WorldWideScience

Sample records for glochidia 24-h median

  1. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Patricia L., E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R-4A6 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L{sup -1} (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup -1}) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L{sup -1}) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L{sup -1}). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L{sup -1}). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: > Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. > Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. > Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. > Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  2. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24 h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L -1 (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO 3 L -1 ) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L -1 ) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L -1 ). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L -1 ). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. - Highlights: → Compared to other aquatic organisms glochidia are very sensitive to chloride. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in natural water than in reconstituted water. → Glochidia were less sensitive to salt in hard water than in soft water. → Road salt runoff may pose a threat to the reproduction of freshwater mussels. → Salinization of freshwater could negatively impact numerous species at risk. - Freshwater mussel larvae were acutely sensitive to sodium chloride, such that chloride levels in some Canadian rivers may pose a threat to the survival of this early life stage.

  3. Persistence of host response against glochidia larvae in Micropterus salmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Benjamin J; Barnhart, M Christopher; Rogers-Lowery, Constance L; Fobian, Todd B; Dimock, Ronald V

    2006-11-01

    Host fish acquire resistance to the parasitic larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Glochidia metamorphose into juvenile mussels while encysted on host fish. We investigated the duration of acquired resistance of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802) to glochidia of the broken rays mussel, Lampsilis reeveiana (Call, 1887). Fish received three successive priming infections with glochidia to induce an immune response. Primed fish were held at 22-23 degrees C and were challenged (re-infected) at intervals after priming. Metamorphosis success was quantified as the percent of attached glochidia that metamorphosed to the juvenile stage and were recovered alive. Metamorphosis success at 3, 7, and 12 months after priming was significantly lower on primed fish (26%, 40%, and 68% respectively) than on control fish (85%, 93%, and 92% respectively). A second group of largemouth bass was similarly primed and blood was extracted. Immunoblotting was used to detect host serum antibodies to L. reeveiana glochidia proteins. Serum antibodies were evident in primed fish, but not in naive control fish. Acquired resistance of host fish potentially affects natural reproduction and artificial propagation of unionids, many of which are of conservation concern.

  4. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  5. Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Beckford

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR. This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD age 9.3 (1.8 years (n = 359 boys. The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48 and 111 (57 μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR UIC was 124 (83,172 μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey.

  6. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160...... phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant...... and rigor mortis development in PM muscle. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The manuscript describes the characterization of postmortem (PM) porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem from the perspective of protein phosphorylation using advanced phosphoproteomic techniques. In the study, the authors employed...

  7. Exposure-related effects of formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A to glochidia from seven unionid mussel species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.; Eckert, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The study was completed to evaluate the exposure-related effects of a biopesticide for dreissenid mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, zebra mussel and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, quagga mussel) control on glochidia from unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. The commercially prepared biopesticide was either a spray-dried powder (SDP) or freeze-dried powder (FDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A. Glochidia of the unionid mussel species Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea,Lampsilis higginsii, Ligumia recta, Obovaria olivaria, and Actinonaias ligamentina were exposed to SDP-formulated P. fluorescens andLampsilis cardium and Megalonaias nervosa were exposed to FDP-formulated P. fluorescens.

  8. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  9. 24 h stability of thick multilayer silicene in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Padova, Paola; Ottaviani, Carlo; Quaresima, Claudio; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Le Lay, Guy; Olivieri, Bruno; Imperatori, Patrizia; Salomon, Eric; Angot, Thierry; Quagliano, Lucia; Romano, Claudia; Vona, Alessandro; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Thick epitaxial multilayer silicene films with a √3 × √3R(30°) surface structure show only mild surface oxidation after 24 h in air, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed in air without any protective capping, as well as, for comparison, with a thin Al 2 O 3 cap, showed the (002) reflection and the G, D and 2D Raman structures, which are unique fingerprints of thick multilayer silicene. (letter)

  10. 24-h monitoring of calcineurin phosphatase activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2005-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus are the cornerstone immunosuppressants used in solid organ transplantation. Studies investigating calcineurin (CaN) activity in renal transplanted patients have been published, but basic properties of the enzyme activity in healthy subjects...... remain to be described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CaN displays circadian variation or sex difference is present in healthy subjects. Twenty subjects had blood samples drawn every 4 h for a 24-h period. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from...

  11. Wear-Time Compliance with a Dual-Accelerometer System for Capturing 24-h Behavioural Profiles in Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Duncan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To advance the field of time-use epidemiology, a tool capable of monitoring 24 h movement behaviours including sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour is needed. This study explores compliance with a novel dual-accelerometer system for capturing 24 h movement patterns in two free-living samples of children and adults. A total of 103 children aged 8 years and 83 adults aged 20-60 years were recruited. Using a combination of medical dressing and purpose-built foam pouches, participants were fitted with two Axivity AX3 accelerometers—one to the thigh and the other to the lower back—for seven 24 h periods. AX3 accelerometers contain an inbuilt skin temperature sensor that facilitates wear time estimation. The median (IQR wear time in children was 160 (67 h and 165 (79 h (out of a maximum of 168 h for back and thigh placement, respectively. Wear time was significantly higher and less variable in adults, with a median (IQR for back and thigh placement of 168 (1 and 168 (0 h. A greater proportion of adults (71.6% achieved the maximum number of complete days when compared to children (41.7%. We conclude that a dual-accelerometer protocol using skin attachment methods holds considerable promise for monitoring 24-h movement behaviours in both children and adults.

  12. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  13. 24-h organization of glycolysis and control by photoperiodism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, J N; Celati, C; Queiroz, O

    1985-01-01

    A study of the temporal organization of glycolysis at diverse levels of activity of the pathway showed that consideration of the phases of the 24h oscillations in glycolytic pools affords a means of detecting modifications in regulatory mechanisms according to the level of carbon flow along the pathway. The work utilized Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, a plant with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in which glycolytic activity is under the control of photoperiodism: after transfer from long days to short days carbon flow through the pathway increases drastically. Analysis of the glycolytic pools performed during the day/night cycle showed that: a. 24 h-period variations exist in the content of the glycolytic intermediates; b. time of the acrophase of these rhythms changes as a function of the photoperiodic treatment: in long days the pools of the intermediates preceding the phosphofructokinase (PFK) step oscillate in phase and the same holds for the intermediates after the PFK step but these two sequences of the pathway oscillate out of phase (phase-jump of about 10h); transfer to short days besides producing (after a lag) changes in the mean level and amplitude of the oscillations, modifies their phase: this temporal reorganization of glycolysis results in splitting the pathway into 3 sequences of synchronously-oscillating pools, phase-jumps between successive sequences occurring at the PFK (4h) and at the 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (12h) steps.

  14. Sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskukselle

    OpenAIRE

    Vesterinen, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Tilastokeskuksen viestinnässä. Työn tavoitteena oli kartoittaa sosiaalisen median käyttöön liittyviä mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita sekä selvittää siihen liittyviä odotuksia Tilastokeskuksen henkilöstön keskuudessa. Työn teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa käsitteenä ja esiteltiin sosiaalisen median käyttöä organisaation ulkoisen viestinnän välineenä. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin teoriatietoon pohjautuen sekä ca...

  15. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Dai, Jie; Lametsch, René

    2014-06-25

    Protein phosphorylation can regulate most of the important processes in muscle, such as metabolism and contraction. The postmortem (PM) metabolism and rigor mortis have essential effects on meat quality. In order to identify and characterize the protein phosphorylation events involved in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160 phosphoproteins with 784 phosphorylation sites. Among these, 184 phosphorylation sites on 93 proteins had their phosphorylation levels significantly changed. The proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction were the two largest clusters of phosphoproteins with significantly changed phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant changes at the phosphorylation level but were relatively stable at the total protein level, suggesting that protein phosphorylation may have important roles in meat quality development through the regulation of proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction, thereby affecting glycolysis and rigor mortis development in PM muscle. The manuscript describes the characterization of postmortem (PM) porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem from the perspective of protein phosphorylation using advanced phosphoproteomic techniques. In the study, the authors employed the dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment and LC-MS/MS strategy. This was the first high-throughput quantitative phosphoproteomic study in PM muscle of farm animals. In the work, both the proteome

  16. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  17. Sosiaalisen median riskit yritysmaailmassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpinen, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Sosiaalisen median palveluista on kirjoitettu lukuisia kirjoja ja artikkeleita, joissa niitä ylistetään varsinkin yritysnäkökulmasta. Vaikka sosiaalinen media on muuttanut olennaisesti tapaa, jolla keskustella, mainostaa, etsiä ja jakaa tietoa, piilee sen palveluiden käytössä kuitenkin erilaisia uhkakuvia. Yritykset ja asiantuntijat pelkäävät sosiaalisen median avoimuuden aiheuttavan suuria tietoturvariskejä. Lisäksi asiantuntijat ovat varoitelleet sosiaalisessa mediassa olevista haittaohjelm...

  18. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  19. Sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoitteena oli suunnitella toimeksiantajayritykselle sopiva sosiaalisen median markkinointistrategia ja avustaa sen toteutuksessa sekä tuottaen sisältöä sovittuihin kanaviin. Pyrkimyksenä oli myös kouluttaa yrityksen henkilökuntaa käyttämään sosiaalista mediaa yleisellä tasolla ja markkinoinnissa tutustuttamalla heidät sosiaalisen median erilaisiin kanaviin ja mainostyökaluihin. Opinnäytetyössä keskityttiin tutkimaan Facebookissa toimivaa markkinointia ja siinä toimivia mai...

  20. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  1. Estimation of the 24-h urinary protein excretion based on the estimated urinary creatinine output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Masamitsu; Takei, Takashi; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-06-01

    The urinary protein/creatinine ratio [Up/Ucr (g/gCr)] has been used in the clinical management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a discrepancy is often noted between the Up/Ucr and 24-h urinary protein excretion [24hUp (g/day)] in patients with extremes of muscle mass. We examined devised a method for precise estimation of the 24-h urinary protein excretion (E-24hUp) based on estimation of 24-h urinary creatinine output (E-24hCr). Three parameters, spot Up/Ucr, 24hUP and E-24hUp (=Up/Ucr × E-24hCr), were determined in 116 adult patients with CKD. The correlations among the groups were analyzed. There was a significant correlation between the Up/Ucr and 24hUp (p high urinary protein group (>3.5 g/day). There was a significant correlation between the Up/Ucr and 24hUp in the low (p = 0.04) and high urinary protein (p = 0.01) groups, whereas the correlation coefficient was lower in the intermediate urinary protein (p = 0.07) group. Thus, we found a significant correlation between 24hUp and E-24hUp in the study population overall (p high urinary protein group (p < 0.001). We conclude that a poor correlation exists between the Up/Ucr and 24hUp in patients with intermediate urinary protein excretion levels. The recommended parameter for monitoring proteinuria in such patients may be the E-24hUp, which is calculated using the E-24hCr.

  2. Smartphone tool to collect repeated 24 h dietary recall data in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B James; Harrisson, Tom; Paudel, Puskar; Shrestha, Niva; Jha, Sonali; Shrestha, Bhim P; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Saville, Naomi M

    2018-02-01

    To outline the development of a smartphone-based tool to collect thrice-repeated 24 h dietary recall data in rural Nepal, and to describe energy intakes, common errors and researchers' experiences using the tool. We designed a novel tool to collect multi-pass 24 h dietary recalls in rural Nepal by combining the use of a CommCare questionnaire on smartphones, a paper form, a QR (quick response)-coded list of foods and a photographic atlas of portion sizes. Twenty interviewers collected dietary data on three non-consecutive days per respondent, with three respondents per household. Intakes were converted into nutrients using databases on nutritional composition of foods, recipes and portion sizes. Dhanusha and Mahottari districts, Nepal. Pregnant women, their mothers-in-law and male household heads. Energy intakes assessed in 150 households; data corrections and our experiences reported from 805 households and 6765 individual recalls. Dietary intake estimates gave plausible values, with male household heads appearing to have higher energy intakes (median (25th-75th centile): 12 079 (9293-14 108) kJ/d) than female members (8979 (7234-11 042) kJ/d for pregnant women). Manual editing of data was required when interviewers mistook portions for food codes and for coding items not on the food list. Smartphones enabled quick monitoring of data and interviewer performance, but we initially faced technical challenges with CommCare forms crashing. With sufficient time dedicated to development and pre-testing, this novel smartphone-based tool provides a useful method to collect data. Future work is needed to further validate this tool and adapt it for other contexts.

  3. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  4. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  6. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  7. Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects

  8. 24-h blood pressure in Space: The dark side of being an astronaut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karemaker, John M.; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke

    2009-01-01

    Inflight 24-h profiles of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 2 ESA-astronauts by automatic upper arm cuff measurements. In one astronaut this was combined with Portapres (TM) continuous finger blood pressure recordings. It was the intention to contrast the latter to 24-h

  9. Correlates of falling during 24 h among elderly Danish community residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To identify dietary, medical, and environmental correlates of falling during the last 24 h among elderly community residents. The limited accuracy of recall of falls in the elderly in previous studies was the reason for a 24-h time frame. Methods. The study composes 4281 community res...

  10. Blood pressure response to CPAP treatment in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea: the predictive value of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Grattoni, Anabel L; Torres, Gerard; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Barbé, Ferran; Turino, Cecilia; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Cortijo, Anunciacion; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Egea, Carlos; Cao, Gonzalo; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The reduction in blood pressure (BP) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is modest and highly variable. In this study, we identified the variables that predict BP response to CPAP.24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin and 24-h urinary catecholamine were measured before and after 6 months of CPAP in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients.Overall, 88 middle-aged, obese male patients with severe OSA (median apnoea-hypopnoea index 42 events·h -1 ) were included; 28.4% had hypertension. 62 patients finished the study, and 60 were analysed. The daytime diastolic BP (-2 mmHg) and norepinephrine (-109.5 nmol·day -1 ) were reduced after CPAP, but no changes in the 24-h BP, night-time BP, dopamine, epinephrine, CRP, leptin or adiponectin were detected. The nocturnal normotension was associated with an increased night-time-BP (+4 mmHg) after CPAP, whereas nocturnal hypertension was associated with a reduction of 24-h BP (-3 mmHg). A multivariate linear regression model showed differential night-time BP changes after CPAP. Specifically, low night-time heart rate (CPAP and support the usefulness of 24-h ABPM for OSA patients before treatment initiation. These results need to be confirmed in further studies. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  11. Enzymatic and hormonal responses following a 24 h endurance run and a 10 h triathlon race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmann, N; Sagnol, M; Bedu, M; Falgairette, G; Van Praagh, E; Gaillard, G; Jouanel, P; Coudert, J

    1988-01-01

    Muscle cell leakage and hormonal changes were compared immediately after and during the 3 days following a 24 h endurance run (R24h) in 8 subjects, and a 10 h triathlon non-competitive race (T10h) in 6 subjects. The study showed three main differences: 1) plasma enzyme increases were considerably more significant in R24h than in T10h: compared with resting levels, creatine kinase increased x 120 after R24h but only x 2 after T10h; lactic dehydrogenase x 4, as opposed to x 1.5; and transaminases only showed an increase after R24h. The plasma myoglobin increase after R24h was double that found after T10h; 2) for the same magnitude of plasma aldosterone and cortisol after R24h and T10h (3 times the resting levels), a highly significant decrease in urinary Na+ (p less than 0.001) and an increase in urinary K+ (p less than 0.01) were found only after R24h; and 3) the plasma free noradrenaline level increased significantly after R24h (x 2.6) whereas it was unchanged after T10h. In contrast, the plasma level of conjugated dopamine increased only after T10h (x 3.7, p less than 0.05). These results suggest that long-distance running causes more muscular lesions than the triathlon, and that important factors other than aldosterone are probably involved in the regulation of urinary electrolyte excretions during T10h.

  12. The impact of a single 24 h working day on cognitive and psychomotor performance in staff anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Nenad; Carev, Mladen; Kardum, Goran; Pecotic, Renata; Valic, Maja; Karanovic, Sandra; Ujevic, Ante; Dogas, Zoran

    2009-10-01

    The profession of anaesthesiologist is demanding and potentially hazardous. Extended work shifts combined with intensive work load may adversely affect physicians' performance. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a single in-hospital 24 h shift on the cognitive and psychomotor performance of anaesthesiologists in a surgical emergency department. Following ethical and institutional approval, 11 staff anaesthesiologists [six men, five women, age 48 (35-50), years of experience 17 (7-20), median (range)] successfully completed the study protocol. Four computer-generated psychological tests (CRD, Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac, Croatia) consisting of light signal position discrimination (CRD 311), simple visual orientation (CRD 21), simple arithmetic operations (CRD 11), and complex psychomotor coordination (CRD 411) were used to measure objective parameters of cognitive and psychomotor performance at four time points (D1 = 8:00 a.m., D2 = 3:00 p.m., D3 = 11:00 p.m.; and D4 = 7:00-8:00 a.m. next day) during the 24 h working day. The control testing on an ordinary working day was performed at two time points (C1 = 8:00 a.m., C2 = 3:00 p.m.). Three parameters were recorded: total test solving time (TTST), total variability, and total number of errors for all four tests. TTST was significantly impaired during the 24 h shift in all tests, and TTST was prolonged in CRD 21 test at different time points from 1.6 +/- 1.4 to 5.5 +/- 1.6 s compared with the control (F = 6.39, P = 0.001). The reaction times were prolonged from 1.3 +/- 1.8 to 5.4 +/- 1.2 s (F = 3.49, P = 0.009) in CRD 311, from 3.8 +/- 9.0 to 34.3 +/- 5.8 s (F = 5.05, P = 0.002) in CRD 11 TTST, and from 0.8 +/- 3.0 to 16.3 +/- 8.6 s (F = 2.67, P = 0.034) in CRD 411. Total variability was significantly altered during the 24 h shift only in CRD 411 (F = 2.63, P = 0.036). There was no difference in the total number of errors between the 24 h shift and the ordinary working day. Anaesthesiologists' 24 h

  13. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous Bolus versus Continuous Infusion of Famotidine or Ranitidine on 24 H Intragastric Acidity in Fasting Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of H2-receptor antagonists may be clinically indicated to maintain intragastric pH above 4 to reduce acute gastric mucosal lesions or to treat patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Eight fasting healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ranitidine infusion alone (150 mg/day, ranitidine infusion plus 50 mg bolus injection of ranitidine (total of 200 mg/day, famotidine infusion alone (40 mg/day or famotidine infusion plus 40 mg bolus injection of famotidine (total of 80 mg/day. Gastric fluid contents were aspirated for 24 h and collected as half-hourly samples in which pH measurements were made. Measures analyzed were mean and median pH, percentage pH at or below 3, 4 or 5 for the 24 h period, daytime, evening and nighttime. The data for each of the variables were analyzed as a Latin square crossover design of variance therapy; base pH before treatment administration in each crossover phase was employed as the covariant. Significant differential treatment means were tested by Newman-Keul’s multiple range test at the 5% level of significance. The mean and median evening pH were higher after famotidine than after ranitidine infusion, but all other pH readings were similar when using these doses. The addition of an initial loading bolus of 50 mg ranitidine to the ranitidine infusion did not result in any added differences in pH, whereas the addition of an initial loading bolus of 40 mg famotidine to the famotidine infusion resulted in a higher 24 h median pH, as well as a lower percentage of pH values of 4 or below, 16.6% versus 28.5%, P<0.05. However, the loading doses of ranitidine and famotidine were not equivalent in potency, and studies are needed to compare the potency of equivalent doses of ranitidine and famotidine when given by bolus plus infusion. Also the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be explored further in the type of individuals potentially requiring intravenous H2-receptor antagonists.

  15. Stability and reproducibility of a single-sample urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio and its correlation with 24-h urinary C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tim J; Knight, Bridget A; Shields, Beverley M; Bowman, Pamela; Salzmann, Maurice B; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2009-11-01

    C-peptide measurement in blood or 24-h urine samples provides useful information regarding endogenous insulin secretion, but problems related to the rapid degradation of C-peptide in blood and difficulty of 24-h urine collection have limited widespread routine clinical use of this test. We assessed the feasibility of measuring urinary C-peptide (UCP) with correction for creatinine concentration in single urine samples. We analyzed UCP using a routine electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in samples from 21 healthy volunteers. We investigated the stability of UCP with different preservatives and storage conditions and compared the reproducibility of urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) in first- and second-void fasting urines, then assessed correlations with 24-h collections. UCPCR was unchanged at room temperature for 24 h and at 4 degrees C for 72 h even in the absence of preservative. UCPCR collected in boric acid was stable at room temperature for 72 h. UCPCR remained stable after 7 freeze-thaw cycles but decreased with freezer storage time and dropped to 82%-84% of baseline by 90 days at -20 degrees C. Second-void fasting UCPCRs were lower than first-void (median 0.78 vs 1.31, P = 0.0003) and showed less variation (CV 33% vs 52%), as second-void UCPCRs were not influenced by evening food-related insulin secretion. Second-void fasting UCPCR was highly correlated with 24-h UCP (r = 0.8, P = 0.00006). Second-void fasting UCPCR is a reproducible measure that correlates well with 24-h UCP in normal samples. The 3-day stability of UCPCR at room temperature greatly increases its potential clinical utility.

  16. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  17. Repeat Effort Performance is Reduced 24 h following Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Iredale, Fiona; Chapman, Dale W; Hopper, Amanda; Abbiss, Chris

    2017-09-11

    This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention. Body mass was reduced (4.8±0.8%) following DHY (p<0.001) and remained lower than CONT at 3 and 24 h post (p=0.003 and p=0.024, respectively). Compared to CONT average sled push times were slower 3 and 24 h following DHY (19±15%; p=0.001; g=1.229 and 14±15%; p=0.012; g=0.671, respectively). When compared to the CONT hand grip was weaker 3 h following DHY (53±8 and 51±8 kg; p=0.044, g=0.243 respectively) and medicine ball chest throw distances were shorter 24 h following DHY (474±52 and 449±44 cm; p=0.016, g=0.253 respectively). No significant differences were observed in vertical jump (p=0.467). Urine specific gravity was higher than CONT 20 min (p=0.035) and 24 h (p=0.035) following DHY. Acute dehydration of 4.8% body mass results in reduced physical performance 3 and 24 h following. There is need for caution when athletes use dehydration for weight loss 24 h prior to competition.

  18. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kerr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24, were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01, detailed description (p < 0.05 and portion size matching (p < 0.05. Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods. The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05 and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8% compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  19. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.20-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.20-24h_embryos dm3 Histone Embryo 20-24h embryos SRX013019,SRX0130...46,SRX013045,SRX013089,SRX013098 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.20-24h_embryos.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.12-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.12-24h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 12-24h embryos SRX885690,...SRX885694,SRX885696,SRX885688,SRX885692 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.12-24h_embryos.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.0-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.0-24h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 0-24h embryos SRX050598,SR...X050601,SRX050600,SRX050599 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.0-24h_embryos.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.2-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.2-4h_embryos dm3 No description Embryo 2-4h embryos ERX008189,ERX0...08195,ERX008192,ERX008185 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.2-4h_embryos.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.0-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.0-24h_embryos dm3 TFs and others Embryo 0-24h embryos SRX050599,SR...X050598,SRX050601,SRX050600 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.0-24h_embryos.bed ...

  4. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  5. Is the area under blood pressure curve the best parameter to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion, Décio

    2005-10-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides relevant data about blood pressure over a 24-h period. The analysis of parameters to determine the blood pressure profile from these data is of great importance. To calculate areas under systolic and diastolic blood pressure curves (SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC) and compare with systolic and diastolic blood pressure load (SBPL/DBPL) and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure (24-h SBP/24-h DBP) in order to determine which provides the best correlation with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). ABPM measurements (1143 individuals) were analyzed to obtain 24-h SBP/24-h DBP, SBPL/DBPL, and SBP-AUC/ DBP-AUC, using Spacelabs (90207) and CardioSistemas devices. Left ventricular mass was determined using an echocardiograph HP Sonos 5500 and LVMI was calculated. The correlations between all possible pairs within the group 24-h SBP/SBPL/SBP-AUC and 24-h DBP/DBPL/DBP-AUC were high and statistically significant. The correlations between 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC with SBPL/DBPL close to 100%, were lower than those mentioned above. The correlations of the parameters obtained by ABPM with LVMI were also high and statistically significant, except for blood pressure load between 90 and 100%, and for 24-h SBP of 135 mmHg or less and SBPL higher than 50%. SBPL/DBPL and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC can be used for the evaluation of ABPM data owing to the strong correlation with 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and with LVMI, except when SBPL is close to 100% or 24-h SBP is below 135 mmHg but SBPL is above 50%. SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC, however, are a better alternative because they do not have the limitations of blood pressure load or even of 24-h blood pressure present.

  6. How is agitation and restlessness managed in the last 24 h of life in patients whose care is supported by the Liverpool care pathway for the dying patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, M; McGlinchey, T; Latten, R; Dickman, A; Lowe, D; Ellershaw, J E

    2011-12-01

    Guidance regarding the patient centred management of agitation and restlessness reinforces the importance of considering underlying causes, non-pharmacological approaches to treatment and judicious use of medications titrated to patient need. In contrast, recent reports in the literature suggest that the practice of continuous deep sedation until death is prevalent in the UK. To use data from the National Care of the Dying Audit-Hospitals (NCDAH) to explore the administration of medication for management of agitation and restlessness in the last 24 h of life. Hospitals submitted data from up to 30 consecutive adult patients whose care in the final hours/days of life was supported by the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP). Data on the total dose received in the last 24 h of life PRN and the last dose prescribed for administration via continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) for agitation and restlessness were submitted. 155 hospitals provided data from 3893 patients. Median total doses in the last 24 h for midazolam, haloperidol and levomepromazine, respectively, were: PRN only, 2.5, 1.5 and 6.25 mg; CSCI only, 10, 3 and 6.25 mg; PRN+CSCI, 15, 3 and 12.5 mg. Only 51% of patients received medication to alleviate agitation and restlessness in the last 24 h of life. Median doses were low in comparison to doses recommended for continuous deep sedation, suggesting that there is no 'blanket' policy for continuous deep sedation at the end of life for patients whose care is supported by the LCP.

  7. Exercise and 24-h Glycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.W.; Manders, R.J.F.; Canfora, E.E.; van Mechelen, W.; Hartgens, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on subsequent 24-h glycemic control in 60 type 2 diabetes patients. Moreover, we examined whether individual responses to exercise were related to subjects' baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index,

  8. Time bound changes (in 24 h) in human sperm motility and level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed sperm motility study for 24 h after collection was done. The level of calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma during this period was also seen to understand the role of these electrolytes on sperm motility. Good care was taken in selection of subjects (young and healthy), collection and pre-physical analysis of ...

  9. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24 h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Muls, G.; Vansant, G.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient composition on 24 h substrate oxidation in male, obese subjects. DESIGN: A 16 month exercise intervention study was executed, including a weight loss period with a very low energy diet (VLED) for 2 months at the

  10. Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Wilson, S.A.; Rolland, V.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24h in a respiration chamber. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27 +/- 3 y; body mass index, BMI 23 +/- 3 kg/m2). DIETS: A

  11. Development, DNA fragmentation and cell death in porcine embryos afer 24 h storage under different conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Ducro-Steverink, D.W.B.; Hazeleger, W.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Bevers, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    For practical applications of porcine embryo transfer (ET) it is important to develop feasible embryo storage conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term storage (24 h) on the quality of in vivo produced porcine embryos. Three temperatures 18, 25 and 38 degreesC

  12. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses′ lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. The statistic difference was significant (P = 0.000. However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P = 0.417; renal insufficiency: P = 0.194; thrombocytopenia: P = 0.079; and cerebral or visual symptoms: P = 0.296. The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0

  14. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Butte, Nancy F; Mendoza, Patricia M; Wilson, Theresa A; Hodges, Eric A; Reidy, Kathleen C; Deming, Denise

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall as compared with 3-d weighed food records. A within-subjects design was used in which a 24-h recall and 3-d weighed food records were completed within 2 wk by 157 mothers (56 non-Hispanic white, 51 non-Hispanic black, and 50 Hispanic) of 7-11-mo-old infants or 12-24-mo-old toddlers. Child and caregiver anthropometrics, child eating patterns, and caregiver demographics and social desirability were evaluated as correlates of reporting bias. Intakes based on 3-d weighed food records were within 5% of estimated energy requirements. Compared with the 3-d weighed food records, the 24-h recall overestimated energy intake by 13% among infants (740 +/- 154 and 833 +/- 255 kcal, respectively) and by 29% among toddlers (885 +/- 197 and 1140 +/- 299 kcal, respectively). Eating patterns (ie, frequency and location) did not differ appreciably between methods. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were higher by 24-h recall than by 3-d weighed food record. Dairy and grains contributed the most energy to the diet and accounted for 74% and 54% of the overestimation seen in infants and toddlers, respectively. Greater overestimation was associated with a greater number of food items reported by the caregiver and lower child weight-for-length z scores. The use of a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall may significantly overestimate infant or toddler energy and nutrient intakes because of portion size estimation errors.

  15. Morphological and behavioral responses of zebrafish after 24 h of ketamine embryonic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Félix, Luís M.; Serafim, Cindy; Martins, Maria J.; Valentim, Ana M.; Antunes, Luís M.

    2017-01-01

    Ketamine, one anesthetic used as an illicit drug, has been detected both in freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, knowledge of its impact on aquatic life is still limited. This study aimed to test its effects in zebrafish embryos by analyzing its time- and dose-dependent developmental toxicity and long-term behavioral changes. The 24 h-LC 50 was calculated from percent survival using probit analysis. Based on the 24 h-LC 50 (94.4 mg L −1 ), embryos (2 hour post-fertilization - hpf) were divided into four groups, including control, and exposed for 24 h to ketamine concentrations of 50, 70 or 90 mg L −1 . Developmental parameters were evaluated on the course of the experimental period, and anatomical abnormalities and locomotor deficits were analyzed at 144 hpf. Although the portion of ketamine transferred into the embryo was higher in the lowest exposed group (about 0.056 ± 0.020 pmol per embryo), the results showed that endpoints such as increased mortality, edema, heart rate alterations, malformation and abnormal growth rates were significantly affected. At 144 hpf, the developmental abnormalities included thoracic and trunk abnormalities in the groups exposed to 70 and 90 mg L −1 . Defects in cartilage (alcian blue) and bone (calcein) elements also corroborated the craniofacial anomalies observed. A significant up-regulation of the development-related gene nog3 was detected by qRT-PCR at 8 hpf. Early exposure to ketamine also resulted in long-term behavioral changes, such as an increase in thigmotaxis and disruption of avoidance behavior at 144 hpf. Altogether, this study provides new evidence on the ketamine teratogenic potential, indicating a possible pharmacological impact of ketamine in aquatic environments. - Highlights: • 24 h exposure to ketamine increases mortality. • Morphological changes were observed after exposure. • Exposure to ketamine leads to severe craniofacial anomalies. • Developmental gene expression changes in response to

  16. Coronary angiography after successful thrombolysis - Is the recommended time interval of 24h an important issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cátia; Durão, David; Belo, Adriana; Domingues, Kevin; Santos, Beatriz; Leal, Margarida

    2016-11-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is currently considered the gold-standard treatment of acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). However, this is not the reality of many European centers, where thrombolysis is performed as primary therapy. To determine, in a STEMI population that performed successful fibrinolytic treatment, if the performance of coronary angiography after the first 24h was associated with more hospital complications, including higher mortality, compared with its performance in the recommended time. Retrospective study, including 1065 patients with STEMI, who performed successful thrombolysis. The population was divided in three groups: A, patients who didn't undergo coronary angiography after successful thrombolysis (n=278; 26.1%); B, patients who underwent coronary angiography in the first 24h after successful thrombolysis (n=127; 11.9%); and C, patients who underwent angiography after the first 24h (n=660; 62.0%). Groups were compared regarding their characteristics and in-hospital complications. Groups B and C had more male patients and had younger patients than group A. Group A presented higher Killip classes at admission, more severe left ventricle dysfunction and a higher number of complications during hospitalization. Logistic regression revealed that: 1) the non-performance of coronary angiography after thrombolysis was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality; and 2) the performance of angiography after the recommended time wasn't associated with higher mortality. Coronary angiography after thrombolysis constitutes an important strategy, whose non-performance carries worse prognosis. The time interval currently recommended of 24h seems clinically acceptable; however, its realization outside the recommended time doesn't seem to lead to higher mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LOFT CIS analysis: 24'' H and V Duct outside penetration S-12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    The 24'' H and V Duct and related piping outside the LOFT containment and connected to containment penetration S-12A were analyzed to ASME Section III, Subsection NC (Class 2) criteria. The duct is part of the Containment Isolation System. The model considered the duct from the containment O.D. outward through the second isolation valve. Results of this analysis show that this section of the line will meet Class 2 requirements without modification

  18. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.16-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.16-24h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 16-24h embryos SRX025478,SR...X041390,SRX032109,SRX030151,SRX025470,SRX041385,SRX025479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.16-24h_embryos.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.20-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.20-24h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 20-24h embryos SRX013045,SR...X013019,SRX013046,SRX013089,SRX013098,SRX013108,SRX013020 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.20-24h_embryos.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.2-4h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.2-4h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 2-4h embryos SRX127437,SRX482...X372808,SRX197573,SRX183890,SRX197576,SRX661062,SRX183886 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.2-4h_embryos.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.12-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.12-24h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 12-24h embryos SRX885696,SR...X885694,SRX885688,SRX885690,SRX885692,SRX885689,SRX885691,SRX885693 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.12-24h_embryos.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.20-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.20-24h_embryos dm3 All antigens Embryo 20-24h embryos SRX013089,SR...X013045,SRX013019,SRX013046,SRX013108,SRX013098,SRX013020 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.20-24h_embryos.bed ...

  3. Characterization of 24-h cortisol release in obese and non-obese hyperandrogenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J E; Bray, M A; Faiman, C; Reyes, F I

    1994-12-01

    Excessive androgen output is a well-recognized feature of adrenocortical oversecretion in women with ovarian hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). However, evidence of a concomitant alteration of cortisol secretion is lacking even though obesity per se, a common clinical feature of PCOD, has been shown to be associated with cortisol oversecretion. To clarify whether a subtle alteration in cortisol secretion exists, a study of 24-h episodic cortisol release and post-prandial cortisol responses was undertaken in eight women with PCOD and eight normal women comprising equal numbers of obese and non-obese subjects. All four groups showed normal biphasic 24-h cortisol secretion profiles but cortisol pulse frequency was increased in the PCOD groups. Independently, both hyperandrogenism and obesity were associated with an accelerated cortisol clearance rate. These changes, together with normal or only slightly elevated 24-h cortisol integrated area under the curve, suggest an increased compensatory cortisol production in women with PCOD. Furthermore, subjects with PCOD and subjects with obesity showed different post-prandial cortisol responses to normal non-obese women. In conclusion, these subtle cortisol abnormalities may be a manifestation of altered central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and peripheral metabolic abnormalities, and may be linked to the pathophysiology of PCOD.

  4. Isolated clinic hypertension: diagnostic criteria based on 24-h blood pressure definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, Ernest; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Felip, Angela; Banegas, José R; de la Cruz, Juan J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Sobrino, Javier; Segura, Julián; Roca-Cusachs, Alex; Ruilope, Luís M

    2010-12-01

    The use of diagnostic criteria based on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values could improve prognostic value by incorporating night BP, minimize biases and improve the diagnostic reproducibility of isolated clinic hypertension (ICH). We estimate the 24-h BP cut-off points that best discriminate and predict the two diagnostic thresholds of mean daytime BP for ICH (135/85 and 130/80 mmHg). Cross-sectional, comparative, multicentre study in 6176 untreated hypertensive patients, whose BP was measured by ambulatory BP monitoring. ICH was defined with an office BP of ≥140/≥90 mmHg and a daytime BP of <135/<85 mmHg (ICH1) or <130/80 mmHg (ICH2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), odds ratio (OR), error rate, predictive values, κ values and 95% confidence interval were calculated for each possible cut-off point for ICH1 and ICH2. One thousand eight hundred and seven patients (29.2%) and 960 patients (15.5%) met ICH1 and ICH2 criteria, respectively. The 24-h BP cut-off points that best predict ICH1 and ICH2 are less than 132/82 mmHg (sensitivity: 93.6%, specificity: 94.3%, LR+: 16.6, OR: 1367.1, error rate: 5.9, κ 0.86) and less than 127/77 mmHg (sensitivity: 90.8%, specificity: 97.4%, LR+: 34.6, OR: 1041.5, error rate: 3.6,κ 0.86), respectively. These values achieved the best balance of sensitivity and specificity, together with the highest values of LR+ and OR and the lowest error rate. The 24-h BP cut-off point that best predicts the daytime criterion of less than 135/85 and less than 130/80 mmHg are 132/82 and 127/77 mmHg, respectively. These 24-h cut-off points may add value to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for both diagnostic and management future decisions.

