposure than in the long-term case (81.4-81.5%). ETR (electron transport rate) and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching) values were consistently higher under low irradiance. ETR showed a continuous and steady increase along the light exposure period in the short and long-term experiments, whereas NPQ values revealed a rapid increase after 15 seconds of light exposure, kept a slightly increasing trend and stabilized in most treatments. Lower photosynthetic performance (ETR) and recovery capacity of potential quantum yield were observed, particularly in long-term exposure, suggesting that this population is constrained by the

  8. Genetic variation and comparison of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) cultivars and wild accessions as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W G; Lu, X F; Zhang, X Q; Huang, L K; Cheng, L

    2012-02-24

    Orchardgrass is a highly variable, perennial forage grass that is cultivated throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Despite its economic importance, the genetic relationship and distance among and within cultivars are largely unknown but would be of great interest for breeding programs. We investigated the molecular variation and structure of cultivar populations, compared the level of genetic diversity among cultivars (Baoxing, Anba, Bote, and Kaimo), subspecies (Dactylis glomerata ssp Woronowii) and advanced breeding line (YA02-116) to determine whether there is still sufficient genetic diversity within presently used cultivars for future breeding progress in China. Twenty individuals were analyzed from each of six accessions using SSR markers; 114 easily scored bands were generated from 15 SSR primer pairs, with an average of 7.6 alleles per locus. The polymorphic rate was 100% among the 120 individuals, reflecting a high degree of genetic diversity. Among the six accessions, the highest genetic diversity was observed in Kaimo (H = 0.2518; I = 0.3916; P = 87.3%) and 02-116 had a lower level of genetic diversity (H = 0.1806; I = 0.2788; P = 58.73%) compared with other cultivars tested. An of molecular variance revealed a much larger genetic variation within accessions (65%) than between them (35%). This observation suggests that these cultivars have potential for providing rich genetic resource for further breeding program. Furthermore, the study also indicated that Chinese orchardgrass breeding has involved strong selection for adaptation to forage production, which may result in restricted genetic base of orchardgrass cultivar.

  9. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Karol; Alvarez, Inés; Caklová, Petra; Costa, Andrea; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-02-01

    The development of three low-copy nuclear markers for low taxonomic level phylogenies in Asteraceae with emphasis on the subtribe Hieraciinae is reported. Marker candidates were selected by comparing a Lactuca complementary DNA (cDNA) library with public DNA sequence databases. Interspecific variation and phylogenetic signal of the selected genes were investigated for diploid taxa from the subtribe Hieraciinae and compared to a reference phylogeny. Their ability to cross-amplify was assessed for other Asteraceae tribes. All three markers had higher variation (2.1-4.5 times) than the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in Hieraciinae. Cross-amplification was successful in at least seven other tribes of the Asteraceae. Only three cases indicating the presence of paralogs or pseudogenes were detected. The results demonstrate the potential of these markers for phylogeny reconstruction in the Hieraciinae as well as in other Asteraceae tribes, especially for very closely related species.

  10. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  11. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Asteraceae Invaders in Taiwan: Insights from the Flora and Herbarium Records of Casual and Naturalized Alien Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Huah Wu

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalization has been shown to be one of the primary stages of plant invasions; therefore, studies on naturalized plant species may generate valuable insights of possible invaders and invasions. Background information of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species provided by a comprehensive list of casual and naturalized species in Taiwan was examined to estimate the basic biological traits and geological origins of potential invasive species in this study. Besides, herbarium records were collected and analyzed to predict the invasiveness of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species. Our results showed that 44.0% out of the 51 casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were classified as invasive in the field, and a notable portion of these species were probably introduced accidently. Tropical Americas were the most important origins of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species, followed by Europe and temperate Americas. Most of the casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were annual herbs, and a few perennial species categorized as invasive may cause profound environmental problems. The herbarium record showed that species possessed different numbers of localities within the same time frame. We suggested that casual and naturalized Asteraceae species collected in more localities are more invasive than those species found in fewer localities within the same period of time.

  13. The effect of extracts of Irvingia gabonensis (IGOB131 and Dichrostachys glomerata (Dyglomera™ on body weight and lipid parameters of healthy overweight participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Azantsa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous work reported the benefits of extracts of 2 Cameroonian spices – Irvingia gabonensis and Dichrostachys glomerata— on obese people with metabolic syndrome. Considering the physio-metabolic changes that accompany obesity, the present study investigates the effects of these extracts on healthy overweight participants over an 8-week test period. Methods: The study was an 8 week randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design involving 48 overweight (BMI 26 – 30 participants (27 females and 19 males, divided into 3 groups – placebo, 300 mg I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131, or 300 mg D. glomerata extract (DyglomeraTM. Capsules containing the placebo or the test formulations were administered once daily before the main meal of the day. No major dietary changes or changes in physical activity were demonstrated during the study. Weight and blood lipid parameters were measured at baseline, and at the 4 and 8 weeks interval. Results: Compared to the placebo group, there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in weight of participants in both test groups over the 8 week period. However, these significant changes were not observed in the initial 4 weeks, even though the lipid parameters in the test groups changed significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The extracts of Irvingia gabonensis and Dichrostachys glomerata, at a dose of 300 mg per day, were effective in reducing weight and positively modifying lipid parameters in healthy overweight participants.

  14. Toxicity of Lavandula angustifolia oil constituents and spray formulations to insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant Plutella xylostella and its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang Geun; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Si Hyeock; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Kwon, Min; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Plutella xylostella is one of the most serious insect pests of cruciferous crops. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 21 constituents from Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LA-EO) and another 16 previously known LA-EO constituents and the toxicity of six experimental spray formulations containing the oil (1-6 g L(-1) sprays) to susceptible KS-PX and pyrethroid-resistant JJ-PX P. xylostella larvae, as well as to its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata adults. Linalool and linalool oxide (LC50 = 0.016 mg cm(-3) ) were the most toxic fumigant compounds and were 10.7-fold less toxic than dichlorvos to KS-PX larvae. Either residual or fumigant toxicity of these compounds was almost identical against larvae from either of the two strains. Against C. glomerata, dichlorvos (LC50 = 7 × 10(-6)  mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic insecticide. LA-EO was ∼1430 times less toxic than dichlorvos. The oil applied as 6 g L(-1) spray and emamectin benzoate 21.5 g L(-1) emulsifiable concentrate provided 100% mortality against larvae from either of the two strains. Reasonable P. xylostella control in greenhouses can be achieved by a spray formulation containing the 6 g L(-1) oil as potential contact-action fumigant. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Turning an environmental problem into an opportunity: potential use of biochar derived from a harmful marine biomass named Cladophora glomerata as anode electrode for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Pejman; Javadian, Soheila; Norouzi, Omid; Gharibi, Hussein

    2017-12-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery was enhanced by using biochar derived from Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as widespread green macroalgae in most areas of the Iran's Caspian sea coast. By the utilization of the structure of the biochar, micro-/macro-ordered porous carbon with olive-shaped structure was successfully achieved through pyrolysis at 500 °C, which is the optimal temperature for biofuel production, and was activated with HCl. The biochar and HCl treatment biochar (HTB) were applied as anode electrode in lithium ion batteries. Then, electrochemical measurements were conducted on the electrodes via galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. The electrochemical results indicated a higher specific discharge capacity (700 mAh g -1 ) and good cycling stability for HTB at the current density of 0.1 A g -1 as compared to the biochar. The reason that HTB electrode works better than the biochar could be due to the higher surface area, formation functional groups, removal impurities, and formation some micropores after HCl treatment. The biochar derived from marine biomass and treatment process developed here could provide a promising path for the low-cost, renewable, and environmentally friendly electrode materials. Graphical abstract Algal-biochar into Li-ion Battery.

  16. Promotion of hydrogen-rich gas and phenolic-rich bio-oil production from green macroalgae Cladophora glomerata via pyrolysis over its bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Safari, Farid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Nejati, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as a Caspian Sea's green macroalgae into gaseous, liquid and solid products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for bio-oil and hydrogen-rich gas production for further industrial utilization. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for bio-oil production. The highest portion of bio-oil was retrieved at 500°C. The catalytic test was performed using the bio-char derived at 500°C as a catalyst. Effect of the addition of the algal bio-char on the composition of the bio-oil and also gaseous products was investigated. Pyrolysis derived bio-char was characterized by BET, FESEM and ICP method to show its surface area, porosity, and presence of inorganic metals on its surface, respectively. Phenols were increased from 8.5 to 20.76area% by the addition of bio-char. Moreover, the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen selectivity were also enhanced by the factors of 1.37, 1.59 respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial properties on polysulfone composite membranes using synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles with Ulva compressa (L.) Kütz. and Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Fozia T; Arslan, Gulsin; Gubbuk, I Hilal; Akkoz, Cengiz; Ozturk, Betul Yılmaz; Asıkkutlu, Baran; Arslan, Ugur; Ersoz, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    Polysulfone (PS) composite membrane using green synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with Ulva compressa (L.) Kütz. and Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. extract were prepared by spin coating technique and are tested for antimicrobial activity using a direct contact test for the first time. Initially green synthesis of Ag-NPs was accomplished utilizing green macro algae i.e. U. compressa (L.) Kütz. and C. glomerata (L.) Kütz. by the reduction of AgNO 3 . The Ag-NPs/PS composite membranes from both algae revealed outstanding antimicrobial activity against all bacteria i.e. K. pneumonia, P. aeruginasa, E. coli, E. faecium and S. aureus. Bacterial growth was monitored for 17h with a temperature controlled microplate spectrophotometer. The kinetics of the outgrowth in each well were recorded continuously at 630nm every 60min. Thus present work remarkably offers a feasible, cheap and efficient alternative for making Ag-NPs and their utilization as antimicrobial agent on the PS composite membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Cardy, S. M.; Bevan, L. J.; Walker, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial

  19. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  20. Essential Oil Derived From Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Mediates Anticancer Effect by Inhibiting STAT3 and AKT Activation to Induce Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. (EA is a well-known noxious invasive species. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the essential oil derived from EA (EAEO is mainly composed of sesquiterpenes. However, the pharmacological value of EAEO in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains largely unexplored. Herein, we investigated the anti-HCC activities of EAEO, and explored the potential mechanisms of EAEO-induced apoptosis. An MTT assay showed that EAEO inhibited HCC cell proliferation with little toxicity on normal liver cells. Wound healing and FACS assays revealed that EAEO suppressed HCC cell migration and arrested cell cycle, respectively. Moreover, EAEO promoted in vitro HCC cell apoptosis, and EAEO treatment inhibited HepG2 xenografts growth and enhanced apoptotic nucleus of xenografts in HepG2-bearing nude mice. Mechanistically, EAEO significantly decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and resulted in the activation of caspase-9 and -3. EAEO also reduced the expression of Grp78, which in turn relieved the inhibition of caspase-12 and -7. Meanwhile, EAEO suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 and AKT, indicative of its anti-HCC potential. In summary, we determined that EAEO treatment promoted HCC apoptosis via activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, as well as repressed the activity of STAT3 and AKT in HCC cells.

  1. Atlas palinológico de la Amazonia Colombiana II. Familia Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Bulla Luis Carlos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe pollen from 26 genera of Asteraceae which belong to six tribes: Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1 and Inulineae (1. Tricolporate grains were dominant, but tetracolporate grains also appears. All grains are tectate and the most common sculpture type was echinate.Se describen 26 palinomorfos pertenecientes a los géneros más importantes en cuanto a número de especies de la familia Asteraceae y dentro de esta a las tribus Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1, Inulineae (1. Las aberturas son tricolporadas o tetracolporadas, los granos son tectados y el tipo de escultura que más se repite es la equinada.

  2. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. ...

  3. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  4. Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Marco Antonio A.; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Souza, Og F. F. de; Souza, Wyller Vicente M.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae) and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than fema...

  5. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  6. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  7. On the use of the lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. and Swinsc. as an indicator of atmospheric pollution in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, considering both lichen physiological parameters and element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasan, R.C.; Pla, R.R.; Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Pignata, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. and Swinsc. was used to study trace-element atmospheric pollution in Cordoba (Argentina). 38 samples from a 1999 campaign were analyzed by NAA and a number of physiological parameters was determined. In first-ever comparisons, no correlations were found between altitude, physiological parameters and determined elements, which allowed the full comparison of element data in lichen samples throughout the whole survey area. After the application of Monte Carlo assisted factor analysis to the elemental matrix, five source profiles were found and mapped. The attribution of the sources is discussed. (author)

  8. Método espectroscópico para determinação de cumarina em xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cleinils R. da; Gomes, Víctor S.; Kulkamp, Irene C.; Kanis, Luiz A.

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia analítica por espectroscopia UV, para doseamento de cumarina em xaropes de Mikania glomerata. A técnica foi baseada na extração da cumarina utilizando solventes como o clorofórmio e hexano. Após a seleção do solvente, o comprimento de onda foi definido através da sobreposição dos espectros da cumarina, metil parabeno, diluição do xarope e solução extrativa do xarope. Foram preparadas curvas analíticas de cinco soluções de cumarina c...

  9. A relative contribution of carbon from green tide algae Cladophora glomerata and Ulva intestinalis in the coastal food webs in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey M; Berezina, Nadezhda A; Gubelit, Yulia I; Demchuk, Anna S; Golubkov, Mikhail S; Tiunov, Alexei V

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed stable isotope composition of carbon and nitrogen of suspended organic matter (seston) and tissues of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fish from the coastal area of the highly eutrophic Neva Estuary to test a hypothesis that organic carbon of macroalgae Cladophora glomerata and Ulva intestinalis produced during green tides may be among primary sources supporting coastal food webs. The Stable Isotope Bayesian mixing model (SIAR) showed that consumers poorly use organic carbon produced by macroalgae. According to the results of SIAR modeling, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish mostly rely on pelagic derived carbon as a basal resource for their production. Only some species of macroinvertebrates consumed macroalgae. Fish used this resource directly consuming zooplankton or indirectly via benthic macroinvertebrates. This was consistent with the results of the gut content analysis, which revealed a high proportion of zooplankton in the guts of non-predatory fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Método espectroscópico para determinação de cumarina em xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleinils R. da Silva

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia analítica por espectroscopia UV, para doseamento de cumarina em xaropes de Mikania glomerata. A técnica foi baseada na extração da cumarina utilizando solventes como o clorofórmio e hexano. Após a seleção do solvente, o comprimento de onda foi definido através da sobreposição dos espectros da cumarina, metil parabeno, diluição do xarope e solução extrativa do xarope. Foram preparadas curvas analíticas de cinco soluções de cumarina com concentração variando de 0,002 a 0,03 mg/mL. Para análise da exatidão do método, foram preparados três lotes de xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel e o teor de cumarina determinado pela técnica espectrofotométrica foi comparado a técnica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O solvente selecionado para extração foi o clorofórmio, o comprimento de onda 320 nm. A curva analítica apresentou R² de 0,99978, demonstrando linearidade. A comparação estatística do doseamento da cumarina pela técnica espectrofotométrica estudada com a técnica cromatográfica desenvolvida por Celeghini et al. (2001 demonstrou não existir diferenças significativas, indicativo de exatidão da técnica.

  11. Potential of Spectral Reflectance as Postharvest Classification Tool for Flower Development of Calla Lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng. Potencial de la Reflectancia Espectral como Herramienta para la Clasificación Poscosecha del Desarrollo Floral en Cala (Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J . Steidle Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable postharvest management is one of the most serious problems that floriculture has to face. An option for reducing postharvest losses is to use automatic systems for flower sorting and classification, which yield consistent results, reduce costs and speed up these tasks. The objective of this work was show the potential of spectral reflectance to distinguish different postharvest development stages of calla lily flowers, Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng., aiming the use of this technology within automatic systems for flower classification. The measuring equipment was a spectrometer connected to a portable computer and configured for reflectance data acquisition in the 400 to 1000 nm range. Based on the results, it was verified a differentiation between the spectral reflectance curves of calla lily flowers, with gradual decreases on the measured values according to the increase of the senescence stages. Thus, the spectral reflectance has potential to be used in the development of automatic systems for postharvest classification of calla lily flowers.El manejo poscosecha inadecuado es uno de los problemas más serios que la floricultura tiene que enfrentar. Una opción para reducir las pérdidas poscosecha es emplear sistemas automáticos para ordenar y clasificar las flores, los cuales permiten resultados consistentes, reducen gastos y aceleran estas tareas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar el potencial de la reflectancia espectral para discriminar las diferentes fases de desarrollo poscosecha de flores de cala (Zantedeschia aethiopica [L.] Spreng., visando el uso de esta tecnología en sistemas automáticos para la clasificación de flores. El equipo de medición fue un espectrómetro conectado a un computador portátil y configurado para la adquisición de datos de reflectancia comprendidos en la región espectral de 400 a 1000 nm. Con base en los resultados, se constató una diferencia entre las curvas de reflectancia

  12. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  13. Comparative genomics in the Asteraceae reveals little evidence for parallel evolutionary change in invasive taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Bock, Dan G; Hahn, Min A; Heredia, Sylvia M; Turner, Kathryn G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-05-01

    Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has given rise to many notorious invasive species. Using publicly available transcriptome assemblies from 35 Asteraceae, including six major invasive species, we examined evidence for micro- and macro-evolutionary genomic changes associated with invasion. To detect episodes of positive selection repeated across multiple introductions, we conducted comparisons between native and introduced genotypes from six focal species and identified genes with elevated rates of amino acid change (dN/dS). We then looked for evidence of positive selection at a broader phylogenetic scale across all taxa. As invasive species may experience founder events during colonization and spread, we also looked for evidence of increased genetic load in introduced genotypes. We rarely found evidence for parallel changes in orthologous genes in the intraspecific comparisons, but in some cases we identified changes in members of the same gene family. Using among-species comparisons, we detected positive selection in 0.003-0.69% and 2.4-7.8% of the genes using site and stochastic branch-site models, respectively. These genes had diverse putative functions, including defence response, stress response and herbicide resistance, although there was no clear pattern in the GO terms. There was no indication that introduced genotypes have a higher proportion of deleterious alleles than native genotypes in the six focal species, suggesting multiple introductions and admixture mitigated the impact of drift. Our findings provide little evidence for common genomic responses in invasive taxa of the Asteraceae and hence suggest that multiple evolutionary pathways may lead to adaptation during introduction and spread in these species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Vinicia tomentosa, new genus and species of Lychnophorinae (Vernonieae, Asteraceae from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae from the cerrado and campo rupestre vegetation of Minas Gerais (Brazil is described and illustrated. The new taxon, Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. is closely related to Chronopappus DC. and Lychnophora Mart., but differs in having pedunculate glomerules and the narrowly cylindrical involucre. The other two genera always have sessile glomerules and the involucre is turbinate to cylindrical in Lychnophora and ovoid in Chronopappus.

  15. Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeský, Ľuboš; Schwarzacher, Trude; Gornall, Richard; Heslop-Harrison, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in

  16. A new polyacetylene from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) and its in vitro antitumoral activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buskuhl, Humberto; Freitas, Rilton A.; Biavatti, Maique W. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Itajai, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude], e-mail: maique@ccs.ufsc.br; Monache, Franco Delle [Universita ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive; Barison, Andersson; Campos, Francinete R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Corilo, Yuri E.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The dichloromethane fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract of leaves and flowers of Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae) was investigated, resulting in the isolation and structure elucidation of a new polyacetylene namely 5-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2(5H)-one. The structure of the isolated compound was determined based on IR, NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectrometric data. The antitumor potential, including cytotoxicity to tumor cells and genotoxicity, was investigated. The results suggest that apoptotic cell death may have occurred, at least in part, via a caspase-dependent mechanism. (author)

  17. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  18. Assemblages of endophagous insects on Asteraceae in São Paulo cerrados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana M; Fonseca, Carlos R; Prado, Paulo I; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Diniz, Soraia; Kubota, Umberto; Braun, Marina R; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Anjos, Luciano A; Mendonça, Tehra G; Futada, Silvia M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the endophagous insects fauna associated to Asteraceae capitula was carried out from 2000 to 2002 in eight cerrado sensu stricto sites located in the Brazilian state of Sdo Paulo. Sixty-four endophagous species of Diptera and Lepidoptera were recorded from 49 asteracean host plants. Approximately half of the species were obtained from a single locality, with a large proportion emerging from a single sample (unicates). Thirty percent of the species were singletons (i.e. only one individual was recorded). The large proportion of rare species suggests a high species turnover among localities. Lepidopteran species were recorded on more host species than dipterans, confirming their more polyphagous food habit, also observed in other Brazilian biomes and in Europe. We conclude that the studied cerrado localities, all within São Paulo State, are isolated with its invertebrate fauna composed of many rare and exclusive species. We suggest that the maintenance of Asteraceae biodiversity and their endophagous insects depend on the conservation of all cerrado remnants in the state.

  19. Species richness in natural and disturbed habitats: Asteraceae and Flower-head insects (Tephritidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in the landscape result in an environmental mosaic with serious consequences for biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the anthropogenic changes on Asteraceae richness and abundance, and to evaluate the consequences for the richness of Tephritidae assemblages in five sampling sites, with three sampled habitats in each: cerrado (Brazilian savanna), eucalyptus stands and pasture. Sampling was carried out in 15 random transects (cerrados and one pasture) and in 30 transects (eucalyptus stands and the remaining pastures). Composition, species richness and insect abundance in each habitat type was estimated by sampling the flower heads for each species of host plant, collected by four people for 1h. Differences in mean abundance of plant population between habitats and sites were tested by two-way ANOVA. Differences in plant species richness between habitats and sites and effects of habitat, site and host plant richness on insect richness were tested using a generalized linear model with Poisson errors. Within each sampling site, cerrados showed higher species richness of Asteraceae than pastures and eucalyptus stands. There were also significant differences in plant richness among sites. Mean population abundance values were significantly different among habitats, but not among sites. Increased host plant richness led to significant insect species richness. There were no additional significant effects of habitat on insect richness. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations in landscape determined the impoverishment of plant assemblages and therefore of insect assemblages, because of the positive relationship between host plant richness and insect richness.

  20. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Albach, Dirk C; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells.

  1. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  2. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Albach, Dirk C

    2013-01-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells. (paper)

  5. COROTIPOS PRELIMINARES DE PERÚ BASADOS EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berni Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se basa en el concepto de categorías corológicas o corotipos para formular una nueva hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica del Perú basado en la distribución de la familia Astera - ceae. La información recabada dio como resultado que existen 1669 especies de Asteraceae registradas en Perú (hasta el año 2008, distribuidas en 255 géneros. El territorio peruano se dividió en 218 Distritos de Reporte que representan a los 24 departamentos divididos en franjas de 500 m de altitud. La base de datos biogeográficos de Asteraceae se obtuvo cruzando los registros de distribución actualizados con los Distritos de Reporte, expresándose en una matriz de presencia-ausencia. El análisis de datos dio como resultado un total de 14 corotipos preliminares para el Perú: Abiseo, Amotape, Andino, Apurímac-Huan - cavelica, Chachapoyas-Huánuco, Huancabamba, Huascarán, Ica, Lima-Piura, Loreto-Ucayali, Manu, Pasco, Sandia y Tacna.

  6. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to familyRosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R 3 (Force-A, France for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units, that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. RESULTS: Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves ofHelianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU, Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis (0.14 RU also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU. CONCLUSIONS: This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  7. ASPECTOS TAXONÔMICOS, FITOGEOGRÁFICOS E USOS DE Pectis uniaristata DC. var. jangadensis (S.Moore) Keil (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, ARILDO GONÇALO; NETO, GERMANO GUARIM

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho discute os aspectos taxonômicos, fitogeográficos e outros relacionados à Pectis uniaristata var. jangadensis (S. Moore) Keil (Asteraceae) uma planta de ocorrência na vegetação do cerrado e do pantanal de Mato Grosso.

  8. Sesquiterpenoids in subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.) Dumort (tribe Cardueae, Asteraceae): distribution, (13)C NMR spectral data and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maurizio; Bancheva, Svetlana; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella

    2013-11-01

    Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl is one of the biggest and most economically important plant families. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Asteraceae is rather complex and according to the latest and most reliable taxonomic classification of Panero & Funk, based on the analysis of nine chloroplast regions, the family is divided into 12 subfamilies and 35 tribes. One of the largest tribes of Asteraceae is Cardueae Cass. with four subtribes (Carlininae, Echinopinae, Carduinae and Centaureinae) and more than 2500 species. Susanna & Garcia-Jacas have organized the genera of Centaureinae (about 800 species) into seven informal groups, which recent molecular studies have confirmed: 1. Basal genera; 2. Volutaria group; 3. Rhaponticum group; 4. Serratula group; 5. Carthamus group; 6. Crocodylium group; 7. Centaurea group. This review summarizes reports on sesquiterpenoids from the Centaureinae subtribe of the Asteraceae family, as well as the (13)C NMR spectral data described in the literature. It further reviews studies concerning the biological activities of these metabolites. For this work, literature data on sesquiterpenes from the Centaureinae subtribe were retrieved with the help of the SciFinder database and other similar data banks. All entries from 1958 until the end of 2011 were considered. This review is addressed to scientists working in the metabolomics field such as chemists, botanists, etc., the spectroscopic data reported make this work a good tool for structural elucidation, the biological section gives useful information to those who wish to study the structure activity relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  10. Evolution and Expression Patterns of CYC/TB1 Genes in Anacyclus: Phylogenetic Insights for Floral Symmetry Genes in Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, María A.; Cubas, Pilar; Álvarez, Inés; Sanjuanbenito, Guillermo; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered eight main gene lineages present in Asteraceae: two from CYC1, four from CYC2 and two from CYC3-like genes. The species phylogeny was recovered in most of the gene lineages, allowing the delimitation of orthologous sets of CYC/TB1 genes in Asteraceae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that in Anacyclus three of the four isolated CYC2 genes are more highly expressed in ray flowers. The expression of the four AcCYC2 genes overlaps in several organs including the ligule of ray flowers, as well as in anthers and ovules throughout development. PMID:28487706

  11. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Hunkova, Elena; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-16

    The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves of Helianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU) and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU), Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU) belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis) (0.14 RU) also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU) and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU). This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  12. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...