  5. Median mental sinus in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S T; Ngeow, W C

    1999-05-01

    Sinus on the chin can be the result of a chronic apical abscess due to pulp necrosis of a mandibular anterior tooth. The tooth is usually asymptomatic, and a dental cause is therefore not apparent to the patient or the unsuspecting clinician. Not infrequently, the patient may seek treatment from a dermatologist or general surgeon instead of a dentist. Excision and repair of the fistula may be carried out with subsequent breakdown because the dental pathology is not removed. This paper reports the presence of median mental sinus of dental origin in twins. One case healed following root canal therapy while the other required both root canal therapy and surgery to eliminate the infection.

  6. Objective determination of pH thresholds in the analysis of 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusten, B. L.; Roelofs, J. M.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    In 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring, pH 4 is widely but arbitrarily used as the threshold between reflux and non-reflux pH values. The aim of the study was to define pH thresholds objectively, based on Gaussian curve fitting of pH frequency distributions. Single-channel 24 h oesophageal pH monitoring

  7. Regulation of average 24h human plasma leptin level; the influence of exercise and physiological changes in energy balance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggel-Leijssen, D.P.; van Baak, M.A.; Tenenbaum, R.; Campfield, L.A.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of short-term moderate physiological changes in energy flux and energy balance, by exercise and over- or underfeeding, on a 24h plasma leptin profile, were investigated. DESIGN: Subjects were studied over 24h in four randomized conditions: no exercise/energy balance (energy

  8. Bioactive food stimulants of sympathetic activity: effect on 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, A; Jessen, A B

    2005-06-01

    Bioactive food ingredients influence energy balance by exerting weak thermogenic effects. We studied whether the thermogenic effect of a combination of capsaicin, green tea extract (catechins and caffeine), tyrosine, and calcium was maintained after 7-day treatment and whether local effects in the gastric mucosa were involved in the efficacy. The present study was designed as a 3-way crossover, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention. Department of Human Nutrition, RVAU, Denmark. A total of 19 overweight to obese men (BMI: 28.0+/-2.7 kg/m2) were recruited by advertising locally. The subjects took the supplements for a period of 7 days. The supplements were administrated as a simple supplement with the bioactive ingredients, a similar enterocoated version, or placebo. In all, 24-h energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidations, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and heart rate were measured in respiration chambers on the seventh day of each test period. After adjustment for changes in body weight and SPA, 24-h EE was increased by 160 kJ/day (95% CI: 15-305) by the simple preparation as compared to placebo, whereas the enterocoated preparation had no such effect (53 kJ/day, -92 to 198); simple vs enterocoated versions (P=0.09). The simple preparation produced a deficit in 24-h energy balance of 193 kJ/day (49-338, P=0.03). Fat and carbohydrate oxidation were equally increased by the supplements. A supplement containing bioactive food ingredients increased daily EE by approximately 200 kJ or 2%, without raising the heart rate or any observed adverse effects. The lack of effect of the enterocoated preparation suggests that a local action of capsaicin in the gastric mucosa is a prerequisite for exerting the thermogenic effect.

  9. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Gómez-Abellán

    Full Text Available to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V and subcutaneous (S adipose tissue (AT in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX on positive and negative clock genes expression.VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2 (n = 6. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR.CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements in the SAT (situation not present in VAT. A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues.24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements and PER2 (negative element mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure.

  10. Morphological and behavioral responses of zebrafish after 24 h of ketamine embryonic exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Félix, Luís M., E-mail: lfelix@utad.pt [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real (Portugal); Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto (UP), Porto (Portugal); Laboratory Animal Science (LAS), Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC), University of Porto - UP, Porto (Portugal); Serafim, Cindy; Martins, Maria J. [Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real (Portugal); Valentim, Ana M. [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real (Portugal); Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto (UP), Porto (Portugal); Laboratory Animal Science (LAS), Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC), University of Porto - UP, Porto (Portugal); Antunes, Luís M. [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real (Portugal); Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto (UP), Porto (Portugal); Laboratory Animal Science (LAS), Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC), University of Porto - UP, Porto (Portugal); School of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences (ECAV), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), Vila Real (Portugal); and others

    2017-04-15

    Ketamine, one anesthetic used as an illicit drug, has been detected both in freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, knowledge of its impact on aquatic life is still limited. This study aimed to test its effects in zebrafish embryos by analyzing its time- and dose-dependent developmental toxicity and long-term behavioral changes. The 24 h-LC{sub 50} was calculated from percent survival using probit analysis. Based on the 24 h-LC{sub 50} (94.4 mg L{sup −1}), embryos (2 hour post-fertilization - hpf) were divided into four groups, including control, and exposed for 24 h to ketamine concentrations of 50, 70 or 90 mg L{sup −1}. Developmental parameters were evaluated on the course of the experimental period, and anatomical abnormalities and locomotor deficits were analyzed at 144 hpf. Although the portion of ketamine transferred into the embryo was higher in the lowest exposed group (about 0.056 ± 0.020 pmol per embryo), the results showed that endpoints such as increased mortality, edema, heart rate alterations, malformation and abnormal growth rates were significantly affected. At 144 hpf, the developmental abnormalities included thoracic and trunk abnormalities in the groups exposed to 70 and 90 mg L{sup −1}. Defects in cartilage (alcian blue) and bone (calcein) elements also corroborated the craniofacial anomalies observed. A significant up-regulation of the development-related gene nog3 was detected by qRT-PCR at 8 hpf. Early exposure to ketamine also resulted in long-term behavioral changes, such as an increase in thigmotaxis and disruption of avoidance behavior at 144 hpf. Altogether, this study provides new evidence on the ketamine teratogenic potential, indicating a possible pharmacological impact of ketamine in aquatic environments. - Highlights: • 24 h exposure to ketamine increases mortality. • Morphological changes were observed after exposure. • Exposure to ketamine leads to severe craniofacial anomalies. • Developmental gene expression

  11. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR......). The cleaners had a low estimated cardio-respiratory fitness (34 mlO2/kg/min), a high BMI (50%, >25 kg/m(2)) and blood pressure (50%, >120/>80 mmHg). The high amount of steps, the relatively high cardiovascular load at work and low cardio-respiratory fitness illustrate the need for further investigation...... of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high...

  12. Gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiography: a supplement to 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, E.; Aksglaede, K.; Jacobsen, N.O.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark)

    2001-09-01

    Purpose: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is demonstrated by radiography as a supplement to 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: Forty-two patients (mean age 44 years) with suspicion of GOR disease were assessed according to a standard questionnaire. GOR was investigated by 24-h pH-monitoring and by radiography. Oesophageal emptying and the presence of rings or strictures were registered as well. Mucosal biopsies, classified as normal, light oesophagitis, severe oesophagitis, or Barrett's oesophagus, were correlated to age, gender, symptomatology, pH monitoring, and oesophageal emptying. GOR and morphological changes demonstrated by radiography were correlated to pH monitoring and mucosa biopsies. Results: Based on pH monitoring, patients with severe oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus had a significantly higher acid exposure compared to patients with normal mucosa and light oesophagitis, with no difference concerning age, gender, and symptoms. Severe oesophagitis, including Barrett's oesophagus, was found only in patients with a positive test for radiologic GOR. Eleven patients had rings or strictures independent of oesophageal mucosal changes. Conclusion: GOR demonstrated by radiography identified patients where complications could be expected, which was not possible by pH monitoring alone.

  13. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition 'and' extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS- comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Discovery of olodaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-adrenoceptor agonist with a 24 h bronchodilatory efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssou, Thierry; Hoenke, Christoph; Rudolf, Klaus; Lustenberger, Philipp; Pestel, Sabine; Sieger, Peter; Lotz, Ralf; Heine, Claudia; Büttner, Frank H; Schnapp, Andreas; Konetzki, Ingo

    2010-02-15

    Compound 4p was identified from a series of 6-hydroxy-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones as potent agonist of the human beta2-adrenoceptor with a high beta1/beta2-selectivity. A complete reversal of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction which lasted over the whole study period of 5h was demonstrated for 4p in a guinea pig in vivo model without any signs of cardiovascular effects up to 10-fold above the first dose reaching 100% bronchoprotection. The enantiomerically pure (R)-form of 4p exerted a bronchodilatory efficacy over 24 h in dogs and guinea pigs in the absence of systemic pharmacodynamic effects. Formoterol which was tested as comparator in the same in vivo models of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction did not retain efficacy after 24 h. In summary, the preclinical profile of compound (R)-4p (olodaterol, also known as BI 1744 CL) suggests a potential for once-daily dosing in man accompanied with an improved safety profile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio from casual ('spot') urinary sodium/potassium ratio: the INTERSALT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Toshiyuki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2017-10-01

    Association between casual and 24-h urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio is well recognized, although it has not been validated in diverse demographic groups. Our aim was to assess utility across and within populations of casual urine to estimate 24-h urinary Na/K ratio using data from the INTERSALT Study. The INTERSALT Study collected cross-sectional standardized data on casual urinary sodium and potassium and also on timed 24-h urinary sodium and potassium for 10 065 individuals from 52 population samples in 32 countries (1985-87). Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement were computed for Na/K ratio of casual urine against 24-h urinary Na/K ratio both at population and individual levels. Pearson correlation coefficients relating means of 24-h urine and casual urine Na/K ratio were r = 0.96 and r = 0.69 in analyses across populations and individuals, respectively. Correlations of casual urine Na/creatinine and K/creatinine ratios with 24-h urinary Na and K excretion, respectively, were lower than correlation of casual and 24-h urinary Na/K ratio in analyses across populations and individuals. The bias estimate with the Bland-Altman method, defined as the difference between Na/K ratio of 24-h urine and casual urine, was approximately 0.4 across both populations and individuals. Spread around, the mean bias was higher for individuals than populations. With appropriate bias correction, casual urine Na/K ratio may be a useful, low-burden alternative method to 24-h urine for estimation of population urinary Na/K ratio. It may also be applicable for assessment of the urinary Na/K ratio of individuals, with use of repeated measurements to reduce measurement error and increase precision. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux: comparison of barium studies with 24-h pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, John J.; Levine, Marc S.; Redfern, Regina O.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor; Katzka, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between massive gastroesophageal reflux (GER) on barium studies and pathologic acid reflux on 24-h pH monitoring. Methods: A search of hospital records from January 1997 to January 2001 revealed 28 patients who underwent both barium studies and 24-h pH monitoring. The radiologic reports were reviewed to determine the presence and degree of GER. Patients with reflux to or above the thoracic inlet either spontaneously or with provocative maneuvers in the recumbent position were classified as having massive reflux, whereas the remaining patients with reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux comprised the control group. The pH monitoring reports were also reviewed to determine if pathologic acid reflux was present in the recumbent position. The findings on these studies were then compared to determine the frequency of pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position on pH monitoring in patients with massive reflux on barium studies compared with the control group. Results: Massive GER was observed on barium studies in 11 (39%) of the 28 patients and reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux in the remaining 17 patients (61%) who comprised the control group. All 11 patients (100%) with massive reflux on barium studies had pathologic acid reflux on pH monitoring in the recumbent position compared with six (35%) of 17 patients in the control group (P=0.0009). The pH in the distal esophagus on pH monitoring was less than 4.0 for 13.1% of the recumbent period for patients with massive GER on barium studies compared with 6.2% of the recumbent period for the control group (P=0.0076). Conclusion: Although 24-h pH monitoring remains the gold standard for the detection of GER, our experience suggests that patients with massive reflux on barium studies are so likely to have pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position that these individuals can be further evaluated and treated for their gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux: comparison of barium studies with 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, John J.; Levine, Marc S. E-mail: levine@oasis.rad.upenn.edu; Redfern, Regina O.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor; Katzka, David A

    2003-08-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between massive gastroesophageal reflux (GER) on barium studies and pathologic acid reflux on 24-h pH monitoring. Methods: A search of hospital records from January 1997 to January 2001 revealed 28 patients who underwent both barium studies and 24-h pH monitoring. The radiologic reports were reviewed to determine the presence and degree of GER. Patients with reflux to or above the thoracic inlet either spontaneously or with provocative maneuvers in the recumbent position were classified as having massive reflux, whereas the remaining patients with reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux comprised the control group. The pH monitoring reports were also reviewed to determine if pathologic acid reflux was present in the recumbent position. The findings on these studies were then compared to determine the frequency of pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position on pH monitoring in patients with massive reflux on barium studies compared with the control group. Results: Massive GER was observed on barium studies in 11 (39%) of the 28 patients and reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux in the remaining 17 patients (61%) who comprised the control group. All 11 patients (100%) with massive reflux on barium studies had pathologic acid reflux on pH monitoring in the recumbent position compared with six (35%) of 17 patients in the control group (P=0.0009). The pH in the distal esophagus on pH monitoring was less than 4.0 for 13.1% of the recumbent period for patients with massive GER on barium studies compared with 6.2% of the recumbent period for the control group (P=0.0076). Conclusion: Although 24-h pH monitoring remains the gold standard for the detection of GER, our experience suggests that patients with massive reflux on barium studies are so likely to have pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position that these individuals can be further evaluated and treated for their gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD

  18. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Friction Coefficient of Shoulder Joints Remains Remarkably Low Over 24 h of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K.; Durney, Krista M.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Six human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean ± standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  20. 24-h core temperature in obese and lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mindy E; Rodriguez, Sarah M; Zeiss, Dinah M; Wachsberg, Kelley N; Kushner, Robert F; Landsberg, Lewis; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Maintenance of core temperature is a major component of 24-h energy expenditure, and its dysregulation could contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity. The relationship among temperature, sex, and BMI, however, has not been fully elucidated in humans. This study investigated core temperature in obese and lean individuals at rest, during 20-min exercise, during sleep, and after food consumption. Twelve lean (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and twelve obese (30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) healthy participants, ages 25-40 years old, were admitted overnight in a clinical research unit. Females were measured in the follicular menstrual phase. Core temperature was measured every minute for 24 h using the CorTemp system, a pill-sized sensor that measures core temperature while in the gastrointestinal tract and delivers the measurement via a radio signal to an external recorder. Core temperature did not differ significantly between the obese and lean individuals at rest, postmeals, during exercise, or during sleep (P > 0.5), but core temperature averaged over the entire study was significantly higher (0.1-0.2 °C) in the obese (P = 0.023). Each individual's temperature varied considerably during the study, but at all times, and across the entire study, women were ~0.4 °C warmer than men (P < 0.0001). These data indicate that obesity is not associated with a lower core temperature but that women have a higher core temperature than men at rest, during sleep, during exercise, and after meals.

  1. Accuracy of 24-h whole-body (skeletal) retention of diphosphonate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Scullion, J.E.; Bessent, R.; Cuthbert, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The 24-h whole-body retention (WBR) of diphosphonate was a valuable test for the assessment of skeletal metabolism. However, the reproducibility, accuracy and possible sources of error in WBR measurements have not previously been studied. In 21 paired studies the technique was found to be highly reproducible (r=0.998, R<0.0001). The coefficient of variation for whole-body counts on day 1 was 0.1% and on day 2, 1.1%. A phantom was used to assess the possible error introduced by redistribution of tracer. The net whole-body count of the phantom representing the 24-h distribution was 98% of that of a uniform phantom. Ten subjects were counted twice within a few minutes to study the effect of repositioning, and showed a mean difference between counts of only 0.8%. Eleven subjects with traumatic fractures were studied to assess the possible contribution of focal lesions to WBR. It was found that nine subjects had normal values for WBR, while two had minimally elevated results. Twenty patients with renal disease but no apparent skeletal disease were also studied to assess the possible contribution of soft-tissue retention to WBR. A significant correlation between serum creatinine and WBR was found (r=0.72, P<0.001). However WBR results were always normal when serum creatinine values were <130 μmol/1. It is suggested that WBR measurement is accurate and the technique is hgihly reproducible. The presence of a focal lesion is unlikely to affect a WBR result significantly and if serum creatinine is the normal range then WBR can be assumed to reflect skeletal metabolism without further concern as to renal function. (orig.)

  2. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Katz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  3. Recovery of rescuers from a 24-h shift and its association with aerobic fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Lyytikäinen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rescuers work in 24-h shifts and the demanding nature of the occupation requires adequate recovery between work shifts. The purpose of this study has been to find out what kind of changes in autonomic control may be seen during work shift and its recovery period in the case of rescuers. An additional interest has been to see if aerobic fitness is associated with recovery from work shifts. Material and Methods: Fourteen male rescuers (aged 34±9 years old volunteered to participate in the study. Heart rate variability (HRV was recorded for 96 h to study stress and recovery, from the beginning of a 24-h work shift to the beginning of the next shift. Aerobic fitness assessment included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max estimation with a submaximal bicycle ergometer test. Salivary cortisol samples were collected 0 min, 15 min, and 30 min after awakening on the 3 resting days. Results: Some HRV parameters showed enhanced autonomic control after the work shift. Stress percentage decreased from the working day to the 2nd rest day (p 0.05. Cortisol awakening response was attenuated right after the work shift. Conclusions: The HRV findings show that recovery after a long work shift takes several days. Thus, rescuers should pay attention to sufficient recovery before the next work shift, and an integrated model of perceived and physiological measurements could be beneficial to assess cardiovascular strain among rescuers with long work shifts. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:433–444

  4. Evaluation of a method for determination of the subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot continuously over 24 h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented which allows for continuous registration of forefoot blood flow over 24 h. Blood flow was estimated by the radioactive Xenon washout method and a portable CdTe detector system was used to measure the tracer disappearance rate. Since the semiconductor detector is placed very...... close to the tracer depot the washout rates registered are a mixture of rate constants due to tracer removal by blood flow and diffusion of the tracer depot away from the detector. Rate constants only due to diffusion were obtained over 24 h from amputated feet and similarly from normal feet...... with circulatory arrest in several 20 min periods during 24 h. The rate constants due to blood flow could thus be calculated by subtraction of the appropriate diffusion rate constants from the recorded rate constants. Blood flow in the forefoot during 24 h was measured in 10 experimental subjects with normal...

  5. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  6. Dietary ratio of animal:plant protein is associated with 24-h urinary iodine excretion in healthy school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Johner, Simone A; Stehle, Peter; Remer, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    Adequate dietary iodine intake in children is essential for optimal physical and neurological development. Whether lower dietary animal food and salt intake may adversely affect iodine status is under discussion. We examined the association between dietary animal:plant protein ratio with 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-h UI, μg/d), and whether this is modified by salt intake. A 24-h UI was measured in 1959 24-h urine samples from 516 6- to 12-year-old participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study. Parallel 3 d weighed food records were used to estimate dietary intakes. Protein sources were classified as dairy, animal and plant. A repeated-measures regression model (PROC MIXED) was used to analyse the effect of animal:plant protein ratios on 24-h UI. plant protein ratios ranged from 0.5 (95 % CI 0.4, 0.6) to 1.6 (95 % CI 1.4, 1.9) (lowest and highest quartile). After adjustment for total energy intake, main dietary iodine sources (dairy and salt intake), and further covariates, the inter-individual variation in animal:plant protein ratio was significantly associated with variation in 24-h UI. One unit higher animal:plant protein ratio predicted 6 μg/d higher 24-h UI (P= 0.002) in boys and 5 μg/d (P= 0.03) in girls. This relationship was partially mediated by a higher salt intake at higher animal:plant protein ratios. These results suggest that lower consumption of animal protein is associated with a small decline in iodine excretion, partially mediated by decreased salt intake. Because limited salt and increased intake of plant-based foods are part of a preferable healthy food pattern, effective nutrition political strategies will be required in the future to ensure appropriate iodine nutrition in adherent populations.

  7. Gonadotropin determination in 24-h-urine by sensitive LH and FSH radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raid, A.; Fenske, M.; Koenig, A.

    1979-01-01

    Urinary lutropin (LH) and follitropin (FSH) were precipitated with acetone and measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Recovery experiments with special regard to urinary pH values were done by adding 125 I-labelled LH and FSH to unprocessed urine. At pH 4.5 68.6% of LH and 66.1% of FSH were recovered. Increasing pH values up to 6.0 resulted in a significant recovery loss of 125 I-LH, but not of 125 I-FSH. Immunoreactive FSH concentrations decreased significantly 6 and 48 hours after starting storage at room temperature. In healthy males and females there were found mean LH and FSH concentrations in 24-h-urine which were similar to those reported by others: LH: males: 22.6 IU; cycling females: 17.8 IU; postmenopausal females: 49.1 IU; FSH: males 6.0 IU; cycling females: 15.0 IU; postmenopausal females: 48.5 IU. Because of their high sensitivity and practicability. These radioimmunoassays could be clinically useful approaches in assessment of pituitary and gonadal disorders in human subjects. (author)

  8. Bonding effectiveness of self-etch adhesives to dentin after 24 h water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mouhamed; Benoist, Fatou Leye; Bane, Khaly; Aidara, Adjaratou Wakha; Seck, Anta; Toure, Babacar

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate bonding effectiveness of five self-etch adhesive systems bonded to dentin. The microtensile bond strength of five self-etch adhesives systems, including one two-step and four one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin, was measured. Human third molars had their superficial dentin surface exposed, after which a standardized smear layer was produced using a medium-grit diamond bur. The selected adhesives were applied according to their respective manufacturer's instructions for μTBS measurement after storage in water at 37°C for 24 h. The μTBS varied from 11.1 to 44.3 MPa; the highest bond strength was obtained with the two-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond and the lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt L-Pop. Pretesting failures mainly occurring during sectioning with the slow-speed diamond saw were observed only with the one-step self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt L-Pop (4 out of 18). When bonded to dentin, the self-etch adhesives with simplified application procedures (one-step self-etch adhesives) still underperform as compared to the two-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond.

  9. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-13

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  10. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-01

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  11. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  12. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Simon; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Corneau, Louise; Lapointe, Annie; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Robitaille, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W) for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W. PMID:27854276

  13. Changes in running kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h treadmill run (24TR). Kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass characteristics of the running step were assessed in 10 experienced ultralong-distance runners before, every 2 h, and after a 24TR using an instrumented treadmill dynamometer. These measurements were performed at 10 km·h, and mechanical parameters were sampled at 1000 Hz for 10 consecutive steps. Contact and aerial times were determined from ground reaction force (GRF) signals and used to compute step frequency. Maximal GRF, loading rate, downward displacement of the center of mass, and leg length change during the support phase were determined and used to compute both vertical and leg stiffness. Subjects' running pattern and spring-mass behavior significantly changed over the 24TR with a 4.9% higher step frequency on average (because of a significantly 4.5% shorter contact time), a lower maximal GRF (by 4.4% on average), a 13.0% lower leg length change during contact, and an increase in both leg and vertical stiffness (+9.9% and +8.6% on average, respectively). Most of these changes were significant from the early phase of the 24TR (fourth to sixth hour of running) and could be speculated as contributing to an overall limitation of the potentially harmful consequences of such a long-duration run on subjects' musculoskeletal system. During a 24TR, the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior show a clear shift toward a higher oscillating frequency and stiffness, along with lower GRF and leg length change (hence a reduced overall eccentric load) during the support phase of running. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  14. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data.

  15. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jacques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W.

  16. 24 h urinary free cortisol in large-scale epidemiological studies : Short-term and long-term stability and sources of variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Judith G M; Kema, Ido P; Wüst, Stefan; van der Ley, Claude; Visser, Sipke T; Snieder, Harold; Bakker, Stephan J L

    Background: Function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been associated with several somatic and psychiatric health problems. The amount of free cortisol excreted in the urine during 24 h (24-h UFC) has often been used as a proxy for HPA-axis function. Reference values for 24-h UFC

  17. Impact of age on the association between 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements and target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Thomas B; Pareek, Manan; Stidsen, Jacob V; Blicher, Marie K; Rasmussen, Susanne; Vishram-Nielsen, Julie K K; Kjaer-Hansen, Kathrine; Olsen, Michael H

    2018-05-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of age on the associations between hemodynamic components derived from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABPM) and target organ damage, in apparently healthy, nonmedicated individuals. Twenty-four-hour ABPM and target organ damage (left ventricular mass index, pulse wave velocity, urine albumin : creatinine ratio and carotid atherosclerotic plaques) were evaluated in 1408 individuals. Associations were examined in regression models, stratified for age [middle-aged (41 or 51 years) or elderly (61 or 71 years)], and adjusted for sex, smoking status, and total-cholesterol. In middle-aged individuals, an increase of 10 mmHg in 24-h SBP was independently associated with an increase of 3.8 (2.7-4.8) g/m in LVMI. The effect was nearly doubled in the elderly subgroup, where the same increase resulted in an increase in LVMI of 6.3 (5.0-7.6) g/m (P for interaction h SBP was associated with a 6.7% increase in pulse wave velocity in middle-aged individuals and with an 9.1% increase in elderly individuals (P for interaction h ABPM and urine albumin : creatinine ratio was only observed in the elderly subgroup. Associations between the presence of atherosclerotic plaques and components from 24-h ABPM except 24-h DBP were not modified by age (all P for interaction >0.26). Age enhances the associations between hemodynamic components obtained from 24-h ABPM and measures of arterial stiffness, microvascular damage, and cardiac structure, but not atherosclerosis.

  18. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  19. 24-h urinary free cortisol from mid-pregnancy to 3-months postpartum: gender and parity differences and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy and postpartum have been associated to several physiological changes; however, empirical evidence was almost exclusively obtained in primiparous women and few studies focus on hormonal changes in men and second-time parents. The main aim of this study is to examine 24-h urinary free cortisol from mid-pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, comparing women/men and first/second-time parents. Twenty-six women and 22 men (N=48) were recruited from an antenatal obstetric unit in Porto, Portugal. 24-h urinary free cortisol was measured at the 2nd and 3rd trimester and at 3-months postpartum. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted, in order to analyze 24-h urinary free cortisol patterns of change over this period. Gender and parity were included in the analyses as potential modifiers, in order to compare women and men, and first- and second-time parents. An increase from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester (p=.006) and a decrease from the 3rd trimester to 3-months postpartum (p=.005) were reported in all parents' 24-h urinary free cortisol. The interaction effects for Time*Gender (p=.03) and Time*Parity (p=.02) were found. Women and first-time parents revealed higher levels, while men and second-time parents showed lower 24-h urinary free cortisol levels at the 2nd trimester than at 3-months postpartum. Findings appear to clarify the direction, as well as, the timing, gender and parity extension of 24-h urinary free cortisol changes from mid-pregnancy to 3-months postpartum. The same pattern of change in all parents' 24-h urinary free cortisol from mid-pregnancy to 3-months postpartum is consistent with the proposed role of hormones in preparation to parenting. Gender and parity differences and effects on 24-h urinary free cortisol are also consistent with cortisol as a stress biomarker for higher challenges associated to pregnancy and childbirth in women and first-time parents versus higher demands related to after childbirth parenting in men and second

  20. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h......Urinary phthalate excretion is used as marker of phthalate exposure in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the reliability of urinary phthalate levels in exposure classification by comparing the inter- and intrasubject variation of urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Thirty-three young...

  1. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Bifid Median Nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Joh, Joon Hee; Lee, Sung Moon

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of bifid median nerve and its clinical significance. We retrospectively reviewed five cases (three men and two women, mean age: 54 years) of incidentally found bifid median nerve from 264 cases of clinically suspected carpal-tunnel syndrome that were seen at our hospital during last 6 years. Doppler sonography was performed in all five cases and MR angiography was done in one case for detecting a persistent median artery. The difference (ΔCSA) between the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the bifid median nerve at the pisiform level (CSA2) and the cross-sectional area proximal to the bifurcation(CSA1) was calculated. The incidence of a bifid median nerve was 1.9%. All the patients presented with a tingling sensation on a hand and two patients had nocturnal pain. All the cases showed bifurcation of the nerve bundle proximal to the carpal tunnel. The margins appeared relatively smooth and each bundle showed a characteristic fascicular pattern. A persistent median artery was noted between the bundles in four cases. ΔCSA was more than 2 mm 2 in four cases. Bifid median nerve with a persistent median artery is a relatively rare normal variance and these are very important findings before performing surgical intervention to avoid potential nerve injury and massive bleeding. We highly suggest that radiologists should understand the anatomical characteristics of this anomaly and make efforts to detect it

  2. MEDIAN: Wireless broadband LAN for multimedia applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.J. van

    1998-01-01

    MEDIAN is one of the projects in the mobile domain of the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services (ACTS) programme of the European Commission. The main obiective of the MEDIAN project is to evaluate and implement a high speed Wireless Customer Premises / Local Area Network (WCPN/WLAN)

  3. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  4. Evaluation of a method for determination of the subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot continuously over 24 h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented which allows for continuous registration of forefoot blood flow over 24 h. Blood flow was estimated by the radioactive Xenon washout method and a portable CdTe detector system was used to measure the tracer disappearance rate. Since the semiconductor detector is placed very ...

  5. Determination of plutonium in urine samples from 24 h by ICP-W.f.'s and AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon del Valle, A.; Anton Mateos, M. P.; Chamizo Calvo, E.; Barrado Olmedo, A. I.; Yllera de Llano, A.

    2013-01-01

    The identification and quantification of alpha emitters in biological samples is essential to estimate the internal dose received by workers exposed. The object of this research is to assess the suitability of AMS and ICP-WSFS as measure alternative techniques to the EA of high resolution in the quantification of plutonium in urine 24h. (Author)

  6. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Schwabe, L.; Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the

  8. A method comparison of a food frequency questionnaire to measure folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids with 24-h dietary recalls in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, V; Wheeler, S; Smith, L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a method comparison of a modified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to estimate usual dietary intake of selected micronutrients and antioxidants including folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin) with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR) in women of reproductive age. Sixty-four British women of reproductive age (18-40 years) were recruited in Oxford, UK and provided complete dietary data for analysis. We compared micronutrient estimates from the FFQ against estimates derived from three multiple-pass, 24-HR interviews, by evaluating Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median intakes of most nutrients were higher when measured by FFQ compared with 24-HR. Strong correlation coefficients were observed for folate (r=0.80) and choline (r=0.68), whereas moderate correlation coefficients were observed for vitamin C (0.50) and lycopene (0.43). Weak correlation coefficients were observed for betaine (0.39) and other carotenoids (r=0.26-0.38). Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was a large amount of variability in the FFQ estimates of nutrient intakes compared to those using 24-HR, particularly for carotenoids. The findings indicate that this FFQ estimated higher mean intakes for most nutrients. Pearson's correlation coefficients were comparable with previous research; however, the Bland-Altman plots suggest a high variability in mean nutrient estimates between the FFQ and 24-h. We recommend further investigation of the validity of this FFQ before use.

  9. Preliminary study of 24 h bone scintigraphy after dexamethason intervention for differentiating the benign from malignant bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yang; Li Yaming; Han Chunqi; Li Deshun; Ma Aiping; Liang Chenrong; Sun Zhenqiu; Liu Hao; Sun Xiaorong; Yin Yafu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of 24 h bone scintigraphy after dexamethason intervention for differentiating the benign and malignant bone lesions. Methods: Twenty patients with malignant bone lesion (242 foci) and 21 patients with benign bone lesion (102 foci) were randomly divided into non-intervention group and intervention group for the comparative study. The patients in the non-intervention group underwent bone scintigraphy 3 and 24 h after the tracer administration, while the patients in the intervention group were given dexamethason 6.75 mg orally after 3 h bone imaging, then underwent 24 h bone in aging. Different regions of interest were drawn in 3 and 24 h imaging, then the radionuclide uptake ratios (RUR) of 24 h to 3 h was calculated. Results: There were no significant differences in RUR of benign lesions between the non-intervention group and intervention group (q =0.94, P > 0.05). There were significant differences in RUR between the malignant lesions in the non-intervention group and that in the intervention group (q 20.10, P < 0.01); there were significant differences in RUR between the benign and the malignant lesions in the non-intervention group (q = 1.81, P < 0.05); and there were also significant differences in RUR between the benign and the malignant lesions in the intervention group (q = 16.39, P < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of differentiating the benign and malignant bone lesions by RUR with non-intervention and intervention were 75.5%, 86.2%, 65.8% and 81.5%, 87.5%, 83.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing with the routine bone imaging, 24 h bone scintigraphy after dexamethason intervention elevated the diagnosis efficiency for differentiation of the benign and malignant bone lesions. 24 h bone scintigraphy associated with dexamethason intervention is convenient and acceptable in differentiation of benign and malignant bone lesions, and it is proved to be of great value for clinical application

  10. Feasibility of a SenseCam-assisted 24-h recall to reduce under-reporting of energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemming, L; Doherty, A; Kelly, P; Utter, J; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2013-10-01

    The SenseCam is a camera worn on a lanyard around the neck that automatically captures point-of-view images in response to movement, heat and light (every 20-30 s). This device may enhance the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake by assisting participants' recall of food and beverage consumption. It was the objective of this study to evaluate if the wearable camera, SenseCam, can enhance the 24-h dietary recall by providing visual prompts to improve recall of food and beverage consumption. Thirteen volunteer adults in Oxford, United Kingdom, were recruited. Participants wore the SenseCam for 2 days while continuing their usual daily activities. On day 3, participants' diets were assessed using an interviewer-administered 24-h recall. SenseCam images were then shown to the participants and any additional dietary information that participants provided after viewing the images was recorded. Energy and macronutrient intakes were compared between the 24-h recall and 24-h recall+SenseCam. Data from 10 participants were included in the final analysis (8 males and 2 females), mean age 33 ± 11 years, mean BMI 25.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2). Viewing the SenseCam images increased self-reported energy intake by approximately 1432 ± 1564 kJ or 12.5% compared with the 24-h recall alone (P=0.02). The increase was predominantly due to reporting of 41 additional foods (241 vs 282 total foods) across a range of food groups. Eight changes in portion size were made, which resulted in a negligible change to energy intake. Wearable cameras are promising method to enhance the accuracy of self-reported dietary assessment methods.

  11. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  12. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  13. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  14. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  15. Bimonthly 24 h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil vs EAP regimen in patients with advanced gastric cancer. A randomized phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I P; Jelić, S B; Krivokapić, Z V; Jezdić, S D; Pesko, P M; Micev, M T; Babić, D R

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the activity and toxicity of high dose (HD) infusional 5-FU in comparison to EAP regimen as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Histologically confirmed measurable advanced gastric cancer, age EAP arm: doxorubicin (40 mg/m(2)), etoposide (360 mg/m(2)), and cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)) every 28 d; HD 5-FU arm: 5-FU 2.6 g/m(2) 24 h infusion, biweekly. Sixty patients were randomized. Patient characteristics (arms EAP/HD 5-FU): Median age 57/55 yr, median PS 1/1, LAD (patients) 3/8, M1 (patients) 27/22. Median number of cycles (range): EAP arm 4 (2-8), HD 5-FU arm 2 (1-8). Worst toxicity per cycle (grade 3 and 4 in%): Neutropenia 20/3, thrombocytopenia 9/0, anemia 9/13, diarrhea 3/10, nausea 17/7, vomiting 10/0 for EAP and HD 5-FU arms, respectively. All patients were eligible for response in both arms. Confirmed response rate (95%CI): EAP arm 34% [16-50%]/HD 5-FU arm 10% (0-21%), no change: 46/40%, progression of disease: 20/50, respectively. Overall survival (range): EAP arm A 7 mo [3-27], HD 5-FU arm 6 mo (4-25). Infusional HD 5-FU showed a low incidence of severe toxicity. But given the low efficacy of 5-FU in the dosage we applied in the study, it cannot be recommended as a single treatment for further studies. Assessment of higher dose intensity and/or dose density of 5-FU, with introduction of other active drugs in combination, could be an option for further studies.

  16. Median and ulnar neuropathies in university guitarists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rachel H; Hutcherson, Kimberly J; Kain, Jennifer B; Phillips, Alicia L; Halle, John S; Greathouse, David G

    2006-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in both upper extremities of university guitarists. Peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremities are well documented in musicians. Guitarists and plucked-string musicians are at risk for entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities and are prone to mild neurologic deficits. Twenty-four volunteer male and female guitarists (age range, 18-26 years) were recruited from the Belmont University School of Music and the Vanderbilt University Blair School of Music. Individuals were excluded if they were pregnant or had a history of recent upper extremity or neck injury. Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination. Nerve conduction status of the median and ulnar nerves of both upper extremities was obtained by performing motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) nerve conduction studies. Descriptive statistics of the nerve conduction study variables were computed using Microsoft Excel. Six subjects had positive findings on provocative testing of the median and ulnar nerves. Otherwise, these guitarists had normal upper extremity neural and musculoskeletal function based on the history and physical examinations. When comparing the subjects' nerve conduction study values with a chart of normal nerve conduction studies values, 2 subjects had prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) of the left median nerve of 4.3 and 4.7 milliseconds (normal, DMLs are compatible with median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist. Otherwise, all electrophysiological variables were within normal limits for motor, sensory, and F-wave (central) values. However, comparison studies of median and ulnar motor latencies in the same hand demonstrated prolonged differences of greater than 1.0 milliseconds that affected the median nerve in 2 additional subjects, and identified contralateral limb involvement in a subject with a prolonged distal latency. The other 20

  17. Disturbances of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubular system in 24-h electrostimulated fast-twitch skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frías, J A; Cadefau, J A; Prats, C

    2005-01-01

    Chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit tibialis anterior muscle over a 24-h period induces a conspicuous loss of isometric tension that is unrelated to muscle energy metabolism (J.A. Cadefau, J. Parra, R. Cusso, G. Heine, D. Pette, Responses of fatigable and fatigue-resistant fibres of rabbit...... muscle to low-frequency stimulation, Pflugers Arch. 424 (1993) 529-537). To assess the involvement of sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubular system in this force impairment, we isolated microsomal fractions from stimulated and control (contralateral, unstimulated) muscles on discontinuous sucrose...... of muscles stimulated for 24 h underwent acute changes in the pattern of protein bands. First, light fractions from longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum, enriched in Ca2+-ATPase activity, R1 and R2, were greatly reduced (67% and 51%, respectively); this reduction was reflected in protein yield of crude...