  13. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  14. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  15. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  16. Oxidação fenólica, tipo de explante e meios de cultura no estabelecimento in vitro de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiana Scherer Bassan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A canafístula, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. é uma espécie florestal nativa e com ampla dispersão geográfica, desempenhando um papel pioneiro nas áreas abertas, em capoeiras e matas degradadas. Apresenta um rápido crescimento e se adapta facilmente, sendo muito recomendada para reflorestamento homogêneo. A madeira é utilizada em construções civis, indústria de móveis, construção naval e militar. A micropropagação é uma técnica utilizada com bastante sucesso, apresentando, entre outras vantagens, um rápido aumento no número de plantas geneticamente idênticas partindo de plantas selecionadas. Os objetivos do trabalho são avaliar a influência da luz no controle da oxidação fenólica dos explantes de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng., determinar o meio nutritivo e o tipo de explante mais adequado para o estabelecimento in vitro de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, ápices caulinares foram cultivados em meio base MS a 25 ± 3°C, por 7 dias no escuro e, posteriormente, sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e intensidade luminosa de 20 μmol.m2.s-1, fornecida por lâmpada fluorescente branca durante 21 dias ou permaneceram na câmara de crescimento com exposição à luz durante todo o experimento. Foi empregado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições contendo quatro unidades experimentais (UE. A oxidação fenólica foi observada após 21 dias de cultivo. Não ocorreu oxidação fenólica em nenhum dos tratamentos analisados. No segundo experimento, ápices caulinares e segmentos nodais foram cultivados em meio base MS e meio WPM. Os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento com fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e intensidade luminosa de 20 μmol.m2.s-1, fornecidas por lâmpada fluorescente branca fria e temperatura de 25 ± 3°C. A UE foi composta por um frasco de vidro de 150 mL contendo 30 mL de meio nutritivo e um explante. O

  17. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  18. Phytoremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Artificially Polluted Using Plant-Associated-Endophytic Bacteria and Dactylis glomerata as the Bioremediation Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka, Ann; Gałązka, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of soil microorganisms to the contamination of soil artificially polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated in pot experiments. The plant used in the tests was cock's foot (Dactylis glomerata). Three different soils artificially contaminated with PAHs were applied in the studies. Three selected PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were used at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil and diesel fuel at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil. For evaluation of the synergistic effect of nitrogen fixing bacteria, the following strains were selected: associative Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas stutzerii. Additionally, in the bioremediation process, the inoculation of plants with a mixture of the bacterial strains in the amount of 1 ml suspension per 500 g of soil was used. Chamber pot-tests were carried out in controlled conditions during four weeks of plant growth period. The basic physical, microbiological and biochemical properties in contaminated soils were determined. The obtained results showed a statistically important increase in the physical properties of soils polluted with PAHs and diesel fuel compared with the control and also an important decrease in the content of PAHs and heavy metals in soils inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and P. stutzeri after cock's foot grass growth. The bioremediation processes were especially intensive in calcareous rendzina soil artificially polluted with PAHs.

  19. Preparation of Dry Extract of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Guaco and Determination of Its Coumarin Levels by Spectrophotometry and HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Henriques do Amaral

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Guaco (Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup is one of the most popular herbal medicines used to treat the symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis, cough and hoarseness. The coumarin 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, is one of the major constituents of Guaco and contributes to its pharmacological effects. The pharmaceutical capsule form of dry extract of Guaco is recommended by the Brazilian Program of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines and used in primary health care. In order to identify a new protocol to obtain the raw material for Guaco capsule production we evaluated two methods, including a freeze-drying process (lyophilization and the spray-dryer technique, as well as the use of two adjuvants, Maltodextrins and Aerosil®, in different concentrations. The coumarin levels of the dried extracts were analyzed by UV-spectrophotometry and HPLC-UV/DAD. The adjuvant Aerosil® 8% showed better dry powder physical appearance. Lyophilization was observed to be the best process to obtain the dry extract of Guaco based on the measured coumarin levels.

  20. Adult exposure to ocean acidification is maladaptive for larvae of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata in the presence of multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Byrne, Maria; Coleman, Ross A; Virtue, Patti; Dove, Michael; Gibbs, Mitchell; Spohr, Lorraine; Scanes, Elliot; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-02-01

    Parental effects passed from adults to their offspring have been identified as a source of rapid acclimation that may allow marine populations to persist as our surface oceans continue to decrease in pH. Little is known, however, whether parental effects are beneficial for offspring in the presence of multiple stressors. We exposed adults of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata to elevated CO 2 and examined the impacts of elevated CO 2 (control = 392; 856 µatm) combined with elevated temperature (control = 24; 28°C), reduced salinity (control = 35; 25) and reduced food concentration (control = full; half diet) on their larvae. Adult exposure to elevated CO 2 had a positive impact on larvae reared at elevated CO 2 as a sole stressor, which were 8% larger and developed faster at elevated CO 2 compared with larvae from adults exposed to ambient CO 2 These larvae, however, had significantly reduced survival in all multistressor treatments. This was particularly evident for larvae reared at elevated CO 2 combined with elevated temperature or reduced food concentration, with no larvae surviving in some treatment combinations. Larvae from CO 2 -exposed adults had a higher standard metabolic rate. Our results provide evidence that parental exposure to ocean acidification may be maladaptive when larvae experience multiple stressors. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Seasonal dynamics in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of dactylis glomerata l. and trifolium repens L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, G.; Ye, S.; Wang, Y.; Wu, E.; Sugawara, K.

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics in the colonization of the rhizosphere of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the production of spores in an artifical Japanese grassland was investigated over 12 months (between December 2001 and December 2002). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization fluctuated seasonally in the rhizosphere of both pastures. The total AM fungal colonization of the two pastures decreased during winter, then increased from March to June as the pastures grew, but slightly decreased again in July and August, and again followed an increase in September. There was significant difference of the colonization by arbuscules and vesicles between the two pastures ( p <0.05). Besides, the vesicular colonization of orchardgrass was higher than that of white clover, but the opposite trend was observed for arbuscular colonization. Similarly, the numbers of AM fungal spores in the pastures varied throughout the year, decreasing from spring to summer, then slowly increasing in late summer, reaching peak levels in winter. There is significant correlation between the frequency of spores in the rhizosphere soil and both soil temperature and pH. (author)

  2. Antidiabetic and Renoprotective Effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing Extract in Experimental Type 2 Diabetic Rats: A Potential Nutraceutical Product for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Srimaroeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3, using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model.

  3. Hydrogen and syngas production by catalytic gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) using alkali and alkaline-earth metals compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abdol Ghaffar; Hisoriev, Hikmat; Zarnegar, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Hamed

    2018-01-02

    The steam gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) in presence of alkali and alkaline-earth metal compounds catalysts was studied to enhance the yield of syngas and reduce its tar content through cracking and reforming of condensable fractions. The commercial catalysts used include NaOH, KHCO 3 , Na 3 PO 4 and MgO. The gasification runs carried out with a research scale, biomass gasification unit, show that the NaOH has a strong potential for production of hydrogen, along with the added advantages of char converting and tar destruction, allowing enhancement of produced syngas caloric value. When the temperature increased from 700°C to 900°C, the tar content in the gas sharply decreased, while the hydrogen yield increased. Increasing steam/biomass ratio significantly increased hydrogen yield and tar destruction; however, the particle size in the range of 0.5-2.5 mm played a minor role in the process.

  4. Gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) with CO2/H2O/O2 in a circulating fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abdol Ghaffar; Hisoriev, Hikmat

    2017-11-28

    Gasification is one of the most important thermochemical routes to produce both synthesis gas (syngas) and chars. The quality of produced syngas wieldy depends on the operating conditions (temperature, residence time, heating rate, and gasifying agent), hydrodynamic properties of gasifier (particle size, minimum fluidization velocity, and gasifier size), and type of feedstock (coal, biomass, oil, and municipal solid wastes). In the present study, simulation of syngas production via circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L.) at different gasifying agents and particle sizes was carried out, using Aspen Plus simulator. The model which has been validated by using experimental data of the technical literature was used to evaluate the influence of operating conditions on gas composition and performance parameters. The results show that biomass gasification using pure oxygen as the gasification agent has great potential to improve the caloric value of produced gas and performance indicators. It was also found that the produced gas caloric value, syngas yield, and performance parameters (CCE and CGE) increase with reaction temperature but are inversely proportional to the biomass particle size.

  5. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing extract in experimental type 2 diabetic rats: a potential nutraceutical product for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimaroeng, Chutima; Ontawong, Atcharaporn; Saowakon, Naruwan; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2015-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE) has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1) and 3 (Oat3), using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model.

  6. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  7. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011–2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. Keywords: Gall midge, Morphology, Neotropical, Taxonomy

  8. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  9. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M.; Bano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  10. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract).

  12. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L; Cron, Glynis V

    2016-05-01

    Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species.

  13. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L.; Cron, Glynis V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Methods and Results: Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. Conclusions: These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species. PMID:27213125

  14. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  15. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  17. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  19. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  20. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A.; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E.; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites in Asteraceae family. • Barnadesioideae is the basal lineage of all Asteraceae plants

  1. Effect of alcoholic extract of guaco (Mikania glomerata on the control of dark rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cauliflower/ Avaliação da eficácia da tintura etanólica de guaco (Mikania glomerata no controle da podridão negra (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris em couve-flor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Freitas Schwan-Estrada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available With the use of irrigation and new hybrids of cauliflower, it is possible to get production during all the year with hight yield. However, the crop has been affected by diseases, as the dark rot caused by X. campestris pv. campestris. The objective of this research work was to study the potential of Mikania glomerata for the control of this disease. Alcoholic extract 50 ºGL of M. glomerata was evaluated regarding to: in vitro antimicrobial activity through bacterial growth in 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 of the alcoholic extract; induction of local or systemic resistance in 25 days old cauliflower, with spray of alcoholic extract concomitantly and three days before the inoculation with the pathogen (water and bordeau mixture were used as control; peroxidases activity in leaves of cauliflower treated and not treated, and harvested concomitantly, 24, 48 and 72 hours after spraying the alcoholic extract and also after inoculation. The alcoholic extract of M. glomerata showed inhibition of the bacterial growth in vitro at the concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The concentrations of 500 mg L-1 and 1000 mg L-1 inhibited 24% and 38% of the bacterial growth. This inhibition could be due to antibacterial compounds in the alcoholic extract. An inhibition of the disease in vivo occurred only in the leaves treated with 100 and 500 mg L-1 of alcoholic extract when applied concomitantly with the bacteria. This result was similar to bordeau mixture, indicating a control by direct antimicrobial activity. There was no systemic resistence induction for all treatments. The peroxidases induction was due to infectious pathogen process and not to the treatments with alcoholic extract. The results indicate the potential of M. glomerata alcoholic extract for the preventive control of cauliflower dark rot disease.Com a prática da irrigação e novos híbridos de couve-flor, é possível produzir durante todo o ano e com alta produtividade. Mas, a cultura tem

  2. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  3. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydroanthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic da...

  4. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Asteraceae) changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rossatto,Davi Rodrigo; Kolb,Rosana Marta

    2010-01-01

    Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna) and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plas...

  5. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Álvarez, I.; Caklová, Petra; Costa, A.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-77 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieraciinae * low-copy nuclear markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  7. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC, were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100% remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model.

  8. Hydrolase and fructosyltransferase activities implicated in the accumulation of different chain size fructans in three Asteraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Nair M; Asega, Amanda F; Carvalho, Maria Angela M; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2007-09-01

    Fructans are widely distributed in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth and are thought to be involved in drought and freezing tolerance, in addition to storage function. Reserve organs of Vernonia herbacea and Viguiera discolor, from the cerrado, and of the perennial herb Smallanthus sonchifolius, endemic to Andean region, store over 80% inulin, with different DP (35, 150, and 15, respectively). The fructan pattern in Asteraceae species could be explained by characteristics of their respective 1-FFTs. Hydrolases and fructosyltransferases from S. sonchifolius, V. herbacea and V. discolor were analyzed in plants at the same environmental conditions. The higher 1-FEH activities found in the species with lower DP, S. sonchifolius and V. herbacea reinforce the hypothesis of the involvement of 1-FEH in fructan profile and suggest that the high DP fructan of V. discolor is a consequence of the low affinity of its 1-FEH to the native long chain inulin. Long term incubation with sucrose suggested that the affinity of 1-FFT of V. discolor for 1-kestose is low when compared to that of V. herbacea. Indeed 1-FFT from V. discolor was shown to be an hDP 1-FFT, preferring longer inulins as acceptors. Conversely, 1-FFT from V. herbacea seems to have a higher affinity for short fructo-oligosaccharides, including 1-kestose, as acceptor substrates. Differences in fructan enzymes of the three Asteraceae provide new information towards the understanding of fructan metabolism and control of carbon flow between low and high DP fructans.

  9. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  10. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Suvi K.; Tähtiharju, Sari

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  11. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  13. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  14. Differential effects of metal contamination on the transcript expression of immune- and stress-response genes in the Sydney Rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Daisy A.; Thompson, Emma L.; Nair, Sham V.; Raftos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination by metals is a serious threat to the biological sustainability of coastal ecosystems. Our current understanding of the potential biological effects of metals in these ecosystems is limited. This study tested the transcriptional expression of immune- and stress-response genes in Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). Oysters were exposed to four metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) commonly associated with anthropogenic pollution in coastal waterways. Seven target genes (superoxide dismutase, ferritin, ficolin, defensin, HSP70, HSP90 and metallothionein) were selected. Quantitative (real-time) PCR analyses of the transcript expression of these genes showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. Significant changes in transcription were found for 18 of the 28 combinations tested (4 metals × 7 genes). Of these, 16 reflected down-regulation of gene transcription. HSP90 was the only gene significantly up-regulated by metal contamination (cadmium and zinc only), while defensin expression was significantly down-regulated by exposure to all four metals. This inhibition could have a significant negative effect on the oyster immune system, promoting susceptibility to opportunistic infections and disease. -- Highlights: ► Oysters were exposed to Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn, all commonly associated with coastal pollution. ► qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to these metals. ► qPCR showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. ► The genes identified have the potential to lead to increased disease susceptibility in oysters. -- qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to metals, which could lead to increased disease susceptibility

  15. Anti-inflammatory, anthropometric and lipomodulatory effects Dyglomera® (aqueous extract of Dichrostachys glomerata in obese patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonne Kuate

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased visceral fat, dyslipidemia and increased markers of inflammation and coagulation are cardiovascular risk factors commonly encountered in obese people with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that ground Dichrostachys glomerata (DG, a spice used in Western Cameroon, can have beneficial effects on inflammation and various other cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Dyglomera®, an aqueous extract of DG (standardized to NLT 10% polyphenols on certain anthropometric, biochemical (including pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states and hemodynamic parameters in obese patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: The study was an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 116 males and 202 females aged between 24 and 58 years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: treatment and placebo. Capsules containing the active treatment (200 mg Dyglomera® or placebo (200 mg maize powder were administered 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner throughout the study period. Various biochemical (namely, blood glucose, lipid profile, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers, anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters were measured at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(11:416-427 Page 417 of 427 Results: At the end of the study, the Dyglomera® group showed statistically significant differences in all 16 parameters compared to baseline values. Changes in BMI and waist circumference were accompanied by changes in biochemical parameters, with the exception of adiponectin levels which were not correlated to waist circumference and PAI-1 values. The results confirm the hypothesis that Dyglomera®, the aqueous extract of DG, has antiinflammatory properties, and is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in obese human subjects.

  16. Study of the epitope structure of purified Dac G I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne pollens, using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, W; Mécheri, S; Peltre, G; David, B; Hébert, J

    1988-11-15

    The use of mAb allowed us to further analyze the cross-reactivity between purified Dac g I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Lolium perenne (Rye grass), respectively. It was first shown, using IEF, followed by immunoprinting, that serum IgE antibodies from most grass-sensitive patients recognize both Dac g I and Lol p I. Second, three different anti-Lol p I mAb, 290A-167, 348A-6, and 539A-6, and one anti-Dac g I mAb, P3B2 were all shown to react with Dac g I and Lol p I, indicating that the two molecules share common epitopes. Epitope specificity of the mAb was determined by competitive binding inhibition of a given labeled mAb to solid phase fixed Dac g I or Lol p I by the mAb. The results indicated that the four mAb are directed against four different and non-overlapping epitopes present on both allergens. Using double-binding RIA, our data strongly suggest that the common epitopes are not repetitive on both molecules. In addition to their similar physicochemical characteristics, such as isolectric points and m.w., Dac g I and Lol p I share four identical epitopes. Binding inhibition of human IgE to Lol p I and Dac g I by the mAb was also assessed. The results indicated that each mAb was able to inhibit such reactions to variable degree but no additive inhibition was observed when two mAb of different specificities were used in combination, suggesting that the human IgE binding site is partially shared by each epitope recognized by the four mAb.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Association of EST-SSR and SCoT Markers with Rust Traits in Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haidong; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Bing; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Huang, Linkai; Jiang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xinchun; Peng, Yan; Ma, Xiao; Yan, Yanhong

    2016-01-08

    Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), is a well-known perennial forage species; however, rust diseases have caused a noticeable reduction in the quality and production of orchardgrass. In this study, genetic diversity was assessed and the marker-trait associations for rust were examined using 18 EST-SSR and 21 SCoT markers in 75 orchardgrass accessions. A high level of genetic diversity was detected in orchardgrass with an average genetic diversity index of 0.369. For the EST-SSR and SCoT markers, 164 and 289 total bands were obtained, of which 148 (90.24%) and 272 (94.12%) were polymorphic, respectively. Results from an AMOVA analysis showed that more genetic variance existed within populations (87.57%) than among populations (12.43%). Using a parameter marker index, the efficiencies of the EST-SSR and SCoT markers were compared to show that SCoTs have higher marker efficiency (8.07) than EST-SSRs (4.82). The results of a UPGMA cluster analysis and a STRUCTURE analysis were both correlated with the geographic distribution of the orchardgrass accessions. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r² of 0.1627 across all band pairs, indicating a high extent of linkage disequilibrium in the material. An association analysis between the rust trait and 410 bands from the EST-SSR and SCoT markers using TASSEL software revealed 20 band panels were associated with the rust trait in both 2011 and 2012. The 20 bands obtained from association analysis could be used in breeding programs for lineage selection to prevent great losses of orchardgrass caused by rust, and provide valuable information for further association mapping using this collection of orchardgrass.

  18. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  19. Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Jiménez, I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value.- Cheirolophus intybaceus is a heliophyte growing in thermal Mediterranean scrublands along a coastal belt of 50 km large, stretching from Toulon (France to the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, occurring also in the Balearic Islands (with the exception of Minorca. Moreover, this species is also growing in high and sunny lands in the Mediterranean river basins, constituting a complex of taxa closely related among them. The objectives of this work are: i to provide new genome size data for some Asteraceae species; ii to study the variation of DNA amount along a species distribution area; iii to evaluate the discrimination capability of this parameter at low taxonomic levels. A signicantly positive correlation between the DNA amount and the latitude has been found, that is, in drier and warmer habitats genome size tends to decrease in this species. The variation in the whole distribution area of Ch. intybaceus is 1.15-fold. This low variability supports the constancy of 2C-value.

    Cheirolophus intybaceus es una especie heliófila propia de los matorrales mediterráneos termófilos que crece en una franja litoral de unos 50 km de anchura que va desde Tolón (Var, Francia hasta el sur de la península Ibérica, estando también presente en las islas Baleares (excepto en Menorca. Se encuentra también en las zonas elevadas y soleadas de las cuencas fluviales mediterráneas, formando un complejo de táxones estrechamente relacionados entre sí. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: i contribuir a la aportación de datos de tamaño del genoma para diversas especies de Asteraceae; ii estudiar la variación de la cantidad de ADN a lo largo del área de distribución de una especie; iii evaluar la capacidad de discriminación de este parámetro a niveles taxonómicos bajos. Se ha encontrado una correlación positiva y significativa entre la

  20. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  1. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  2. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  3. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  5. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  7. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Quesada, E.

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry [es

  8. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vitales

    Full Text Available The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i evaluate species' boundaries, ii infer their evolutionary relationships and iii investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  9. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Caponio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El género SteviaCav. (Asteraceae presenta alrededor de 200 especies en el continente americano. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, originaria de Paraguay, es la única especie cultivada. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista químico, por los principios activos que poseen sus hojas. Sin embargo existe controversia respecto a su sistema reproductivo, ya que es considerada apomíctica obligada por algunos autores, mientras otros la consideran de reproducción sexual. A los efectos de clarificar esta cuestión se realizaron estudios de: megasporogénesis, megagametogénesis, fenología de la floración, viabilidad de polen y receptividad estigmática en tres ecotipos en condiciones de autopolinización y polinización cruzada. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las plantas analizadas se reproducen sexualmente y poseen un sistema de autoincompatibilidad que impide la autofertilización.

  10. The genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) - A review on traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Neves, Bruna; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2018-06-15

    Species of the genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) are used in different parts of the world for mainly to treat skin and liver diseases, as well as disorders of the respiratory system, among others. This review aims to discuss the present state of the art concerning the ethnobotanical uses, secondary metabolites and biological effects of Pterocaulon species and their chemical components. The available information on the genus Pterocaulon was gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library). Information was also obtained from local publications, M.Sc. and Ph.D. dissertations. All studies on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plants until December 2017 were included in this review. Approximately 40 coumarins and 30 flavonoids have been isolated from Pterocaulon species. Coumarins have been considered the chemotaxonomic markers in the genus and the most active components. Pharmacological studies carried out with extracts and isolated compounds revealed in vitro bioactivities that include antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxicity. Most of the pharmacological investigations were not correlated with traditional uses of the plants. Pterocaulon species, a rich source of coumarins, have great ethnomedical potential. Nevertheless, further studies into the pharmacological activities are necessary since none of the purported effects of these plants was fully assessed. In-depth research regarding the toxicity are also required to ensure the safety of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

    2002-01-01

    Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

  13. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  15. Flower structure and developmental stages of the capitulum of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae): reproductive implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I

    2017-03-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.

  16. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S; Fay, Michael F; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W-J; Ye, S; Du, L-H; Li, S-M; Miao, X; Shang, F-D

    2016-10-05

    Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant native to China. A long history of artificial crossings may have resulted in complex genetic background and decreased genetic diversity. To protect the genetic diversity of D. morifolium and enabling breeding of new D. morifolium cultivars, we developed a set of molecular markers. We used pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library by Roche 454 FLX+ platform, to isolate D. morifolium simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 32,863 raw reads containing 2251 SSRs were obtained. To test the effectiveness of these SSR markers, we designed primers by randomly selecting 100 novel SSRs, and amplified them across 60 cultivars representing five different petal shape groups. Sixteen SSRs were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 19, and their expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.477 to 0.848, and 0.250 to 0.804, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.459 to 0.854 and the inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.119 to 0.759. An unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average analysis was performed to survey the phylogenetic relationships of these 60 cultivars and five clusters were identified. These markers can be used for investigating genetic relationships and identifying elite alleles through linkage and association analyses.

  18. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Elsaid, Mansour S

    2014-07-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of different Asteraceae plants. The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Picris cyanocarpa (P. cyanocarpa) and Anthemis deserti (A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima (A. fragrantissima) and Artemissia monosperma (A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator (100% at 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum (R. appoposum) showed 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 200 and 400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed 100 and 95% inhibition percentage at 400 μg/mL, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. In most tests P. cyanocarpa and A. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  1. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taiza M; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Moraes, Moemy G; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2015-01-01

    Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitumhas amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  2. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) Endemic to Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Muscolo, Camilla; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Damiano, Silvia; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a halophytic shrub endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p-cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β-pinene and thymol esters. From the EtOH extract, eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions, and isolates (2), (4), and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA-MB 231, and HCT116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, and in some cases, higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  3. Cytonuclear Coordination Is Not Immediate upon Allopolyploid Formation in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) Allopolyploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Tina; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploids, formed by hybridization and chromosome doubling, face the immediate challenge of having duplicated nuclear genomes that interact with the haploid and maternally inherited cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes. Most of our knowledge of the genomic consequences of allopolyploidy has focused on the fate of the duplicated nuclear genes without regard to their potential interactions with cytoplasmic genomes. As a step toward understanding the fates of nuclear-encoded subunits that are plastid-targeted, here we examine the retention and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; rbcS) in multiple populations of allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae). These polyploids formed recently (~80 years ago) and repeatedly from T. dubius and T. pratensis in the northwestern United States. Examination of 79 T. miscellus individuals from 10 natural populations, as well as 25 synthetic allotetraploids, including reciprocally formed plants, revealed a low percentage of naturally occurring individuals that show a bias in either gene (homeolog) loss (12%) or expression (16%), usually toward maintaining the maternal nuclear copy of rbcS. For individuals showing loss, seven retained the maternally derived rbcS homeolog only, while three had the paternally derived copy. All of the synthetic polyploid individuals examined (S0 and S1 generations) retained and expressed both parental homeologs. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear coordination does not happen immediately upon polyploid formation in Tragopogon miscellus. PMID:26646761

  4. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  5. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p < 0.05. However, this extract exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity effect at all tested concentrations. The concentration necessary to produce a 50% cell death rate (IC50 with C. shulabadensis was 304.5 ± 0.61 µg/mL. The calculated IC50 for cytotoxicity of the other Cousinia species extracts ranged between 18.4 ± 0.59 to 87.9 ± 0.58 µg/mL. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for the total extract of Cousinia phyllocephala. In conclusion, this study supports that Cousinia species display a remarkable inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases activity. The concomitant MMP-inhibitory and low cytotoxicity effects observed in C. sulabadensis might coin this extract for future potential anti-invasive herbal medicine studies.