  18. Ambulatory (24 h) blood pressure and arterial stiffness measurement in Marfan syndrome patients: a case control feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Matthias; Nouri, Ghazaleh; Hametner, Bernhard; Parragh, Stephanie; Köster, Jelena; Mortensen, Kai; Schwarz, Achim; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Wassertheurer, Siegfried

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this work is the investigation of measures of ambulatory brachial and aortic blood pressure and indices of arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in Marfan patients. A case-control study was conducted including patients with diagnosed Marfan syndrome following Ghent2 nosology and healthy controls matched for sex, age and daytime brachial systolic blood pressure. For each subject a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and 24 h pulse wave analysis measurement was performed. All parameters showed a circadian pattern whereby pressure dipping was more pronounced in Marfan patients. During daytime only Marfan patients with aortic root surgery showed increased pulse wave velocity. In contrast, various nighttime measurements, wave reflection determinants and circadian patterns showed a significant difference. The findings of our study provide evidence that ambulatory measurement of arterial stiffness parameters is feasible and that these determinants are significantly different in Marfan syndrome patients compared to controls in particular at nighttime. Further investigation is therefore indicated.

  19. Effects of 2 wk of GH administration on 24-h indirect calorimetry in young, healthy, lean men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Morthorst, Rikke; Larsson, Benny

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo (Plc)-controlled study to determine the effect of 2 wk of growth hormone administration (GH-adm.) on energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation in healthy humans. Sixteen young healthy men were divided into two groups....... The study consisted of two 24-h measurements (indirect calorimetry), separated by 2 wk of either Plc or GH injections (6 IU/day). At baseline, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in any of the measured anthropometric, hormonal, or metabolic parameters, neither did the parameters...... change over time in the Plc group. GH-adm. resulted in a 4.4% increase in 24-h EE (P

  20. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  1. Large window median filtering on Clip7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, K N

    1983-07-01

    Median filtering has been found to be a useful operation to perform on images in order to reduce random noise while preserving edges of objects. However, in some cases, as the resolution of the image increases, so too does the required window size of the filter. For parallel array processors, this leads to problems when dealing with the large amount of data involved. That is to say that there tend to be problems over slow access of data from pixels over a large neighbourhood, lack of available storage of this data during the operation and long computational times for finding the median. An algorithm for finding the median, designed for use on byte wide architecture parallel array processors is presented together with its implementation on Clip7, a scanning array of such processors. 6 references.

  2. Thrombosed persistent median artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome associated with bifurcated median nerve: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, M.; Sinha, N. R.; Szmigielski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a sporadically occurring abnormality due to compression of median nerve. It is exceedingly rare for it to be caused by thrombosis of persistent median artery. Case Report: A forty two year old female was referred for ultrasound examination due to ongoing wrist pain, not relived by pain killers and mild paraesthesia on the radial side of the hand. High resolution ultrasound and Doppler revealed a thrombosed persistent median artery and associated bifurcated median nerve. The thrombus resolved on treatment with anticoagulants. Conclusions: Ultrasound examination of the wrist when done for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome should preferably include looking for persistent median artery and its patency. (authors)

  3. Reference intervals for stone risk factors in 24-h urine among healthy adults of the Han population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zanlin; Li, Xiaoxia; Cui, Zelin; Wu, Wenqi; Liu, Yongda; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yueping; Zhao, Zhijian; Liu, Yang; Mai, Xing; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Cai, Chao; Yang, Houmeng; Zeng, Guohua

    2018-03-28

    The aim of the study was to establish reference intervals for 24-h urinary stone risk factors in the healthy Chinese Han population. From May 2013 to July 2014, we collected and analyzed 24-h urine samples from healthy adult Han population during a cross-sectional study across China. The protocol for analysis of 24-h urine included volume, pH, oxalate, citrate, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, urate, magnesium, the ion activity products of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) indexs) and calcium phosphate (AP(CaP) indexs). We calculated the reference intervals according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2008 guidelines and compared them with those recorded in other studies. A total of 132 male and 123 female healthy subjects with a mean (SD, range) age of 52.4 (15.2, 19-89) years were eligible in the final analysis. Men had higher 24-h excretion of creatinine, calcium, urate and phosphorus and lower levels of citrate, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium than women. AP(CaOx) indexs and AP(CaP) indexs were significantly higher among men than women. When urinary findings were compared with the reference intervals, most of our data showed a high abnormality rate, especially for creatinine, calcium, citrate, magnesium, chloride, sodium and potassium. The present study revealed the normal metabolic status for stone risk factors of the Chinese Han population. It is therefore necessary for each country or region to define their own reference intervals for comparison of stone risk factors between patients and healthy subjects.

  4. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise...... exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise....

  5. Agreement of pesticide biomarkers between morning void and 24-h urine samples from farmers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Deanna P; Alexander, Bruce H; Adgate, John L; Eberly, Lynn E; Mandel, Jack S; Acquavella, John F; Bartels, Michael J; Brzak, Kathy A

    2007-07-01

    In pesticide biomonitoring studies, researchers typically collect either single voids or daily (24-h) urine samples. Collection of 24-h urine samples is considered the "gold-standard", but this method places a high burden on study volunteers, requires greater resources, and may result in misclassification of exposure or underestimation of dose due to noncompliance with urine collection protocols. To evaluate the potential measurement error introduced by single void samples, we present an analysis of exposure and dose for two commonly used pesticides based on single morning void (MV) and 24-h urine collections in farmers and farm children. The agreement between the MV concentration and its corresponding 24-h concentration was analyzed using simple graphical and statistical techniques and risk assessment methodology. A consistent bias towards overprediction of pesticide concentration was found among the MVs, likely in large part due to the pharmacokinetic time course of the analytes in urine. These results suggest that the use of single voids can either over- or under-estimate daily exposure if recent pesticide applications have occurred. This held true for both farmers as well as farm children, who were not directly exposed to the applications. As a result, single void samples influenced the number of children exposed to chlorpyrifos whose daily dose estimates were above levels of toxicologic significance. In populations where fluctuations in pesticide exposure are expected (e.g., farm families), the pharmacokinetics of the pesticide and the timing of exposure events and urine collection must be understood when relying on single voids as a surrogate for longer time-frames of exposure.

  6. Deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles informs the amount and distribution of hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Catherine J; Hill, Nathan; Dattani, Mehul T; Charmandari, Evangelia; Matthews, David R; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2013-03-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy is based on a dosing regimen derived from estimates of cortisol secretion, but little is known of how the dose should be distributed throughout the 24 h. We have used deconvolution analysis of 24-h serum cortisol profiles to determine 24-h cortisol secretion and distribution to inform hydrocortisone dosing schedules in young children and older adults. Twenty four hour serum cortisol profiles from 80 adults (41 men, aged 60-74 years) and 29 children (24 boys, aged 5-9 years) were subject to deconvolution analysis using an 80-min half-life to ascertain total cortisol secretion and distribution throughout the 24-h period. Mean daily cortisol secretion was similar between adults (6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.1-9.3) and children (8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day, range 5.3-12.0). Peak serum cortisol concentration was higher in children compared with adults, whereas nadir serum cortisol concentrations were similar. Timing of the peak serum cortisol concentration was similar (07.05-07.25), whereas that of the nadir concentration occurred later in adults (midnight) compared with children (22.48) (P = 0.003). Children had the highest percentage of cortisol secretion between 06.00 and 12.00 (38.4%), whereas in adults this took place between midnight and 06.00 (45.2%). These observations suggest that the daily hydrocortisone replacement dose should be equivalent on average to 6.3 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in adults and 8.0 mg/m(2) body surface area/day in children. Differences in distribution of the total daily dose between older adults and young children need to be taken into account when using a three or four times per day dosing regimen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Hepatic glycogen in humans. I. Direct formation after oral and intravenous glucose or after a 24-h fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of hepatic glycogen by the direct pathway is assessed in humans after a 12-h fast and oral loading (100 g) or intravenous infusion (90 g) and after a 24-h fast and the same oral glucose load. The methodology used is based on the double tracer method. [3- 3 H]glucose is infused at a constant rate for the determination of the metabolic clearance of glucose. [1- 14 C]glucose is administered with the glucose load. One hour after absorption or the intravenous glucose infusion is terminated, a glucagon infusion is initiated to mobilize the glycogen labeled with [1- 14 C]glucose and formed during the absorptive period. At this time a third tracer, [6- 3 H]glucose, is administered to measure glucose clearance. It was found that after the 12-h fast and oral glucose loading 7.2 +/- 1.1 g of hepatic glycogen appears to be formed directly from glucose compared with 8.4 +/- 1.0 g after the same load and a 24-h fast and 8.5 +/- 0.4 g after a 12-h fast and an equivalent intravenous glucose infusion. When the amount of label ([ 14 C]glucose) mobilized that was not corrected for metabolic recycling was calculated, the data suggested that the amount of glycogen formed by gluconeogenic pathways was probably at least equal to that formed by direct uptake. It was also approximately 60% greater after a 24-h fast. It can be concluded that the amount of hepatic glycogen formed directly from glucose during glucose loading is not significantly altered by the route of entry or the extension of the fasting period to 24 h. The data suggest, however, that gluconeogenetic formation of glycogen increases with fasting

  8. Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Noorhanizar; Saub, Roslan; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion. Sixty patients aged between 14 and 24 years (29 males and 31 females; mean age, 17.8 years; SD 3.1 years) were recruited from the Postgraduate Clinic, Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured before treatment and 24 h after insertion of the orthodontic appliance. The instrument used to measure OHRQoL was a modified self-administered short version of Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-16[M]) questionnaire. The higher the score, the poorer is the OHRQoL. Overall score of OHRQoL increased significantly 24 h after insertion (mean 43.5±10.9) as compared to before insertion (mean 34.1±9.2) (Pbad breath, difficulties in pronunciation, discomfort in eating, ulcer, pain, avoidances of eating certain foods, difficulties in cleaning, embarrassment, avoid smiling, disturbed sleep, concentration affected, difficulty carrying out daily activities, and lack of self-confidence (P<0.05). Significant changes were also found in the mean difference of OHRQoL for gender (P<0.001). OHRQoL was found to deteriorate 24 h after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances in almost all domains, with significant changes in gender. This information can be used as "informed consent", which might increase patient's compliance as they are aware of what to expect from initial orthodontic treatment.

  9. [Surgery is unlikely to be enough for a patient to stop smoking 24h prior to hospital admission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Igor Maia; Carmona, Maria José C; Benseñor, Fábio Ely Martins; Hertel, Julia Mintz; Moraes, Marcos Fernando Breda de; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Vane, Matheus Fachini; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz

    2018-06-07

    The need for surgery can be a decisive factor for long-term smoking cessation. On the other hand, situations that precipitate stress could precipitate smoking relapse. The authors decided to study the impact of a surgery on the patient's effort to cease smoking for, at least, 24h before hospital admission and possible relapse on the last 24h before hospital admission for ex-smokers. Smoker, ex-smokers and non-smokers adults, either from pre-anesthetic clinic or recently hospital admitted for scheduled elective surgeries that were, at most, 6h inside the hospital buildings were included in the study. The patients answered a questionnaire at the ward or at the entrance of the operating room (Admitted group) or at the beginning of the first pre-anesthetic consultation (Clinic group) and performed CO measurements. 241 patients were included, being 52 ex-smokers and 109 never smokers and 80 non-smokers. Smokers had higher levels of expired carbon monoxide than non-smokers and ex-smokers (9.97±6.50 vs. 2.26±1.65 vs. 2.98±2.69; p=0.02). Among the smokers, the Clinic group had CO levels not statistically different of those on the Admitted group (10.93±7.5 vs. 8.65±4.56; p=0.21). The ex-smokers presented with no significant differences for the carbon monoxide levels between the Clinic and Admitted groups (2.9±2.3 vs. 2.82±2.15; p=0.45). A medical condition, such as a surgery, without proper assistance is unlikely to be enough for a patient to stop smoking for, at least, 24h prior to admission. The proximity of a surgery was not associated with smoking relapse 24h before the procedure. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  11. Intraneural synovial sarcoma of the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kasukurthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcomas are soft-tissue malignancies with a poor prognosis and propensity for distant metastases. Although originally believed to arise from the synovium, these tumors have been found to occur anywhere in the body. We report a rare case of synovial sarcoma arising from the median nerve. To our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of intraneural synovial sarcoma, and only the fourth arising from the median nerve. Because the diagnosis may not be apparent until after pathological examination of the surgical speci­men, synovial sarcoma should be kept in mind when dealing with what may seem like a benign nerve tumor.

  12. Robust median estimator in logisitc regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, T.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 12 (2008), s. 3822-3840 ISSN 0378-3758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MPO FI - IM3/136; GA MŠk(CZ) MTM 2006-06872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Logistic regression * Median * Robustness * Consistency and asymptotic normality * Morgenthaler * Bianco and Yohai * Croux and Hasellbroeck Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/vajda-robust%20median%20estimator%20in%20logistic%20regression.pdf

  13. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day -1 ) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day -1 ). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  14. Optimal design of work zone median crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The use of temporary median crossovers in work zones allows for the closure of one side of a multi-lane roadway while : maintaining two-way traffic on the opposite side. This process provides the ability for construction and maintenance crews : to co...

  15. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  16. Evaluating the effect of measurement error when using one or two 24 h dietary recalls to assess eating out: a study in the context of the HECTOR project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Philippos; Knüppel, Sven; Naska, Androniki; Haubrock, Jennifer; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-09-28

    Eating out is often recorded through short-term measurements and the large within-person variability in intakes may not be adequately captured. The present study aimed to understand the effect of measurement error when using eating-out data from one or two 24 h dietary recalls (24hDR), in order to describe intakes and assess associations between eating out and personal characteristics. In a sample of 366 adults from Potsdam, Germany, two 24hDR and a FFQ were collected. Out-of-home intakes were estimated based on either one 24hDR or two 24hDR or the Multiple Source Method (MSM) combining the two 24hDR and the questionnaire. The distribution of out-of-home intakes of energy, macronutrients and selected foods was described. Multiple linear regression and partial correlation coefficients were estimated to assess associations between out-of-home energy intake and participants' characteristics. The mean daily out-of-home intakes estimated from the two 24hDR were similar to the usual intakes estimated through the MSM. The out-of-home energy intake, estimated through either one or two 24hDR, was positively associated with total energy intake, inversely with age and associations were stronger when using the two 24hDR. A marginally significant inverse association between out-of-home energy intake and physical activity at work was observed only on the basis of the two 24hDR. After applying the MSM, all significant associations remained and were more precise. Data on eating out collected through one or two 24hDR may not adequately describe intake distributions, but significant associations between eating out and participants' characteristics are highly unlikely to appear when in reality these do not exist.

  17. COLOUR IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING MEDIAN MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arivazhagan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Steganographic algorithms in the recent past have been producing stego images with perceptual invisibility, better secrecy and certain robustness against attacks like cropping, filtering etc. Recovering a good quality secret from a good quality stego image may not always be possible. The method proposed in this paper works in transform domain and attempts to extract the secret almost as same as the embedded one maintaining minimal changes to the cover image by using techniques like median maintenance, offset and quantization.

  18. Portfolio optimization using median-variance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohd, Wan Rosanisah; Mohamad, Daud; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2013-04-01

    Optimization models have been applied in many decision-making problems particularly in portfolio selection. Since the introduction of Markowitz's theory of portfolio selection, various approaches based on mathematical programming have been introduced such as mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, mean-variance-skewness and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) mainly to maximize return and minimize risk. However most of the approaches assume that the distribution of data is normal and this is not generally true. As an alternative, in this paper, we employ the median-variance approach to improve the portfolio optimization. This approach has successfully catered both types of normal and non-normal distribution of data. With this actual representation, we analyze and compare the rate of return and risk between the mean-variance and the median-variance based portfolio which consist of 30 stocks from Bursa Malaysia. The results in this study show that the median-variance approach is capable to produce a lower risk for each return earning as compared to the mean-variance approach.

  19. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of meeting 24-h movement guidelines with overweight and obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglind, D; Ljung, R; Tynelius, P; Brooke, H L

    2018-01-31

    Cross-sectional studies report that meeting the newly developed 24-h movement guidelines (≥60 min moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), ≤120 min screen time and 9-11 h sleep duration) are associated with lower adiposity indicators in children. However, prospective data are absent. The study sample consisted of 830 children from the PRIMROSE study with GT3X+ accelerometer measured physical activity and parent reported screen time and sleep duration at age 4 years and objectively measured anthropometrics at age 4 and 5 years. The main outcome variables were weight status, body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-score at ages 4 and 5 years. Exposure variables were defined as meeting vs. not meeting the 24-h movement guidelines and combinations of these recommendations. On average, 18.4% of the total study sample met the combination of MVPA, sleep duration and screen time recommendations. In isolation, the MVPA, screen time and sleep guidelines were met by 31%, 63% and 98% of the total study sample, respectively. Adherence to any single recommendation, or any combination of recommendations at age 4 years, was not associated with being overweight or obese nor with BMI and BMI z-score at age 4 or 5 years. In contrast to previous cross-sectional studies, neither individual movement behaviours nor combinations of behaviours at age 4 years was associated with overweight or obesity, BMI or BMI z-score at age 4 or 5 years. More prospective data are needed before effects on weight status from meeting the 24-h movement guidelines are elucidated. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2...

  1. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation...... for a majority of the parents. In future studies, it may be beneficial to develop the FRB more like a structured food record (FR), which might, in principle, change the method to a one-day FR method from more than a 24-HDR method. It is recommended then to further investigate the use of EPIC-Soft as a data...

  2. Structure and molecular motion in three modifications of a binary C23H48-C24H50 paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.; Denicolo, I.; Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the intensities of the (00l) X-ray reflections from a binary paraffin (C 23 H 48 -25% C 24 H 50 ) was determined, in order to obtain structure parameters related to the molecular motion and intramolecular defects. The long lattice spacing was also determined as a function of the temperature. All of these results are compared with the temperature dependence of the ratio of the two short lattice parameters. The clear correlation of all of these experimental results provides a close characterization of the molecular structures and their changes at the several solid state phase transitions. (Author) [pt

  3. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P......Background/Objectives: To validate 24 h dietary recall of fruit intake by measuring the total 24 h excretion of 10 different flavonoids in 24 h urine during an intervention with free fruit at workplaces. Subjects/Methods: Employees at workplaces offering a free-fruit program, consisting of daily...... free and easy access to fresh fruit, and controls employees at workplaces with no free-fruit program were enrolled in this validation study (n = 103). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at baseline and approximately 5 months later. Ten flavonoids, quercetin...

  4. Validating fatty acid intake as estimated by an FFQ: how does the 24 h recall perform as reference method compared with the duplicate portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijsburg, Laura; de Vries, Jeanne Hm; Hollman, Peter Ch; Hulshof, Paul Jm; van 't Veer, Pieter; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Geelen, Anouk

    2018-05-08

    To compare the performance of the commonly used 24 h recall (24hR) with the more distinct duplicate portion (DP) as reference method for validation of fatty acid intake estimated with an FFQ. Intakes of SFA, MUFA, n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid (LA) were estimated by chemical analysis of two DP and by on average five 24hR and two FFQ. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and LA were used to objectively compare ranking of individuals based on DP and 24hR. Multivariate measurement error models were used to estimate validity coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ with the DP and 24hR as reference methods. Wageningen, the Netherlands. Ninety-two men and 106 women (aged 20-70 years). Validity coefficients for the fatty acid estimates by the FFQ tended to be lower when using the DP as reference method compared with the 24hR. Attenuation factors for the FFQ tended to be slightly higher based on the DP than those based on the 24hR as reference method. Furthermore, when using plasma fatty acids as reference, the DP showed comparable to slightly better ranking of participants according to their intake of n-3 fatty acids (0·33) and n-3:LA (0·34) than the 24hR (0·22 and 0·24, respectively). The 24hR gives only slightly different results compared with the distinctive but less feasible DP, therefore use of the 24hR seems appropriate as the reference method for FFQ validation of fatty acid intake.

  5. CT morphology of benign median nerve tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyerabend, T.; Schmitt, R.; Lanz, U.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 3 patients with benign tumors of the median nerve, histologically confirmed as neurilemmoma, fibrolipoma and hemangioma. The neurilemmoma showed a ring-shaped contrast enhancement. The fibrolipoma presented with areas of solid soft tissue and areas of fat. The hemangioma was a solid tumor with a lacunar, vascular contrast enhancement. According to our experience and to the previous literature CT gives useful information regarding the anatomic location, size, and relationship of peripheral nerve sheath tumors to surrounding structures, and may help to differentiate between various tumor types. (orig.)

  6. Esophageal motility and 24-h pH profiles of patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Esin; Bektaş, Mehmet; Alkan, Murat; Ustün, Yusuf; Meco, Cem; Ozden, Ali; Soykan, Irfan

    2010-02-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa occurs as a flat island of red mucosa in the proximal third of the esophagus where it gives rise to the cervical inlet patch. The aims of this study were to investigate the esophageal motility pattern and 24-h pH profiles of patients with cervical inlet patch. Thirty patients (16 women, mean age: 44.9 years, range: 23-72) diagnosed as having heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus with upper gastrointestinal symptoms had undergone esophageal motility testing and 24-h pH monitorisation with a double-channel pH probe. Manometric investigation was abnormal in 7 patients (non-specific esophageal motor disorder in 4 patients, esophageal hypomotility in 1 patient, and hypotensive LES in 2 patients). Pathological acid reflux (pHesophagus (percentage of total time of pHmotor dysfunction and "acid independent episodes" from the patches. These abnormalities may be responsible for some of the symptoms of HGM patients. Copyright 2009 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of selected electron transport chain inhibitors on 24-h hydrogen production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Elizabeth H; Chaplen, Frank W R; Ely, Roger L

    2011-02-01

    One factor limiting biosolar hydrogen (H(2)) production from cyanobacteria is electron availability to the hydrogenase enzyme. In order to optimize 24-h H(2) production this study used Response Surface Methodology and Q2, an optimization algorithm, to investigate the effects of five inhibitors of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Over 3 days of diurnal light/dark cycling, with the optimized combination of 9.4 mM KCN (3.1 μmol 10(10) cells(-1)) and 1.5 mM malonate (0.5 μmol 10(10) cells(-1)) the H(2) production was 30-fold higher, in EHB-1 media previously optimized for nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and carbon (C) concentrations (Burrows et al., 2008). In addition, glycogen concentration was measured over 24 h with two light/dark cycling regimes in both standard BG-11 and EHB-1 media. The results suggest that electron flow as well as glycogen accumulation should be optimized in systems engineered for maximal H(2) output. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. QTc interval prolongation in children with Turner syndrome: the results of exercise testing and 24-h ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Pozza, Robert; Bechtold, Susanne; Urschel, Simon; Netz, Heinrich; Schwarz, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females. Recently, a prolongation of the rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of TS patients has been reported. A prolonged QTc interval has been correlated to an increased risk for sudden cardiac death, and medical treatment is warranted in patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). Additionally, several drugs of common use are contraindicated in LQTS because of their effects on myocardial repolarization. The importance of the QTc prolongation in TS patients is not known at present. Eighteen TS patients with a prolonged QTc interval (group 1) and 11 TS patients with a normal QTc interval (group 2) (mean age 12.6+/-3.1 vs. 11.8+/-2.1 years, respectively) were tested. The QTc interval was calculated during exercise testing and during 24-h ECG recordings. None of the patients experienced adverse cardiac events during the tests. The mean QTc interval decreased from 0.467 to 0.432 s in group 1 and from 0.432 to 0.412 s in group 2. During the 24-h ECG, the maximum QTc interval was significantly prolonged in group 1 (0.51 vs. 0.465 s, pinformation about the cardiac risk in the single TS patient with a prolonged QTc interval. This helps in counseling these girls, as clear therapeutic guidelines are currently lacking.

  9. [Correlation between indices of 24-h monitoring of blood pressure and disturbed venous cerebral outflow in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, N L; Mordovin, V F; Semke, G V; Luk'ianenok, P I

    2008-01-01

    To study relations between disturbances of cerebral venous circulation and parameters of 24-h blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients. A total of 72 patients aged 28 to 60 years with essential hypertension of stage II have undergone 24-h blood pressure monitoring and MR-venography of the brachiocephalic veins on a low-field MR-tomograph using 2D TOF angiography. Symptoms of disturbed cerebral venous circulation were found in 60% patients. Major venous collectors were asymmetric in 79.2% patients, 40.3% had marked asymmetry, 14% had severe asymmetry. Disturbances of venous outflow significantly more frequently occurred in non-dippers and night-peakers as well as in high variability of blood pressure. Patients with marked asymmetry of venous collectors had elevated nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high load indices of nocturnal systolic and diastolic pressure, a low degree of nocturnal fall of blood pressure. Disturbance of venous cerebral outflow in hypertensive patients is closely related with alterations of a circadian profile of blood pressure: circadian index of blood pressure, variability of blood pressure.

  10. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Median forehead flap - beyond classic indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R. Jecan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paramedian forehead flap is one of the best options for reconstruction of the median upper two-thirds of the face due to its vascularity, color, texture match and ability to resurface all or part of the reconstructed area. The forehead flap is the gold standard for nasal soft tissue reconstruction and the flap of choice for larger cutaneous nasal defects having a robust pedicle and large amount of tissue. Materials and Methods. We are reporting a clinical series of cutaneous tumors involving the nose, medial canthus, upper and lower eyelid through a retrospective review of 6 patients who underwent surgical excision of the lesion and primary reconstruction using a paramedian forehead flap. Results. The forehead flap was used for total nose reconstruction, eyelids and medial canthal reconstruction. All flaps survived completely and no tumor recurrence was seen in any of the patients. Cosmetic and functional results were favorable. Conclusions. The forehead flap continues to be one of the best options for nose reconstruction and for closure of surgical defects of the nose larger than 2 cm. Even though is not a gold standard, median forehead flap can be an advantageous technique in periorbital defects reconstruction.

  12. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  13. Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925

  14. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  15. Salt intake and the validity of a salt intake assessment system based on a 24-h dietary recall method in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Tanno, Yumi; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Obara, Taku; Asayama, Kei; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding salt intake in pregnant women in Japan is limited. An electronic system for the assessment of salt intake using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate salt intake in pregnant women and to compare the salt intake estimated by the electronic salt intake assessment system with that measured by 24-h urinary salt excretion (24-hUNaCl). Data were collected on 24-hUNaCl and salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system for 35 pregnant Japanese women at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl (24-hUNaCl/[the number of urinations during the examination day--the number of missing urine collections] × the number of urinations during the examination day, g/day) was used as a standard. The mean adjusted 24-hUNaCl was 7.7 ± 2.5 g/day, and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure values were 106.1 ± 8.6/62.8 ± 6.5 mmHg. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl was significantly correlated with the salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant mean difference (adjusted 24-hUNaCl--salt intake estimated by the assessment system = -0.36 g/day, p = 0.4) and no significant proportional bias (p = 0.1). These results suggest that pregnant women in Japan restrict their salt intake, at least when they are being examined for salt intake. They also suggest that repeated use of the described system may be useful in estimating salt intake in pregnant women.

  16. Assessment of viability by quantitative evaluation of 24h-redistribution in 201-thallium myocardial scintigraphy (SPECT): A comparative study versus clinical follow-up after revascularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirner, H.; Spreng, M.; Picker, D.; Pfafferott, C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of regional quantitative assessment of 24h-redistribution in routinely performed Thallium myocardial scintigraphy (SPECT) were compared to findings of coronary angiography/ventriculography and/or echocardiography as well as clinical status 6 months after revascularisation in up to now 34 patients. In respect of positive and negative predictive values evaluation of 24h-redistribution behaves best (81/100%) compared to perfusion and 3h-redistribution alone. Performing an additional 24h-study gives a gain of at least 80% of diagnostic information. (orig.) [de

  17. A review of the design and validation of web- and computer-based 24-h dietary recall tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Claire M; van den Barg, Rinske; Blain, Richard J; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools. Overall, there is generally good to strong agreement between web-based 24HDR and respective reference measures for intakes of macro- and micronutrients.

  18. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 7-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Effects of 24 h working on-call on psychoneuroendocrine and oculomotor function: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Florian; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Zoller, Heinz; Griesmacher, Andrea; Hammerer-Lercher, Angelika; Carpenter, Roger; Schuessler, Gerhard; Joannidis, Michael

    2014-09-01

    On-call duty (OCD) is frequently associated with health and safety risks for both physicians and patients. The lack of studies conducted in clinical care environments and the ongoing public dialogue concerning OCD led to a detailed investigation of a working schedule including sleep fragmentation and extended work hours. Within-person randomized cross-over trial. Comparison of a 24h on-call shift (OCD) compared to a routine working-day (non on call, NOC) in hospital. 30 residents and senior physicians of the Department of Internal Medicine, Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology at the University Hospital Innsbruck. Sleep variables, cognitive performance (Concentration-Endurance d2 test), emotional status (Eigenschaftswoerterliste 60S), serum-cortisol, urinary cortisol and noradrenaline, heart-rate variability, and saccadic eye movements were determined before and after OCD and NOC respectively. Concentration-endurance performance was significantly reduced after OCD as compared to NOC by 16.4% (preduced after OCD (p<0.05) compared to NOC. 24 h OCD alters both, the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system as well as the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Moreover, physicians' emotional state, cognitive and oculomotor performance seems to be influenced independently from sleep interruptions. The discrepancy between subjective feeling and objective cognitive impairments pose a risk for performing complex manual and cognitive tasks. Hence, our findings argue against an oversimplified interpretation of alterations in the physicians' psychoneuroendocrine structure in terms of impaired mood and neurocognitive deterioration combined with up-/dysregulated stress axes associated with OCD as a consequence of sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K. O'Neal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8 after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C. Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass were significantly greater (p < 0.001 than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL. Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL. Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG = 1.018 ± 0.008 with no changes (p = 0.33 at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004 at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007, who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  1. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  3. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  4. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (Pfood group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (Pfood options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  5. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of median nerve disease using multiple studies, and rendering ... Aim: To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve ..... Table 5: Comparison of median motor nerve conduction study parameters to studies elsewhere. Study.

  6. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Twenty-four-hour central blood pressure is not better associated with hypertensive target organ damage than 24-h peripheral blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Armario, Pedro; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Calero, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) is increasingly considered as a better estimator of hypertension associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-h central BP, in comparison with 24-h peripheral BP, with the presence of target organ damage (TOD). Cross-sectional study of 208 hypertensive patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 34% women. Office (mean of 4 measurements) and 24-h central and peripheral BP were measured by the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph device. TOD was assessed at cardiac (left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography), renal (reduction of glomerular filtration rate and/or microalbuminuria), and arterial (increased aortic pulse wave velocity) levels. A total of 107 patients (51.4%) had TOD (77, 35% patients left ventricular hypertrophy; 54, 25.9% renal abnormalities; and 40, 19.2% arterial stiffness). All SBP and pulse BP estimates (office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time) were associated with the presence of TOD, after adjustment for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, with higher odds ratios for ambulatory-derived values. Odds ratios for central and peripheral BP were similar for all office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time BP. After simultaneous adjustment, peripheral, but not central, 24-h and night-time SBP and pulse pressures were associated with the presence of TOD. TOD in hypertension is associated with BP elevation, independently of the type of measurement (office or ambulatory, central or peripheral). Central BP, even monitored during 24 h, is not better associated with TOD than peripheral BP. These results do not support a routine measurement of 24-h central BP.

  8. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations.

    A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches.

    A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  10. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations. A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches. A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  11. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Beaton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR. A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699 at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR using paired t-tests, Bland–Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  12. Description of Three Female 24-h Ultra-Endurance Race Winners in Various Weather Conditions and Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Žákovská, Alena; Sudi, Karl

    2017-08-31

    A The incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is higher in women than in men. We present three cases of a very mild post-race EAH in female winners of three 24-h ultra races in various weather conditions and disciplines with post-race plasma sodium [Na⁺] levels of 134 mM (Case 1), 133 mM (Case 2) and 134 mM (Case 3). Moreover, Case 1 and Case 2 showed elevated creatine kinase concentrations of >10,000 U/l with an absence of renal function abnormality. The common characteristics were female sex, veteran recreational category, long race experience in the particular sports discipline, excellent race performance, similar total weekly training hours and the presence of luteal phase of the menstrual cycle during the race. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased and post-race K⁺/Na⁺ ratio in urine increased in all three cases. In addition, an increased body mass and a decreased urine specific gravity and urine osmolality suggested over-drinking in Case 1. A decrease in the glomerular filtration rate and creatine clearance accompanied by an increase in urine [Na⁺] may contribute to fluid overload in Cases 2 and 3. Furthermore, urine osmolality reached a level indicating antidiuretic hormone secretion in all the present cases. Therefore, we recommend that race medical personnel should not forget to look for EAH even in fast and experienced female athletes and during races in different environmental conditions.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of hexabenzobenzene, C24H12, an analogue of a graphene nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Frank J.

    2018-05-01

    While large scale fabrication of graphene nanoribbons remains a challenge, there exist materials which can be fabricated in quantities such as hexabenzobenzene,HBZB, (C24H12) and which have a two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure similar to graphene nanostructures. Using a 632 nm laser, no Raman spectra could be obtained from the solid material because of a strong luminescence produced by the laser. However, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy enabled the measurement of some of the Raman active modes. The G and D modes, which are characteristic fingerprints of a 2D graphene structure, were observed at 1331 and 1600 cm-1, respectively. Density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G* level was used to calculate the minimum energy structure and the Raman active vibrational frequencies of HBZB. The calculated minimum energy structure was 2D having D6h symmetry in agreement with the experimental structure in the liquid phase. The calculated frequencies were in good agreement with the measured values.

  14. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-12

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers ( n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t -tests, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  15. Conversion between noise exposure indicators Leq24h, LDay, LEvening, LNight, Ldn and Lden: Principles and practical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Mark; Schäffer, Beat; Pieren, Reto; Wunderli, Jean Marc

    2018-01-01

    This article presents empirically derived conversion rules between the environmental noise exposure metrics Leq24h, LDay, LEvening, LNight, Ldn, and Lden for the noise sources road, rail and air traffic. It caters to researchers that need to estimate the value of one (unknown) noise metric from the value of another (known) metric, e.g. in the scope of epidemiological meta-analyses or systematic reviews, when results from different studies are pooled and need to be related to one common exposure metric. Conversion terms are derived using two empirical methods a) based on analyzing the diurnal variation of traffic, and b) by analyzing differences between calculated noise exposure metrics. For a) we collected and analyzed diurnal traffic share data from European and US airports as well as data on the diurnal variation of traffic from roads in several European countries and from railway lines in Switzerland which were derived from counting stations and official records. For b) we calculated differences between noise metrics in over 50'000 stratified randomly sampled dwellings in Switzerland. As a result of this exercise, conversion terms, including uncertainty estimates, are systematically tabulated for all variants of the target metrics. Guidance as to the practical applicability of the proposed conversions in different contexts is provided, and limitations of their use are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. 24-h actigraphic monitoring of motor activity, sleeping and eating behaviors in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Monica; Carissimi, Alicia; Fabbri, Marco; Filardi, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Within a chronobiological perspective, the present study aimed to describe 24 h of sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and food intake patterns in different body mass index (BMI) categories of children through 7 days of actigraphic recording. Height and weight were objectively measured for BMI calculation in a sample of 115 Italian primary schoolchildren (10.21 ± 0.48 years, 62.61 % females). According to BMI values, 2.60 % were underweight, 61.70 % were of normal weight, 29.60 % were overweight and 6.10 % were obese. Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 7 days to record motor activity and describe sleep-wake patterns. In addition, participants were requested to push the event-marker button of the actigraph each time they consumed food to describe their circadian eating patterns. BMI group differences were found for sleep quantity (i.e. midpoint of sleep and amplitude), while sleep quality, 24-h motor activity and food intake patterns were similar between groups. Regression analyses showed that BMI was negatively predicted by sleep duration on schooldays. BMI was also predicted by motor activity and by food intake frequencies recorded at particular times of day during schooldays and at the weekend. The circadian perspective seems to provide promising insight into childhood obesity, but this aspect needs to be further explored.