  6. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources.

  7. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of lnula helenium L (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectaries of Inula helenium L. only occurred in disc florets and were situated above the inferior ovary. The shape of the investigated glands (five-armed star with rounded tips and deep incisions - observed from above clearly differed from the shape of the nectaries of other Asteraceae, also the height of nectary was much lower (129 µm. The glandular tissue of the nectaries of elecampane was composed of a single-layered epidermis and 5--9 layers of secretory cells. Nectar was released through modified stomata, mainly arranged in the top part of the gland. The secretory cells were characterised by granular cytoplasm and the presence of a large, often lobate, cell nucleus. In the cytosol, numerous amoeboid plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes were present. In small vacuoles, myelin-like structures, fibrous material and vesicles with the content of substances which can be secretion, were observed. The plastid stroma showed different electron density and the presence of internal tubules and plastoglobules. Vesicular extensions forming bright zones were visible between the membranes of the nuclear envelope. Adjacent to the plasmalemma, as well as between the plasmalemma and the cell wall, secretory vesicles occurred, indicating the granulocrine mechanism of nectar secretion.

  9. Biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with Asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-04-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from five Asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. From Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus asper and Hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. Of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. Majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Nocardia and Micromonospora were also recovered. Overall, 36 of the 86 isolates were significantly bioactivity while 18 (20.9 %) showed strong bioactivity. In total, 52.1 and 66.6 % showed potent cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. The LC50 for 15 strains was <20 μg/ml. Compared to the ascorbate standard (EC50 0.34 μg/ml), all isolates gave impressive results with notable EC50 values of 0.65, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.79 μg/ml.

  10. Estudio de la propagación sexual del arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Escobar-Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual propagation of arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (Asteraceae. Objective. To develop sexual propagationmethodologies for Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (arboloco. Materials and methods. Seeds were harvested from treesgrown at the Chilaca environmental station (Geoambiente Ltda. located in Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The study was carried out intwo phases: firstly, substrate effect on germination responses was evaluated in seedbed conditions. Substrates evaluated were: local soil,local soil mixed with worm humus, and peat. Additionally, two spatial arrangements were assessed: seeds sown at random and at 0.5 cmin depth. Secondly, in nursery conditions the effect of the substrates local soil, local soil mixed with worm humus and peat, as well as theeffect of developmental stages of the plants (with 2, 4, and 6 leaves on their further growth and development were evaluated. Results. Inseedbed conditions, the germination capacity was highly influenced by peat substrate (83.67% whereas in local soil the germinationcapacity was 40.83%. In nursery conditions, 6-leaf plants grown in local soil mixed with worm humus showed the best responses onparameters such as plant total length (9.51 cm, leaf area (36.69 cm2, and total dry weight (0.10 g. Conclusions. The type of substrateused in seedbed conditions influenced the germination capacity of M. quadrangularis seeds. The substrate and the developmental stage ofthe plant had a significant influence on the growth and development of arboloco plants.

  11. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  13. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  14. Caracterização morfoanatômica de Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira

    Full Text Available Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, conhecido como "matapasto", é uma planta usada na medicina popular como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização morfoanatômica da folha, dos ramos e da raiz de A. fastigiatum. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas; a inflorescência é constituída de capítulos; as flores com corola lilás; ausência de pápus. A raiz apresenta crescimento secundário na zona de ramificação com estruturas secretoras. O caule possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos, tricomas tectores simples e tricomas glandulares capitados. O pecíolo exibe contorno côncavo-convexo e a epiderme é unisseriada. A lâmina foliar é anfiestomática e o mesófilo dorsiventral. A epiderme possui células de contorno sinuoso e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos permitiram estabelecer parâmetros para identificação do A. fastigiatum.

  15. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  16. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-10-28

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective advantage of ray florets in Scalesia affinis and S. pedunculata (Asteraceae), two endemic species from the Galápagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Philipp, Marianne; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of neuter ray florets in species within Asteraceae is generally believed to increase pollinator attraction. In the endemic Galápagos genus Scalesia (Asteraceae) a natural variation in the presence/absence of neuter ray florets is found. To evaluate whether the presence of ray florets...... plays a selective role on female reproductive success we chose two species of Scalesia, Scalesia affinis that carries ray florets and S. pedunculata that is rayless. On Santa Cruz Island capitula of S. pedunculata were equipped with fake ray florets while others were untouched. On Isabela Island ray...

  18. Functional diversification of duplicated CYC2 clade genes in regulation of inflorescence development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntheikki-Palovaara, Inka; Tähtiharju, Sari; Lan, Tianying; Broholm, Suvi K; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Ruonala, Raili; Kale, Liga; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2014-09-01

    The complex inflorescences (capitula) of Asteraceae consist of different types of flowers. In Gerbera hybrida (gerbera), the peripheral ray flowers are bilaterally symmetrical and lack functional stamens while the central disc flowers are more radially symmetrical and hermaphroditic. Proteins of the CYC2 subclade of the CYC/TB1-like TCP domain transcription factors have been recruited several times independently for parallel evolution of bilaterally symmetrical flowers in various angiosperm plant lineages, and have also been shown to regulate flower-type identity in Asteraceae. The CYC2 subclade genes in gerbera show largely overlapping gene expression patterns. At the level of single flowers, their expression domain in petals shows a spatial shift from the dorsal pattern known so far in species with bilaterally symmetrical flowers, suggesting that this change in expression may have evolved after the origin of Asteraceae. Functional analysis indicates that GhCYC2, GhCYC3 and GhCYC4 mediate positional information at the proximal-distal axis of the inflorescence, leading to differentiation of ray flowers, but that they also regulate ray flower petal growth by affecting cell proliferation until the final size and shape of the petals is reached. Moreover, our data show functional diversification for the GhCYC5 gene. Ectopic activation of GhCYC5 increases flower density in the inflorescence, suggesting that GhCYC5 may promote the flower initiation rate during expansion of the capitulum. Our data thus indicate that modification of the ancestral network of TCP factors has, through gene duplications, led to the establishment of new expression domains and to functional diversification. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  20. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  1. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  2. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  3. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  4. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  5. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro S. Nogueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian “Cerrado”, which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1, as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2, ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3,15-diene-7β-ol (3 and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line. The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M. Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10 in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5, which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL.

  6. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F

    2009-09-01

    Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) were estimated using coalescent analyses. A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) dated from approx. 790,655 +/- 36,551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623,555 +/- 55,769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the extinction of populations in some areas as climate

  7. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.

  8. Relation between flower head traits and florivory in Asteraceae: a phylogenetically controlled approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2015-03-01

    • While much research has examined the relation between leaf traits and herbivory, very little is known about the interaction between floral traits, particularly biochemical traits, and florivory. We investigated patterns between floral traits and florivory across multiple species using phylogenetic comparative approaches to enhance our understanding of the evolution of plant-florivore interactions.• The relation between the intensity of florivory and five biochemical traits (concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and total phenolics) and two morphological traits (diameter and number of flower heads) were investigated in wild individuals of 18 native species of Asteraceae. The phylogenetic signals in the morphological traits and intensity of florivory were also tested.• We found that species with higher nitrogen, water, and total phenolics and lower phosphorus concentrations in the flower heads and species with a large number and diameter of flower heads tended to be attacked by florivores. In addition, we found significant phylogenetic signals in florivory and morphological traits.• Our results clearly show that biochemical traits also play important roles in plant-florivore interactions, as previously shown in plant-leaf herbivore interactions. The positive relationship between florivory and total phenolics implies that phenolic compounds in flower heads may not act as a defense in the species. In addition, the observed pattern of signals in florivory might not be solely explained by the signals of the measured traits and other plant traits may also play significant roles in plant-florivore interaction in these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. Floral development and evolution of capitulum structure in Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, M Angélica; Álvarez, Inés; Torices, Rubén; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Most of the diversity in the pseudanthia of Asteraceae is based on the differential symmetry and sexuality of its flowers. In Anacyclus, where there are (1) homogamous capitula, with bisexual, mainly actinomorphic and pentamerous flowers; and (2) heterogamous capitula, with peripheral zygomorphic, trimerous and long-/short-rayed female flowers, the floral ontogeny was investigated to infer their origin. Floral morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques. Disc flowers, subtended by paleae, initiate acropetally. Perianth and androecium initiation is unidirectional/simultaneous. Late zygomorphy occurs by enlargement of the adaxial perianth lobes. In contrast, ray flowers, subtended by involucral bracts, initiate after the proximal disc buds, breaking the inflorescence acropetal pattern. Early zygomorphy is manifested through the fusion of the lateral and abaxial perianth lobes and the arrest of the adaxials. We report atypical phenotypes with peripheral 'trumpet' flowers from natural populations. The peripheral 'trumpet' buds initiate after disc flowers, but maintain an actinomorphic perianth. All phenotypes are compared and interpreted in the context of alternative scenarios for the origin of the capitulum and the perianth identity. Homogamous inflorescences display a uniform floral morphology and development, whereas the peripheral buds in heterogamous capitula display remarkable plasticity. Disc and ray flowers follow different floral developmental pathways. Peripheral zygomorphic flowers initiate after the proximal actinomorphic disc flowers, behaving as lateral independent units of the pseudanthial disc from inception. The perianth and the androecium are the most variable whorls across the different types of flowers, but their changes are not correlated. Lack of homology between hypanthial appendages and a calyx, and the perianth double-sided structure are discussed for Anacyclus together with potential

  10. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  11. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae) and Their Antiprotozoal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Mauro S; Da Costa, Fernando B; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2016-09-15

    Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor) is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian "Cerrado", which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1), as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2), ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3),15-diene-7β-ol (3) and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line). The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M) and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M) and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M). Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10) in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5), which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL).

  12. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  13. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Genomic DNA Isolation Methods on Inula sp. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, low-cost and high throughput protocols are required for DNA isolation of plant species. In this study, phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol and commercial (Sigma DNA isolation kit methods were applied on some Inula species that belong to Asteraceae family. Genomic DNA amounts, A260, A280, A260/A230 and purity degrees (A260/A280 that were obtained through both methods were measured through electrophoresis and spectrophotometer. Additionally, PCR amplification was realized by primer pairs specific to nrDNA ITS, cpDNA ndhF (972F-1603R and trnL-F regions. Results showed that maximum genomic DNA in nanograms obtained by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. The study also revealed that I. macrocephala had the maximum DNA and I. heterolepis had the minimum DNA amount. A260/A280 purity degrees showed that the highest and lowest purity in gDNAs obtained through phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method were in I.aucheriana and I. salicina, respectively. The highest and lowest purity degrees of gDNAs obtained through commercial kit was observed in I. fragilis and I. macrocephala samples, respectively. PCR amplification results showed that while band profiles of each three regions (ITS, trnL-F and ndhF did not yield positive results in PCR amplifications using phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method; PCR band profiles obtained through commercial kit yielded positive results. As a result, it is fair to say that the relation of genomic DNA with PCR was found to be more efficient although the maximum amount of genomic DNA was obtained through phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method.

  15. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Ndihokubwayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae, a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C, seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C and seasons (in summer or autumn were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6% was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C, and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  16. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  17. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  20. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  1. Plant uptake of MBOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis (2-chloroaniline)). [Brassica oleracea L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; Dactylis glomerata L. ; Daucus carrota L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorman, R; Penner, D

    1986-09-01

    (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA was absorbed by cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, but did not move beyond the absorption point. Radio autographs of bean, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and carrot (Daucus carrota L.) plants exposed to (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA via hydroponic culture showed considerable radioactivity associated with the roots with only limited translocation of (/sup 14/C) into upper plant parts. Bean and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plants grown in (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA amended soil translocated virtually no (/sup 14/C) into aerial parts, but again considerable radioactivity was found on roots. Radioactivity could not be rinsed off roots with water or acetone, and a small amount of radioactivity was observed in the xylem-phloem layer of the carrot root.

  2. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  3. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  4. Genetic Analysis of Floral Symmetry in Van Gogh's Sunflowers Reveals Independent Recruitment of CYCLOIDEA Genes in the Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A.; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae. PMID:22479210

  5. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  6. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  7. Morphometric, AFLP and plastid microsatellite variation in populations of Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; Cowan, Robyn S.; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.

    2003-01-01

    Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae), both endemic to the Galápagos Islands, are found only on San Cristóbal, where S. divisa grows in the north-west of the island while S. incisa occurs in the north-east. At localities in between, populations with deviating individuals occur. Here we analyse...

  8. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  9. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  10. Effects of herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer on non-target plant reproduction and indirect effects on pollination in Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise; Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and nitrogen fertilizer on reproductive features of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae). The study was carried out in an experimental set-up, in which plots of 7x7 m were treated with one of six treatments: four levels of the herbicide glyphosate (0%, 1%, 5%, and 25% of label rate of 1440 g a.i. ha-1) without...

  11. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  12. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  13. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villase?or, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (ma...