  17. Summer does not always mean lower: seasonality of 24 h, daytime, and night-time blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedecostante, Massimiliano; Barbatelli, Paolo; Guerra, Federico; Espinosa, Emma; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of seasonal influences on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) values in a very large population living in a mild-climate geographic area. Among patients referred to our Hypertension Center between September 2002 and January 2011 with a reliable ABPM, we considered those in the two hottest (July and August) vs. those in the two coldest (January and February) months. Seven hundred and forty-two men (53.2%) and 653 women (46.8%) were studied; 1245 (89.3%) were hypertensive patients of which 795 (63.9%) were drug-treated. In winter, mean daytime SBP and DBP were higher (P = 0.001 and P hottest summer months are associated with lower daytime BP and also lower 24-h DBP. However, we found an inverse relationship regarding night-time BP, dipping pattern, and INH that were higher or more common in summer. These findings were even more evident in treated patients, especially when not at target. Different sleeping behaviors or improper dose reduction of drug therapy in summer may explain the findings.

  18. Critical study of common conditions of storage of glucocorticoids and catecholamines in 24-h urine collected during resting and exercising conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouarne, C; Foury, A; Duclos, M

    2004-10-01

    Except immediate freezing of the samples, no practical method has been validated for preservation of glucocorticoids and catecholamines in 24-h urine collection. Furthermore, the influence of urine storage at bladder temperature during periods of different lengths and the effect of prior exercise on preservation of these hormones in the bladder have not been investigated until now. Ten healthy volunteers collected their urine both after a resting and after an exercise session. Urine was aliquoted into tubes which were stored during 24 h in the presence or in the absence of preservatives and at different temperatures. Two samples were stored either 3 or 9 h at 37 degrees C (bladder temperature) without additive. When collecting 24-h urine samples for glucocorticoids determination, sample can be stored at room temperature during the 24-h collection period without compromising glucocorticoids preservation. When collecting 24-h urine samples for catecholamines determination, samples have to be chilled without preservative during the whole of the collection period. If the samples have to be stored at room temperature, HCl should be used. Moreover, we report for the first time that catecholamines can be degraded in the bladder and therefore that subjects should urinate every 3 h during either a resting or an exercising day.

  19. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  20. Effect of fasting on 24-h blood pressure values of individuals with no previous history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Ayse; Demirci, Hakan; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Aydin, Ufuk; Ucar, Hakan; Yildiz, Gursel; Yaman, Ozen

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to analyze the difference in 24-h blood pressure values during Ramadan of fasting and nonfasting individuals with no previous history of hypertension. This study was planned as a multicenter research study in the cities of Izmit, Zonguldak, Sivas, and Adana. The percentage changes in the blood pressure of the patients were calculated from their blood pressure measurements at 0 h while they were resting. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was filled out by all participants. Forty patients were included in the fasting group and 55 patients were included in the nonfasting group in the study. There was a difference between the two groups in percent changes of systolic measurements performed at the 4th (5% difference and P=0.020), 13th (6% difference and P=0.015), 14th (10% difference and P=0.017), 18th (9% difference and P=0.027), 19th (9% difference and P=0.020), and 20th (6% difference and P=0.014) hours with respect to the baseline measurement at the 0 h. There was a difference between the fasting and nonfasting groups in the Fasting Food Questionnaire results. Meat consumption was significantly higher in the fasting group. A systolic blood pressure increase in fasting patients was observed in measurements at 18:00, 19:00, and 20:00 h. We believe that an increase of more than 10% in blood pressure at the time of iftar is an important result of our study in terms of the meal preferences of the individuals under risk.

  1. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  2. The validity of a web-based FFQ assessed by doubly labelled water and multiple 24-h recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Anine C; Carlsen, Monica H; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Strohmaier, Susanne; Andersen, Lene F

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the estimated habitual dietary intake from a newly developed web-based FFQ (WebFFQ), for use in an adult population in Norway. In total, ninety-two individuals were recruited. Total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labelled water was used as the reference method for energy intake (EI) in a subsample of twenty-nine women, and multiple 24-h recalls (24HR) were used as the reference method for the relative validation of macronutrients and food groups in the entire sample. Absolute differences, ratios, crude and deattenuated correlations, cross-classifications, Bland-Altman plot and plots between misreporting of EI (EI-TEE) and the relative misreporting of food groups (WebFFQ-24HR) were used to assess the validity. Results showed that EI on group level was not significantly different from TEE measured by doubly labelled water (0·7 MJ/d), but ranking abilities were poor (r -0·18). The relative validation showed an overestimation for the majority of the variables using absolute intakes, especially for the food groups 'vegetables' and 'fish and shellfish', but an improved agreement between the test and reference tool was observed for energy adjusted intakes. Deattenuated correlation coefficients were between 0·22 and 0·89, and low levels of grossly misclassified individuals (0-3 %) were observed for the majority of the energy adjusted variables for macronutrients and food groups. In conclusion, energy estimates from the WebFFQ should be used with caution, but the estimated absolute intakes on group level and ranking abilities seem acceptable for macronutrients and most food groups.

  3. Effect of L-carnitine and pyruvate on equine sperm maintained at 5 ºC and 15 ºC during 24 h: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the addition of L-carnitine and pyruvate to two semen transport extenders (Kenney and Kenney modified by Tyrodes is able to maintain sperm parameters for 24 h at 5 ºC and 15 ºC. Semen was obtained from 3 stallions (n=3; r=2 and at time 0 and after 24 h of cooling, the following parameters evaluated: total and progressive motility (CASA, viability and acrosome status (FITC-PNA-PI, membrane function (HOS, and DNA with Toluidine Blue stain (TB and the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion assay (SCD. Each temperature was individually analyzed using a factorial design with a 5% significance level. No interactions were observed. For the moment, the Kenney extender with the addition of L-carnitine and pyruvate showed the best results for maintaining most sperm parameters for 24 h at both 5 ºC and 15 ºC.

  4. Effectiveness of furosemide in attenuating exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in horses when administered at 4- and 24-h prior to high-speed training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Wilson, W D; Vale, A; Kass, P H; Arthur, R M; Jones, J H

    2018-05-01

    Due to the high prevalence of EIPH in racehorses and its potential impact on the horse's health, furosemide administration is permitted up to 4-h prior to post time in most North American racing jurisdictions. Anecdotal reports suggest that administration of furosemide 24-h prior to strenuous exercise may be equally effective in decreasing the severity of EIPH. To 1) compare the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the presence and severity of EIPH when administered 4- or 24-h prior to strenuous exercise 2) characterise electrolyte and blood parameters following administration of furosemide at 4- and 24-h prior to exercise. 3-way crossover. Fifteen Thoroughbred racehorses received 5 mL of 0.9% NaCl or 250 mg of furosemide either 4- or 24-h prior to a 5-furlong simulated race. Blood samples were collected prior to and post-run for determination of furosemide, lactate, haemoglobin and electrolyte concentrations. One-hour post-race, an endoscopic exam and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed. Horses were assigned an EIPH score based on predetermined criteria and the number of red blood cells in BAL fluid was determined. Endoscopic EIPH scores were lower in the 4-h vs. the 24-h (P = 0.03) furosemide groups. RBC counts in BAL fluid were lower in the 4-h furosemide vs. saline treatment groups (P = 0.01) but no difference was noted between the saline and 24-h furosemide groups (P = 0.3), nor between the 4- and 24-h groups (P = 0.5). Small sample size and large range of running times for the 5-furlong work. While none of the treatments prevented EIPH, endoscopic scores and RBC counts in BAL fluid support the efficacy of furosemide in reducing the severity of EIPH. Endoscopic scores were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with 24-h administration. Red blood cell counts were lower in the 4-h furosemide group compared with saline treatment. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Assessing the importance of different exposure metrics and time-activity data to predict 24-H personal PM2.5 exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Te; Koutrakis, Petros; Catalano, Paul J; Suh, Helen H

    Personal PM(2.5) data from two recent exposure studies, the Scripted Activity Study and the Older Adults Study, were used to develop models predicting 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures. Both studies were conducted concurrently in the summer of 1998 and the winter of 1999 in Baltimore, MD. In the Scripted Activity Study, 1-h personal PM(2.5) exposures were measured. Data were used to identify significant factors affecting personal exposures and to develop 1-h personal exposure models for five different micro-environments. By incorporating the time-activity diary data, these models were then combined to develop a time-weighted microenvironmental personal model (model M1AD) to predict the 24-h PM(2.5) exposures measured for individuals in the Older Adults Study. Twenty-four-hour time-weighted models were also developed using 1-h ambient PM(2.5) levels and time-activity data (model A1AD) or using 24-h ambient PM(2.5) levels and time-activity data (model A24AD). The performance of these three models was compared to that using 24-h ambient concentrations alone (model A24). Results showed that factors affecting 1-h personal PM(2.5) exposures included air conditioning status and the presence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for indoor micro-environments, consistent with previous studies. ETS was identified as a significant contributor to measured 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures. Staying in an ETS-exposed microenvironment for 1 h elevated 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures by approximately 4 microg/m 3 on average. Cooking and washing activities were identified in the winter as significant contributors to 24-h personal exposures as well, increasing 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures by about 4 and 5 microg/m 3 per hour of activity, respectively. The ability of 3 microenvironmental personal exposure models to estimate 24-h personal PM(2.5) exposures was generally comparable to and consistently greater than that of model A24. Results indicated that using time-activity data with 1

  6. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  7. Development of guidelines for cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  8. Biomarker-based evaluation of two 24-h recalls for comparing usual fish, fruit and vegetable intakes across European centers in the EFCOVAL Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.; Crispim, S.P.; Souverein, O.W.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Ruprich, J.; Dofkova, M.; Huybrechts, I.; Keyzer, de W.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Lafay, L.; Rousseau, A.S.; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Veer, van 't P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: A standardized methodology is important to enable consistent monitoring of dietary intake across European countries. For this reason, we evaluated the comparability of the assessment of usual food intake collected with two non-consecutive computerized 24-h dietary recalls

  9. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    Background: Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and its

  10. Impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and paraoxonase 1 levels in professional runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Serena; Catalani, Simona; Peda, Federica; Luchetti, Francesca; Citarella, Roberto; Battistelli, Serafina

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association. Blood samples were collected from each participant before, during (14 h), and immediately after (24 h) the competition, thus to monitor the serum changes in Hcy, oxLDL, and PON1 levels, as well as other oxidative stress-related parameters, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total antioxidant capacity (PAT). As a result, a significant PON1 increase was recorded after 14 h of racing that persisted until the end of the performance. The same trend was observed for PAT values, which positively correlated to PON1 levels (R = 0.643, P<0.001). Hcy, oxLDL, and ROM remained almost unchanged throughout the competition. In conclusion, the present study suggested a protective role of PON1 in sustaining the antioxidant defense system and contrasting lipoprotein oxidative modifications over the 24-h race, and did not specifically evidence either Hcy or oxLDL accumulation in such challenging sporting events.

  11. Transient cardiac dysfunction but elevated cardiac and kidney biomarkers 24 h following an ultra-distance running event in Mexican Tarahumara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Espino, Diana; Infante-Ramirez, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Mexican Tarahumara are accustomed to running ultra-distance races. No data exist on the acute physiological changes following ultra-distance running and physiological-biomarker associations in this population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the acute impact (≤ 24 h) on functional a...

  12. Validation of digital photographs, as a tool in 24-h recall, for the improvement of dietary assessment among rural populations in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvement of traditional methods for dietary assessment is necessary, especially in rural areas where it is more difficult to succeed with self-reporting methods. This study presents and validates a method for improving accuracy when measuring food and nutrient intake of individuals in rural areas. It is called the “Food photography 24-h recall method” (FP 24-hR) and is a modified 24-h recall with the addition of a digital food photography record and a photo atlas. Methods The study was carried out in a rural area in the tropical region of Bolivia; 45 women participated. Validation of the method was made by comparing it with a reference method, the Weighed Food Record (WFR). During the FP 24-hR, digital photographs were taken by the subjects of all food consumed during a day and a 24-h recall questionnaire was conducted by an interviewer. An estimate of the amount of food consumed was made using a photo atlas and the photographs taken by the subjects. For validation, comparison was made between the calculations, by both methods, of the levels of food, and nutrient, intake. Results The comparison was made in 10 food categories; most of which were somewhat underestimated from −2.3% (cassava) to −6.8% (rice), except for beverages (+1.6%) and leafy vegetables (+8.7%), which were overestimated. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were highly significant (r from 0.75 for eggs to 0.98 for potato and cassava). Nutrient intakes calculated with data from both methods showed small differences from -0.90% (vitamin C) to -5.98% (fat). Although all nutrients were somewhat underestimated, Pearson′s coefficients are high (>0.93 for all) and statistically significant. Bland Altman analysis showed that differences between both methods were random and did not exhibit any systematic bias over levels of food and nutrient intake, with acceptable 95% limits of agreement. Conclusion The FP 24-hR exhibits acceptable differences when compared with a WFR, digital

  13. Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Mattes, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. Objective: We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their self-selected diets. Design: We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003–2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods. Results: In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. PMID:23097271

  14. Analysis of nocturia with 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration: concept for effective treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Yukihiro; Nakao, Masahiro; Honjo, Hisashi; Ukimura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2011-03-01

    • To determine the relationship between the number of nocturia and 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration as well as to assess the significance of these factors with respect to eliminating nocturnal voidings in individual patients with nocturia. • Among 532 participants who completed a 3-day bladder diary between April 2005 and December 2006, the diaries of 450 participants without 24-h polyuria were analyzed. • Clinical variables such as the number of daytime and night-time voids, 24-h urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, daytime and night-time maximum voided volumes (MVV), night/day MVV ratio, sleep duration and proportion of night/day urine production rates were obtained from each diary. • Participants were classified into eight groups according to values of three factors: nocturnal MVV, proportion of night/day urine production rates and length of sleep duration. • Each group was divided into three subgroups: non-nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is zero), mild nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is one) and severe nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is two or more). • The data from non-nocturics with three normal factors were regarded as the normal control and compared with the variables of the other subgroups using Dunnett's method. • Variables that form the basis of classifying participants into eight groups and corresponding to abnormal factors of each group were statistically significant in all the subgroups of each group. • Furthermore, a significantly increased 24-h urine volume was found in severe nocturics of the group with three normal factors. • A significantly decreased 24-h urine volume was found in non-nocturics of groups with nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity and both long sleep duration and nocturnal polyuria. • A significantly increased nocturnal MVV and night/day MVV ratio were shown in non-nocturics and mild nocturics of the groups

  15. Permasalahan P-Hub Median Dengan Lintasan Terpendek

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Raja David

    2013-01-01

    Hub are facilities that serve as sorting, switching, and transhipment in a transportation network. P-hub median problem is a discrete case location allocation problem which all hub is fully connected. In this paper will be intoduced Mixed Integrer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation models of cost for p-hub median problem allocation for uncapacitaced single allocation p-hub median(USApHMP). In this paper also introduced Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm to solve p-hub median problems a...

  16. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  17. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    by four placebo tablets. A previous study showed that this new drospirenone-only pill effectively inhibited ovulation. Clinical efficacy, however, can be affected by compliance, and delayed or forgotten pill intake often occurs in daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate if inhibition.......8%; only one subject in Group A fulfilled the ovulation criteria in Cycle 2. Follicular diameters in the regular-intake and the delayed-intake cycles were similar. CONCLUSION: Despite the 4-day hormone-free period and multiple intentional 24-h delays in tablet intake, ovulation inhibition was maintained...... inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive reliability will be low....

  18. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P

  19. Scintigraphy in the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with caustic oesophageal burns: a comparative study with radiography and 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcan, Z.; Erinc, R.; Dirlik, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir (Turkey); Oezcan, C.; Mutaf, O. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir (Turkey)

    2001-10-01

    Background: Caustic injury of the oesophagus not only causes luminal narrowing but is also responsible for longitudinal contraction, resulting in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR), which leads to failure of conventional therapy. Therefore, the development of GOR should be investigated periodically to direct appropriate management of these patients. Purpose: To determine the ability of scintigraphy to detect GOR in children with caustic oesophageal strictures in comparison with barium study and 24-h pH monitoring. Materials and methods: Seventeen children with caustic oesophageal injury underwent scintigraphy, an upper GI barium study and 24-h pH monitoring within the same week. Five patients were also investigated post-operatively for the assessment of surgical outcome after antireflux surgery. Results: On the whole, there was good correlation (r = 0.78, P < 0.00 l) between scintigraphy and 24-h oesophageal pH monitoring. Scintigraphy detected all but one (9/10) refluxing patients and also correctly identified all (7/7) non-refluxing patients. Barium studies demonstrated 6 out of 10 refluxing patients. There were no false-positive barium studies in non-refluxing patients. Post-operative studies demonstrated no evidence of GOR in surgically treated patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, by comparison with barium studies, scintigraphy is useful in the detection of GOR in cases with caustic oesophageal strictures and may be used as a screening modality for those under clinical follow-up. (orig.)

  20. The novel, peripherally restricted GABAB receptor agonist lesogaberan (AZD3355) inhibits acid reflux and reduces esophageal acid exposure as measured with 24-h pHmetry in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändén, Lena; Fredriksson, Anita; Harring, Emelie; Jensen, Jörgen; Lehmann, Anders

    2010-05-25

    While patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease generally respond well to proton pump inhibitors, 20-30% continue to experience troublesome symptoms. In such cases, agents that target transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation may be useful as add-on therapy to proton pump inhibitors. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits transient LES relaxation but it is not an ideal agent due to central nervous system activity. Lesogaberan (AZD3355) is a peripherally restricted GABAB receptor agonist with limited central nervous system activity that inhibits transient LES relaxation in dogs. In the present study, the comparative effects of lesogaberan (7 micromol/kg) and baclofen (2.8 micromol/kg) on reflux were studied in dogs using 24-h pHmetry. Drugs (or vehicle control) were administered orally prior to the first meal of the day, and the number of reflux episodes (pH or = 5 s) and acid exposure time were computed for the 24-h monitoring period. The mean (S.E.M.) number of reflux episodes/24 h was 4.6 (0.4) and 6.4 (0.6) for lesogaberan and baclofen, respectively, versus 10.7 (0.5) for control (PAcid exposure time was 51.2 (4.5) min for control versus 23.6 (3.8) min for lesogaberan (Pacid reflux in dogs, with comparable efficacy to baclofen. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD, Cockcroft-Gault (CG, and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9% males and 81 (39.1% females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  2. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  3. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A theoretical analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Higher order adaptive algorithms are sensitive to impulse interference. In the case of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth), an easy and effective way to reduce this is to median filter the instantaneous gradient of the LMF algorithm. Although previous published simulations have indicated that this reduces...... the speed of convergence, no analytical studies have yet been made to prove this. In order to enhance the usability, this paper presents a convergence and steady-state analysis of the median LMF adaptive algorithm. As expected this proves that the median LMF has a slower convergence and a lower steady...

  5. Sosiaalisen median markkinoinnin vuosikello Weecos Oy:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heinämäki, Lotta; Huuskonen, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli luoda kokonaisvaltainen ja selkeä suunnitelma Weecos Oy:n markkinointitoimenpiteille valituissa sosiaalisen median kanavissa. Weecos on vuonna 2012 perustettu ekologisia yrityksiä yhteen keräävä verkkokauppa-alusta. Pienestä koostaan johtuen se ei ole pystynyt toteuttamaan sosiaalisen median markkinointia toivomallaan tavalla ja markkinoinnin suunnittelu ja toteutus on ollut epäsäännöllistä. Markkinointisuunnitelman tavoitteena oli helpottaa yrityksen markkinoi...

  6. Efficient Scalable Median Filtering Using Histogram-Based Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Oded

    2018-05-01

    Median filtering is a smoothing technique for noise removal in images. While there are various implementations of median filtering for a single-core CPU, there are few implementations for accelerators and multi-core systems. Many parallel implementations of median filtering use a sorting algorithm for rearranging the values within a filtering window and taking the median of the sorted value. While using sorting algorithms allows for simple parallel implementations, the cost of the sorting becomes prohibitive as the filtering windows grow. This makes such algorithms, sequential and parallel alike, inefficient. In this work, we introduce the first software parallel median filtering that is non-sorting-based. The new algorithm uses efficient histogram-based operations. These reduce the computational requirements of the new algorithm while also accessing the image fewer times. We show an implementation of our algorithm for both the CPU and NVIDIA's CUDA supported graphics processing unit (GPU). The new algorithm is compared with several other leading CPU and GPU implementations. The CPU implementation has near perfect linear scaling with a speedup on a quad-core system. The GPU implementation is several orders of magnitude faster than the other GPU implementations for mid-size median filters. For small kernels, and , comparison-based approaches are preferable as fewer operations are required. Lastly, the new algorithm is open-source and can be found in the OpenCV library.

  7. Testing the gravity p-median model empirically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Carling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  8. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  9. Influence of antihypertensive therapy on cerebral perfusion in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship with cognitive function and 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Nataliya Y; Chernov, Vladimir I; Efimova, Irina Y; Lishmanov, Yuri B

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, William; Marshall, Gill; Coals, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation

  11. The effect of session order on the physiological, neuromuscular, and endocrine responses to maximal speed and weight training sessions over a 24-h period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael; Johnston, Julia; Cook, Christian J; Costley, Lisa; Kilgallon, Mark; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Athletes are often required to undertake multiple training sessions on the same day with these sessions needing to be sequenced correctly to allow the athlete to maximize the responses of each session. We examined the acute effect of strength and speed training sequence on neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological responses over 24h. 15 academy rugby union players completed this randomized crossover study. Players performed a weight training session followed 2h later by a speed training session (weights speed) and on a separate day reversed the order (speed weights). Countermovement jumps, perceived muscle soreness, and blood samples were collected immediately prior, immediately post, and 24h post-sessions one and two respectively. Jumps were analyzed for power, jump height, rate of force development, and velocity. Blood was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase. There were no differences between countermovement jump variables at any of the post-training time points (p>0.05). Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and muscle soreness were unaffected by session order (p>0.05). However, 10m sprint time was significantly faster (mean±standard deviation; speed weights 1.80±0.11s versus weights speed 1.76±0.08s; p>0.05) when speed was sequenced second. Lactate levels were significantly higher immediately post-speed sessions versus weight training sessions at both time points (ptraining does not affect the neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological recovery over 24h. However, speed may be enhanced when performed as the second session. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1receptor agonist liraglutide on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    -one patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease were randomized to receive liraglutide or placebo to a backbone therapy of metformin in this double-blind, placebo-controlled 12 along with 12 weeks crossover study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed at the start...... or the nocturnal BP dipping. Conclusions: We could not demonstrate any BP-lowering effect of liraglutide when using 24-h ABPM. Liraglutide exhibited diurnal variation in the effect on BP without affecting the BP variability or nocturnal BP dipping....

  13. Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUDA NDOYE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound has been obtained on allowing [C6H3(CO23(Et2NH23] to react with SnBr4. The molecular structure of Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O has been determined on the basis of the infrared data. The suggested structure is a dimer in which each tin atom is hexacoordinated by two chelating C6H3(CO233- anions and two Br atoms. Cy2NH2+cations are involved through hydrogen bonds with non-coordinating CO2 groups. The suggested structure is a cage.

  14. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software......-8 years and 47 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through schools in Spain. Each child with one parent completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a food-recording booklet (FRB) to be filled in by the child, a parent or other proxy persons for preparing the recalls. Feasibility...

  15. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet...... (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren.Subjects/Methods:A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children...

  16. The efficacy and safety of bimatoprost/timolol maleate, latanoprost/timolol maleate, and travoprost/timolol maleate fixed combinations on 24-h IOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Degirmenci, Cumali; Karakoyun, Yunus Emre; Yusifov, Emil; Ates, Halil

    2017-06-14

    To evaluate the effect of bimatoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (BTFC), latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (LTFC), and travoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination (TTFC) on 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma. This prospective, observer-masked, randomized study included 50 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients were using hypotensive lipids and timolol maleate fixed combination treatment for ≥4 weeks and had an IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. Group 1 (n = 18) received BTFC, group 2 (n = 14) received LTFC, and group 3 (n = 18) received TTFC. All patients were hospitalized, and IOP was monitored for 24-h (10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00, 02:00, and 06:00). Mean diurnal IOP variation measurements were taken between 06:00 and 18:00, and mean nocturnal IOP variation measurements were taken between 22:00 and 02:00. Mean IOP and IOP variation in the three groups were compared. Mean 24-h IOP did not differ significantly between the three groups (group 1: 14.6 ± 2.9 mmHg; group 2: 14.1 ± 3.7 mmHg and group 3: 15.8 ± 2.0 mmHg; P > 0.05). Mean diurnal IOP variation was 4.6 ± 2.3 mmHg in group 1, 5.8 ± 2.4 mmHg in group 2, and 4.3 ± 1.7 mmHg in group 3, and mean nocturnal IOP variation was 3.2 ± 2.8 mmHg in group 1, 2.9 ± 1.9 mmHg in group 2, and 3.0 ± 1.6 mmHg group 3. There were not any significant differences in diurnal or nocturnal IOP variation between the three groups (P < 0.05). All three fixed combinations effectively controlled IOP for 24-h and had a similar effect on diurnal and nocturnal IOP variations.

  17. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxia; Yin, Xuejun; Zhang, Ruijuan; Liu, Furong; Yang, Danrong; Fan, Yameng; Rong, Jie; Tian, Maoyi; Yu, Yan

    2017-10-11

    Background : 24-h urine collection is regarded as the "gold standard" for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective : To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods : Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results : The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p h sodium excretion were observed (all p h sodium excretion. Conclusion : The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine specimens were inadequate for the assessment of sodium intake at the population level in high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province, although the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods.

  18. The relationship between 24 h/4 h radioiodine-131 uptake ratio and outcome after radioiodine therapy in 1402 patients with solitary autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filesi, M.; Travascio, L.; Montesano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of 24 h/4 h uptake ratio (UR) in response to radioiodine-131 ( 131 I) therapy in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN). A total of 1402 consecutive hyperthyroid patients were treated with 131 I, between 1958 and 2005. Therapeutic doses (D) were calculated according to the formula: D=weight of nodule x dose per gram of nodular tissue (q)/24 h 131 I uptake. The ratios of the 24 and 4 h uptake were retrospectively calculated and the patients were grouped according to outcome and q into three groups of UR (≤1.25; 1.26-1.68; ≥1.69) by means of terziles. Of the 1402 patients, 95 did not respond to 131 I treatment while 93/1307 developed hypothyroidism. Most non-responders (55.8%) had UR ≤1.25, while many hypothyroid patients (66.7%) had UR ≥1.69 (χ 2 : P 131 I treatment, increasing to 13.9% at 5 years and 26.2% at 10 years. The 131 I UR can predict the outcome of 131 I treatment in AFTN and may have utility in modifying treatment in some patients to limit post-radioiodine induced hypothyroidism and treatment failures in order to achieve euthyroidism. (author)

  19. REACTIONS FORMING Cn=2,10(0,+), Cn=2,4H(0,+), AND C3H2(0,+) IN THE GAS PHASE: SEMIEMPIRICAL BRANCHING RATIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, M.; Jallat, A.; Béroff, K.; Gratier, P.; Wakelam, V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a new set of branching ratios (BRs) for interstellar and planetary chemical networks based on a semiempirical model. We applied, instead of zero-order theory (i.e., only the most exoergic decaying channel is considered), a statistical microcanonical model based on the construction of breakdown curves and using experimental high velocity collision BRs for their parameterization. We applied the model to ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and ion-pair reactions implemented in the few popular databases for astrochemistry, such as KIDA, OSU, and UMIST. We studied the reactions of carbon and hydrocarbon species with electrons, He + , H + , CH + , CH, C, and C + leading to intermediate complexes of the type C n=2,10 , C n=2,4 H, C 3 H 2 , C n=2,10 + , C n=2,4 H + , or C 3 H 2 + . Comparison of predictions with measurements supports the validity of the model. Huge deviations with respect to database values are often obtained. Effects of the new BRs in time-dependent chemistry for dark clouds and for photodissociation region chemistry with conditions similar to those found in the Horsehead Nebula are discussed.

  20. Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaah, Akua F; Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-04-02

    Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women ( n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults.

  1. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on short-term memory performance over 24 h of sustained wakefulness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenèche, Jérôme; Krieger, Jean; Bertrand, Frédéric; Erhardt, Christine; Maumy, Myriam; Tassi, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on short-term memory (STM) over sustained wakefulness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We have investigated if impaired STM can be reversed by CPAP treatment in a 24-h sustained wakefulness paradigm. Our follow-up study was conducted with repeated-memory tasks within 12 OSAHS patients and 10 healthy controls who underwent three 32-h sessions, one before CPAP (T0) and the second (T3) and the third (T6), after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, for OSAHS patients. Each session included one night of sleep followed by 24h of sustained wakefulness, during which both groups performed STM tasks including both digit span (DS) and Sternberg tasks. Untreated OSAHS patients had no deficit in the forward DS task measuring immediate memory but were impaired in STM, especially working memory assessed by the complex Sternberg task and the backward DS. However, only performance in the latter was improved after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Because the high level of memory scanning required high speed in information processing, persistent impairment on the complex Sternberg task may be attributable to working memory slowing, possibly enhanced by sustained wakefulness. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory tract infection in tube-fed elderly patients. A comparison between scintigraphy and 24-h pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Shigehiko; Koichi, Katsuyuki; Tofuku, Yohei

    1994-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia in patients who received enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube may result from retrograde colonization from the stomach, and this may be more likely when the gastroesophageal reflux is severe and the gastric pH is relative high. We investigated 11 elderly patients fed via nasogastric tube with suspected recurrent aspiration pneumonia by means of esophageal scintigraphy, 24-h pH monitoring, gastric pH and concentrations of gram-negative bacilli in gastric aspirates. The grade of respiratory tract infection (RTI) was evaluated by the frequency of episodes of fever with respiratory symptoms. The correlation between the grade of RTI and reflux index by scintigraphy was statistically significant (p<0.05), but the correlation between the grade of RTI and reflux rate by 24-h pH monitoring was not statistically significant. Although the correlation between gastric pH and log (base 10) concentration of gram-negative bacilli/ml of gastric aspirates was statistically significant (p<0.001), the correlation between the grade of RTI and gastric pH was not statistically significant. Scintigraphy was superior for evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux resulting in aspiration pneumonia in the tube-fed elderly patients. (author)

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory tract infection in tube-fed elderly patients. A comparison between scintigraphy and 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shigehiko; Koichi, Katsuyuki; Tofuku, Yohei [Ishikawa-Ken Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    Aspiration pneumonia in patients who received enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube may result from retrograde colonization from the stomach, and this may be more likely when the gastroesophageal reflux is severe and the gastric pH is relative high. We investigated 11 elderly patients fed via nasogastric tube with suspected recurrent aspiration pneumonia by means of esophageal scintigraphy, 24-h pH monitoring, gastric pH and concentrations of gram-negative bacilli in gastric aspirates. The grade of respiratory tract infection (RTI) was evaluated by the frequency of episodes of fever with respiratory symptoms. The correlation between the grade of RTI and reflux index by scintigraphy was statistically significant (p<0.05), but the correlation between the grade of RTI and reflux rate by 24-h pH monitoring was not statistically significant. Although the correlation between gastric pH and log (base 10) concentration of gram-negative bacilli/ml of gastric aspirates was statistically significant (p<0.001), the correlation between the grade of RTI and gastric pH was not statistically significant. Scintigraphy was superior for evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux resulting in aspiration pneumonia in the tube-fed elderly patients. (author).

  4. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma uudelle hoitoalan konseptoidulle työvaatemallistolle

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä pohdittiin keinoja saada uuden konseptoidun työvaatemalliston näkyvyyttä esille sosiaalisen median keinoin. Toimeksiantaja-yrityksenä toimi suomalainen Virtually Oy ja kohteena oli sen uusi hoitajille suunnattu työvaatemallisto. Malliston ympärille halutaan luoda kestävä brändi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi on tukemassa brändin tunnettavuutta ja myyntiä. Sosiaalinen media ei yritysten välisessä liiketoiminnassa toimi ainoana markkinoinnin työkaluna, vaan se on tukemas...

  5. Sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Inkeri

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoite oli selvittää sosiaalisen median rooli mikroyrittäjän ostoprosessissa; miten mikroyrittäjä hakee tietoa sosiaalisesta mediasta ja millainen vaikutus sieltä löytyvillä käyttäjäarvioilla on ostopäätökseen. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin erään finanssialan yrityksen toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli antaa digitaalisen markkinoinnin ammattilaisille tietoa siitä, miten mikroyrittäjiä voidaan tavoittaa sosiaalisen median kautta, ja saada näin uusia asiakkaita. Tutkimus...

  6. Myofibroma in the Palm Presenting with Median Nerve Compression Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Sarkozy, PA-C, BS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A myofibroma is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts in the connective tissue. Solitary myofibromas are a rare finding especially in an adult. We report a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with an enlarging mass over his right palm. The patient is an active weight lifter. He reported numbness and tingling in the median nerve distribution. Nerve conduction studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested a tumor involving or compressing the median nerve. The final diagnosis of myofibroma was made only after the histopathological diagnosis.

  7. The Median Solution of the Newsvendor Problem and Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Pritibhushan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the median solution of the Newsvendor Problem. Some properties of such a solution are shown through a theoretical analysis and a numerical experiment. Sometimes, though not often, median solution may be better than solutions maximizing expected profit, or maximizing minimum possible, over distribution with the same average and standard deviation, expected profit, according to some criteria. We discuss the practical suitability of the objective function set and the solution derived, for the Newsvendor Problem, and other such random optimization problems.

  8. Sosiaalisen median rooli kunnan viestinnässä

    OpenAIRE

    Selkämaa, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää sosiaalisen median roolia kunnan viestinnässä sekä tutkia, miten sosiaalista mediaa hyödynnetään kuntien viestinnässä. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin sosiaalista mediaa, tutustuttiin sen tunnetuimpiin sovelluksiin sekä perehdyttiin kuntien viestintään yleisesti. Työssä tarkasteltiin myös kuntien viestintään vaikuttavia ja sitä sääteleviä lakeja. Kuntien sosiaalisen median käyttöön tutustuttiin Kuntaliiton tekemän viestintätutkimuksen tulosten pohjalt...

  9. Brain malformation in single median maxillary central incisor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Wagner, Aa; Thomsen, L L

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic examinations and MR scan of a 12-year-old girl with SMMCI (single median maxillary central incisor) showed impaired growth and a midline defect involving the central incisor, cranium and the midline structures in the brain, falx cerebri and pituitary gland. She had a sev...

  10. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...

  11. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  12. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  13. Ranking Exponential Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers by Median Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we want represented a method for ranking of two exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A median value is proposed for the ranking of exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. For the validation the results of the proposed approach are compared with different existing approaches.

  14. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    2013-10-22

    Oct 22, 2013 ... tient clinic of the Physical Medicine Rheumatology and Reha- bilitation ... F-wave to calculate axillary F central loop (AFCL) latency of median and ..... amplitude which substantially results from the block of faster ... Postoperative electrophysiological follow up for ... Regional rheumatic pain syndromes. In:.

  15. A novel image inpainting technique based on median diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numerical methods such as anisotropic diffusion and multiresolution schemes. Some steps ... Roth & Black (2005) have developed a framework for learning a generic and expressive image priors that ..... This paper presents a new approach for image inpainting by propagating median information .... J. Graphics Tools 9(1):.

  16. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in High-Risk Elder Patients of Stroke from the Rural Areas of Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: 24-h urine collection is regarded as the “gold standard” for monitoring sodium intake at the population level, but ensuring high quality urine samples is difficult to achieve. The Kawasaki, International Study of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT and Tanaka methods have been used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine samples in some countries, but few studies have been performed to compare and validate these methods in the Chinese population. Objective: To compare and validate the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka formulas in predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples in 365 high-risk elder patients of strokefrom the rural areas of Shaanxi province. Methods: Data were collected from a sub-sample of theSalt Substitute and Stroke Study. 365 high-risk elder patients of stroke from the rural areas of Shaanxi province participated and their spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected. The concentrations of sodium, potassium and creatinine in spot and 24-h urine samples wereanalysed. Estimated 24-h sodium excretion was predicted from spot urine concentration using the Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka formulas. Pearson correlation coefficients and agreement by Bland-Altman method were computed for estimated and measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Results: The average 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 162.0 mmol/day, which representing a salt intake of 9.5 g/day. Three predictive equations had low correlation with the measured 24-h sodium excretion (r = 0.38, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.38, p < 0.01 for the Kawasaki; r = 0.35, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.31, p < 0.01 for the INTERSALT; r = 0.37, p < 0.01; ICC = 0.34, p < 0.01 for the Tanaka. Significant biases between estimated and measured 24-h sodium excretion were observed (all p < 0.01 for three methods. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was the least biased compared with the other two methods (mean bias: 31.90, 95% Cl: 23.84, 39

  17. Office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure control by treatment in general practice: the 'Monitoraggio della pressione ARteriosa nella medicina TErritoriale' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Augusto; Parati, Gianfranco; Cricelli, Claudio; Bignamini, Angelo A; Modesti, Pietro A; Pamparana, Franco; Bilo, Grzegorz; Mancia, Giuseppe; Gensini, Gian F

    2010-05-01

    Guidelines recommend that blood pressure (BP) should be lowered in hypertensive patients to prevent cardiovascular accidents. Management of antihypertensive treatment by general practitioners is usually based on office measurements, which may not allow an assessment of BP control over 24 h, which requires ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) to be implemented. This is rarely done in general practice, and limited information is available on the consistency between the evaluations of the response to treatment provided by office measurement and by ABPM in this setting. To assess concordance between office BP measurements and ABPM-based estimates of hypertension control in a general practice setting. Prospective, comparative between techniques. General practice. Seventy-eight general practices, representative of all Italian regions, participated in this study by recruiting sequential hypertensive adults on stabilized treatment, who were subdivided into even groups with office BP, respectively, controlled or noncontrolled by treatment. In each individual, ABPM was applied by the general practitioner after appropriate training, and 24-h ABP values were defined as controlled or not according to current guidelines. Concordance between office and ABPM evaluation of BP control was assessed with kappa statistics. Positive and negative predictive values of office measurement versus ABPM were estimated. Between July 2005 and November 2006, 190 general practitioners recruited 2059 hypertensive patients based on office BP measurements; in 1728 patients, a 24-h ABPM was performed, yielding 1524 recordings considered as valid for further analysis. The agreement between the assessment of BP control by office measurement and by ABPM was poor (kappa = 0.120), with office measurements showing a satisfactory positive predictive value (0.842) and a poor negative predictive value (0.278); the situation was worse in patients with three or more among the following features: male sex, age of at

  18. Marinobufagenin is related to elevated central and 24-h systolic blood pressures in young black women: the African-PREDICT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michél; Smith, Wayne; Wei, Wen; Fedorova, Olga V; Schutte, Aletta E

    2018-03-01

    Marinobufagenin (MBG) is an endogenous steroidal α1-Na + K + -ATPase inhibitor. Because of its role in sodium handling, MBG has been associated with both antihypertensive and prohypertensive effects in normal physiology and pathology. MBG is positively associated with blood pressure in Dahl salt-sensitive rats exhibiting a similar hypertensive phenotype to black populations, characterized by impaired urinary Na + excretion. However, clinical studies exploring blood pressure (BP)-related effects of MBG in black populations are scant. We determined whether the MBG/Na + ratio (assessing the effectiveness of Na + excretion resistance to MBG) is related to systolic BP (SBP) in young black men and women, compared to whites. We included 331 apparently healthy participants (20-30 years) (42.9% black, 43.8% men) on a habitual diet. We obtained 24-h and central SBP, and 24-h urinary Na + and MBG levels. We found no ethnic differences in MBG, Na + or MBG/Na + . MBG excretion correlated positively with Na + excretion in all groups and to SBP in white men and black women (p ≤ 0.011). In black women only SBP related positively to MBG/Na + in single and multi-variable adjusted regression models: central SBP (R 2  = 0.26; ß = 0.28; p = 0.039), 24-h SBP (R 2  = 0.46; ß = 0.30; p = 0.011), daytime (R 2  = 0.38; ß = 0.28; p = 0.023) and nighttime SBP (R 2  = 0.38; ß = 0.33; p = 0.009). In contrast, inverse associations of MBG/Na + with nighttime SBP were evident in white women (r = -0.20; p = 0.038) but lost significance after multiple adjustments (R 2  = 0.36; ß = -0.13; p = 0.12). We found independent positive associations of SBP with MBG/Na + in black women. This data supports the concept that reduced MBG-mediated Na + excretion can contribute to adverse hemodynamics.

  19. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-13

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different ( p food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  20. Effect of Pre-Hospital Ticagrelor During the First 24 h After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalescot, Gilles; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this landmark exploratory analysis, ATLANTIC-H(24), was to evaluate the effects of pre-hospital ticagrelor during the first 24 h after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the ATLANTIC (Administration of Ticagrelor in the cath Lab or in the Ambulance for New ST...... hypothesized that the effect of pre-hospital ticagrelor may not have manifested until after PCI due to the rapid transfer time (31 min). METHODS: The ATLANTIC-H(24) analysis included 1,629 patients who underwent PCI, evaluating platelet reactivity, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3, ≥ 70% ST...... except death (1.1% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.048) favored pre-hospital ticagrelor, with no differences in bleeding events. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of pre-hospital ticagrelor became apparent after PCI, with numerical differences in platelet reactivity and immediate post-PCI reperfusion, associated with reductions...

  1. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti, the tuco-tuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  2. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-02-16

    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants' physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87-9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake-less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55-9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57-10.12 g/day) individuals ( p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt.

  3. Significant suppression of myocardial (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake using 24-h carbohydrate restriction and a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Ishihara, Keiichi; Suda, Masaya; Sakurai, Minoru

    2013-11-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a useful tool for evaluating inflammation. Because, myocardial-FDG uptake occurs with diverse physiology, it should be suppressed during evaluation of myocardial inflammation by FDG-PET/CT. Diets inducing fat-based metabolism, such as a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (LCHF), are used in uptake-suppression protocols. However, a complete suppression of myocardial-FDG uptake has not been established. Hence, we assessed the efficacy of 24-h carbohydrate restriction along with an LCHF diet compared to that of the conventional protocol in suppressing myocardial-FDG uptake and also compared fat and glucose metabolism between these protocols. Fourteen healthy volunteers agreed to undergo >24-h carbohydrate restriction (glucose, vs. 2.98 [1.76-6.43], p=0.001). Target-to-background ratios [myocardium-to-blood ratio (MBR), myocardium-to-lung ratio (MLR), and myocardium-to-liver ratio (MLvR)] were also significantly lower with the diet-preparation protocol [MBR: 0.75 (0.68-0.84) vs. 1.63 (0.98-4.09), pvs. 4.54 (2.53-12.78), p=0.004; MLvR: 0.48 (0.44-0.56) vs. 1.11 (0.63-2.32), p=0.002]. Only insulin levels were significantly different between the subjects in each protocol group (11.3 [6.2-15.1] vs. 3.9 [2.9-6.2]). Carbohydrate restriction together with an LCHF supplement administered 1h before FDG significantly suppressed myocardial-FDG uptake. FFAs and insulin might not directly affect myocardial-FDG uptake. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Johnson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69 g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003. Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day individuals (p = 0.82. There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt.

  5. A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, Adel [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, LAMEL, Jijel University, Ouled-aissa, P.O. Box 98, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Pavan, Alessandro Massi [Department of Materials and Natural Resources, University of Trieste Via A. Valerio, 2 - 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

  6. A randomised controlled study of the post-operative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided pectoral nerve block in the first 24 h after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Breast cancer has become the most common cancer in women worldwide. Acute post-operative pain following mastectomy remains a challenge for the anaesthesiologist despite a range of treatment options available. The present study aimed to compare the post-operative analgesic efficacy of pectoral nerve (Pecs block performed under ultrasound with our standard practice of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for mastectomy. Methods: This randomised controlled study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India, after obtaining ethical clearance. Fifty adult female patients posted for elective unilateral modified radical mastectomy were divided into two groups as follows: Group I (general anaesthesia only and Group II (general anaesthesia plus ultrasound-guided Pecs block, each comprising 25 patients. Post-randomisation, patients in Group I received general anaesthesia, while Group II patients received ultrasound-guided Pecs block followed by general anaesthesia after 20 min. The primary outcome was measured as patient-reported pain intensity using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at rest. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Data were entered into MS Excel spreadsheet and analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. Results: VAS score was significantly lower in Group II at rest and on abduction post-operatively at all time intervals (P < 0.001. The 24-h tramadol consumption was significantly less in Group II compared to Group I (114.4 ± 4.63 mg vs. 402.88 ± 74.22, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Pecs block provided excellent post-operative analgesia in the first 24 h.

  7. Computed tomography findings in young children with minor head injury presenting to the emergency department greater than 24h post injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelernter, Renana; Weiser, Giora; Kozer, Eran

    2018-01-01

    Large studies which developed decision rules for the use of Computed tomography (CT) in children with minor head trauma excluded children with late presentation (more than 24h). To assess the prevalence of significant traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT in infants with head trauma presenting to the emergency department (ED) more than 24h from the injury. A retrospective chart review of infants less than 24 months old referred for head CT because of traumatic brain injury from January 2004 to December 2014 in Assaf-Harofeh medical center was conducted. We used the PECARN definitions of TBI on CT to define significant CT findings. 344 cases were analyzed, 68 with late presentation. There was no significant difference in the age between children with late and early presentation (mean 11.4 (SD 5.6) month vs 10. 5 (SD 7.0) month, P=0.27). There was no significant difference between the groups in the incidence of significant TBI (22% vs 19%, p=0.61). Any TBI on CT (e.g. fracture) was found in 43 (63%) patients with late presentation compared with 116 (42%) patients with early presentation (p=0.002, OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.37-4.1). A similar rate of CT-identified traumatic brain injury was detected in both groups.‏ There was no significant difference in the incidence of significant TBI on CT between the groups.‏ Young children presenting to the ED more than 24 hours after the injury may have abnormal findings on CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

    2007-09-01

    Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

  9. Intraneural hemangioma of the median nerve: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Teoman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemangiomas of the median nerve are very rare and, so far, only ten cases of intraneural hemangioma of this nerve have been reported in the literature. We present a case of 14-year-old girl who had a soft tissue mass in the region of the left wrist with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Total removal of the mass was achieved using microsurgical epineural and interfasicular dissection. The symptoms were relieved completely, after this procedure, without any neurologic deficit. On follow-up two years later, no recurrence was observed. Whenever a child or young adult patient presents with CTS the possibility of a hemangioma involving the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Lapset median käyttäjinä

    OpenAIRE

    Jalonen, Taru; Suomela, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Hyvinkää Sosiaali-, terveys- ja liikunta-ala Hoitotyön koulutusohjelma Terveydenhoitaja AMK Sairaanhoitaja AMK Taru Jalonen, Sonja Suomela Lapset median käyttäjinä Vuosi ‎2010‎ Sivumäärä ‎63‎ Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää lasten tottumuksia ja kokemuksia mediasta sekä ‎niiden herättämiä tunteita. Lisäksi selvitimme lasten käyttämiä mediaympäristöjä sekä median ‎näkymistä lasten leikeissä. Tämä työ on os...

  11. Educational system, income inequality and growth: the median voter's decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Dias

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available I analyze a long run educational policy as a mechanism to close the income gap among low, median and high-income families. If the choice is made endogenous by the use of the median voter theorem, the results are as follow: i public education system guarantees income convergence, however the income growth rate of the median voter is smaller; ii the combination public and private (hybrid educational system allows faster income growth rate, but income inequality is almost the natural outcome. The ending result is that the combination public and private system will prevail, since the income growth rate of the median voter is higher in this system. This might explain the persistence and differences of income inequality among the economies.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a utilização da política educacional no longo prazo como mecanismo para a redução da desigualdade de renda entre famílias de renda baixa, mediana e alta. Se a decisão sobre a política for endogeneizada, de acordo com o teorema do eleitor mediano, os resultados são os seguintes: i o sistema educacional público para todos, apesar de garantir convergência de renda, produz uma menor taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano; ii a combinação público-privado (sistema educacional híbrido permite uma maior taxa de crescimento da renda do eleitor mediano, no entanto a desigualdade de renda é inerente a este sistema. Como resultado final, o eleitor mediano irá escolher o sistema público-privado, pois o crescimento da sua renda é maior, o que pode explicar a persistência e as diferenças na desigualdade de renda das economias.

  12. Median Robust Extended Local Binary Pattern for Texture Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Lao, Songyang; Fieguth, Paul W; Guo, Yulan; Wang, Xiaogang; Pietikäinen, Matti

    2016-03-01

    Local binary patterns (LBP) are considered among the most computationally efficient high-performance texture features. However, the LBP method is very sensitive to image noise and is unable to capture macrostructure information. To best address these disadvantages, in this paper, we introduce a novel descriptor for texture classification, the median robust extended LBP (MRELBP). Different from the traditional LBP and many LBP variants, MRELBP compares regional image medians rather than raw image intensities. A multiscale LBP type descriptor is computed by efficiently comparing image medians over a novel sampling scheme, which can capture both microstructure and macrostructure texture information. A comprehensive evaluation on benchmark data sets reveals MRELBP's high performance-robust to gray scale variations, rotation changes and noise-but at a low computational cost. MRELBP produces the best classification scores of 99.82%, 99.38%, and 99.77% on three popular Outex test suites. More importantly, MRELBP is shown to be highly robust to image noise, including Gaussian noise, Gaussian blur, salt-and-pepper noise, and random pixel corruption.

  13. Median Filtering Methods for Non-volcanic Tremor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, L. G.; Nadeau, R. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Various properties of median filtering over time and space are used to address challenges posed by the Non-volcanic tremor detection problem. As part of a "Big-Data" effort to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of ambient tremor throughout the Northern San Andreas Fault system, continuous seismic data from multiple seismic networks with contrasting operational characteristics and distributed over a variety of regions are being used. Automated median filtering methods that are flexible enough to work consistently with these data are required. Tremor is characterized by a low-amplitude, long-duration signal-train whose shape is coherent at multiple stations distributed over a large area. There are no consistent phase arrivals or mechanisms in a given tremor's signal and even the durations and shapes among different tremors vary considerably. A myriad of masquerading noise, anthropogenic and natural-event signals must also be discriminated in order to obtain accurate tremor detections. We present here results of the median methods applied to data from four regions of the San Andreas Fault system in northern California (Geysers Geothermal Field, Napa, Bitterwater and Parkfield) to illustrate the ability of the methods to detect tremor under diverse conditions.

  14. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the

  15. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  16. A Rank Test on Equality of Population Medians

    OpenAIRE

    Pooi Ah Hin

    2012-01-01

    The Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric test for the equality of K population medians. The test statistic involved is a measure of the overall closeness of the K average ranks in the individual samples to the average rank in the combined sample. The resulting acceptance region of the test however may not be the smallest region with the required acceptance probability under the null hypothesis. Presently an alternative acceptance region is constructed such that it has the smallest size, ap...

  17. Data Visualization of Item-Total Correlation by Median Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Ho Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate how data visualization could be utilized to identify errors prior to modeling, using an example with multi-dimensional item response theory (MIRT. MIRT combines item response theory and factor analysis to identify a psychometric model that investigates two or more latent traits. While it may seem convenient to accomplish two tasks by employing one procedure, users should be cautious of problematic items that affect both factor analysis and IRT. When sample sizes are extremely large, reliability analyses can misidentify even random numbers as meaningful patterns. Data visualization, such as median smoothing, can be used to identify problematic items in preliminary data cleaning.

  18. SOSIAALISEN MEDIAN HYÖDYNTÄMINEN KUNTOKESKUS BALANCEN MARKKINOINNISSA

    OpenAIRE

    Arvola, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä oli kyse kehittämistehtävästä. Kehittämistehtävän tarkoitus oli tarkastella voiko Kuntokes-kus Balance hyödyntää sosiaalista mediaa markkinoinnissaan. Empiirisessä osassa on ohje Facebook-sivun luomi-seen. Teorian alussa tarkastellaan sosiaalista mediaa käsitteenä. Sosiaalisesta mediasta käsitteenä siirrytään sosiaalisen median sovelluksiin ja niiden ominaisuuksiin. Sovelluksista käsitellään Facebook, Youtube, Twitter, Wikipedia, blogit, Movescount ja HeiaHeia. ...

  19. Nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttö tiedonhankinnassa

    OpenAIRE

    Simolin, Annina

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana on Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulun strateginen viestintä, joka vastaa muun muassa opiskelijahankinnasta. HAMKilla on tällä hetkellä käytössään useita sosiaalisen median kanavia, ja työllä haluttiin selvittää mistä kanavista ja mitä tietoa nuoret erityisesti hakevat jatko-opintoja suunnitellessaan. Lisäksi haluttiin selvittää miten nuoret haluavat itse olla yhteydessä oppilaitoksiin hakuaikana. Teoriaosiossa on käsitelty nuorten mediakäyttäytymistä sekä useita sosiaal...

  20. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    The St. Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St. Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St. Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial "seed" value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the median heuristic , strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St. Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St. Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  1. Wound infection after median sternotomy during the war in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, I; Anić, D; Alfirević, I; Kalinić, S; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Ante Korda, Z; Vucemilo, I; Bulat, C; Predrijevac, M; Corić, V; Husar, J; Jelic, M; Hulina, D; Depina, I; Dadić, D

    1996-12-01

    From 1990 to 1994 at Clinical Hospital Center, Zagreb, 1904 median sternotomies were performed for cardiac operations. Patients shared the same intensive care unit (ICU) with the wounded persons, admitted to the hospital from battlefield. Infection developed in 124 patients, an incidence of 6.51%. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from 90, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) from 19, and gram negative bacilli (GNB) from 56 patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2, and Clostridium pneumoniae in 1 case. Ninety-six patients (5.04%) developed superficial localized infection of subcutaneous tissues and they were treated with frequent dressing changes with antibiotic-soaked gauze in combination with systemic antibiotics. Twenty-eight patients (1.47%) developed mediastinitis and sternal dehiscence. They were treated by operative debridement followed by reclosure of the sternum with continuous antibiotic irrigation. We obtained satisfactory results with our method of closure of sternum which is a modification of Robicsek's technique. Nine of them required further operation. In seven cases we performed muscle flaps and in two omentoplasty. One hundred and twenty patients were discharged in satisfactory condition. The uncontrolled mediastinal sepsis caused death in 4 patients. Higher infection rate after median sternotomy during 1991 and 1992 could be possibly explained with the war circumstances in Croatia, and especially with MRSA strain becoming endemic in surgical ICU.

  2. A Rare Variation of the Human Median Nerve Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barfi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The brachial plexus, a complex network of nerves, innervates to the upper limbs. Variation in the course of the nerves in the upper limb is common. Case Presentation This paper describes two cases of upper limb variations in a cadaver dissected at Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. In the first variation, the median nerve in the arm has a different route, so that the median moves deep into the brachialis muscle. In the latter case, after piercing the coracobrachialis muscle a musculocutaneous nerve exists between the brachialis and biceps and goes to the lateral region of the forearm. This is known as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm nerve, and innervates the skin of the lateral part of the forearm and the dorsal part of the hand. Conclusions Because of the possibility of damage to the brachial plexus branches is high in upper limb injuries and surgeries, full knowledge of normal anatomy and variations of these branches is essential for orthopedic specialists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and anatomists.

  3. Radiographic signs of open median sternotomy in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, George [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (United States); Jaimes, Camilo; Markowitz, Richard I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gaynor, J.W. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Leaving the median sternotomy wound open following cardiac surgery is employed to avoid cardiovascular compression. Horizontal struts can be used. Radiologists interpreting portable radiographs might be unaware of the open median sternotomy (OMS). To describe the frequency of radiographic signs of OMS and to increase awareness among radiologists to prevent misdiagnosis of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Radiographs of 41 infants (17 girls/24 boys) with OMS were studied (age range 2 days to 8 months, mean 33 days). Central lucency and sternal edges were noted. Interclavicular distances before and after sternotomy were compared. Central lucency was seen in 25/41 (61%) children. Sternal struts were apparent in 27 (66%). In 14 without struts, central lucency was present in 8 (57%). In 27 children with struts, central lucency was present in 17 (63%) and absent in 10 (37%). Split sternal centers were identified in 6/41 (15%). The mean interclavicular distance was 23.5 mm (SD = 4.39) before sternotomy and 38.2 mm (SD = 7.0 mm) after sternotomy (P < 0.001). OMS has characteristic signs in the majority of cases. Recognition of these findings is useful and can prevent misinterpretation. (orig.)

  4. Median sep and blink reflex in thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflazoğlu, B; Somay, G; Us, O; Surardamar, A; Tanridağ, T

    2006-11-01

    Pathological disturbances of thyroid hormones is associated with central and peripheral nervous system disturbances. The aim of this study is to evaluate median nerve stimulated somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and blink reflex of thyroid patients (hypo and hyperthyroidism). Median SEP was performed in 40 patients (21 with hyperthyroidism and 19 with hypothyroidism). We evaluated the latencies of N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 waves and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies. We compared the results of patients with the control group (26 persons). We found that the N20 latency was longer in patients with hyperthyroidism than in the control group and the difference was statistically significant. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding the N9, N11, N13, P9, P11, P14, N20 and P25 latencies and the N9-N20, N9-N13, N13-N20 and P14-N20 interpeak latencies between hypothyroid patients and controls. We performed the blink reflex study in 28 of 40 patients (14 patients with hyperthyroidism and 14 patients with hypothyroidism). Comparing the R1, R2, CR2 (contralateral R2) latencies and durations of the patients and controls, we found that R2 and CR2 duration was shorter in patients with hyperthyroidism. This difference was statistically significant.

  5. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y. Hayden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The St.~Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St.~Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St.~Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial ``seed'' value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the extit{median} extit{heuristic}, strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St.~Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St.~Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  6. Evaluation of the international standardized 24-h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet) for potential application in research and surveillance within African settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom Kouassivi; Landais, Edwige; Nicolas, Geneviève; Margetts, Barrie; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Aderibigbe, Olaide; Agueh, Victoire Damienne; Amuna, Paul; Annor, George Amponsah; El Ati, Jalila; Coates, Jennifer; Colaiezzi, Brooke; Compaore, Ella; Delisle, Hélène; Faber, Mieke; Fungo, Robert; Gouado, Inocent; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Hounkpatin, Waliou Amoussa; Konan, Amoin Georgette; Labzizi, Saloua; Ledo, James; Mahachi, Carol; Maruapula, Segametsi Ditshebo; Mathe, Nonsikelelo; Mbabazi, Muniirah; Mirembe, Mandy Wilja; Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Nzi, Clement Diby; Pisa, Pedro Terrence; El Rhazi, Karima; Zotor, Francis; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-06-19

    Collection of reliable and comparable individual food consumption data is of primary importance to better understand, control and monitor malnutrition and its related comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including in Africa. The lack of standardised dietary tools and their related research support infrastructure remains a major obstacle to implement concerted and region-specific research and action plans worldwide. Citing the magnitude and importance of this challenge, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO) launched the "Global Nutrition Surveillance initiative" to pilot test the use of a standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet), validated in Europe, in other regions. In this regard, the development of the GloboDiet-Africa can be optimised by better understanding of the local specific methodological needs, barriers and opportunities. The study aimed to evaluate the standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet) as a possible common methodology for research and surveillance across Africa. A consultative panel of African and international experts in dietary assessment participated in six e-workshop sessions. They completed an in-depth e-questionnaire to evaluate the GloboDiet dietary methodology before and after participating in the e-workshop. The 29 experts expressed their satisfaction on the potential of the software to address local specific needs when evaluating the main structure of the software, the stepwise approach for data collection and standardisation concept. Nevertheless, additional information to better describe local foods and recipes, as well as particular culinary patterns (e.g. mortar pounding), were proposed. Furthermore, food quantification in shared-plates and -bowls eating situations and interviewing of populations with low literacy skills, especially in rural settings, were acknowledged as requiring further specific considerations and appropriate solutions. An overall

  7. Comparison of self-reported dietary intakes from the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall, 4-d food records, and food-frequency questionnaires against recovery biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Dodd, Kevin W; Kipnis, Victor; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy; Schoeller, Dale A; Baer, David J; Midthune, Douglas; Troiano, Richard P; Bowles, Heather; Subar, Amy F

    2018-01-01

    A limited number of studies have evaluated self-reported dietary intakes against objective recovery biomarkers. The aim was to compare dietary intakes of multiple Automated Self-Administered 24-h recalls (ASA24s), 4-d food records (4DFRs), and food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) against recovery biomarkers and to estimate the prevalence of under- and overreporting. Over 12 mo, 530 men and 545 women, aged 50-74 y, were asked to complete 6 ASA24s (2011 version), 2 unweighed 4DFRs, 2 FFQs, two 24-h urine collections (biomarkers for protein, potassium, and sodium intakes), and 1 administration of doubly labeled water (biomarker for energy intake). Absolute and density-based energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were calculated. The prevalence of under- and overreporting of self-report against biomarkers was estimated. Ninety-two percent of men and 87% of women completed ≥3 ASA24s (mean ASA24s completed: 5.4 and 5.1 for men and women, respectively). Absolute intakes of energy, protein, potassium, and sodium assessed by all self-reported instruments were systematically lower than those from recovery biomarkers, with underreporting greater for energy than for other nutrients. On average, compared with the energy biomarker, intake was underestimated by 15-17% on ASA24s, 18-21% on 4DFRs, and 29-34% on FFQs. Underreporting was more prevalent on FFQs than on ASA24s and 4DFRs and among obese individuals. Mean protein and sodium densities on ASA24s, 4DFRs, and FFQs were similar to biomarker values, but potassium density on FFQs was 26-40% higher, leading to a substantial increase in the prevalence of overreporting compared with absolute potassium intake. Although misreporting is present in all self-report dietary assessment tools, multiple ASA24s and a 4DFR provided the best estimates of absolute dietary intakes for these few nutrients and outperformed FFQs. Energy adjustment improved estimates from FFQs for protein and sodium but not for potassium. The ASA24, which now can be

  8. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Yang, Yichao; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Bielke, Lisa R.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR), resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg); shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h); using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results. PMID:28470003

  9. Optimizing Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Dextran Measurement As a Biomarker in a 24-h Feed Restriction Model to Induce Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d is a 3–5 kDa marker used to measure tight junction permeability. We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by stress, poorly digested diets, or feed restriction (FR, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. However, further optimization adjustments of the current FITC-d methodology are possible to enhance precision and efficacy of results in future. The objective of the present study was to optimize our current model to obtain a larger difference between control and treated groups, by optimizing the FITC-d measurement as a biomarker in a 24-h FR model to induce gut permeability in broiler chickens. One in vitro and four in vivo independent experiments were conducted. The results of the present study suggest that by increasing the dose of FITC-d (8.32 versus 4.16 mg/kg; shortening the collection time of blood samples (1 versus 2.5 h; using a pool of non-FITC-d serum as a blank, compared to previously used PBS; adding a standard curve to set a limit of detection and modifying the software’s optimal sensitivity value, it was possible to obtain more consistent and reliable results.

  10. Influence of cure of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric acidity and gastroesophageal reflux: study by 24-h pH monitoring in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Takumi; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Naomi; Tsukamoto, Reiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Ito, Dai; Nagamatsu, Ryousuke

    2005-04-01

    Whether or not the eradication of Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for reflux esophagitis (RE) is a question at issue. To find an answer, it is necessary to clarify the influence of H. pylori eradication on the mechanism of RE. The authors investigated the influence of H. pylori eradication on gastric acidity and gastroesophageal reflux in ten gastric ulcer (GU) patients and ten duodenal ulcer (DU) patients by 24-h simultaneous determination of pH in the stomach and esophagus. Though the results indicated enhanced gastric acidity in GU patients at night after H. pylori eradication, no such influence was observed in DU patients. No significant changes in gastroesophageal reflux occurred in GU or DU patients before and after H. pylori eradication. RE after H. pylori eradication occurred in only one patient, with GU. This patient had several risk factors for RE, such as obesity, male sex, and dietary habits to add to the increase in gastric acidity at night that occurred after H. pylori eradication. No increase in gastroesophageal reflux occurred in any DU patients or in the other GU patients that demonstrated enhanced gastric acidity at night after H. pylori eradication. The cure of H. pylori infection does not, by itself, cause RE in patients who have few other risk factors for RE.

  11. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail: cgonzalez.uaslp@gmail.com, E-mail: gonzalez.castillocarmen@fcq.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  12. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  13. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO 3 ) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells

  14. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO2/4H-SiC interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO2/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiCxOy species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiCxOy structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO5 configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO5 configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO2/SiC interface.

  15. Electric properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS capacitors with different annealing temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe a rapid thermal annealing (RTA process for the La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC interface and investigate its effect on the material’s electrical properties. Our results indicate that the trap charge density and interface state density (Dit are reduced as the RTA temperature increases due to the termination of residual carbon and dangling bonds. We demonstrate that the sample obtained after RTA at 500 °C has the highest breakdown electric field (Efb (7 MV/cm due to a decrease in the trap charge density and an improvement in the interfacial properties. However, when the RTA temperature reaches 600 °C or higher, a lower Efb value (1.2 MV/cm is obtained due to leakage routes generated by the crystallization of La2O3. Based on our results, we conclude that the ideal choice for the RTA temperature is 500 °C.

  16. The effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, H; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  17. Effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, H.; Araki, S.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  18. Sosiaalisen median merkitys mikroyrityksille - Case: TallFits Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Nousiainen, Ari; Koskivuori, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on sosiaalinen media mikroyritysten näkökulmasta. Työssä käsi-tellään sosiaalista mediaa ja markkinoinnissa tapahtunutta muutosta sekä niitä toimintatapoja, joita interaktiivinen mediaympäristö yrityksille ja sen asiakkaille tarjoaa. Työn tavoitteena on tuottaa tietoa sosiaalisen median hyödyistä ja haasteista mikroyrityksille ja lisätä koh-deyrityksemme TallFits Oy:n myyntiä ja löydettävyyttä. Tavoitteiden saavuttamiseksi opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena oli tehd...

  19. Mesopontine median raphe regulates hippocampal ripple oscillation and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong V; Yau, Hau-Jie; Broker, Carl J; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Bonci, Antonello; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Sharp wave-associated field oscillations (∼200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as ripples, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. We found that the median raphe region (MnR) is important for regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory consolidation. We performed in vivo simultaneous recording in the MnR and hippocampus of mice and found that, when a group of MnR neurons was active, ripples were absent. Consistently, optogenetic stimulation of MnR neurons suppressed ripple activity and inhibition of these neurons increased ripple activity. Notably, using a fear conditioning procedure, we found that photostimulation of MnR neurons interfered with memory consolidation. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the MnR in regulating ripples and memory consolidation.

  20. Analytical precision of the Urolizer for the determination of the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) for calcium oxalate urolithiasis and evaluation of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wolfgang; Bechler, Robin; Laube, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Since its first publication in 2000, the BONN-Risk-Index (BRI) has been successfully used to determine the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization risk from urine samples. To date, a BRI-measuring device, the "Urolizer", has been developed, operating automatically and requiring only a minimum of preparation. Two major objectives were pursued: determination of Urolizer precision, and determination of the influence of 24-h urine storage at moderate temperatures on BRI. 24-h urine samples from 52 CaOx stone-formers were collected. A total of 37 urine samples were used for the investigation of Urolizer precision by performing six independent BRI determinations in series. In total, 30 samples were taken for additional investigation of urine storability. Each sample was measured thrice: directly after collection, after 24-h storage at T=21 degrees C, and after 24-h cooling at T=4 degrees C. Outcomes were statistically tested for identity with regard to the immediately obtained results. Repeat measurements for evaluation of Urolizer precision revealed statistical identity of data (p-0.05). 24-h storage of urine at both tested temperatures did not significantly affect BRI (p-0.05). The pilot-run Urolizer shows high analytical reliability. The innovative analysis device may be especially suited for urologists specializing in urolithiasis treatment. The possibility for urine storage at moderate temperatures without loss of analysis quality further demonstrates the applicability of the BRI method.

  1. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  2. Feasibility of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, E; Amiano, P; Ege, M; Bower, E; Lioret, S; Brants, H; Kaic-Rak, A; de Boer, E J; Andersen, L F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) pc-program. A total of 75 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years old were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark, and 57 children aged 7-8 years and 47 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through schools in Spain. Each child with one parent completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a food-recording booklet (FRB) to be filled in by the child, a parent or other proxy persons for preparing the recalls. Feasibility was evaluated by questionnaires completed by parents, children and interviewers, and by selected data from the 24-HDRs. The face-to-face interviews with the child and a parent together are confirmed as feasible. The children participated actively in the interviews, the oldest children being most active. The children, parents and interviewers agreed that children needed help from the parents, and that parents were of help to the child. In both countries, other proxy persons, such as teachers or the school cafeteria staff, were involved before the interview, and the majority of the parents and children reported that the FRB had been a help for the child during the interview. Further results point at specific needed improvements of the tools. The evaluated method is shown feasible in two culturally diverse European populations. However, the feasibility study also points to specific improvements of tools and data collection protocol that are strongly recommended before implementation of the method in each country of a pan-European dietary survey.

  3. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fiorentino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal. The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children. Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2. Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9. Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3. To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  4. Predicting late restenosis after coronary angioplasty by very early (12 to 24 h) thallium-201 scintigraphy: Implications with regard to mechanisms of late coronary restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardoff, R.; Shefer, A.; Gips, S.; Merdler, A.; Flugelman, M.Y.; Halon, D.A.; Lewis, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    To examine whether late coronary restenosis may be predicted by abnormalities of myocardial perfusion in the early hours after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and to study in greater detail the mechanisms involved in the development of late coronary restenosis after angioplasty, a prospective study was undertaken in 90 consecutive patients. Thallium-201 scintigrams were recorded at rest and during the stress of atrial pacing, 12 to 24 h after angioplasty, and the results were related to the findings at angiography in 70 patients undergoing late cardiac catheterization. A reversible thallium-201 perfusion defect was found in 39 (38%) of 104 myocardial regions supplied by the dilated coronary vessel and identified a subset of patients at high risk of late (6 to 12 months) angiographic restenosis (sensitivity 77%, specificity 67%). In contrast, late coronary restenosis developed in only 7 (11%) of 65 vessels and in 5 (14%) of 37 patients with a nonischemic thallium-201 scintigram on day 1 (p less than 0.005). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of 14 possible preangioplasty and periangioplasty clinical and angiographic variables selected reversible perfusion defect on the thallium-201 scintigram on day 1 (p = 0.016) and immediate postangioplasty residual coronary narrowing (p = 0.004) as significant independent predictors of late restenosis, with younger patient age as an additional less powerful predictor (p less than 0.05). The findings have important implications regarding the pathogenesis of late coronary restenosis in patients undergoing successful angioplasty and they imply that in the majority of these patients pathophysiologic events in the early minutes and hours after angioplasty may determine the development of late restenosis

  5. Dietary patterns extracted from the current Japanese diet and their associations with sodium and potassium intakes estimated by repeated 24 h urine collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Aya; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    To identify dietary patterns in the current Japanese diet and evaluate the associations between these patterns and Na and K intakes. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis from the intakes of food groups assessed with a validated self-administrated diet history questionnaire. Na and K intakes and urinary Na:K were assessed by repeated 24 h urine collection. Healthy Japanese adults aged 20-69 years (353 men and 349 women). Twenty study areas in twenty-three prefectures in Japan. Result Four dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for several confounding factors, the 'Fish and vegetable' pattern was associated with higher urinary Na excretion, but the association was not significant (P=0·37 in men and P=0·06 in women). This pattern was also associated with higher K excretion in both sexes. The 'Noodle' pattern tended to be associated with higher urinary Na excretion (P=0·17 in men and P=0·04 in women) and higher Na:K (P=0·02 in men). The 'Meat, vegetable and oil' (in men)/'Meat and oil' (in women) and 'Bread and confectioneries' patterns were not associated with urinary Na excretion (in men) or were negatively associated (in women). Contrary to the case in Western countries, the 'Fish and vegetable' and 'Noodle' patterns contributed to higher Na intake in Japan. Target foods for salt reduction should be set based on careful consideration of the relationships between dietary patterns and Na and K intakes in the target population.