  14. Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24-/low: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadipour F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ahmadipour,1 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin,1 Syam Mohan,2 Aditya Arya,1 Mohammadjavad Paydar,3 Chung Yeng Looi,3 Yeap Swee Keong,4 Ebrahimi Nigjeh Siyamak,4 Somayeh Fani,1 Maryam Firoozi,5 Chung Lip Yong,1 Mohamed Aspollah Sukari,6 Behnam Kamalidehghan1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 5Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Background: Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Methods: Koenimbin-induced cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release were observed using high-content screening. Cell cycle arrest was examined using flow cytometry, while human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were used to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis. Protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl2, and heat shock protein 70 were confirmed using Western blotting. Caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 levels were measured, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activity was assessed using a high-content screening assay. Aldefluor™ and mammosphere formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of koenimbin on MCF7

  15. Metabolomic analysis applied to chemosystematics and evolution of megadiverse Brazilian Vernonieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Marília Elias; Monge, Marcelo; Casoti, Rosana; Da Costa, Fernando Batista; Semir, João; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    Vernonia sensu lato is the largest and most complex genus of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae). The tribe is chemically characterized by the presence of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids. Over the years, several taxonomic classifications have been proposed for Vernonia s.l. and for the tribe; however, there has been no consensus among the researches. According to traditional classification, Vernonia s.l. comprises more than 1000 species divided into sections, subsections and series (sensu Bentham). In a more recent classification, these species have been segregated into other genera and some subtribes were proposed, while the genus Vernonia sensu stricto was restricted to 22 species distributed mainly in North America (sensu Robinson). In this study, species from the subtribes Vernoniinae, Lepidaploinae and Rolandrinae were analyzed by UHPLC-UV-HRMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Data mining was performed using unsupervised (HCA and PCA) and supervised methods (OPLS-DA). The HCA showed the segregation of the species into four main groups. Comparing the HCA with taxonomical classifications of Vernonieae, we observed that the groups of the dendogram, based on metabolic profiling, were in accordance with the generic classification proposed by Robinson and with previous phylogenetic studies. The species of the genera Stenocephalum, Stilpnopappus, Strophopappus and Rolandra (Group 1) were revealed to be more related to the species of the genus Vernonanthura (Group 2), while the genera Cyrtocymura, Chrysolaena and Echinocoryne (Group 3) were chemically more similar to the genera Lessingianthus and Lepidaploa (Group 4). These findings indicated that the subtribes Vernoniinae and Lepidaploinae are non-chemically homogeneous groups and highlighted the application of untargeted metabolomic tools for taxonomy and as indicators of species evolution. Discriminant compounds for the groups obtained by OPLS-DA were determined. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized

  16. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    Preparation of Laggera aurita Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various kinds of diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, fever, pain and asthma. Its efficacy is widely acclaimed among communities in Northern Nigeria. The present study is aimed at establishing the possible anticonvulsant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita using acute and chronic anticonvulsant models. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice and rats via oral and intraperitoneal routes. Anticonvulsant screening of the extract was performed using maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in day-old chicks; pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models in mice. Similarly; its effects on pentylenetetrazole-induce kindling in rats as well as when co-administered with fluphenamic and cyproheptadine in mice, were evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) values were found to be >5000mg/kg, p.o. and 2154mg/kg, i.p., each for both rats and mice. The extract showed dose dependent protection against tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean recovery from seizure in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the extract offered 50% protection at 600mg/kg and also increased the mean onset of seizure at all doses with significant (p<0.05) increase at the highest dose (600mg/kg). Similarly the extract produced significant (p<0.05) increase in the onset of seizures in both strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models, at all the doses except at 150mg/kg for the picrotoxin model. Co-administration of fluphenamic acid (FFA) (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) showed an enhanced effect with percentage protection of 70% while co-administration of FFA (5mg/kg) and phenytoin (5mg/kg) as well phenytoin (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) produced an additive effect. Administration of the extract (600mg/kg), phenytoin (20mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4mg

  17. O gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae no estado do Paraná, Brasil The genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae in the Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Grokoviski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo abrange o gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento bibliográfico, coleta de material e observação de campo, estudos morfológicos e taxonômicos do material vivo e herborizado. Foram confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná nove espécies, sendo quatro escandentes: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker e P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; e cinco arbóreas: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker e P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, época de floração e frutificação, nomes populares, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações para cada táxon estudado.The present study analysed the genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The methodology consisted of examining literature, botanical collections and field observations, morphological and taxonomic study of herborized specimens. Nine species were confirmed, four of these are scandent species: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker and P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; and five are trees species: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker and P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. Identification key, descriptions, flowering and fruiting time, popular names, geographical distribution, comments and illustrations are provided for each studied taxa.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae, an Important Chinese Traditional Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) based on ITS and cpDNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Marcus; Pornpongrungrueng, Pimwadee; Gustafsson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) were investigated. DNA sequence data from three chloroplast regions (ndhF, trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were analysed separately and in combination using parsimony...... and Bayesian inference. A total of 163 ingroup taxa were included, of which 60 were sampled for all four markers. Conflicts between chloroplast and nuclear data were assessed using partitioned Bremer support (PBS). Rather than averaging PBS over several trees from constrained searches, individual trees were...... considered by evaluating PBS ranges. Criteria to be used in the detection of a significant conflict between data partitions are proposed. Three nodes in the total data tree were found to encompass significant conflict that could result from ancient hybridization. Neither of the large, heterogeneous...

  20. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  1. Pollen morphology and its relationship to the taxonomy of the some taxa of helichrysum gaertner (asteraceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, O.; Bagci, E.

    2017-01-01

    Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns. (author)

  2. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  3. ALELOPATIA DE Arctium minus BERNH (ASTERACEAE NA GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO RADICULAR DE SORGO E PEPINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenir José Belinelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were identified and characterize the allelopatic activity of extracts obtained from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh (Asteraceae. The fitotoxic activity of organic extracts (1 e 100 mg.L-1 and aqueous extract (5,00 e 0,05% m/v on the germination and radicular growth of the monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, and the dicotyledon Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber were evaluated. The results showed the presence of allelopatic activity variable in according to the extract concentration and with the target plant. The intensity of induced inhibitory effect was higher for the ethanolic extract in concentration of 100 mg.L-1 for Sorghum bicolor L. The results also indicates the existence of the potential use of Arctium minus (Hill Bernh ethanolic extract as a natural herbicide and open perspectives for the research of the constituent(s with higher allelopatic activity.

  4. Evolution and diversification of the CYC/TB1 gene family in Asteraceae--a comparative study in Gerbera (Mutisieae) and sunflower (Heliantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtiharju, Sari; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Vetterli, Adrien; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2012-04-01

    Plant-specific TCP domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate morphological novelties during plant evolution, including the complex architecture of the Asteraceae inflorescence that involves different types of flowers. We conducted comparative analysis of the CYCLOIDEA/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (CYC/TB1) gene family in Gerbera hybrida (gerbera) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower), two species that represent distant tribes within Asteraceae. Our data confirm that the CYC/TB1 gene family has expanded in Asteraceae, a condition that appears to be connected with the increased developmental complexity and evolutionary success of this large plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the CYC/TB1 gene family revealed both shared and lineage-specific duplications in gerbera and sunflower, corresponding to the three gene lineages previously identified as specific to core eudicots: CYC1, CYC2, and CYC3. Expression analyses of early stages of flower primordia development indicated that especially within the CYC2 clade, with the greatest number of secondary gene duplications, gene expression patterns are conserved between the species and associated with flower and inflorescence development. All sunflower and gerbera CYC2 clade genes showed differential expression between developing flower types, being upregulated in marginal ray (and trans) flowers. One gene in gerbera (GhCYC3) and two in sunflower (HaCYC2d and HaCYC2c) were indicated to be strong candidates as regulators of ray flower identity, a function that is specific for Asteraceae. Our data further showed that other CYC2 clade genes are likely to have more specialized functions at the level of single flowers, including the late functions in floral reproductive organs that may be more conserved across plant families. The expression patterns of CYC1 and CYC3 clade genes showed more differences between the two species but still pointed to possible conserved functions during vegetative plant development. Pairwise protein

  5. Powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium: phylogeny and taxonomy in the context of Golovinomyces species on Asteraceae hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.

  6. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot-eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that eventually led to phylogenetic diversification. © The

  7. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-Lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Oliveira, Tiago Branquinho; Faleiro, Danniela Príscylla Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Costa, Fernando Batista Da

    2015-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase are enzymes that catalyze important inflammatory pathways, suggesting that dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors should be more efficacious as anti-inflammatory medicines with lower side effects than the currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many plants from the family Asteraceae have anti-inflammatory activities, which could be exerted by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Nevertheless, only a small number of compounds from this family have been directly evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymes in cell-free assays. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated 57 Asteraceae extracts in vitro in enzyme activity experiments to determine whether any of these extracts exhibit dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detector method, and their major constituents were dereplicated. Of the 57 tested extracts, 13 (26.6 %, IC50 range from 0.03-36.2 µg/mL) of them displayed dual inhibition. Extracts from known anti-inflammatory herbs, food plants, and previously uninvestigated species are among the most active. Additionally, the extract action was found to be specific with IC50 values close to or below those of the standard inhibitors. Thus, the active extracts and active substances of these species are potent inhibitors acting through the mechanism of dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The extracts were prepared for this study using nontoxic extraction solvents (EtOH-H2O), requiring only a small amount of plant material to carry out the bioassays and the phytochemical analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated the potential of the investigated species as dual inhibitors, revealing their potential as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Toxicological evaluation of the natural products and some semisynthetic derivatives of Heterotheca inuloides Cass (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-12-04

    Heterotheca ineuloides Cass (Asteraceae), popularly known as árnica mexicana, is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat bruises, dermatological problems, rheumatic pains, and other disorders as cancer. The major constituents in H. inuloides are cadinane type sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and phytosterols. Compounds with a cadinane skeleton have been proved to possess cytotoxic activity against human-tumor cell lines and brine shrimp, and display toxic effects in different animal species. Although this plant has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity especially of pure compounds. Evaluate the potential toxicity of the natural products isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives. The toxic aspects of the following natural products isolated from dried flowers of H. inuloides: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), (1R,4R)-1-hydroxy-4H-1,2,3,4- tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), D-chiro-inositol (5), quercetin (6), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (7), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (8), eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (9), α-spinasterol (10), caryolan-1,9β-diol (11) and 7-(3,3-dimethylallyloxy)-coumarin (12) as well as the toxic aspects of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (13), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (14), 7-acetoxycadalene (15), 7-benzoxycadalene (16), quercetin pentaacetate (17), 7-hydroxycalamenene (18), 3,8-dimethyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-1,2-naphthoquinone (19), and 4-isopropyl-1,6-dimethylbenzo[c]oxepine-7,9-dione (20). Toxic activities of compounds were determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, Artemia salina assay, RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Additionally, the acute toxicity in mouse of compound 1, the major natural sesquiterpene isolated from the acetone extract, was evaluated. The best cytotoxicity activity was observed for mansonone C (19) on K562 cell line with IC50 1.45 ± 0.14 μM, for

  9. Photoacclimation in a tropical population of Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing 1843 (Chlorophyta from southeastern Brazil Fotoaclimatação em uma população tropical de Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing 1843 (Chlorophyta do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIN. Bautista

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoacclimation of photosynthesis was investigated in a tropical population of C. glomerata (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, 20º 48’ 24" S and 49º 22’ 24" W by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll a content. Plants were acclimated to two levels of irradiance: low (65 ± 5 µmol.m-2.s-1 and high (300 ± 10 µmol.m-2.s-1 and exposed short-term (4 days and long-term (28 days under a light-dark cycle of 12:12 hours. Photosynthesis-irradiance (PI curves revealed distinct strategies of photoacclimation. In long-term exposure, plants acclimated by altering the photosynthetic units (PSU number and keeping fixed the PSU size, revealed by increased rates of maximum photosynthesis (Pmax, lower photosynthetic efficiency (alpha and higher values of the saturation parameter (Ik under high irradiance. The short-term acclimation strategy consisted of changing the PSU size, with a fixed number of PSUs, as revealed by similar Pmax but higher alpha and lower Ik under low irradiance. Chlorophyll a contents followed the general pattern reported in green algae of higher concentrations under lower irradiance. Dark/light induction curves revealed consistently higher values of potential quantum yield under low irradiance. Initial and final values showed a higher recovery capacity in the short (84.4-90.6% term exposure than in the long-term case (81.4-81.5%. ETR (electron transport rate and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching values were consistently higher under low irradiance. ETR showed a continuous and steady increase along the light exposure period in the short and long-term experiments, whereas NPQ values revealed a rapid increase after 15 seconds of light exposure, kept a slightly increasing trend and stabilized in most treatments. Lower photosynthetic performance (ETR and recovery capacity of potential quantum yield were observed, particularly in long-term exposure, suggesting that this population is constrained by the typical high light

  10. Avaliação in vivo do efeito hipocolesterolêmico e toxicológico preliminar do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico e decocção da Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Brandt

    Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares (DC estão, de modo geral, associadas a elevados níveis séricos de lipídeos, atingindo homens e mulheres, sem distinção de idade. Entre as propriedades atribuídas pela medicina popular à Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham -Tarumã estão a de reduzir os níveis séricos de colesterol e triglicerídeo. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o potencial hipocolesterolêmico e hipolipidêmico da V. megapotamica, bem como fazer um estudo toxicológico preliminar. Para tanto, foi realizada indução hiperlipidêmica usando um modelo que preconiza o emprego de propiltiuracil 1,25 mg/300 g de peso e colesterol 200 mg/kg de peso, aplicados via oral em ratos machos pesando 300 ± 10 g. Foi administrado, por via oral, aos animais hiperlipidêmicos previamente induzidos 300 mg/kg de extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de V. megapotamica ou 300 mL da decocção da casca da planta. Após o final de cada tratamento, o perfil lipídico foi ensaiado, bem como os níveis de glicose, quando relevante. Nossos resultados confirmaram o efeito hipolipidêmico do extrato hidroalcoólico e da decocção pela redução dos níveis séricos de colesterol e triacilglicerol nas concentrações, via e forma utilizadas. Além disso, foi possível verificar que não houve lesão cardíaca, hepática ou renal pelo extrato e decocção utilizados nas avaliações toxicológicas preliminares ensaiadas.