  6. Validating polyphenol intake estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire by using repeated 24-h dietary recalls and a unique method-of-triads approach with 2 biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder-Cooley, Nasira M; Rajaram, Sujatha S; Haddad, Ella H; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Background: The assessment of polyphenol intake in free-living subjects is challenging, mostly because of the difficulty in accurately measuring phenolic content and the wide presence of phenolics in foods. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity of polyphenol intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) by using the mean of 6 measurements of a 24-h dietary recall (24-HR) as a reference and to apply a unique method-of-triads approach to assess validity coefficients (VCs) between latent "true" dietary estimates, total urinary polyphenol (TUP) excretion, and a surrogate biomarker (plasma carotenoids). Design: Dietary intake data from 899 adults of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2; 43% blacks and 67% women) were obtained. Pearson correlation coefficients ( r ), corrected for attenuation from within-person variation in the recalls, were calculated between 24-HRs and FFQs and between 24-HRs and TUPs. VCs and 95% CIs between true intake and polyphenol intakes from FFQs, 24-HRs, and the biomarkers TUPs and plasma carotenoids were calculated. Results: Mean ± SD polyphenol intakes were 717 ± 646 mg/d from FFQs and 402 ± 345 mg/d from 24-HRs. The total polyphenol intake from 24-HRs was correlated with FFQs in crude ( r = 0.51, P < 0.001) and deattenuated ( r = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.69) models . In the triad model, the VC between the FFQs and theoretical true intake was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.93) and between 24-HRs and true intake was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38, 1.00). Conclusions: The AHS-2 FFQ is a reasonable indicator of total polyphenol intake in the AHS-2 cohort. Urinary polyphenol excretion is limited by genetic variance, metabolism, and bioavailability and should be used in addition to rather than as a replacement for dietary intake assessment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Methodological aspects for metabolome visualization and characterization: a metabolomic evaluation of the 24 h evolution of human urine after cocoa powder consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach-Asunción, R; Jauregui, O; Urpi-Sarda, M; Andres-Lacueva, C

    2010-01-20

    The LC-MS based metabolomics studies are characterized by the capacity to produce a large and complex dataset being mandatory to use the appropriate tools to recover and to interpret as maximum information as possible. In this context, a combined partial least square discriminat analysis (PLS-DA) and two-way hierarchical clustering (two-way HCA) using Bonferroni correction as filter is proposed to improve analysis in human urinary metabolome modifications in a nutritional intervention context. After overnight fasting, 10 subjects consumed cocoa powder with milk. Urine samples were collected before the ingestion product and at 0-6, 6-12, 12-24 h after test-meal consumption and analysed by LC-Q-ToF. The PLS-DA analysis showed a clear pattern related to the differences between before consumption period and the other three periods revealing relevant mass features in this separation, however, a weaker association between mass features and the three periods after cocoa consumption was observed. On the other hand, two-way HCA showed a separation of four urine time periods and point out the mass features associated with the corresponding urine times. The correlation matrix revealed complex relations between the mass features that could be used for metabolite identifications and to infer the possible metabolite origin. The reported results prove that combining visualization strategies would be an excellent way to produce new bioinformatic applications that help the scientific community to unravel the complex relations between the consumption of phytochemicals and their expected effects on health.

  8. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  9. Etiology and mechanisms of ulnar and median forearm nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. Most often injuries of brachial plexus and its branches disable the injured from using their arms and/or hands. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and mechanisms of median and ulnar forearm nerves injuries. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 99 patients surgically treated in the Clinic of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2010. All data are obtained from the patients' histories. Results. The majority of the injured patients were male, 81 (81.8%, while only 18 (18.2% were females, both mainly with nerve injuries of the distal forearm - 75 (75.6%. Two injury mechanisms were present, transection in 85 patients and traction and contusion in 14 of the patients. The most frequent etiological factor of nerve injuries was cutting, in 61 of the patients. Nerve injuries are often associated with other injuries. In the studied patients there were 22 vascular injuries, 33 muscle and tendon injuries and 20 bone fractures. Conclusion. The majority of those patients with peripheral nerve injuries are represented in the working age population, which is a major socioeconomic problem. In our study 66 out of 99 patients were between 17 and 40 years old, in the most productive age. The fact that the majority of patients had nerve injuries of the distal forearm and that they are operated within the first 6 months after injury, promises them good functional prognosis.

  10. Approximate median regression for complex survey data with skewed response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Raphael André; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Sinha, Debajyoti; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Pan, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The ready availability of public-use data from various large national complex surveys has immense potential for the assessment of population characteristics using regression models. Complex surveys can be used to identify risk factors for important diseases such as cancer. Existing statistical methods based on estimating equations and/or utilizing resampling methods are often not valid with survey data due to complex survey design features. That is, stratification, multistage sampling, and weighting. In this article, we accommodate these design features in the analysis of highly skewed response variables arising from large complex surveys. Specifically, we propose a double-transform-both-sides (DTBS)'based estimating equations approach to estimate the median regression parameters of the highly skewed response; the DTBS approach applies the same Box-Cox type transformation twice to both the outcome and regression function. The usual sandwich variance estimate can be used in our approach, whereas a resampling approach would be needed for a pseudo-likelihood based on minimizing absolute deviations (MAD). Furthermore, the approach is relatively robust to the true underlying distribution, and has much smaller mean square error than a MAD approach. The method is motivated by an analysis of laboratory data on urinary iodine (UI) concentration from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  11. The Investigation of Median Frequency Changes in Paraspinal Muscles Following Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Median frequency shift toward low values following fatigue in global and local paraspinal muscles was seen. However, median frequency values for the local stabilizer muscle were higher than median frequency values for the global muscles.

  12. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, E; Amiano, P; Ege, M; Bower, E; Lioret, S; Brants, H; Kaic-Rak, A; de Boer, E J; Andersen, L F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren. A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark. Each child and one of their parents completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a FRB, followed by a 7-day-estimated FR. Energy intake was significantly higher with the 24-HDR method than with the 7-dFR method for both age groups. Mean energy intake was 6% higher for the youngest (P = 0.02) and 11% for the oldest children (P = 0.01); underreporting of energy occurs among the oldest children, being less present with the 24-HDR method. The intakes of carbohydrate and dietary fiber (absolute and related to energy) were significantly higher with the 24-HDR than with the 7-dFR for both age groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences between the two methods were observed for absolute intake of fat and added sugar between both age groups, and for intake of protein among the 7- to 8-year olds. The percentage of energy intake from fat from the 24-HDR, however, was significantly lower for both age groups and for energy intake from added sugar for the 12- to 13-year olds. The 2 × 24-HDR method compared with the 7-dFR yields relatively good values on the group level for many macronutrients and foods. However, some differences in estimated intakes of macronutrients suggest the need to carefully adapt the tools to be age and country specific. There is a tendency for parents and schoolchildren to report a healthier diet

  13. Associations between meeting combinations of 24-h movement guidelines and health-related quality of life in children from 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Maher, C; Maia, J; Olds, T; Sarmiento, O L; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether meeting vs not meeting movement/non-movement guidelines (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], screen time, sleep duration), and combinations of these recommendations, are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world and explore whether the associations vary by study site. Observational, multinational cross-sectional study. This study included 6106 children aged 9-11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Participants completed the KIDSCREEN-10 to provide a global measure of their HRQoL. Sleep duration and MVPA were assessed using 24-h accelerometry. Screen time was assessed through self-report. Meeting the recommendations was defined as ≥60 min/day for MVPA, ≤2 h/day for screen time, and between 9 and 11 h/night for sleep duration. Age, sex, highest parental education, unhealthy diet pattern score, and body mass index z-score were included as covariates in statistical models. In the full sample, children meeting the screen time recommendation, the screen time + sleep recommendation, and all three recommendations had significantly better HRQoL than children not meeting any of these guidelines. Differences in HRQoL scores between sites were also found within combinations of movement/non-movement behaviors. For example, while children in Australia, Canada, and USA self-reported better HRQoL when meeting all three recommendations, children in Kenya and Portugal reported significantly lower HRQoL when meeting all three recommendations (relative to not meeting any). Self-reported HRQoL is generally higher when children meet established movement/non-movement recommendations. However, differences between study sites also suggest that interventions aimed at improving lifestyle behaviors and HRQoL should be locally and culturally adapted

  14. A field study evaluation of Petrifilm™ plates as a 24-h rapid diagnostic test for clinical mastitis on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion-de Vries, Elisabeth Maria; Knorr, Nicole; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Zinke, Claudia; Hoedemaker, Martina; Krömker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    Clinical mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases of dairy cattle. To make an informed treatment decision, it is important to know the causative pathogen. However, no detection of bacterial growth can be made in approximately 30% of all clinical cases of mastitis. Before selecting the treatment regimen, it is important to know whether the mastitis-causing pathogen (MCP) is Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The aim of this field study was to investigate whether using two 3M Petrifilm™ products on-farm (which conveys a higher degree of sample freshness but also bears a higher risk for contamination than working in a lab) as 24-h rapid diagnostic of clinical mastitis achieved results that were comparable to the conventional microbiological diagnostic method. AerobicCount (AC)-Petrifilm™ and ColiformCount (CC)-Petrifilm™ were used to identify the total bacterial counts and Gram-negative bacteria in samples from clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Missing growth on both plates was classified as no bacterial detection. Growth only on the AC-Petrifilm™ was assessed as Gram-positive, and growth on both Petrifilm™ plates was assessed as Gram-negative bacterial growth. Additionally, milk samples were analysed by conventional microbiological diagnostic method on aesculin blood agar as a reference method. Overall, 616 samples from clinical mastitis cases were analysed. Using the reference method, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mixed bacterial growth, contaminated samples and yeast were determined in 32.6%, 20.0%, 2.5%, 14.1% and 1.1% of the samples, respectively. In 29.7% of the samples, microbiological growth could not be identified. Using the Petrifilm™ concept, bacterial growth was detected in 59% of the culture-negative samples. The sensitivity of the Petrifilm™ for Gram-positive and Gram-negative MCP was 85.2% and 89.9%, respectively. The specificity was 75.4% for Gram-positive and 88.4% for Gram-negative MCP. For the culture

  15. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruts Tom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control, constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling, and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination. In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing

  16. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Ole N; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N; Christensen, Kent L; Buus, Niels H; Schroeder, Anne P; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L; Hansen, Klavs W; Btker, Hans E; Peters, Christian D; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B; Lassen, Jens F; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [-6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. -6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [-6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. -4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)].RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques.

  17. Sleep deprivation aggravates median nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and enhances microglial activation by suppressing melatonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. The T allele of rs7903146 TCF7L2 is associated with impaired insulinotropic action of incretin hormones, reduced 24 h profiles of plasma insulin and glucagon, and increased hepatic glucose production in young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Jensen, C; Schou, J

    2009-01-01

    h glucose, insulin and glucagon profiles; OGTT; mixed meal test; IVGTT; hyperglycaemic clamp with co-infusion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp combined with glucose tracer infusion to study hepatic...... and peripheral insulin action. RESULTS: Carriers of the T allele were characterised by reduced 24 h insulin concentrations (p ...-phase insulinotropic action of GLP-1 (p = 0.03) and GIP (p = 0.07) during a 7 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Secretion of GLP-1 and GIP during the mixed meal test was normal. Despite elevated hepatic glucose production, carriers of the T allele had significantly reduced 24 h glucagon concentrations (p

  19. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m -2 ; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

  20. Esophageal chemical clearance is impaired in gastro-esophageal reflux disease--a 24-h impedance-pH monitoring assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, M; Manta, R; Mirante, V G; Conigliaro, R; Frazzoni, L; Melotti, G

    2013-05-01

    Impedance-pH monitoring allows assessment of retrograde and antegrade intra-esophageal movement of fluids and gas. Reflux is followed by volume clearance and chemical clearance, elicited by secondary and swallow-induced peristalsis, respectively. We aimed to assess whether chemical clearance is impaired in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Blinded retrospective review of impedance-pH tracings from patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and from proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory patients before and after laparoscopic fundoplication. The number of refluxes followed within 30 s by swallow-induced peristaltic waves was divided by the number of total refluxes to obtain a parameter representing chemical clearance namely the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index. The PSPW index was significantly lower in 31 ERD (15%) and in 44 NERD (33%) off-PPI patients than in 30 controls (75%), as well as in 18 ERD (16%) and in 48 NERD (31%) on-PPI patients than in 26 on-PPI functional heartburn (FH) cases (67%) (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In 29 PPI-refractory patients, the median PSPW index was unaltered by otherwise effective antireflux surgery (20% postoperatively, 21% preoperatively). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the PSPW index in identifying GERD patients were 97%, 89%, 96%, and 93%. Impairment of chemical clearance is a primary pathophysiological mechanism specific to GERD: it is unaffected by medical/surgical therapy, is not found in FH, and is more pronounced in ERD than in NERD. Using the PSPW index could improve the diagnostic efficacy of impedance-pH monitoring. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Jaquet, J-B.; van Riel, W. G.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  2. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Riel, W.G. van; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  3. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I receptors in the median eminence of the brain and their modulation by food restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannon, N.J.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Dorsa, D.M.; Baskin, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    High affinity binding sites for 125I-labeled [Thr59]insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in rat median eminence by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen rat brain. Specific binding of 0.1 nM iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I to brain slices reached maximum by 12 h at 4 C and was unchanged at 24 h. Densitometry by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images indicated that specific binding of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I to the median eminence was reversible. The specificity of binding was evaluated with competition of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I with unlabeled [Thr59]IGF-I, rat IGF-II (multiplication-stimulating activity), and porcine insulin. All were recognized by the binding site, but the rank order of potency was [Thr59]IGF-I greater than IGF-II greater than insulin. Somatostatin was completely ineffective. Further, an antibody against the rat IGF-II receptor did not block binding of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I to the median eminence. Fourteen days of food restriction (75% of food intake of controls) resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of plasma immunoreactive IGF-I in six food-restricted rats (0.9 +/- 0.1 U/ml) compared with values in six controls (2.6 +/- 0.5 U/ml; P less than 0.001). Binding of 125I-labeled [Thr59]IGF-I in the median eminence was significantly increased in the food-restricted rats, primarily due to an increase in the concentration of iodo-[Thr59]IGF-I-binding sites in the median eminence; the affinity (Kd) of binding was unchanged. The results indicate that the median eminence has type I IGF-I receptors, which become more numerous under metabolic conditions associated with decreased caloric intake and lowered plasma IGF-I levels

  4. Study of recurrent branch of median nerve (Thenar's muscular branch in relation to the flexor retinaculum and median in 64 hands (32 Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsadri R

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation of recurred branch of median nerve in relation to the median and flexor retinaculum are significant for both hand surgeons and specialists always. In this study, 64 cadaver hands (32 men have been dissected. The median nerve was identified at the proximal edge of the flexor retinaculum, and in order to expose carpal tunnel the ligament was divided, and the above subjects were studied. The results are: 1 The relation of recurrent nerve to the flexor retinaculum was classified into 4 types: A In (53.1% of subjects, this branch arises from the median after the flexor retinaculum. B In (31.3% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and the moves around the lower edge of flexor retinaculum and enters the thenar region. C In (14.1% of subjects, it arises from the median in the carpal tunnel and pierces the flexor retinaculum. D In (1.56% of subjects it arises, in the carpal tunnel and it divides into two subbranches here. One follows pattern A and the other pattern C. 2 In this step, the relation of the recurrent branch to the median nerve was studied. The results show that inspite of this image even though most often the recurrent branch arises from the lateral side of median, in (68.75% of subjects it arises from it's anterior surface. The MC Nemar test reveals that there is no relation between manifestation of mentioned patterns with right or left hands.

  5. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2017-10-26

    During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians of serum sodium for both male and female patients were calculated from results obtained on samples from the population >18 years on three analysers in the hospital laboratory. The half-range of medians was applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated. The medians of both genders demonstrated dispersions over time, but they were closely connected in like patterns, which were confirmed by the half-range of the ratios of medians for males and females that varied from 0.36% for daily, 0.14% for weekly and 0.036% for monthly ratios over all instruments. The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females.

  6. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. METHODS: Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians...... all instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The tight relationship between the gender medians for serum sodium is only possible when raw laboratory data are used for calculation. The two patient medians can be used to confirm both and are useful as independent estimates of analytical bias during constant...... calibration periods. In contrast to the gender combined median, the estimate of analytical bias can be confirmed further by calculation of the ratios of medians for males and females....

  7. Esofagomanometria e pHmetria esofágica de 24 h em uma ampla amostra de pacientes com manifestações respiratórias Esophageal manometry and 24-h esophageal pH-metry in a large sample of patients with respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna da Mota Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE e avaliar o perfil motor esofágico de portadores de manifestações respiratórias encaminhados para avaliação funcional esofágica em um serviço de referência em motilidade digestiva. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os resultados de esofagomanometria e de pHmetria esofágica de 24 h. O critério de inclusão foi a presença de sintomas respiratórios, acompanhados ou não de sintomas digestivos. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.170 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 602 (51,5% relataram manifestações digestivas associadas às respiratórias (grupo MRD e 568 (48,5%, apenas respiratórias (grupo MR. A asma foi diagnosticada em 142 indivíduos no grupo MR (subgrupo MR-A e em 201 no grupo MRD (subgrupo MRD-A. Dentre os 346 casos de dismotilidade do corpo esofágico, a hipomotilidade esteve presente em 175 (14,3% e 15,6%, respectivamente, no grupos MRD e MR e hipotonia do esfíncter esofágico inferior (EEI em 411 (40.3% e 30,2% nos mesmos grupos, respectivamente. A hipotonia se correlacionou com DRGE. A exposição do esôfago distal ao ácido foi marcadamente anormal no período de decúbito. A prevalência de DRGE na amostra total, nos subgrupos MR-A/MRD-A e somente no subgrupo MR-A foi de 39,8%, 44,0% e 35,2%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A hipotonia do EEI foi a alteração manométrica preponderante, correlacionando-se com DRGE. Embora a DRGE foi mais evidente no grupo MRD, aproximadamente um terço dos pacientes do grupo MR apresentou DRGE (DRGE silencioso. Os achados sugerem a DRGE como possível causa extrapulmonar de sintomas respiratórios crônicos não responsivos à terapêutica convencional.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and to evaluate the esophageal motor profile of patients with respiratory symptoms referred to a digestive motility referral center for esophageal function testing. METHODS: The results of esophageal

  8. Usefulness of ultrasound assessment of median nerve mobility in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Seok, Jung Im; Park, Dong-Soon; Cho, Hee Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. Recently, dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging has shown differences in median nerve mobility between the affected and unaffected sides in CTS. Purpose The present study was performed to compare the median nerve mobility between patients with CTS and healthy individuals, and to correlate median nerve mobility with the severity of CTS. Material and Methods A total of 101 patients (128 wrists) with CTS and 43 healthy individuals (70 wrists) were evaluated. Electrodiagnostic studies were initially conducted to determine the neurophysiological grading scale (NGS). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and the grade of median nerve mobility were measured using US. Results The mean grade of median nerve mobility in the CTS group (1.9) was significantly lower than that in the control group (2.6; P mobility and distal motor latency of the median nerve (r = -0.218, P = 0.015), NGS (r = -0.207, P = 0.020) and CSA of the median nerve (r = -0.196, P = 0.028). Conclusion The grade of median nerve mobility was negatively correlated with the severity of CTS. US assessment of median nerve mobility may be useful in diagnosing and determining the severity of CTS.

  9. Central pressures and central hemodynamic values in white coat hypertensives are closer to those of normotensives than to those of controlled hypertensives for similar age, gender, and 24-h and nocturnal blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana; Monteiro, José; Silva, José A; Bertoquini, Susana; Polónia, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    There is disagreement whether white coat hypertensives (WCH) have different hemodynamic and structural characteristics compared to normotensives (NT) and hypertensives (HT). We compared cardiovascular prognostic markers (pulse wave velocity [PWV] and aortic stiffness index [ASI]) and data on central hemodynamics and central pressures (augmentation index [AIx], augmentation pressure [AugP] and pulse pressure amplification [PPA]) from aortic pulse wave analysis between NT (n=175), WCH (n=315) and treated HT (n=691), all with 24-h blood pressure (BP) <130/80 and nocturnal BP <120/70 mmHg after matching for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and and nocturnal BP. The groups were also compared separately in terms of 24-h systolic BP <120 mmHg and 120-129 mmHg. The percentage of non-dippers was 40.1% in NT, 34.5% in WCH and 38.3 in HT. For similar 24-h and nocturnal systolic BP (NT 109/64±7/5, WCH 110/66±7/6, HT 109/64±7/5 mmHg), aortic stiffness was greater in HT (n=691, PWV 10.8±2.6 m/s and ASI 0.33±0.16, p<0.01) than in WCH (n=316, PWV 9.7±2.4 m/s and ASI 0.28±0.17) and NT (n=175, PWV 9.5±2.0 m/s and ASI 0.29±0.15); AugP and AIx were higher (p<0.01) in HT (13.9±8.2 and 29.6±12.6 mmHg) than in WCH (11.5±8.5 mmHg and 24.9±15.2) and NT (11.0±6.4 mmHg and 26.6±11.5). PPA was lower (p<0.01) in HT (11.3±5.5 mmHg) than in WCH (13.2±7.1 mmHg) and in NT (12.4±4.9 mmHg). The findings were similar when the 24-h systolic BP <120 mmHg and 120-129 mmHg subgroups were analyzed separately. Our data suggest that for similar age, gender distribution, BMI, and 24-h and nocturnal BP, aortic stiffness, central aortic pressures and wave reflection in WCH are closer to those of NT than to those with treated HT. This supports the idea that white coat hypertension may be a more benign condition than treated hypertension for similar 24-h and particularly nocturnal BP levels. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  10. The use of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) during the first cycle of sunitinib improves the diagnostic accuracy and management of hypertension in patients with advanced renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, A; Manios, E; Karadimou, A; Michas, F; Lainakis, G; Constantinidis, C; Deliveliotis, C; Zakopoulos, N; Dimopoulos, M A

    2011-07-01

    Hypertension (HT) complicates treatment with antiangiogenic agents, including the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sunitinib. To prospectively evaluate the prevalence and management of HT in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving sunitinib we used 24-h ABPM and we treated HT according to guidelines of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection and Evaluation and the Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). Normal 24-h ABPM at the baseline and at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the first cycle was ensured with the successive use of hydrochlorothiazide+irbesartan, nebivolol and amlodipine. Office BP measurements were used in subsequent cycles to monitor HT. Sunitinib dose was modified only if BP was not controlled with four anti-hypertensive agents. Forty patients were included in this analysis. Twenty-one patients (53%) had baseline HT, while 12 of 14 (84%) normotensive patients required anti-HT treatment during the 1st cycle of sunitinib. HT was infrequent in subsequent cycles and increase of anti-HT medication was required in only 2 cases. Two patients permanently discontinued sunitinib due to HT. The remaining 34 (94%) required no dose modifications for HT. One cardiac event (2.8%) was observed. There was no correlation of HT with sunitinib efficacy. Sunitinib-associated HT is more frequent than previously reported. The use of 24-h ABPM for diagnosis and tailoring of HT according to JNC7 guidelines may achieve uninterrupted, full dose therapy in most patients. The substitution of such protocols for currently used Toxicity Criteria may be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F

    1997-01-01

    Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60 deaths, 33% were sudden and 49% due to pump failure. Multivariate analyses identified totally different risk factors for sudden death: ventricular tachycardia, s-sodium ....6 mmol/l, s-potassium sudden death and for death from progressive pump failure........80 mmol/l, s-creatinine > 121 mumol/l, and maximal change in heart rate during exercise death from progressive pump failure: New York Heart Association class III + IV, delta heart rate over 24 h 7...

  12. The 3,7 l V6 TDI for the 24 hours of Le Mans. A new idea triumphs; Der 3,7 l V 6 TDI fuer die 24h von Le Mans. Sieg einer neuen Idee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baretzky, U.; Diel, H.; Kotauschek, W.; Kuntz, P.; Dreyer, S.; Schneider, A.; Ullrich, W.; Muehlmeier, M. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Hatz, W. [Porsche AG (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    With the victories at the 24 h of le Mans in 2011 and 2012 AUDI has shown impressively, that engines with much smaller capacities than usually used can be extremely successful. Due to a number of innovative technical solutions combined with an unusual but leading architecture this very compact engine has offered the platform for a number of victories. At last even combined with an MGU as E-tron Quattro. Thanks to extremely low consumption figures the engine is a technology carrier for a number of customer relevant solutions. Those will become available for our customers after having been tested successfully in the hardest endurance race. (orig.)

  13. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  14. Electrical and physical characterizations of the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1})

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Hiromu; Kitai, Hidenori; Tsujimura, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Yuji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ono, Shuichi; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyohi; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) were investigated using both electrical and physical characterization methods. Hall measurements and split capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that the difference in field-effect mobility between wet oxide and dry oxynitride interfaces was mainly attributed to the ratio of the mobile electron density to the total induced electron density. The surface states close to the conduction band edge causing a significant trapping of inversion carriers were also evaluated. High-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HR-RBS) analysis and high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HR-ERDA) were employed to show the nanometer-scale compositional profile of the SiC-MOS interfaces for the first time. These analyses, together with cathode luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that the deviations of stoichiometry and roughness at the interface defined the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}).

  15. Near interface traps in SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR-IMM), Strada VIII 5, Zona Industriale 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2016-07-04

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in “gate-controlled-diode” configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (V{sub G} > |20 V|) through the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (N{sub trap} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}).

  16. An investigation on the noise reduction performance of profiled rigid median barriers at highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median barriers as a portion of a divided highway are provided to minimize the cross-median crashes. Moreover, median barriers similar to roadside noise barriers could protect people from transportation noise. Thus, there is a need to investigate various median barrier models to identify changes of insertion loss over a simple rigid barrier. In order to estimate the acoustical influence of median barrier′s profile in the shadow zone, different median barrier models are presented and their insertion losses are calculated over a frequency range from 50 to 4000 Hz using a two-dimensional boundary element method. The present investigation has clearly revealed that among the profiled median barriers, T-shape, Y-shape, and L-shape provide better performance than that of the other shapes. It is also found that among inclined barriers, V-shape barrier significantly presents higher values of attenuation. Based on the calculation of different geometrics, it has been shown that a further 2 dB (A in efficiency could be obtained by a better design of the median barrier which is labeled model "L."

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1203 - ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ISO Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes 2 Figure 2 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... Headform-Basic, Reference, and Median Planes ER10MR98.002 ...

  18. Voimaa visuaalisuudesta : Narratiivinen kirjallisuuskatsaus visuaalisen sosiaalisen median vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Viita, Shir

    2017-01-01

    Viita, Shir. Voimaa visuaalisuudesta – Narratiivinen kirjallisuuskatsaus visuaalisen sosiaalisen median vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin. Kevät 2016. 52 s., 1 liite. Diakonia ammattikorkeakoulu. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomin suuntautumisvaihtoehto. Sosionomi (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tuottaa tietoa sosiaalialan ammattilaisille visuaalisen sosiaalisen median sivustojen Instagramin ja Snapchatin vaikutuksista nuorten aikuisten hyvinvointiin. Opinnäyte...

  19. Median sternotomy for double lung transplantation with cardiopulmonary bypass in seven consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, Mitsutomo; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our technique of using median sternotomy to perform double lung transplantations with cardiopulmonary bypass. By sparing the respiratory muscles, median sternotomy is probably less invasive and preserves lung function. Furthermore, it causes less long-term discomfort than intercostal...

  20. Electromyogram median power frequency in dynamic exercise at medium exercise intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Bonga, GJJ; Hof, AL; Verkerke, GJ

    The electromyogram (EMG) median power Frequency of the calf muscles was investigated during an exhausting treadmill exercise and a 20-min recovery period. The exercise was an uphill run at a speed of 5 km . h(-1) and a gradient of 20%. During exercise there was no decrease of EMG median power

  1. Safety performance evaluation of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Priyanka; Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert; Mauthner, John

    2016-07-03

    This article aims to evaluate the safety performance of cable median barriers on freeways in Florida. The safety performance evaluation was based on the percentages of barrier and median crossovers by vehicle type, crash severity, and cable median barrier type (Trinity Cable Safety System [CASS] and Gibraltar system). Twenty-three locations with cable median barriers totaling about 101 miles were identified. Police reports of 6,524 crashes from years 2005-2010 at these locations were reviewed to verify and obtain detailed crash information. A total of 549 crashes were determined to be barrier related (i.e., crashes involving vehicles hitting the cable median barrier) and were reviewed in further detail to identify crossover crashes and the manner in which the vehicles crossed the barriers; that is, by either overriding, underriding, or penetrating the barriers. Overall, 2.6% of vehicles that hit the cable median barrier crossed the median and traversed into the opposite travel lane. Overall, 98.1% of cars and 95.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier were prevented from crossing the median. In other words, 1.9% of cars and 4.5% of light trucks that hit the barrier had crossed the median and encroached on the opposite travel lanes. There is no significant difference in the performance of cable median barrier for cars versus light trucks in terms of crossover crashes. In terms of severity, overrides were more severe compared to underrides and penetrations. The statistics showed that the CASS and Gibraltar systems performed similarly in terms of crossover crashes. However, the Gibraltar system experienced a higher proportion of penetrations compared to the CASS system. The CASS system resulted in a slightly higher percentage of moderate and minor injury crashes compared to the Gibraltar system. Cable median barriers are successful in preventing median crossover crashes; 97.4% of the cable median barrier crashes were prevented from crossing over the median. Of all of

  2. Ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound of fascicles in the median nerve at the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S; Baute, Vanessa; Caress, James B; Walker, Francis O

    2017-10-01

    An ultrahigh-frequency (70 MHZ) ultrasound device has recently been approved for human use. This study seeks to determine whether this device facilitates counting of fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent imaging of the median nerve at the wrist bilaterally. The number of fascicles in each nerve was counted by two independent raters. The mean fascicle number was 22.68. Correlation was strong between the two raters (r = 0.68, P nerve area did not predict fascicle number. Those with bifid median nerves and persistent median arteries had lower fascicle density than those without anatomic anomalies (1.79 vs. 2.29; P = 0.01). Fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist can be readily imaged. Ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound technology may be informative in a variety of disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system. Muscle Nerve 56: 819-822, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Median Filter Noise Reduction of Image and Backpropagation Neural Network Model for Cervical Cancer Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutsqa, D. U.; Marwah, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial operation median filter to reduce the noise in the cervical images yielded by colposcopy tool. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model is applied to the colposcopy images to classify cervical cancer. The classification process requires an image extraction by using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to obtain image features that are used as inputs of BPNN model. The advantage of noise reduction is evaluated by comparing the performances of BPNN models with and without spatial operation median filter. The experimental result shows that the spatial operation median filter can improve the accuracy of the BPNN model for cervical cancer classification.

  4. Nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttö seurustelusuhteissa : "Onksiul snappii, kikkii tai whatsappii?"

    OpenAIRE

    Pöllänen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttöä seurustelusuhteissa. Seurustelusuhteella tarkoitetaan kahden toisistaan pitävän ihmisen romanttista suhdetta. Työssä tarkasteltiin keskinuorten ja myöhäisnuorten käyttämiä sosiaalisen median sovelluksia, käyttömääriä ja –tapoja. Lisäksi selvitettiin, millainen rooli sosiaalisella medialla on seurustelusuhteen eri vaiheissa. Työssä tutustuttiin nuorten sosiaalisen median käyttöön kenttätutkimuksella, jossa nu...

  5. A Novel Ruthenium-Decorating Polyoxomolybdate Cs3Na6H[MoVI14RuIV2O50(OH2]·24H2O: An Active Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalyst for Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first example of wholly inorganic ruthenium-containing polyoxomolybdate Cs3Na6H[MoVI14RuIV2O50(OH2]·24H2O (1 was isolated and systematically characterized by element analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is composed of an unprecedented {Mo14}-type isopolymolybdate with a di-ruthenium core precisely encapsulated in its center, exhibiting a three-tiered ladder-like structure. The title compound can act as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst in the transformation of 1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. This catalyst is also capable of being recycled and reused for at least ten cycles with its activity being retained under the optimal conditions.

  6. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  7. Validation of protein intake assessed from weighed dietary records against protein estimated from 24 h urine samples in children, adolescents and young adults participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokhof, Beate; Günther, Anke L B; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    from a simultaneously collected 24 h urine sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses including 439 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study from four age groups (3-4, 7-8, 11-13 and 18-23 years). Mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), cross.......5 (95 % CI -18.7, -8.3) g/d at age 18-23 years. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.7 for the total study sample and ranged from r = 0.5 to 0.6 in the different age groups. Both methods classified 85 % into the same/adjacent quartile for the whole study group (83-86 % for the different age groups) and 2...

  8. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  9. Fluid balance and chloride load in the first 24h of ICU admission and its relation with renal replacement therapies through a multicentre, retrospective, case-control study paired by APACHE-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, A; Ortiz-Lasa, M; Leizaola, O; Salgado, E; Irriguible, T; Sánchez-Satorra, M; Lomas-Fernández, C; Barral-Segade, P; Cordero-Vallejo, M; Rodrigo-Calabia, E; Dierssen-Sotos, T

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the association between water balance during the first 24h of admission to ICU and the variables related to chloride levels (chloride loading, type of fluid administered, hyperchloraemia), with the development of acute kidney injury renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) during patients' admission to ICU. Multicentre case-control study. Hospital-based, national, carried out in 6 ICUs. Cases were patients older than 18 years who developed an AKI-RRT. Controls were patients older than 18 years admitted to the same institutions during the study period, who did not develop AKI-RRT during ICU admission. Pairing was done by APACHE-II. An analysis of unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, APACHE-II and water balance (in evaluating the type of fluid). We analysed the variables of 430 patients: 215 cases and 215 controls. An increase of 10% of the possibility of developing AKI-RRT per 500ml of positive water balance was evident (OR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]; P<.001). The study of mean values of chloride load administered did not show differences between the group of cases and controls (299.35±254.91 vs. 301.67±234.63; P=.92). The water balance in the first 24h of ICU admission relates to the development of IRA-TRR, regardless of chloraemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. New England observed and predicted median July stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median July stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  11. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  12. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (PSmartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of Kinematic Graphs of Median Nerve during Active Finger Motion: Implications of Smartphone Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Chi Woo

    Full Text Available Certain hand activities cause deformation and displacement of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel due to the gliding motion of tendons surrounding it. As smartphone usage escalates, this raises the public's concern whether hand activities while using smartphones can lead to median nerve problems.The aims of this study were to 1 develop kinematic graphs and 2 investigate the associated deformation and rotational information of median nerve in the carpal tunnel during hand activities.Dominant wrists of 30 young adults were examined with ultrasonography by placing a transducer transversely on their wrist crease. Ultrasound video clips were recorded when the subject performing 1 thumb opposition with the wrist in neutral position, 2 thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation and 3 pinch grip with the wrist in neutral position. Six still images that were separated by 0.2-second intervals were then captured from the ultrasound video for the determination of 1 cross-sectional area (CSA, 2 flattening ratio (FR, 3 rotational displacement (RD and 4 translational displacement (TD of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, and these collected information of deformation, rotational and displacement of median nerve were compared between 1 two successive time points during a single hand activity and 2 different hand motions at the same time point. Finally, kinematic graphs were constructed to demonstrate the mobility of median nerve during different hand activities.Performing different hand activities during this study led to a gradual reduction in CSA of the median nerve, with thumb opposition together with the wrist in ulnar deviation causing the greatest extent of deformation of the median nerve. Thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation also led to the largest extent of TD when compared to the other two hand activities of this study. Kinematic graphs showed that the motion pathways of median nerve during different hand activities were complex

  14. Tessier Number 30 Median Mandibular Cleft With Congenital Heart Anomalies in Qena, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Ali Abdelrahim

    2018-01-01

    Median cleft deformities of the lower lip and mandible are very rare congenital anomalies. Our patient had median cleft of the lower lip, mandible, and the chin with tongue duplication, ankyloglossia, and cleft strap muscles with 2 neck contracture bands. This anomaly was associated with congenital heart disease transposition of great vessels, large ventricular septal defect, and severe pulmonary stenosis. Early repair was done at 6 months to improve feeding.

  15. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville

    2009-01-01

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm 2 /s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm 2 . The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm 2 at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  16. [Safety of repeat median sternotomy in the palliative treatment of patients with a univentricular heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díliz-Nava, Héctor; Meléndez-Sagaón, Isis; Tamaríz-Cruz, Orlando; García-Benítez, Luis; Araujo-Martínez, Aric; Palacios-Macedo, Alexis

    To establish the morbidity and mortality of patients with univentricular hearts who underwent a repeat median sternotomy at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. A retrospective review was performed on the clinical charts of all patients who underwent a repeat median sternotomy from 2001 to 2016. Sixty-five patients underwent 76 surgeries by repeat median sternotomy. Fifty-nine patients had a first repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 36 months (range: 4-176 months) and a mean weight of 12.2 kg (range: 3.2-21.5 kg). Forty patients had a Glenn procedure, and 19 patients had a Fontan procedure. There were 17 patients with a second repeat median sternotomy, with a mean age of 89 months (range 48-156 months), and a mean weight of 22.7 kg (14.4-41 kg). A Fontan procedure was performed on all these 17 patients. A section of the right coronary artery with electrocardiographic changes and a right atrium tear that caused hypotension occurred during first repeat sternotomy. An aortic tear occurred during a second repeat sternotomy with massive bleeding and subsequent death. This represents 3.9% of re-entry injuries. It is concluded that repeat median sternotomy is a safe procedure. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  18. Regularization of DT-MRI Using 3D Median Filtering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soondong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DT-MRI (diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of the principal eigenvectors obtained from tensor matrix, which is different from the conventional isotropic MRI. Tractography based on DT-MRI is known to need many computations and is highly sensitive to noise. Hence, adequate regularization methods, such as image processing techniques, are in demand. Among many regularization methods we are interested in the median filtering method. In this paper, we extended two-dimensional median filters already developed to three-dimensional median filters. We compared four median filtering methods which are two-dimensional simple median method (SM2D, two-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF2D, three-dimensional simple median method (SM3D, and three-dimensional successive Fermat method (SF3D. Three kinds of synthetic data with different altitude angles from axial slices and one kind of human data from MR scanner are considered for numerical implementation by the four filtering methods.