  11. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  12. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae Capture IgY-elisa to quantify lupeol acetate in Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Bastos Freire

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento descreve, pela primeira vez, a elaboração de um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA de captura com anticorpos IgY para a detecção e quantificação de acetato de lupeol (LAc em Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Anticorpos anti-LAc, obtidos partir do soro das aves e gemas de seus ovos, após imunização com o conjugado acetato de lupeol-cBSA, foram concentrados em coluna contendo LAc-BSA acoplado a sepharose. A eficácia da metodologia de detecção imunológica foi de 97%, com índices de sensibilidade e especificidade de 99% e 95%, respectivamente com limites de detecção do ensaio entre 0,02µg.g-1 (inferior e 10 µg.g-1 (superior. A robustez do método foi atestada pela sua elevada reprodutibilidade (entre 94,75% e 96,81%, e pelo baixo coeficiente de variação interna (4,22 ± 1,03% nas condições de execução descritas.For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Antibodies (IgY against lupeol acetate (anti-LAc antibodies were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA. The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled to sepharose. The capture IgY-ELISA efficacy was of 97% when the predictive indices of sensitivity and specificity were 99.0% and 95%, respectively. The lowest and highest detection limits were of 0.02µg g-1 and 10µg.g-1 of plant extract, respectively. The strength of this method was attested by its high reproducibility (between 94.75% and 96.81%, and a low internal variation (4.22 ± 1.03%, under the described conditions.

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  15. The mismatch of bioaccumulated trace metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) in field and transplanted oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to ambient surficial sediments and suspended particulate matter in a highly urbanised estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Birch, Gavin F

    2016-04-01

    A significant correlation between sedimentary metals, particularly the 'bio-available' fraction, and bioaccumulated metal concentrations in the native Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) tissues has been successfully demonstrated previously for Cu and Zn in a number of estuaries in New South Wales, Australia. However, this relationship has been difficult to establish in a highly modified estuary (Sydney estuary, Australia) where metal contamination is of greatest concern and where a significant relationship would be most useful for environmental monitoring. The use of the Sydney rock oyster as a biomonitoring tool for metal contamination was assessed in the present study by investigating relationships between metals attached to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) to bioaccumulated concentrations in oyster tissues. Surficial sediments (both total and fine-fraction), SPM and wild oysters were collected over 3 years from three embayments (Chowder Bay, Mosman Bay and Iron Cove) with each embayment representing a different physiographic region of Sydney estuary. In addition, a transplant experiment of farmed oysters was conducted in the same embayments for 3 months. No relationship was observed between sediments or SPM metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) to tissue of wild oysters; however, significant relationship was observed against transplanted oysters. The mismatch between wild and farmed, transplanted oysters is perplexing and indicates that wild oysters are unsuitable to be used as a biomonitoring tool due to the involvement of unknown complex factors while transplanted oysters hold strong potential.

  16. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Panero, José L; Siroky, Jiri; Kovarik, Ales

    2010-08-16

    In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in approximately 200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units, their copy

  17. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, James B; Semple, John C

    2015-06-01

    The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups.

  18. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

  19. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-02

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  2. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  4. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): an apomictic invader on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Kinter, C Lynn; Smith, James F; Novak, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    Assessing propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive species provides insight into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea; Asteraceae) is an apomictic, perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, South America (Argentina), and North America (Canada and the United States). This study comprehensively compares propagule pressure and geographic structure of genotypes to improve our understanding of a clonal invasion and enhance management strategies. • We analyzed 1056 native range plants from Eurasia and 1156 plants from three invaded continents using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. We used measures of diversity (Simpson's D) and evenness (E), analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests to compare invasions, and genotype similarity to determine origins of invasive genotypes. • We found 682 unique genotypes in the native range, but only 13 in the invaded regions. Each invaded region contained distinct AFLP genotypes, suggesting independent introduction events, probably with different geographic origins. Relatively low propagule pressure was associated with each introduction around the globe, but levels of among-population variation differed. We found exact AFLP genotype matches between the native and invaded ranges for five of the 13 invasive genotypes. • Invasion dynamics can vary across invaded ranges within a species. Intensive sampling for molecular analyses can provide insight for understanding intraspecific invasion dynamics, which can hold significance for the management of plant species, especially by finding origins and distributions of invasive genotypes for classical biological control efforts.

  5. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  7. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  8. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-06-11

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM).

  9. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Most Compositae (Asteraceae) are descendants of a paleohexaploid and all share a paleotetraploid ancestor with the Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Michael S; Li, Zheng; Kidder, Thomas I; Reardon, Chris R; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Scascitelli, Moira; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-07-01

    Like many other flowering plants, members of the Compositae (Asteraceae) have a polyploid ancestry. Previous analyses found evidence for an ancient duplication or possibly triplication in the early evolutionary history of the family. We sought to better place this paleopolyploidy in the phylogeny and assess its nature. We sequenced new transcriptomes for Barnadesia, the lineage sister to all other Compositae, and four representatives of closely related families. Using a recently developed algorithm, MAPS, we analyzed nuclear gene family phylogenies for evidence of paleopolyploidy. We found that the previously recognized Compositae paleopolyploidy is also in the ancestry of the Calyceraceae. Our phylogenomic analyses uncovered evidence for a successive second round of genome duplication among all sampled Compositae except Barnadesia. Our analyses of new samples with new tools provide a revised view of paleopolyploidy in the Compositae. Together with results from a high density Lactuca linkage map, our results suggest that the Compositae and Calyceraceae have a common paleotetraploid ancestor and that most Compositae are descendants of a paleohexaploid. Although paleohexaploids have been previously identified, this is the first example where the paleotetraploid and paleohexaploid lineages have survived over tens of millions of years. The complex polyploidy in the ancestry of the Compositae and Calyceraceae represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term evolutionary fates and consequences of different ploidal levels. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  13. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  14. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Tarun K; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p intoxicated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEEF (100 mg/kg) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the Pb-acetate mediated toxicity. Presence of metal chelators and phyto-antioxidants within AEEF would offer overall protection through promoting Pb clearance coupled with restoring redox balance.

  15. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  16. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  19. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  20. Inhibitory effect of the Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng R.M. King & H. Rob. aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and TNF-α production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Almeida

    Full Text Available Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA and acetate (ACE extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL showed reduced interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature.

  1. Inhibitory effect of the Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng) R.M. King & H. Rob. aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and TNF-α production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, V G; Avelar-Freitas, B A; Santos, M G; Costa, L A; Silva, T J; Pereira, W F; Amorim, M L L; Grael, C F F; Gregório, L E; Rocha-Vieira, E; Brito-Melo, G E A

    2017-07-10

    Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA) and acetate (ACE) extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU) was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL) showed reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature.

  2. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  3. Antinociceptive activity and toxicological study of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae Atividade antinociceptiva e estudo toxicológico de extrato aquoso de Egletes viscosa Lessa (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antunes S. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularly known as "macela" or "macela-da-terra", is a plant widely used in popular medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antidiarrhoea, mio-relaxant, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, digestive, and anti-viral properties. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa (AEEV revealed the high presence of flavonoids. This study examined the oral antinociceptive potential of AEEV in rodents using different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. The results showed significant antinociceptive action when tested in writhing (200 and 400 mg/kg-pEgletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "macela" ou "macela-da-terra", é uma planta largamente usada na medicina popular devido as suas propriedades: anti-inflamatória, bactericida, antidiarréica, mio-relaxante, anti-espasmódica, antinociceptiva, digestiva e anti-viral. Análise fitoquímica do extrato aquoso da Egletes viscosa (AEEV mostrou elevada presença de flavonóides. Este estudo examinou o potencial antinociceptivo do AEEV em roedores usando diferentes concentrações (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. Os resultados mostraram significante efeito antinociceptivo quando testadas as doses (200 mg/kg-p<0.01; 400 mg/kg-p<0.05 e na segunda fase dos testes com formalina (200 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.001. Este efeito antinociceptivo foi similar ao ácido acetilsalicílico (300 mg/kg nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Adicionalmente, estas observações sugerem que o AEEV é efetivo contra dores inflamatórias contínuas. AEEV foi bem tolerada. No teste de toxicidade aguda, utilizando uma administração oral de 5 g/kg de AEEV, não foi observado casos de mortalidade. Da mesma maneira, no estudo subcrônico nenhuma mortalidade foi observada após 30 dias de administração oral diária de 100 mg/kg do AEEV. Não houve diferença significativa entre os pesos corporal e dos órgãos isolados quando comparados grupo controle e teste

  4. Análise de crescimento e anatomia foliar da planta medicinal Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae cultivada em diferentes substratos Growth analysis and leaf anatomy of the medicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae grown on different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Millani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea que ocorre em áreas de cerrado e, por se tratar de planta medicinal, é cultivada em escala familiar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento das plantas quando cultivadas em solos com texturas diferentes (solo de cerrado, franco arenoso ou solo de terra roxa, muito argiloso. Foram analisados aos 40, 70 e 90 dias, o comprimento do caule e da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea (caule e folhas e das raízes, número de folhas e área foliar; além de parâmetros anatômicos foliares, como a densidade de tricomas. Os resultados mostraram que os comprimentos do caule e da raiz aumentaram no decorrer do experimento, independentemente do substrato (com exceção do comprimento da raiz de plantas cultivadas em solo de terra roxa. Porém, o comprimento do caule foi sempre maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado, enquanto o comprimento da raiz foi significativamente maior somente aos 90 dias de cultivo neste solo. As biomassas secas da raiz e do caule também foram maiores nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado por 70 e 90 dias, respectivamente. A massa seca foliar foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado a partir dos 70 dias de experimento. Esse aumento foi devido ao maior número de folhas produzidas e a maior área foliar dessas plantas. No geral, a anatomia foliar não diferiu, porém o número de tricomas glandulares foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado. Os resultados indicaram que esta espécie tem melhor desenvolvimento quando cultivada em solo mais arenoso.Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae is a herbaceous species found in cerrado areas and grown in family scale since it is a medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to study possible alterations in the plant development when grown in soils presenting different textures (a sandy-loam cerrado soil, or a very clayish red earth soil. At 40, 70 and 90 days, stem

  5. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  6. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonthier Lucy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Findings Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. Conclusions This

  7. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Lucy; Bellec, Arnaud; Blassiau, Christelle; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Rambaud, Caroline; Huss, Brigitte; Hendriks, Theo; Bergès, Hélène; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2010-08-11

    The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. This indicated that both BAC libraries are valuable tools for molecular

  8. Unraveling systematic inventory of Echinops (Asteraceae) with special reference to nrDNA ITS sequence-based molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Lee, J; Hatamleh, A A; Gyulai, G; Rahman, M O

    2015-10-02

    The present study explored the systematic inventory of Echinops L. (Asteraceae) of Saudi Arabia, with special reference to the molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus Chaudhary, an endemic species to Saudi Arabia, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A sequence similarity search using BLAST and a phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence of E. abuzinadianus revealed a high level of sequence similarity with E. glaberrimus DC. (section Ritropsis). The novel primary sequence and the secondary structure of ITS2 of E. abuzinadianus could potentially be used for molecular genotyping.

  9. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-05

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.