  19. Calculation of statistic estimates of kinetic parameters from substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Valencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide initial rate data from enzymatic reaction experiments and tis processing to estimate the kinetic parameters from the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method published by Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974; Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden, 1974. The method was denominated the direct linear plot and consists in the calculation of the median from a dataset of kinetic parameters Vmax and Km from the Michaelis–Menten equation. In this opportunity we present the procedure to applicate the direct linear plot to the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation; a three-parameter equation. The median method is characterized for its robustness and its insensibility to outlier. The calculations are presented in an Excel datasheet and a computational algorithm was developed in the free software Python. The kinetic parameters of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation Vmax, Km and Ks were calculated using three experimental points from the dataset formed by 13 experimental points. All the 286 combinations were calculated. The dataset of kinetic parameters resulting from this combinatorial was used to calculate the median which corresponds to the statistic estimator of the real kinetic parameters. A comparative statistical analyses between the median method and the least squares was published in Valencia et al. [3].

  20. Median nerve fascicular anatomy as a basis for distal neural prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Uwe; Steinke, Hanno; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Bechmann, Ingo; Hammer, Niels; Winkler, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) serves as a possible therapy to restore missing motor functions of peripheral nerves by means of cuff electrodes. FES is established for improving lower limb function. Transferring this method to the upper extremity is complex, due to a lack of anatomical data on the physiological configuration of nerve fascicles. Our study's aim was to provide an anatomical basis for FES of the median nerve in the distal forearm and hand. We investigated 21 distal median nerves from 12 body donors. The peripheral fascicles were traced back by removing the external and interfascicular epineurium and then assigned to 4 quadrants. A distinct motor and sensory distribution was observed. The fascicles innervating the thenar eminence and the first lumbrical muscle originated from the nerves' radial parts in 82%. The fascicle supplying the second lumbrical muscle originated from the ulnar side in 78%. No macroscopically visible plexus formation was observed for the distal median nerve in the forearm. The findings on the distribution of the motor branches of the median nerve and the missing plexus formation may likely serve as an anatomical basis for FES of the distal forearm. However, due to the considerable variability of the motor branches, cuff electrodes will need to be adapted individually in FES. Taking into account the sensory distribution of the median nerve, FES may also possibly be applied in the treatment of regional pain syndromes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of keyboard typing on the morphological changes of the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap Loh, Ping; Liang Yeoh, Wen; Nakashima, Hiroki; Muraki, Satoshi

    2017-09-28

    The primary objective was to investigate the effects of continuous typing on median nerve changes at the carpal tunnel region at two different keyboard slopes (0° and 20°). The secondary objective was to investigate the differences in wrist kinematics and the changes in wrist anthropometric measurements when typing at the two different keyboard slopes. Fifteen healthy right-handed young men were recruited. A randomized sequence of the conditions (control, typing I, and typing II) was assigned to each participant. Wrist anthropometric measurements, wrist kinematics data collection and ultrasound examination to the median nerve was performed at designated time block. Typing activity and time block do not cause significant changes to the wrist anthropometric measurements. The wrist measurements remained similar across all the time blocks in the three conditions. Subsequently, the wrist extensions and ulnar deviations were significantly higher in both the typing I and typing II conditions than in the control condition for both wrists (ptyping I and typing II conditions after the typing task than before the typing task. The MNCSA significantly decreased in the recovery phase after the typing task. This study demonstrated the immediate changes in the median nerve after continuous keyboard typing. Changes in the median nerve were greater during typing using a keyboard tilted at 20° than during typing using a keyboard tilted at 0°. The main findings suggest wrist posture near to neutral position caused lower changes of the median nerve.

  2. Median Sternotomy or Right Thoracotomy Techniques for Total Artificial Heart Implantation in Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Sunagawa, Gengo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Byram, Nicole; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly A; Horvath, David J; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2016-10-01

    The choice of optimal operative access technique for mechanical circulatory support device implantation ensures successful postoperative outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the median sternotomy and lateral thoracotomy incisions for placement of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) in a bovine model. The CFTAH was implanted in 17 calves (Jersey calves; weight range, 77.0-93.9 kg) through a median sternotomy (n = 9) or right thoracotomy (n = 8) for elective chronic implantation periods of 14, 30, or 90 days. Similar preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative care were employed. Implantation of the CFTAH was successfully performed in all cases. Both methods provided excellent surgical field visualization. After device connection, however, the median sternotomy approach provided better visualization of the anastomoses and surgical lines for hemostasis confirmation and repair due to easier device displacement, which is severely limited following right thoracotomy. All four animals sacrificed after completion of the planned durations (up to 90 days) were operated through full median sternotomy. Our data demonstrate that both approaches provide excellent initial field visualization. Full median sternotomy provides larger viewing angles at the anastomotic suture line after device connection to inflow and outflow ports. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of finger motion on transverse median nerve movement in the carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Joon Shik

    2016-10-01

    We used ultrasonography (US) to investigate the effects of finger motion on movement of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the correlation between these US parameters and CTS severity. Ultrasonographic measures were performed in 23 control wrists and 22 CTS wrists in women. During first through third finger flexion and grip motion, median nerve movements were obtained using US and a tracing program. Nerve movements during third finger flexion in the dorsopalmar axis and grip motion in both axes, and during second finger flexion in the radioulnar axis, differed significantly between the control and CTS groups. US parameters correlated negatively with cross-sectional area. This study shows that transverse median nerve movements decreased during grip using US and correlated negatively with CTS severity. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: -, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: 738-742, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PENERAPAN METODE LEAST MEDIAN SQUARE-MINIMUM COVARIANCE DETERMINANT (LMS-MCD DALAM REGRESI KOMPONEN UTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I PUTU EKA IRAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Principal Component Regression is a method to overcome multicollinearity techniques by combining principal component analysis with regression analysis. The calculation of classical principal component analysis is based on the regular covariance matrix. The covariance matrix is optimal if the data originated from a multivariate normal distribution, but is very sensitive to the presence of outliers. Alternatives are used to overcome this problem the method of Least Median Square-Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD. The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparison between Principal Component Regression (RKU and Method of Least Median Square - Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD in dealing with outliers. In this study, Method of Least Median Square - Minimum Covariance Determinant (LMS-MCD has a bias and mean square error (MSE is smaller than the parameter RKU. Based on the difference of parameter estimators, still have a test that has a difference of parameter estimators method LMS-MCD greater than RKU method.

  5. Anomalous Innervation of the Median Nerve in the Arm in the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus innervates the upper extremities. While variations in the formation of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are quite common, it is uncommon for the median nerve to innervate the muscles of the arm. During the dissection of an elderly male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, the coracobrachialis muscle was found to be supplied by a direct branch from the lateral root of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve was absent. The branches of the median nerve supplied the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and the last branch continued as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. These variations may present atypically in cases of arm flexor paralysis or sensory loss on the lateral forearm. Knowledge of these variations is important in surgeries and during the administration of regional anaesthesia near the shoulder joint and upper arm.

  6. PERBANDINGAN TRANSFORMASI BOX-COX DAN REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN DALAM MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN YUNI CAHYANI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square (OLS is a method that can be used to estimate the parameter in linear regression analysis. There are some assumption which should be satisfied on OLS, one of this assumption is homoscedasticity, that is the variance of error is constant. If variance of the error is unequal that so-called heteroscedasticity. The presence heteroscedasticity can cause estimation with OLS becomes inefficient. Therefore, heteroscedasticity shall be overcome. There are some method that can used to overcome heteroscedasticity, two among those are Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression. This research compared Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity. Applied Box-Cox power transformation on OLS result ????2point are greater, smaller RMSE point and confidencen interval more narrow, therefore can be concluded that applied of Box-Cox power transformation on OLS better of median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity.

  7. PERBANDINGAN TRANSFORMASI BOX-COX DAN REGRESI KUANTIL MEDIAN DALAM MENGATASI HETEROSKEDASTISITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI WAYAN YUNI CAHYANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary least square (OLS is a method that can be used to estimate the parameter in linear regression analysis. There are some assumption which should be satisfied on OLS, one of this assumption is homoscedasticity, that is the variance of error is constant. If variance of the error is unequal that so-called heteroscedasticity. The presence heteroscedasticity can cause estimation with OLS becomes inefficient. Therefore, heteroscedasticity shall be overcome. There are some method that can used to overcome heteroscedasticity, two among those are Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression. This research compared Box-Cox power transformation and median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity. Applied Box-Cox power transformation on OLS result ????2point are greater, smaller RMSE point and confidencen interval more narrow, therefore can be concluded that applied of Box-Cox power transformation on OLS better of median quantile regression to overcome heteroscedasticity.

  8. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  9. AN AMELIORATED DETECTION STATISTICS FOR ADAPTIVE MASK MEDIAN FILTRATION OF HEAVILY NOISED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Hanji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Noise reduction is an important area of research in image processing applications. The performance of the digital image noise filtering method primarily depends upon the accuracy of noise detection scheme. This paper presents an effective detector based, adaptive mask, median filtration of heavily noised digital images affected with fixed value (or salt and pepper impulse noise. The proposed filter presents a novel approach; an ameliorated Rank Ordered Absolute Deviation (ROAD statistics to judge whether the input pixel is noised or noise free. If a pixel is detected as corrupted, it is subjected to adaptive mask median filtration; otherwise, it is kept unchanged. Extensive experimental results and comparative performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed filter outperforms the existing decision type, median based filters with powerful noise detectors in terms of objective performance measures and visual retrieviation accuracy.

  10. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan; Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo

    2008-05-21

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods.

  11. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan; Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo

    2008-01-01

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods

  12. Regularization of DT-MR images using a successive Fermat median filtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kiwoon; Kim, Dongyoun; Kim, Sunghee; Park, Insung; Jeong, Jaewon; Kim, Taehwan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Cheolpyo; Han, Bongsoo [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: bshan@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-05-21

    Tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a method to determine the architecture of axonal fibers in the central nervous system by computing the direction of greatest diffusion in the white matter of the brain. To reduce the noise in DT-MRI measurements, a tensor-valued median filter, which is reported to be denoising and structure preserving in the tractography, is applied. In this paper, we proposed the successive Fermat (SF) method, successively using Fermat point theory for a triangle contained in the two-dimensional plane, as a median filtering method. We discussed the error analysis and numerical study about the SF method for phantom and experimental data. By considering the computing time and the image quality aspects of the numerical study simultaneously, we showed that the SF method is much more efficient than the simple median (SM) and gradient descents (GD) methods.

  13. Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae Scorpion Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ErsenAydın Yağmur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice.Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip injections into mice (20±1g and monitored for 24 h. The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4–12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining.Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. We determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of this scorpion venom to be 4, 6, 9, 31, 35, 40, 46 and 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness.Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. The stings of H. saulcyi scorpion must be considered of risk for humans in the southeastern region, Turkey.

  14. Clinical and radiologic review of uncommon cause of profound iron deficiency anemia: Median arcuate ligament syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Asil, Kiyasrttin; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli

    2014-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is an anatomic and clinical entity characterized by dynamic compression of the proximal celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament, which leads to postprandial epigastric pain, vomiting, and weight loss. These symptoms are usually nonspecific and are easily misdiagnosed as functional dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, or gastropathy. In this report, we presented a 72-year-old male patient with celiac artery compression syndrome causing recurrent abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcer and iron deficiency anemia. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore not well determined. In addition, we reported the CT angiography findings and three-dimensional reconstructions of this rare case.

  15. Sosiaalisen median kehittäminen pk-yrityksissä Töpseli-verkoston avulla

    OpenAIRE

    Palander, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, minkälaisena mahdollisuutena pk-yrittäjät kokevat sosiaalisen median ja miten he ymmärtävät sen. Läntisellä Uudellamaalla toimivia yrityksiä on osallistunut Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun Lohjan toimipisteen Töpseli-verkostoon. Verkoston tarkoituksena on vahvistaa länsi Uudellamaalla toimivien pk-yritysten kilpailukykyä, parantamalla yrittäjien ymmärrystä sosiaalisen median tarjoamista mahdollisuuksista. Työtä varten selvitettiin myös ammattikorkea...

  16. A GPU-Based Genetic Algorithm for the P-Median Problem

    OpenAIRE

    AlBdaiwi, Bader F.; AboElFotoh, Hosam M. F.

    2016-01-01

    The p-median problem is a well-known NP-hard problem. Many heuristics have been proposed in the literature for this problem. In this paper, we exploit a GPGPU parallel computing platform to present a new genetic algorithm implemented in Cuda and based on a Pseudo Boolean formulation of the p-median problem. We have tested the effectiveness of our algorithm using a Tesla K40 (2880 Cuda cores) on 290 different benchmark instances obtained from OR-Library, discrete location problems benchmark li...

  17. A case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve with macrodactyly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Arakeri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve is a tumor-like lipomatous process principally involving affecting young persons. The median nerve is most commonly affectedinvolved. The lesion is characterized by a soft slowly growing mass, surrounding and infiltrating major nerves and their branches. It may cause symptoms of compression neuropathy and is associated with macrodactyly in one third of cases. Here, we present a case of Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve in the wrist of a young man arising from median nerve. Debulking of the tumour was performed.

  18. Clinical and radiologic review of uncommon cause of profound iron deficiency anemia: Median arcuate ligament syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Asil, Kiyasrttin; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli [Dept. of Radiology, Sakarya University Medical Faculty, Sakarya (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is an anatomic and clinical entity characterized by dynamic compression of the proximal celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament, which leads to postprandial epigastric pain, vomiting, and weight loss. These symptoms are usually nonspecific and are easily misdiagnosed as functional dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, or gastropathy. In this report, we presented a 72-year-old male patient with celiac artery compression syndrome causing recurrent abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcer and iron deficiency anemia. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore not well determined. In addition, we reported the CT angiography findings and three-dimensional reconstructions of this rare case.

  19. Years Versus Days Between Successive Surgeries, After an Initial Outpatient Procedure, for the Median Patient Versus the Median Surgeon in the State of Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Jarvie, Craig; Epstein, Richard H

    2018-03-01

    Previously, we studied the relative importance of different institutional interventions that the largest hospital in Iowa could take to grow the anesthesia department's outpatient surgical care. Most (>50%) patients having elective surgery had not previously had surgery at the hospital. Patient perioperative experience was unimportant for influencing total anesthesia workload and numbers of patients. More important was the availability of surgical clinic appointments within several days. These results would be generalizable if the median time from surgery to a patient's next surgical procedure was large (eg, >2 years), among all hospitals in Iowa with outpatient surgery, and without regard to the hospital where the next procedure was performed. There were 37,172 surgical cases at hospital outpatient departments of any of the 117 hospitals in Iowa from July 1, 2013, to September 30, 2013. Data extracted about each case included its intraoperative work relative value units. The 37,172 cases were matched to all inpatient and outpatient records for the next 2 years statewide using patient linkage identifiers; from these were determined whether the patient had surgery again within 2 years. Furthermore, the cases' 1820 surgeons were matched to the surgeon's next outpatient or inpatient case, both including and excluding other cases performed on the date of the original case. By patient, the median time to their next surgical case, either outpatient or inpatient, exceeded 2 years, tested with weighting by intraoperative relative value units and repeated when unweighted (both P 2 years for patients versus 1 day for surgeons. Thus, although patients' experiences are an important attribute of quality of care, surgeons' experiences are orders of magnitude more important from the vantage point of marketing and growth of an anesthesia practice.

  20. Epithelioid Sarcoma of the Forearm Arising from Perineural Sheath of Median Nerve Mimicking Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Fujii

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of epithelioid sarcoma in the forearm of a 33-year-old male presenting with symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome originating from the direct involvement of the median nerve. Due to the slow growing of the tumor, the patient noticed the presence of tumor mass in his forearm after several months from the initial onset of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8×4 cm mass involving the median nerve in the middle part of the forearm, and histological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma. Radical surgical resection was performed in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy. The function of the flexors were restored by the multiple tendon transfers (EIP→FDS; ECRL→FDP; BrR→FPL; EDM→opponens with superficial cutaneous branch of radial nerve transfer to the resected median nerve. The function of the affected hand showed excellent with the DASH disability/symptom score of 22.5, and both the grasp power and sensory of the median nerve area has recovered up to 50% of the normal side. The patient returned to his original vocation and alive with continuous disease free at 3.5-year follow-up since initial treatment.

  1. Variability of pudendal and median nerve sensory perception thresholds in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Normative current perception thresholds (CPTs) are used for the evaluation of sensory function in a variety of diseases. To evaluate the reproducibility of CPT measurements with sinusoidal current in healthy volunteers. Neuroselective CPT evaluations of the median and pudendal nerve in healthy volunteers were repeated with 1 week interval (T1 and T2). In the study group (N = 41) no difference between genders for age (MW-U: P = 0.91) and BMI (t-test: P = 0.18) were found. No significant difference between T1 and T2 was found (Paired t-test: all P-values > 0.05), although the intraclass correlation for each person was low. The variability of measures for the pudendal nerve was: ICC 2 kHz: 0.41; 250 Hz: 0.30; 5 Hz: 0.38, and for the median nerve respectively: 0.58; 0.46; 0.40. Normal CPTs were shown for the pudendal nerve: 2 kHz: 51%; 250 Hz: 76%; 5 Hz: 71%, and median nerve respectively: 78%; 98%; 80%. The pudendal nerve showed more deviating values compared to the median nerve. Both nerves showed deviating values. CPT values with sinusoidal current assessed with 1 week interval, showed a weak intraclass correlation. This finding limits the use of CPT values with this current for longitudinal studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Income Inequality, the Median Voter, and the Support for Public Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Sean; Evans, William N.

    2010-01-01

    Using a panel of U.S. school districts spanning 1970-2000, we examine the relationship between income inequality and fiscal support for public education. In contrast with recent theoretical and empirical work suggesting a negative relationship between inequality and public spending, we find results consistent with a median voter model, in which…

  3. Endocrine and anatomical findings in a case of Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szakszon, Katalin; Felszeghy, Enikő; Csízy, István; Józsa, Tamás; Káposzta, Rita; Balogh, Erzsébet; Oláh, Eva; Balogh, István; Berényi, Ervin; Knegt, Alida C.; Ilyés, István

    2012-01-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Syndrome (SMMCI) is a rare malformation syndrome consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects. Some authors suggest that it is a mild manifestation of the wide spectrum of holoprosencephaly, others classify it rather as a distinct entity. Authors report a

  4. A median filter approach for correcting errors in a vector field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, H.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques are presented for detecting and correcting errors in a vector field. These methods employ median filters which are frequently used in image processing to enhance edges and remove noise. A detailed example is given for wind field maps produced by a spaceborne scatterometer. The error detection and replacement algorithm was tested with simulation data from the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) project.

  5. Experimental concrete coating application on the median barrier of I 65 in Louisville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the experimental protective coating that was applied to approximately 1,200 linear feet of concrete median barrier along the paving project on a section of I 65 between mile points 131.289 and 136.421 ...

  6. Application of median-equation approach for outlier detection in geodetic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serif Hekimoglu

    Full Text Available In geodetic measurements some outliers may occur sometimes in data sets, depending on different reasons. There are two main approaches to detect outliers as Tests for outliers (Baarda's and Pope's Tests and robust methods (Danish method, Huber method etc.. These methods use the Least Squares Estimation (LSE. The outliers affect the LSE results, especially it smears the effects of the outliers on the good observations and sometimes wrong results may be obtained. To avoid these effects, a method that does not use LSE should be preferred. The median is a high breakdown point estimator and if it is applied for the outlier detection, reliable results can be obtained. In this study, a robust method which uses median with or as a treshould value on median residuals that are obtained from median equations is proposed. If the a priori variance of the observations is known, the reliability of the new approch is greater than the one in the case where the a priori variance is unknown.

  7. The "p"-Median Model as a Tool for Clustering Psychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Hans-Friedrich; Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The "p"-median clustering model represents a combinatorial approach to partition data sets into disjoint, nonhierarchical groups. Object classes are constructed around "exemplars", that is, manifest objects in the data set, with the remaining instances assigned to their closest cluster centers. Effective, state-of-the-art implementations of…

  8. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  9. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Jongbloed, Bas A.; Froeling, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. Methods We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls...

  10. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  11. Speckle Reduction and Structure Enhancement by Multichannel Median Boosted Anisotropic Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to reduce speckle noise and enhance structures in speckle-corrupted images. It utilizes a median-anisotropic diffusion compound scheme. The median-filter-based reaction term acts as a guided energy source to boost the structures in the image being processed. In addition, it regularizes the diffusion equation to ensure the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also introduce a decimation and back reconstruction scheme to further enhance the processing result. Before the iteration of the diffusion process, the image is decimated and a subpixel shifted image set is formed. This allows a multichannel parallel diffusion iteration, and more importantly, the speckle noise is broken into impulsive or salt-pepper noise, which is easy to remove by median filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is clear when it is compared to other diffusion algorithms and the well-known adaptive weighted median filtering (AWMF scheme in both simulation and real medical ultrasound images.

  12. Median Growth Percentiles (MGPs): Assessment of Intertemporal Stability and Correlations with Observational Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Margarita; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    While states are no longer required to set up teacher evaluation systems based in significant part on student test scores, quite a few continue to use value-added (VAMs) or student growth percentile (SGP) models for that purpose. In this study, we analyzed three years of teacher data to illustrate the performance of teachers' median growth…

  13. Property Mix Heterogeneity and Market Cycles: How Much Can We Rely on Median-Price Indices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Ricardo da Hora Gonçalves Fernandes Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understand in which types of location median-price indices could provide reasonable estimates of rent growth. As far as our research allows, the market-based measures developed througout this study are the first to emphasize office properties in Brazil using an hedonic framework.Methodology. Create appraisal-based indices of rent growth using median-price and hedonic-based techniques for two regions with different degrees of property mix heterogeneity and compare their behavior overtime.Findings. Volatility in median-price measures is larger than hedonic-based measures in market peaks and throughs due to different weighting of high and low-tier properties overtime. This result is stronger in the location with higher property mix heterogeneity and, consequently, exacerbates market cycles in this region.  Limitations. We do not find statistically significant differences between the measures considered. Nevertheless, we do not consider whether this similarity would hold when using transactional-based data.    Value. Our results suggest that researchers, policy makers and investors need to take into account the “undesired fluctuation” of median-price measures when interpreting such indices.  

  14. Usability testing of wireless broadband LAN in the MEDIAN user trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, C. van; Vliet, P.J. van; Schuurman, K.; Maltha, S.R.; Leyten, A.J.M.; Dirks, M.W.S.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the ACTS MEDIAN project is to build a high speed WCPN/LAN demonstrator system for multimedia applications and demonstrate it in user trials. The demonstrator system, consisting of one base station and two portable stations, is capable of handling high speed (up to 150 Mbit/s)

  15. Case Report: A true median facial cleft (crano-facial dysraphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: A true median facial cleft (crano-facial dysraphia, atessier type O) in Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos. ... Patient had a multidisciplinary care by the obstetrician, Neonatologist, anesthesiologist and the plastic surgery team who scheduled a soft tissue repair of the upper lip defect, columella and ...

  16. Wake-promoting actions of median nerve stimulation in TBI-induced coma: An investigation of orexin-A and orexin receptor 1 in the hypothalamic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying-Jun; Feng, Zhen; Wang, Liang; Wei, Tian-Qi

    2015-09-01

    A coma is a serious complication, which can occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), for which no effective treatment has been established. Previous studies have suggested that neural electrical stimulation, including median nerve stimulation (MNS), may be an effective method for treating patients in a coma, and orexin‑A, an excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptide, may be involved in wakefulness. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this involvement remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the arousal‑promoting role of MNS in rats in a TBI‑induced coma and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. A total of 90 rats were divided into three groups, comprising a control group, sham‑stimulated (TBI) group and a stimulated (TBI + MNS) group. MNS was performed on the animals, which were in a TBI‑induced comatose state. Changes in the behavior of the rats were observed following MNS. Subsequently, hypothalamic tissues were extracted from the rats 6, 12 and 24 h following TBI or MNS, respectively. The expression levels of orexin‑A and orexin receptor‑1 (OX1R) in the hypothalamus were examined using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrated that 21 rats subjected to TBI‑induced coma exhibited a restored righting reflex and response to pain stimuli following MNS. In addition, ignificant differences in the expression levels of orexin‑A and OXIR were observed among the three groups and among the time‑points. Orexin‑A and OX1R were upregulated following MNS. The rats in the stimulated group reacted to the MNS and exhibited a re‑awakening response. The results of the present study indicated that MNS may be a therapeutic option for TBI‑induced coma. The mechanism may be associated with increasing expression levels of the excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptide, orexin-A, and its receptor, OX1R, in the hypothalamic region.

  17. Median lethal dose determination for percutaneous exposure to soman and VX in guinea pigs and the effectiveness of decontamination with M291 SDK or SANDIA foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Edward D; Schulz, Susan M; Railer, Roy F; Smith, Kelly H

    2012-08-03

    Soman (GD) and VX are chemical warfare agents that can be absorbed through the skin. We determined the median lethal dose (MLD) for the cutaneous application of GD and VX in anesthetized haired guinea pigs and then tested the ability of a currently fielded decontamination kit, the M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK), and decontaminating foam made by SANDIA Labs to decontaminate areas that have been exposed to cutaneous applications of GD and VX. The fur of guinea pigs was clipped on the left flank 24h prior to exposure. Animals were anesthetized and 5 min later neat GD or neat VX was applied. The MLD for percutaneous exposure to GD was 11.6 mg/kg, and to VX it was 0.10mg/kg. To test the ability of the M291 SDK, either GD or VX was applied and removed 1 min later with the pads of the M291 SDK clasped in a pair of forceps and wiped across the flank of the animal. The MLDs for GD and VX removed with the M291 SDK pads were 76.9 mg/kg and 0.87 mg/kg, respectively. When neat GD or neat VX was applied and removed 1 min later in the same manner with gauze soaked in SANDIA foam (MDF-100), the MLDs were 412 mg/kg and 10.4 mg/kg respectively. These data demonstrate that GD and VX are significantly less potent when applied cutaneously than previously reported for subcutaneous injections and indicate that improvement is needed on the limited protective ratio provided by the M291 SDK. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Katelynn E; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB. Our previous study suggested that this transcriptional regulation in the median preoptic nucleus contributes to the sustained blood pressure seen following chronic intermittent hypoxia. Viral mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA against angiotensin converting enzyme 1 in the median preoptic nucleus was used along with radio-telemetry measurements of blood pressure to test this hypothesis. FosB immunohistochemistry was utilized in order to assess the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown on the activity of nuclei downstream from median preoptic nucleus. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 knockdown within median preoptic nucleus significantly attenuated the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1 seems to be partly responsible for regulating downstream regions involved in sympathetic and blood pressure control, such as the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme 1 within median preoptic nucleus plays a critical role in the sustained hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Influence of median surgeon operative duration on adverse outcomes in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Bacal, Daniel; Krell, Robert W; Birkmeyer, John D; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Finks, Jonathan F

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prolonged operative time adversely affects surgical outcomes. However, whether faster surgeons have better outcomes is unclear, as a surgeon׳s speed could reflect skill and efficiency, but may alternatively reflect haste. This study evaluates whether median surgeon operative time is associated with adverse surgical outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We performed a retrospective cohort study using statewide clinical registry data from the years 2006 to 2012. Surgeons were ranked by their median operative time and grouped into terciles. Multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors was used to evaluate the influence of median surgeon operative time on 30-day surgical outcomes, adjusting for patient and surgeon characteristics, trainee involvement, concurrent procedures, and the complex interaction between these variables. A total of 16,344 patients underwent surgery during the study period. Compared to surgeons in the fastest tercile, slow surgeons required 53 additional minutes to complete a gastric bypass procedure (median [interquartile range] 139 [133-150] versus 86 [69-91], Ppatient characteristic only, slow surgeons had significantly higher adjusted rates of any complication, prolonged length of stay, emergency department visits or readmissions, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). After further adjustment for surgeon characteristics, resident involvement, and the interaction between these variables, slow surgeons had higher rates of any complication (10.5% versus 7.1%, P=.039), prolonged length of stay (14.0% versus 4.4%, P=.002), and VTE (0.39% versus .22%, P<.001). Median surgeon operative duration is independently associated with adjusted rates of certain adverse outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Improving surgeon efficiency while operating may reduce operative time and improve the safety of bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  20. Correlation between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage and almonds during masticatory performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumonsiri, P; Thongudomporn, U; Paphangkorakit, J

    2018-04-27

    The correlation between chewing and gastric function is best reflected when the same food type is used during both tests. We proposed frankfurter sausage as test food for masticatory performance as it can also be used in gastric emptying test. The suitability of frankfurter sausage to determine masticatory performance, however, has never been examined. To examine the correlations between the median particle size of frankfurter sausage and almonds (as standard test food) after different numbers of chewing cycles. Twenty-seven subjects performed masticatory performance tests by chewing 2 types of test foods, that is, a piece of almond or 5-g frankfurter sausage cubes placed in a sealed latex bag, for 5 and 15 chewing cycles. For each individual, right and left sides were tested separately. Chewed samples obtained from both sides were pooled. Median particle sizes were determined using a multiple sieving method. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine any correlation between median particle sizes of the 2 test foods after 5 and 15 cycles. Median particle sizes after 5 and 15 cycles were 2.04 ± 0.87 and 0.95 ± 0.58 mm for almonds and 4.16 ± 0.19 and 3.73 ± 0.25 mm for frankfurter sausage, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage after 15 cycles and that of chewed almonds after 5 and 15 cycles (r = .76, P < .01 and r = .52, P = .01, respectively). Frankfurter sausage chewed for 15 cycles may be suitable for the determination of masticatory performance in conjunction with gastric emptying test. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Implementation and evaluation of an ordered subsets reconstruction algorithm for transmission PET studies using median root prior and inter-update median filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinardi, V.; Gilardi, M.C.; Fazio, F.; Alenius, S.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Numminen, P.; Teraes, M.

    2003-01-01

    An ordered subsets (OS) reconstruction algorithm based on the median root prior (MRP) and inter-update median filtering was implemented for the reconstruction of low count statistics transmission (TR) scans. The OS-MRP-TR algorithm was evaluated using an experimental phantom, simulating positron emission tomography (PET) whole-body (WB) studies, as well as patient data. Various experimental conditions, in terms of TR scan time (from 1 h to 1 min), covering a wide range of TR count statistics were evaluated. The performance of the algorithm was assessed by comparing the mean value of the attenuation coefficient (MVAC) of known tissue types and the coefficient of variation (CV) for low-count TR images, reconstructed with the OS-MRP-TR algorithm, with reference values obtained from high-count TR images reconstructed with a filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. The reconstructed OS-MRP-TR images were then used for attenuation correction of the corresponding emission (EM) data. EM images reconstructed with attenuation correction generated by OS-MRP-TR images, of low count statistics, were compared with the EM images corrected for attenuation using reference (high statistics) TR data. In all the experimental situations considered, the OS-MRP-TR algorithm showed: (1) a tendency towards a stable solution in terms of MVAC; (2) a difference in the MVAC of within 5% for a TR scan of 1 min reconstructed with the OS-MRP-TR and a TR scan of 1 h reconstructed with the FBP algorithm; (3) effectiveness in noise reduction, particularly for low count statistics data [using a specific parameter configuration the TR images reconstructed with OS-MRP-TR(1 min) had a lower CV than the corresponding TR images of a 1-h scan reconstructed with the FBP algorithm]; (4) a difference of within 3% between the mean counts in the EM images attenuation corrected using the OS-MRP-TR images of 1 min and the mean counts in the EM images attenuation corrected using the OS-MRP-TR images of 1 h; (5

  2. Robust K-Median and K-Means Clustering Algorithms for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete data with missing feature values are prevalent in clustering problems. Traditional clustering methods first estimate the missing values by imputation and then apply the classical clustering algorithms for complete data, such as K-median and K-means. However, in practice, it is often hard to obtain accurate estimation of the missing values, which deteriorates the performance of clustering. To enhance the robustness of clustering algorithms, this paper represents the missing values by interval data and introduces the concept of robust cluster objective function. A minimax robust optimization (RO formulation is presented to provide clustering results, which are insensitive to estimation errors. To solve the proposed RO problem, we propose robust K-median and K-means clustering algorithms with low time and space complexity. Comparisons and analysis of experimental results on both artificially generated and real-world incomplete data sets validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  3. In uncertainty we trust: a median voter model with risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal-agent problem and uncertainty are some of the key factors affecting financial and political markets. Fear of the unknown plays an important role in human decision making, including voting. This article describes a theoretical model where voter risk aversion towards uncertainty gives political incumbents a significant advantage over their challengers, exacerbating the principal-agent problem between voters and legislators. The model presented predicts that a rise in voter uncertainty concerning the challenger allows the incumbent to deviate from the median voter’s policy preference without losing the election. This model reconciles the paradoxical coexistence of ideological shirking and high incumbent reelection rates without abandoning the elegant median voter framework.

  4. Characterization of the Small and Median Companies in the Textile Sector of the Ecuadorian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lilián Basantes–Avalos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small and median companies perform a fundamental role in the economy of latinoamerican countries, and Ecuador is not the exception, because of its incidence in the generation of employment and economic development. Historically, Ecuador has been a textile country by excellence, and with the years has been consolidated like one of the manufactured industries most importants of the country. However, the sector has to deal with adverse condition in the last decade. For such reason, the manufacturers have the challenge of improve the production techniques to promote a better quality offer and recognition, capable of competing with foreign products of similar characteristics. In this context, this paper has the intent to characterize the small and median companies of Ecuador in general and the textile sector as a particularity, its current situation, the importance of the Ecuadorian economy, such as their problems and opportunities. 

  5. Median nerve trauma in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian D; Barr, Ann E; Safadi, Fayez F; Beitman, Lisa; Al-Shatti, Talal; Amin, Mamta; Gaughan, John P; Barbe, Mary F

    2003-07-01

    Anatomical and physiological changes were evaluated in the median nerves of rats trained to perform repetitive reaching. Motor degradation was evident after 4 weeks. ED1-immunoreactive macrophages were seen in the transcarpal region of the median nerve of both forelimbs by 5-6 weeks. Fibrosis, characterized by increased immunoexpression of collagen type I by 8 weeks and connective tissue growth factor by 12 weeks, was evident. The conduction velocity (NCV) within the carpal tunnel showed a modest but significant decline after 9-12 weeks. The lowest NCV values were found in animals that refused to participate in the task for the full time available. Thus, both anatomical and physiological signs of progressive tissue damage were present in this model. These results, together with other recent findings indicate that work-related carpal tunnel syndrome develops through mechanisms that include injury, inflammation, fibrosis and subsequent nerve compression.

  6. Additional Muscle Slip of Bicipital Aponeurosis and its Anomalous Relationship with the Median Cubital Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Bhat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cubital region of the arm is a common site for recording blood pressure, taking blood for analysis and administering intravenous therapy and blood transfusions. During the routine dissection of a 70-year-old male cadaver at the Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India, in 2015, it was observed that the aponeurotic insertion of the biceps brachii muscle divided into two slips. The medial slip fused normally with the deep fascia of the forearm, while flexor carpi radialis muscle fibres originated from the lateral slip. There was also a single vein in the forearm, the cephalic vein, which bifurcated to form the median cubital vein and the cephalic vein proper. The median cubital vein, further reinforced by the radial vein, passed deep to the two slips of the bicipital aponeurosis and then continued as the basilic vein. During venepuncture, medical practitioners should be aware of potential cubital fossa variations which could lead to nerve entrapment syndromes.

  7. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoni, Atoni Dogood; Oyinbo, Charles Aidemise

    2017-03-01

    Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  8. Anatomic Variation of the Median Nerve Associated with an Anomalous Muscle of the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoni Atoni Dogood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Documented anatomical variations are important not only for the study of the subject of anatomy, but also in clinical situation. This knowledge would aid surgeons in planning a preoperative strategy for surgical procedures and reconstructive surgery. The right forearm of a 35-year-old embalmed male cadaver present a splitting of the median nerve in the proximal 1/3 of the forearm to form medial and lateral divisions that accommodate an anomalous muscle. The split median nerve reunites at the distal 1/3 and continues as a single nerve. The anomalous muscle arises by muscle fibers from flexor digitorum superficialis and inserted by tendon into flexor digitorum profundus. There was no such variation in the left forearm. The knowledge of such anatomical variations is important to clinicians and surgeons in interpreting atypical clinical presentations and avoiding unusual injury during surgery.