  10. Not only size matters: achene morphology affects time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic species of Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torices, Rubén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of two or more distinct fruit types by an individual, i.e. heterocarpy, is considered as a mixed dispersal strategy in which a proportion of the offspring is able to colonize new sites, whilst others remain near the maternal location. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of achene morphology (winged vs. unwinged achenes and achene size –measured here as achene mass– on post-dispersal life-history traits (probability and time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic Anacyclus species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Morphology, size and germination performance were studied in achenes from six populations of Anacyclus clavatus (Desf. Pers., A. homogamos (Maire Humphries, and A. valentinus L. Our results show that achene morphology and size were related to their position within the capitulum, such that outer, winged achenes were significantly heavier than the inner, unwinged ones. Additionally, winged achenes germinated faster than unwinged ones. This pattern may be related to the sequential achene time of release displayed by these species. Finally, our findings cast doubt on the role of wings as structures that favor dispersal by wind in these three species of Anacyclus.La producción de dos o más tipos de frutos diferentes por un mismo individuo, i.e. heterocarpia, es considerada como una estrategia mixta de dispersión en la que una parte de la descendencia es capaz de colonizar nuevos sitios, mientras que la otra permanece cerca de la planta madre. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue explorar los efectos de la morfología del aquenio (aquenios alados vs. no alados y de su tamaño –medido aquí como masa del aquenio– en la etapa del ciclo de vida siguiente a la dispersión (probabilidad de germinación y tiempo de emergencia de las plántulas de tres especies heterocárpicas del género Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Se estudió la morfología, el tamaño y la germinación en aquenios de seis poblaciones de Anacyclus

  11. Relationship between seed bank expression, adult longevity and aridity in species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M T K; Chacon, P; Cavieres, L A

    2006-09-01

    Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64% of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera appears to reflect environmental selection rather than any trade-off with

  12. Spines vs. microspines: an overview of the sculpture exine in selected basal and derived Asteraceae with focus on Asteroideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, María C

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy. Under LM, the microechinate sculpture gave little taxonomic information, whereas in the echinate sculpture, three exine types and two subtypes were recognized. Type I included microechinate exine, which is commonly present in large pollen grains of the basal lineages. Types II (subtypes IIa and IIb) and III included echinate and smaller pollen grains. In these types, spines were always regularly arranged and, were characterized by the length, shape, tip, perforations and distribution. Type IIa included more or less conical spines usually with a distended base, less than 4 µm in length, present in species of different tribes like Astereae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Gnaphalieae, Senecioideae and Heliantheae to a lesser extent. Type IIb includes slender spines with narrower bases, longer than 4 µm, present in species of Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Tageteae and Eupatorieae to a lesser extent. Type III included spines with swollen base, blunt tip and perforations over their entire surface. This type was present in only one of the basal species-Carduus thoermeri-and in one species of the derived tribe Helenieae, Gaillardia megapotamica. Probably, this is due to evolutionary convergence.

  13. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  14. Seed Dormancy, After‐ripening and Light Requirements of Four Annual Asteraceae in South‐western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHÜTZ, W.; MILBERG, P.; LAMONT, B. B.

    2002-01-01

    The role of dormancy, temperature and light in the regulation of seed germination of four annual Asteraceae from south‐western Australia was investigated. The experiments aimed to identify after‐ripening patterns, and to relate these to climatic conditions of the habitat in which the species occur. Seeds of all species were strongly dormant at maturity and maintained high levels of dormancy for time periods corresponding to the duration of summer in south‐western Australia. Dry after‐ripening was promoted best by temperatures lower than those prevailing in the dry season, although differences among storage temperatures were mostly insignificant. Germination percentages were highest at average winter temperatures (15 °C). A logistic model revealed significant differences in germinability among species, but not between incubation temperatures or light and dark treatments across species. Three species with seeds >0·5 mg germinated better in darkness than in light, whereas germination in darkness was almost inhibited in the species with the smallest seeds (0·14 mg). The course of dormancy loss, tested over a range of fluctuating incubation temperatures (7–30 °C), showed that seeds of three species came out of dormancy first at temperatures that prevail in south‐western Australia during the winter (10–15 °C). Seeds from one species, introduced from South Africa, first lost dormancy at the lowest temperature (7 °C). All species showed after‐ripening patterns of Type 1, typical of species growing in Mediterranean climates. The germination characteristics of the investigated species can be interpreted as ensuring that initial growth and establishment occur during the winter growing season, thereby avoiding the hot and dry summer conditions that follow seed dispersal. PMID:12451026

  15. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  16. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  17. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  18. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Pachschwöll

    Full Text Available Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene, polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae, whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid. Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s. and the Carpathians and (iii the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps; each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale

  19. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  1. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  2. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

  3. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-05-23

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family.

  4. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  5. In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mirna Meana; Zuza, Ohana; Riani, Lorena R; de Faria Pinto, Priscila; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Silva, Marcos P; de Moraes, Josué; Ataíde, Ana Caroline Z; de Oliveira Silva, Fernanda; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H 2 O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A. lappa (AL). In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, while the in vitro antiviral activity of AL was evaluated on replication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, using Vero cells and chemical composition of AL was determined by qualitative UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of AL revealed the presence of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, such as arctiin and arctigenin. Results showed that AL was not cytotoxic to Vero cells even when tested at 400μg/mL. qPCR results indicated a significant viral load decreased for all tested concentrations of AL (400, 50, and 3.125μg/mL), which showed similar antiviral effect to acyclovir (50μg/mL) when tested at 400μg/mL. Also, AL (400, 200, and 100μg/mL) caused 100% mortality and significantly reduction on motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with AL. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of AL, opening the route to further schistosomicidal and antiviral studies with AL and their compounds, especially lignans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  7. Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae, an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. Results Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band patterns that could be attributable to gene silencing, novel expression, and/or maternal/paternal effects between T. mirus and its diploid parents. Subsequent cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that 20 of the 30 genes identified through cDNA-AFLP analysis showed additivity, whereas nine of the 30 exhibited the loss of one parental homeolog in at least one individual. Homeolog loss (versus loss of a restriction site was confirmed via sequencing. The remaining gene (ADENINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE showed ambiguous patterns in T. mirus because of polymorphism in the diploid parent T. dubius. Most (63.6% of the homeolog loss events were of the T. dubius parental copy. Two genes, NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA and GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE, showed differential expression of the parental homeologs, with the T. dubius copy silenced in some individuals of T. mirus. Conclusions Genomic and cDNA CAPS analyses indicated that plants representing multiple populations of this young natural allopolyploid have experienced frequent and preferential elimination of homeologous loci. Comparable analyses of synthetic F1 hybrids showed only

  8. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  9. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  10. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  11. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  12. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  13. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-08-30

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined.

  14. Investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the Asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Walsh, D; Kelleher, C T; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2014-10-15

    Antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight Asteraceae species were investigated against three Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. Ethanol extracts from Centaurea scabiosa, Arctium minus, Taraxacum officinale, Centaurea nigra and Cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of S. aureus, MRSA and B. cereus (MIC=187.5-365μg/ml). Ethanol extracts also had higher antioxidant activities and phenolic content demonstrating a link between these compounds and the bioactivity of these extracts. Further investigation into the phenolic content of ethanol extracts using UPLC-MS/MS lead to the identification and quantification of numerous phenolic compounds in all species including; 18 from Cirsium arvense, 16 from Cirsium vulgare, 19 from C. palustre, 15 from C. nigra, 17 from C. scabiosa, 14 from Sonchus asper, 17 from A. minus and 11 from T. officinale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  16. Geography shapes the phylogeny of frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae: a remarkable example of recent rapid radiation in sky islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world’s fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo. Previous attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this group failed to resolve relationships among genera and species, and there is no agreement regarding the classification of the group. Thus, our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the frailejones and to test the influence of the geography on it as a first step to understanding the patterns of radiation of these plants. Methods Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS and cpDNA (rpl16, for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny. Results Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only

  17. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  18. Sistema reprodutivo de Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg e Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. em fragmento de cerrado na Chapada dos Guimarães - MT Reprodutive system of Anadenanthera peregrina and Vochysia haenkiana in a fragment of "Cerrado forest" from Chapada dos Guimarães - MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o sistema reprodutivo das espécies Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. e Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. Foram estudados aspectos do sistema de cruzamento, complementados pelas observações de maturação dos frutos e a germinação das sementes em função dos tipos de cruzamentos testados. As síndromes de dispersão das sementes foram também avaliadas através das características morfológicas dos frutos e sementes. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de cerrado com aproximadamente 32 ha, no município de Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, a 15(010' S, 55(035' W, e à altitude de 450m. O delineamento experimental utilizado na determinação do sistema de cruzamento para cada espécie foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos para a espécie Vochysia haenkiana e cinco tratamentos para Anadenanthera peregrina, ambas com três repetições. O sistema de cruzamento detectado para as duas espécies foi o preferencialmente alogâmico, porém, com a possibilidade, não desprezível, de produção de frutos/sementes por autofertilização, sugerindo um aumento gradual de autocompatibilidade genética como estratégia de geração de descendência no ambiente florestal fragmentado. A polinização cruzada em Anadenanthera peregrina é favorecida tanto pelo alto grau de auto-incompatibilidade genética quanto pela protandria detectada. O padrão de maturação dos frutos e sementes e o período de dispersão das sementes foram distintos em ambas as espécies, ocorrendo, entretanto, durante ou no final da estação seca, facilitando a distribuição dos propágulos anemocóricos. A germinação em ambas as espécies foi rápida e em alta percentagem.The study of the breeding system of Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. and Vochysia haenkiana (Spreng. Mart. was the main purpose of this work. It was also studied fruit maturation, seed dispersal and seed germination to characterize the reproductive system of these

  19. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae (BP and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae (CL on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU in mice. Results: As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD50 < 5000 mg/kg of the Globally Harmonized

  20. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  1. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  2. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  3. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Species tree phylogeny and character evolution in the genus Centipeda (Asteraceae): evidence from DNA sequences from coding and non-coding loci from the plastid and nuclear genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylinder, Stephan; Cronholm, Bodil; de Lange, Peter J; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A

    2013-08-01

    A species tree phylogeny of the Australian/New Zealand genus Centipeda (Asteraceae) is estimated based on nucleotide sequence data. We analysed sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and three plasmid loci (ndhF, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) using the multi-species coalescent module in BEAST. A total of 129 individuals from all 10 recognised species of Centipeda were sampled throughout the species distribution ranges, including two subspecies. We conclude that the inferred species tree topology largely conform previous assumptions on species relationships. Centipeda racemosa (Snuffweed) is the sister to remaining species, which is also the only consistently perennial representative in the genus. Centipeda pleiocephala (Tall Sneezeweed) and C. nidiformis (Cotton Sneezeweed) constitute a species pair, as does C. borealis and C. minima (Spreading Sneezeweed), all sharing the symplesiomorphic characters of spherical capitulum and convex receptacle with C. racemosa. Another species group comprising C. thespidioides (Desert Sneezeweed), C. cunninghamii (Old man weed, or Common sneeze-weed), C. crateriformis is well-supported but then include the morphologically aberrant C. aotearoana, all sharing the character of having capitula that mature more slowly relative the subtending shoot. Centipeda elatinoides takes on a weakly supported intermediate position between the two mentioned groups, and is difficult to relate to any of the former groups based on morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  6. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  7. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds.

  8. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  9. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  10. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  11. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  12. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization in the Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrid and allopolyploid (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangyu; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense × T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids. The genomic alterations in the hybrid and allopolyploids mainly involved the loss of parental fragments and the gain of novel fragments. The DNA methylation level of the hybrid was reduced by hybridization but was restored somewhat after polyploidization. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the paternal parent than between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the maternal parent. Most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed down-regulation in the hybrid/allopolyploid relative to the parents. Among the non-additive genes, transgressive patterns appeared to be dominant, especially repression patterns. Maternal expression dominance was observed specifically for down-regulated genes. Many methylase and methyltransferase genes showed differential expression between the hybrid and parents and between the allopolyploid and parents. Our data indicate that hybridization may be a major factor affecting genomic and transcriptomic changes in newly formed allopolyploids. The formation of allopolyploids may not simply be the sum of hybridization and polyploidization changes but also may be influenced by the interaction between these processes.

  13. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  15. High and uneven levels of 45S rDNA site-number variation across wild populations of a diploid plant genus (Anacyclus, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Álvarez, Inés; Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of ribosomal DNA. Despite their essential role in cellular ribogenesis few studies have addressed intrapopulation, interpopulation and interspecific levels of rDNA variability in wild plants. Some studies have assessed the extent of rDNA variation at the sequence and copy-number level with large sampling in several species. However, comparable studies on rDNA site number variation in plants, assessed with extensive hierarchical sampling at several levels (individuals, populations, species) are lacking. In exploring the possible causes for ribosomal loci dynamism, we have used the diploid genus Anacyclus (Asteraceae) as a suitable system to examine the evolution of ribosomal loci. To this end, the number and chromosomal position of 45S rDNA sites have been determined in 196 individuals from 47 populations in all Anacyclus species using FISH. The 45S rDNA site-number has been assessed in a significant sample of seed plants, which usually exhibit rather consistent features, except for polyploid plants. In contrast, the level of rDNA site-number variation detected in Anacyclus is outstanding in the context of angiosperms particularly regarding populations of the same species. The number of 45S rDNA sites ranged from four to 11, accounting for 14 karyological ribosomal phenotypes. Our results are not even across species and geographical areas, and show that there is no clear association between the number of 45S rDNA loci and the life cycle in Anacyclus. A single rDNA phenotype was detected in several species, but a more complex pattern that included intra-specific and intra-population polymorphisms was recorded in A. homogamos, A. clavatus and A. valentinus, three weedy species showing large and overlapping distribution ranges. It is likely that part of the cytogenetic changes and inferred dynamism found in these species have been triggered by genomic rearrangements resulting from contemporary

  16. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  17. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phag