  9. Digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen kampaamoalalla : Pienyritykset

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymäki, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen kampaamoalalla, erityisesti pienissä yrityksissä. Tavoitteena oli opastaa lukijaa ymmärtämään digitaalisen markkinoinnin ja sosiaalisen median keskeisimmät perusteet ja antaa neuvoja parturi-kampaamoalan yrittäjälle, joka ei ole vielä huomioinut tai osannut hyödyntää niiden työkaluja. Työn teoriaosuudessa käsiteltiin mitä markkinointiviestintä on ja mitä sosiaalisen media on. Tämän lisäksi käsit...

  10. Separation of simultaneous sources using a structural-oriented median filter in the flattened dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shuwei; Wang, Shoudong; Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Xiaohong; Xiang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous-source shooting can help tremendously shorten the acquisition period and improve the quality of seismic data for better subsalt seismic imaging, but at the expense of introducing strong interference (blending noise) to the acquired seismic data. We propose to use a structural-oriented median filter to attenuate the blending noise along the structural direction of seismic profiles. The principle of the proposed approach is to first flatten the seismic record in local spatial windows and then to apply a traditional median filter (MF) to the third flattened dimension. The key component of the proposed approach is the estimation of the local slope, which can be calculated by first scanning the NMO velocity and then transferring the velocity to the local slope. Both synthetic and field data examples show that the proposed approach can successfully separate the simultaneous-source data into individual sources. We provide an open-source toy example to better demonstratethe proposed methodology.

  11. Asymmetric Bilateral Variations in the Musculocutaneous and Median Nerves with High Branching of Brachial Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial Plexus is formed by the union of the anterior rami of cervical 5, 6, 7, 8 and thoracic 1 nerves. These nerves unite and divide to form the key nerves innervating the upper limb. Variations in the course of these nerves are clinically important to anesthetists, neurologists and orthopedicians. We report bilateral variations in the arterial and neural structures in the upper limb of a 65 year old cadaver. The muscles of the arm on one side were innervated by the median nerve with absence of musculocutaneous. While on the other side the musculocutaneous nerve contributed to the formation of the median nerve. There was a presence of high bifurcation of brachial artery on both sides. Knowledge of such variations in the innervations of muscles and the arterial supply of the limbs are important to remember before performing any reconstructive procedures or interventions on the limb.

  12. Median and Morphological Specialized Processors for a Real-Time Image Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Wiatr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the considerations on selecting a multiprocessor MISD architecture for fast implementation of the vision image processing. Using the author′s earlier experience with real-time systems, implementing of specialized hardware processors based on the programmable FPGA systems has been proposed in the pipeline architecture. In particular, the following processors are presented: median filter and morphological processor. The structure of a universal reconfigurable processor developed has been proposed as well. Experimental results are presented as delays on LCA level implementation for median filter, morphological processor, convolution processor, look-up-table processor, logic processor and histogram processor. These times compare with delays in general purpose processor and DSP processor.

  13. Wound infections after median sternotomy treated by VAC therapy, summary of results, and risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, M; Bezak, B; Artemiou, P; Cikrai, R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize results and analyze risk factors for the development of wound infection in heart surgery patients after median sternotomy. In this retrospective analysis with assessment of multiple risk factors, we examined 143 patients with infection after median sternotomy treated with VAC therapy from total of 4,650 patients operated in our department from 2012 to 2015. Total of 143 patients developed significant SSI treated by VAC therapy following cardiac surgery. Of these, only 14 patients developed DSWI and one patient was diagnosed with suspected osteomyelitis. BMI, female gender, and use of BIMA proved to be statistically significant risk factors in our study (p infection (p infection proved to be a significant prognostic factor for patients' outcome (p infection (Tab. 3, Ref. 30).

  14. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  15. Median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command Band members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Koreerat, Nicholas R; Gordon, Lindsay B; Santillo, Douglas R; Moore, Josef H; Greathouse, David G

    2013-12-01

    Musicians have been reported as having a high prevalence of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of median and ulnar neuropathies in U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Band members at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Thirty-five MEDCOM Band members (30 males, 5 females) volunteered to participate. There were 33 right-handed musicians, and the mean length of time in the MEDCOM Band was 12.2 yrs (range, 1-30 yrs). Subjects completed a history form, were interviewed, and underwent a physical examination of the cervical spine and bilateral upper extremities. Nerve conduction studies of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves were performed. Electrophysiological variables served as the reference standard for median and ulnar neuropathy and included distal sensory latencies, distal motor latencies, amplitudes, conduction velocities, and comparison study latencies. Ten of the 35 subjects (29%) presented with abnormal electrophysiologic values suggestive of an upper extremity mononeuropathy. Nine of the subjects had abnormal median nerve electrophysiologic values at or distal to the wrist; 2 had bilateral abnormal values. One had an abnormal ulnar nerve electrophysiologic assessment at the elbow. Nine of these 10 subjects had clinical examination findings consistent with the electrophysiological findings. The prevalence of mononeuropathies in this sample of band members is similar to that found in previous research involving civilian musicians (20-36%) and far exceeds that reported in the general population. Prospective research investigating screening, examination items, and injury prevention measures in musicians appears to be warranted.

  16. Application of subinterval area median contrast filtering method in the recognizing of geochemical anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ningbo; Fu Jin; Zhang Chuan; Liu Huan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional geochemical processing method sometimes maybe loses some weak anomalies related to mineralization, the authors can avoid the influence of geology background and can solve the problem of recognizing weak anomalies in the low-background and high-background area with the subinterval area median contrast filtering method. In an area of Jiangxi Province, several new anomalies are identified by this method and uranium mineralized prospects are found among them. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of median nerve T2 signal changes in patients with surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Yavuz; Karagöz, Yeşim; Yaman, Mehmet; Atçı, İbrahim Burak; Emre, Ufuk; Kılıçkesmez, Nuri Özgür; Çelik, Suat Erol

    2016-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of median nerve T2 evaluation and its relation with Boston Questionnaire (BQ) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in pre-operative and post-operative carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-three CTS patients and 24 healthy volunteers underwent NCSs, median nerve T2 evaluation and self-administered BQ. Pre-operative and 1st year post-operative median nerve T2 values and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were compared both within pre-operative and post-operative CTS groups, and with healthy volunteers. The relationship between MRI findings and BQ and NCSs was analyzed. The ROC curve analysis was used for determining the accuracy. The comparison of pre-operative and post-operative T2 values and CSAs revealed statistically significant improvements in the post-operative patient group (pT2 values at all levels and BQ values, and positive and negative correlations were also found regarding T2 values and NCS findings in CTS patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for defined cut-off levels of median nerve T2 values in hands with severe CTS yielded excellent accuracy at all levels. However, this accuracy could not be demonstrated in hands with mild CTS. This study is the first to analyze T2 values in both pre-operative and post-operative CTS patients. The presence of increased T2 values in CTS patients compared to controls and excellent accuracy in hands with severe CTS indicates T2 signal changes related to CTS pathophysiology and possible utilization of T2 signal evaluation in hands with severe CTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Duration of symptomatology and median segmental sensory latency in 993 carpal tunnel syndrome hands (668 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUYOUMDJIAN JOAO ARIS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available According to median sensory nerve action potential onset-latency to index finger in a 140 mm fixed distance, 993 carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS hands from 668 patients were grouped into MIld (3.0 to 3.5 ms, 384 hands, MOderate (3.6 to 4.4 ms, 332 hands, SEvere (> 4.4 ms, 135 hands and UNrecordable (142 hands and correlated with CTS symptomatology duration. All patients have sensory antidromic median-radial latency difference (MRD e > or = 1.0 ms without any doubt about CTS diagnosis. Patients with systemic disease, trauma or previous surgery were excluded. There is a remarkable cumulative percentage increase from 1 to 12 months in group UN (3.5% to 38.7%, 11 folds, much less than the group MI (13.8% to 54.6%, 3.9 folds. There is also a remarkable non-cumulative percentage increase in group UN, from 1 to 4-12 months; the group MI had a relatively uniform distribution in all symptomatic duration groups from 1 to > 60 months. The conclusion is that median nerve compression at carpal tunnel can lead to unrecordable potentials in a relatively short period from 1 to 12 months of evolution, suggesting acute/subacute deterioration. Electrophysiological evaluation must be done periodically in patients that underwent clinical treatment, since cumulative 38.7% of group UN was found in 12 months period.

  19. Percentiles of the run-length distribution of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) median chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. L.; Chong, Z. L.; Khoo, M. B. C.; Teoh, W. L.; Teh, S. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Quality control is crucial in a wide variety of fields, as it can help to satisfy customers’ needs and requirements by enhancing and improving the products and services to a superior quality level. The EWMA median chart was proposed as a useful alternative to the EWMA \\bar{X} chart because the median-type chart is robust against contamination, outliers or small deviation from the normality assumption compared to the traditional \\bar{X}-type chart. To provide a complete understanding of the run-length distribution, the percentiles of the run-length distribution should be investigated rather than depending solely on the average run length (ARL) performance measure. This is because interpretation depending on the ARL alone can be misleading, as the process mean shifts change according to the skewness and shape of the run-length distribution, varying from almost symmetric when the magnitude of the mean shift is large, to highly right-skewed when the process is in-control (IC) or slightly out-of-control (OOC). Before computing the percentiles of the run-length distribution, optimal parameters of the EWMA median chart will be obtained by minimizing the OOC ARL, while retaining the IC ARL at a desired value.

  20. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience with 23 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Layla A. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Faraj, Walid G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Hamady, Mohamad [Imperial College-London Faculty of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Khalifeh, Mohamad; Hallal, Ali; Halawani, Hamzeh M. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Wazen, Joelle; Haydar, Ali A., E-mail: ah24@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-05-15

    BackgroundMedian arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare entity that occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm is low-lying, causing a compression to the underlying celiac trunk. We reviewed the vascular changes associated with MALS in an effort to emphasize the seriousness of this disease and the complications that may result.MethodsThis is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 23 consecutive patients diagnosed with MALS between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a tertiary medical center. Computed tomographic (CT) scans, medical records, and patient follow-up were reviewed.ResultsThe number of patients included herein was 23. The median age was 56 years (17–83). Sixteen patients (69.6%) had a significant arterial collateral circulation. Eleven patients (47.8%) were found to have visceral artery aneurysms; 4 patients (36.4%) bled secondary to aneurysm rupture. All ruptured aneurysms were treated with endovascular approach. The severity of the hemodynamic changes appears to be greater with complete occlusion,ConclusionsMALS causes pathological hemodynamic changes within the abdominal vasculature. Follow-up is advised for patients who develop a collateral circulation. Resulting aneurysms should preferably be treated when the size ratio approaches three. Treatment of these aneurysms can be done via an endovascular approach coupled with possible celiac artery decompression to restore physiologic blood flow.

  1. The prevalence of median neuropathy at wrist in systemic sclerosis patients at Srinagarind Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaporn Nimitbancha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factor related with median neuropathy at wrist (MNW in systemic sclerosis patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Participants: Systemic sclerosis patients who attended the Scleroderma Clinic, Srinagarind Hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventyfive systemic sclerosis patients were prospectively evaluated by questionnaire, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic study. The questionnaire consisted of the symptoms, duration, and type of systemic sclerosis. The physical examination revealed skin score of systemic sclerosis, pinprick sensation of median nerve distribution of both hands, and weakness of both abductor pollicis brevis muscles. The provocative test which were Tinel′s sign and Phalen′s maneuver were also examined. Moreover, electrodiagnostic study of the bilateral median and ulnar nerves was conducted. Results: The prevalence of MNW in systemic sclerosis patients was 44% - percentage of mild, moderate, and severe were 28%, 9.3%, and 6.7%, respectively. The prevalence of asymptomatic MNW was 88%. There were no association between the presence of MNW and related factors of systemic sclerosis. Conclusions: MNW is one of the most common entrapment neuropathies in systemic sclerosis patients. Systemic sclerosis patients should be screened for early signs of MNW.

  2. Relationship between median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord injury levels in patients with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Serra Gaspar, M I F; Cliquet, A; Fernandes Lima, V M; de Abreu, D C C

    2009-05-01

    Cross-sectional study. To observe if there is a relationship between the level of injury by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) and cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) recordings of the median nerve in patients with quadriplegia. Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic at the university hospital in Brazil. Fourteen individuals with quadriplegia and 8 healthy individuals were evaluated. Electrophysiological assessment of the median nerve was performed by evoked potential equipment. The injury level was obtained by ASIA. N(9), N(13) and N(20) were analyzed based on the presence or absence of responses. The parameters used for analyzing these responses were the latency and the amplitude. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models. N(9) responses were found in all patients with quadriplegia with a similar latency and amplitude observed in healthy individuals; N(13) responses were not found in any patients with quadriplegia. N(20) responses were not found in C5 patients with quadriplegia but it was present in C6 and C7 patients. Their latencies were similar to healthy individuals (P>0.05) but the amplitudes were decreased (P<0.05). This study suggests that the SSEP responses depend on the injury level, considering that the individuals with C6 and C7 injury levels, both complete and incomplete, presented SSEP recordings in the cortical area. It also showed a relationship between the level of spinal cord injury assessed by ASIA and the median nerve SSEP responses, through the latency and amplitude recordings.

  3. Median survival time of patients after transcatheter chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Z.; Haq, T.; Munir, K.; Usman, M.U.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect on survival after trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, Karachi, from December 1997 to September 2005. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing TACE procedure for HCC were prospectively followed. Forty three patients were enrolled from December 1997 to March 2003 in the study and subjected to chemo embolization therapy. Eight out of 43 patients were excluded from the study, who lost to follow-up. All the patients were followed till their death. Median and mean survival were calculated. Results: The median survival of these 35 patients was 410 days (13.6 months), with 95% confidence interval (236 days lower bound and 536 days upper bound). Mean survival time was 603 days (20.1 months) with 95% confidence interval (394 days lower bound and 812 days upper bound). There was significant difference in mean survival time (in days) by Child's Pugh class (X2 = 12.384; df=2, p-value=0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that TACE is an effective palliative treatment. TACE increases the median survival time. (author)

  4. Interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels obtained within 24-h of admission do not predict high-risk infection in children with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Biomarkers that can predict the severity of febrile neutropenia (FN are potential tools for clinical practice. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of plasma interleukin (IL levels as indicators of high-risk FN. Materials and Methods: Children with haematological malignancies and FN were enrolled prospectively. A blood sample was obtained within 24-h of admission for estimation of IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were stratified into three groups. Group I (low-risk: No focus of infection; Group II: Clinical/radiological focus of infection; Group III: Microbiologically proven infection or FN related mortality. Groups II and III were analysed as high-risk. The cytokines were assessed at three different cut-off levels. Results: A total of 52 episodes of FN in 48 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 6 years (range: 2-13. Primary diagnosis included acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (82%, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (13% and acute myeloid leukaemia (5%. Absolute neutrophil count was < 200 cells/μl in half and 200-500 in 23%. Majority were categorised as Group I (69%, followed by Group II (16% and III (15%. The range of IL-5 was too narrow and similar in the two risk-groups to be of any relevance. The best sensitivity of TNF-α and IL-6 for high-risk group was 78% and 70%, respectively. The highest specificity observed was 35%. The negative predictive value of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α exceeded 80%. Conclusion: IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α failed as predictors of clinically localised or microbiologically documented infection in children with chemotherapy induced FN. However, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α could be useful in excluding the possibility of high-risk infection.

  5. Different capacity of in vitro generated myeloid dendritic cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers to respond to probiotic strain E. coli O83:K24:H31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Súkeníková, Lenka; Černý, Viktor; Novotná, Olga; Petrásková, Petra; Boráková, Kristýna; Kolářová, Libuše; Prokešová, Ludmila; Hrdý, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    Allergic diseases belong to one of the most common diseases with steadily increasing incidence even among young children. There is an urgent need to identify a prognostic marker pointing to increased risk of allergy development enabling early preventive measures introduction. It has been shown that administration of selected probiotic strains or mixtures could prevent allergy development. In our study, we have tested the capacity of probiotic strain Escherichia coli O83:K24:H31 (E. coli O83) to promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation and polarisation of immune responses. Increased presence of activation marker CD83 was observed on DC stimulated by E. coli O83 and DC of newborns of allergic mothers have significantly more increased cell surface presence of CD83 in comparison to children of healthy mothers. Increased gene expression and secretion of IL-10 was detected in DC stimulated with E. coli O83 being higher in DC of newborns of healthy mothers in comparison to allergic ones. Generally, increased presence of intracellular cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-10) was detected in CD4+ T cells cocultured with DC of children of allergic mothers in comparison to healthy ones. E. coli O83 primed DC significantly increased IL-10 and IL-17A in CD4 T cells of newborns of healthy mothers in comparison to the levels detected in CD4 T cells cocultured with control non-stimulated DC. We can conclude E. coli O83 induces dendritic cell maturation and IL-10 production in DC. Newborns of allergic mothers have generally increased reactivity of both DC and CD4 T cells which together with decreased capacity of DC of newborns of allergic mothers to produce IL-10 could support inappropriate immune responses development after allergen encounter. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep structure of Porcupine Basin and nature of the Porcupine Median Ridge from seismic refraction tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watremez, L.; Chen, C.; Prada, M.; Minshull, T. A.; O'Reilly, B.; Reston, T. J.; Wagner, G.; Gaw, V.; Klaeschen, D.; Shannon, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a narrow V-shaped failed rifted basin located offshore SW Ireland. It is of Permo-Triassic to Cenozoic age, with the main rifting phase in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Porcupine Basin is a key study area to learn about the processes of continental extension and to understand the thermal history of this rifted basin. Previous studies show increasing stretching factors, from less than 1.5 to the North to more than 6 to the South. A ridge feature, the Porcupine Median Ridge, has been identified in the middle of the southernmost part of the basin. During the last three decades, this ridge has been successively interpreted as a volcanic structure, a diapir of partially serpentinized mantle, or a block of continental crust. Its nature still remains debated today. In this study, we use arrival times from refractions and wide-angle reflections in the sedimentary, crustal and mantle layers to image the crustal structure of the thinnest part of the basin, the geometry of the continental thinning from margin to margin, and the Porcupine Median Ridge. The final velocity model is then compared with coincident seismic reflection data. We show that (1) the basin is asymmetric, (2) P-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle are lower than expected for unaltered peridotites, implying upper-mantle serpentinisation, (3) the nature of Porcupine Median Ridge is probably volcanic, and (4) the amount of thinning is greater than shown in previous studies. We discuss the thermal implications of these results for the evolution of this rift system and the processes leading to the formation of failed rifts. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Petroleum Studies Group (ISPSG) of the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme Group 4.

  7. Median prior constrained TV algorithm for sparse view low-dose CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shangguan, Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Gui, Zhiguo

    2015-05-01

    It is known that lowering the X-ray tube current (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) and simultaneously reducing the total number of X-ray views (sparse view) is an effective means to achieve low-dose in computed tomography (CT) scan. However, the associated image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) usually degrades due to the excessive quantum noise. Although sparse-view CT reconstruction algorithm via total variation (TV), in the scanning protocol of reducing X-ray tube current, has been demonstrated to be able to result in significant radiation dose reduction while maintain image quality, noticeable patchy artifacts still exist in reconstructed images. In this study, to address the problem of patchy artifacts, we proposed a median prior constrained TV regularization to retain the image quality by introducing an auxiliary vector m in register with the object. Specifically, the approximate action of m is to draw, in each iteration, an object voxel toward its own local median, aiming to improve low-dose image quality with sparse-view projection measurements. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. We refer to the median prior constrained TV regularization as "TV_MP" for simplicity. Experimental results on digital phantoms and clinical phantom demonstrated that the proposed TV_MP with appropriate control parameters can not only ensure a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image, but also its resolution compared with the original TV method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experience of thymectomy by median sternotomy in patients with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, N.; Ahmed, S.W.; Ahmed, T.; Hafeez, A.B.; Baloch, R.; Ali, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis and safety of median sternotomy approach. Methodology: An observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of thoracic surgery JPMC from February 2005 to January 2009. Twenty two patients having persistent generalized or ocular myasthenia gravis referred to our department by neurologists and general physicians, partially or not responding to medical treatment with or without thymoma, were included in the study. Those who were not fit for anaesthesia were excluded. Preoperatively 2 to 3 sessions of plasmaphaeresis were done and each patient was given anti myasthenia gravis treatment. Clinical staging was done by Modified Osserman classification. Median sternotomy approach was used. Outcome was assessed on the basis of remission of disease in different Osserman groups. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. Results: Out of 22 patients, 16 (72.7%) were females and 6 (27.2%) males. Mean age at presentation was 35.2 +- 14.5 years. Mean duration of symptoms was 1.5 +- 1.2 years. A total of 4 (18.1%) patients with myasthenia gravis had thymoma and histopathology of 18 (81.9%) patients showed thymic hyperplasia. Remission was seen in most grades of Osserman. The best response was seen in Grade I where all patients achieved remission. Most patients in Grade II A and II B were benefited. The only patient in Grade III had no improvement of symptoms. No patient in Grade IV underwent thymectomy. Overall 86.3 % had a positive outcome on basis of remission and improvement. Conclusion: Thymectomy by median sternotomy is safe and effective with more favourable outcomes for patients of myasthenia gravis not responding to medical treatment. (author)

  9. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  10. Altered brain morphometry in carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with median nerve pathology☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Sheehan, James; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common median nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by pain, paresthesias, diminished peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and maladaptive functional brain neuroplasticity. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and whether such plasticity is linked to altered median nerve function in CTS. Methods We performed NCV testing, T1-weighted structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 28 CTS and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) contrasted regional GM volume for CTS versus HC. Significant clusters were correlated with clinical metrics and served as seeds to define associated WM tracts using DTI data and probabilistic tractography. Within these WM tracts, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were evaluated for group differences and correlations with clinical metrics. Results For CTS subjects, GM volume was significantly reduced in contralesional S1 (hand-area), pulvinar and frontal pole. GM volume in contralesional S1 correlated with median NCV. NCV was also correlated with RD and was negatively correlated with FA within U-fiber cortico-cortical association tracts identified from the contralesional S1 VBM seed. Conclusions Our study identified clear morphometric changes in the CTS brain. This central morphometric change is likely secondary to peripheral nerve pathology and altered somatosensory afference. Enhanced axonal coherence and myelination within cortico-cortical tracts connecting primary somatosensory and motor areas may accompany peripheral nerve deafferentation. As structural plasticity was correlated with NCV and not symptomatology, the former may be a better determinant of appropriate clinical intervention for CTS, including surgery. PMID:23799199

  11. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  12. Interfascicular suture with nerve autografts for median, ulnar and radial nerve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, F; Luccarelli, G

    1981-05-01

    Interfascicular nerve suture with autografts is the operation of choice for repairing peripheral nerve injuries because it ensures more precise alignment of the fasciculi and so better chances of reinnervation of the sectioned nerve. The procedure as described by Millesi et al has been used at the Istituto Neurologico di Milano in 30 patients with traumatic lesions of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. All have been followed up for 2 to 7 years since operation. The results obtained are compared with those of other series obtained with interfascicular suture and with epineural suture. Microsurgery is essential. The best time to operate is discussed.

  13. Median and common peroneal neuropathy in coir workers of Alappuzha district, Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2017-01-01

    for other causes not” contributing to the etiological diagnosis. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and forty-two upper limbs and 142 lower limbs in patients engaged in long years of coir work but having no symptoms were evaluated electrophysiologically with informed consent and financial compensation, appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed as described in the text. Results: There is electrophysiological evidence for median and common peroneal neuropathy in persons engaged in long years of coir work. Conclusions: Coir workers neuropathy appears to be a new occupational neuropathy which can be prevented by following simple preventive measures.

  14. CT morphology of benign median nerve tumors; Report of three cases and a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyerabend, T; Schmitt, R; Lanz, U; Warmuth-Metz, M [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Hand- und Mikrochirurgie

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 3 patients with benign tumors of the median nerve, histologically confirmed as neurilemmoma, fibrolipoma and hemangioma. The neurilemmoma showed a ring-shaped contrast enhancement. The fibrolipoma presented with areas of solid soft tissue and areas of fat. The hemangioma was a solid tumor with a lacunar, vascular contrast enhancement. According to our experience and to the previous literature CT gives useful information regarding the anatomic location, size, and relationship of peripheral nerve sheath tumors to surrounding structures, and may help to differentiate between various tumor types. (orig.).

  15. Entrapment of the Martin-Gruber branch of median nerve in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Vinod Ranade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a dual neuro-vascular variation, which was observed in the right extremity of male cadaver. About an inch inferior to the elbow joint, three branches arose from the median nerve. These were the anterior interosseous branch, a Martin-Gruber branch (MGB and a muscular branch. The MGB coursed infero-medially to join with the ulnar nerve by running posterior to the ulnar artery. It was surprising to observe that the MGB passed between the ulnar artery and its venae comitantes. There was an acute angulation of the MGB here, suggesting entrapment at this site.

  16. Impulse Noise Cancellation of Medical Images Using Wavelet Networks and Median Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Amir Reza; Zekri, Maryam; Sadri, Saeid; Gheissari, Niloofar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new two-stage approach to impulse noise removal for medical images based on wavelet network (WN). The first step is noise detection, in which the so-called gray-level difference and average background difference are considered as the inputs of a WN. Wavelet Network is used as a preprocessing for the second stage. The second step is removing impulse noise with a median filter. The wavelet network presented here is a fixed one without learning. Experimental results show that our method acts on impulse noise effectively, and at the same time preserves chromaticity and image details very well. PMID:23493998

  17. Sosiaalisen median negatiiviset vaikutukset käyttäjälle

    OpenAIRE

    Vidgren, Lilli

    2018-01-01

    Tutkielma on kirjallisuuskatsauksena toteutettu kandidaatintutkielma, jonka tutkimusaihe ja -otsikko on sosiaalisen median negatiiviset vaikutukset käyttä- jälle. Negatiivisia vaikutuksia tutkittiin vapaa-ajan käytön näkökulmasta. Sosiaalinen media on tullut nopeasti tärkeäksi ja välttämättömäksi osaksi ihmisten jokapäiväistä elämää, ja sen jatkuva läsnäolo vaikuttaa sen käyttäjiin negatiivisella tavalla. Negatiivisten vaikutusten tutkimisella ihmiset tulisivat enemmän tieto...

  18. Speckle noise reduction in breast ultrasound images: SMU (srad median unsharp) approch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njeh, I.; Sassi, O. B.; Ben Hamida, A.; Chtourou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Image denoising has become a very essential for better information extraction from the image and mainly from so noised ones, such as ultrasound images. In certain cases, for instance in ultrasound images, the noise can restrain information which is valuable for the general practitioner. Consequently medical images are very inconsistent, and it is crucial to operate case to case. This paper presents a novel algorithm SMU (Srad Median Unsharp) for noise suppression in ultrasound breast images in order to realize a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) for breast cancer.

  19. Lightweight MAC-Spoof Detection Exploiting Received Signal Power and Median Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    this kind of attack based on signal power monitoring. The main contribution of our work is the introduction of a median l- ter that enables the detection of the attack by looking at the variance of the signal power. We take into account two types of references for the samples, time and number of frames......IEEE 802.11 networks are subject to MAC-spoof attacks. An attacker can easily steal the identity of a legitimate station, even Access Points, thus enabling him to take full control over network basic mech- anisms or even access restricted resources. In this paper we propose a method to detect...

  20. Sosiaalisen median strategian jalkauttaminen : Facebook Merikeskus Vellamon markkinointiviestinnän välineenä

    OpenAIRE

    Okulov, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee museokeskus Merikeskus Vellamon sosiaalisen median strategian jalkauttamista ja Facebook-yhteisösovelluksen hyödyntämistä markkinointiviestinnässä. Facebook-yrityssivun perustaminen ja houkuttelevan kohderyhmäkohtaisen sisällöntuotannon oppiminen oli toimeksiantajan toiveesta operatiivisen suunnittelun pohjana tälle toiminnalliselle opinnäytetyölle. Teoriaosuudessa tutkittiin sosiaalista mediaa ilmiönä ja vuorovaikutteisena viestintäkanavana sekä Facebook-yh...

  1. Ant colony optimization techniques for the hamiltonian p-median problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zohrehbandian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Location-Routing problems involve locating a number of facilitiesamong candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. A special case of these problems is Hamiltonian p-Median problem (HpMP. This research applies the metaheuristic method of ant colony optimization (ACO to solve the HpMP. Modifications are made to the ACO algorithm used to solve the traditional vehicle routing problem (VRP in order to allow the search of the optimal solution of the HpMP. Regarding this metaheuristic algorithm a computational experiment is reported as well.

  2. Rotasi Varimax dan Median Hirarki Cluster Pada Program Raskin di Kabupaten Lombok Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Komalasari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The granting rice program for poor households (Raskin is one of the West Lombok regency government programs for village poverty. The effectiveness of the program relating to 14 criteria for the poor households Raskin recipients (RTS-PM. The 14 criteria have been grouped into several factors using varimax rotation factor analysis, while the RTS-PM have been grouped using hierarchical median cluster analysis. Four factors obtained based on the analysis. First factor was the house existence, the second factor was the financial ability, the third factor was the house existing facilities, and the four factor was the education of the household head and the purchasing power of clothing. The clustering results using hierarchical median cluster analysis formed 3 clusters. The first cluster contains the RTS-PM which have been grouped into first factor; the second cluster contains the RTS-PM which have been grouped into second and third factor; and the third cluster contains the RTS-PM which have been grouped into fourth factor.

  3. Rotasi Varimax dan Median Hirarki Cluster Pada Program Raskin di Kabupaten Lombok Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Komalasari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The granting rice program for poor households (Raskin is one of the West Lombok regency government programs for village poverty. The effectiveness of the program relating to 14 criteria for the poor households Raskin recipients (RTS-PM. The 14 criteria have been grouped into several factors using varimax rotation factor analysis, while the RTS-PM have been grouped using hierarchical median cluster analysis. Four factors obtained based on the analysis. First factor was the house existence, the second factor was the financial ability, the third factor was the house existing facilities, and the four factor was the education of the household head and the purchasing power of clothing. The clustering results using hierarchical median cluster analysis formed 3 clusters. The first cluster contains the RTS-PM which have been grouped into first factor; the second cluster contains the RTS-PM which have been grouped into second and third factor; and the third cluster contains the RTS-PM which have been grouped into fourth factor.

  4. Median of patient results as a tool for assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sölétormos, György

    2015-06-15

    In spite of the well-established external quality assessment and proficiency testing surveys of analytical quality performance in laboratory medicine, a simple tool to monitor the long-term analytical stability as a supplement to the internal control procedures is often needed. Patient data from daily internal control schemes was used for monthly appraisal of the analytical stability. This was accomplished by using the monthly medians of patient results to disclose deviations from analytical stability, and by comparing divergences with the quality specifications for allowable analytical bias based on biological variation. Seventy five percent of the twenty analytes achieved on two COBASs INTEGRA 800 instruments performed in accordance with the optimum and with the desirable specifications for bias. Patient results applied in analytical quality performance control procedures are the most reliable sources of material as they represent the genuine substance of the measurements and therefore circumvent the problems associated with non-commutable materials in external assessment. Patient medians in the monthly monitoring of analytical stability in laboratory medicine are an inexpensive, simple and reliable tool to monitor the steadiness of the analytical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Median and common peroneal neuropathy in coir workers of Alappuzha district, Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Anand, Biji; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Coir work, in a large number of people involves mechanically rolling the coconut fibers into coir which is later subjected to various processes. The primary work is done as a cottage industry specially by women in the sitting posture for several hours. This study reports evidence of median and common peroneal neuropathy electrophysiologically in people who had been engaged in this job for several years. This study was initiated to establish the possible relationship between coir work and symptomatic neuropathies which was seen in that region with all investigations " for other causes not " contributing to the etiological diagnosis. One hundred and forty-two upper limbs and 142 lower limbs in patients engaged in long years of coir work but having no symptoms were evaluated electrophysiologically with informed consent and financial compensation, appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed as described in the text. There is electrophysiological evidence for median and common peroneal neuropathy in persons engaged in long years of coir work. Coir workers neuropathy appears to be a new occupational neuropathy which can be prevented by following simple preventive measures.

  6. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scott Wilson,1,2 Andrea Bowyer,3 Stephen B Harrap4 1Department of Renal Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI, Melbourne, 3Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 4University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information. Keywords: continuous monitoring, blood pressure

  7. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.

  8. Least median of squares filtering of locally optimal point matches for compressible flow image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Castillo, Richard; White, Benjamin; Rojo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Compressible flow based image registration operates under the assumption that the mass of the imaged material is conserved from one image to the next. Depending on how the mass conservation assumption is modeled, the performance of existing compressible flow methods is limited by factors such as image quality, noise, large magnitude voxel displacements, and computational requirements. The Least Median of Squares Filtered Compressible Flow (LFC) method introduced here is based on a localized, nonlinear least squares, compressible flow model that describes the displacement of a single voxel that lends itself to a simple grid search (block matching) optimization strategy. Spatially inaccurate grid search point matches, corresponding to erroneous local minimizers of the nonlinear compressible flow model, are removed by a novel filtering approach based on least median of squares fitting and the forward search outlier detection method. The spatial accuracy of the method is measured using ten thoracic CT image sets and large samples of expert determined landmarks (available at www.dir-lab.com). The LFC method produces an average error within the intra-observer error on eight of the ten cases, indicating that the method is capable of achieving a high spatial accuracy for thoracic CT registration. (paper)

  9. Characterization of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland and median eminence of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Calvo, J.R.; Rubio, A.; Goberna, R.; Guerrero, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of specific melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland (HG) and median eminence (ME) of the rat was studied using [ 125 I]melatonin. Binding of melatonin to membrane crude preparations of both tissues was dependent on time and temperature. Thus, maximal binding was obtained at 37 degree C after 30-60 min incubation. Binding was also dependent on protein concentration. The specific binding of [ 125 I]melatonin was saturable, exhibiting only the class of binding sites in both tissues. The dissociation constants (Kd) were 170 and 190 pM for ME and HG, respectively. The concentration of the binding sites in ME was 8 fmol/mg protein, and in the HG 4 fmol/mg protein. In competition studies, binding of [ 125 I]melatonin to ME or HG was inhibited by increasing concentration of native melatonin; 50% inhibition was observed at about 702 and 422 nM for ME and HG, respectively. Additionally, the [ 125 I]melatonin binding to the crude membranes was not affected by the addition of different drugs such as norepinephrine, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, or prazosin. The results confirm the presence of melatonin binding sites in median eminence and show, for the first time, the existence of melatonin binding sites in the Harderian gland

  10. Median and Ulnar Neuropathy Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease regarding Symptom Severity and Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgul Yardimci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While increasing evidence suggests comorbidity of peripheral neuropathy (PNP and Parkinson’s disease (PD, the pathogenesis of PNP in PD is still a debate. The aim of this article is to search the core PD symptoms such as rigidity and tremor as contributing factors to mononeuropathy development while emphasizing each individual patient’s asymmetric symptom severity. Methods. We studied 62 wrists and 62 elbows of 31 patients (mean age 66.48±10.67 and 64 wrists and 64 elbows of 32 age-gender matched healthy controls (mean age 62.03±10.40, p=0.145. The Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rated Scale were used to determine the severity of the disease. Results. According to electrodiagnostic criteria, we confirmed median neuropathy in 16.12% (bilateral in two-thirds of the patients and ulnar neuropathy in 3.22% of the PD group. While mean age (p=0.003, age at PD onset (p=0.019, and H&Y scores (p=0.016 were significant, tremor and rigidity scores were not. The comparison of the mean indices of electrophysiologic parameters indicated subclinical median and ulnar nerve demyelination both at the wrist and at the elbow in the patient groups where a longer disease duration and mild tremor and rigidity scores are prominent, remarkably. Conclusion. A disease related peripheral neurodegeneration beyond symptom severity occurs in PD.

  11. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of a median neuropathy in the forearm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Joon-Shik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodiagnostic studies are traditionally used in the diagnosis of focal neuropathies, however they lack anatomical information regarding the nerve and its surrounding structures. The purpose of this case is to show that high-resolution ultrasound used as an adjunct to electrodiagnostic studies may complement this lack of information and give insight to the cause. Case presentation A 60-year-old male patient sustained a forearm traction injury resulting in progressive weakness and functional loss in the first three digits of the right hand. High-resolution ultrasound showed the presence of an enlarged nerve and a homogenous soft-tissue structure appearing to engulf the nerve. The contralateral side was normal. Surgery revealed fibrotic bands emanating from the flexor digitorum profundus muscle compressing the median nerve thus confirming the ultrasound findings. Conclusion A diagnostically challenging case of median neuropathy in the forearm is presented in which high-resolution ultrasound was valuable in establishing an anatomic etiology and directing appropriate management.

  12. Median Survival Time of Endometrial Cancer Patients with Lymphovascular Invasion at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyikeen, Wan Adnan Wan Nor; Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2016-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy among females worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the median survival time of endometrial cancer patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). A list of 121 endometrial cancer cases registered at Hospital USM between 2000 until 2011 was retrospectively reviewed. The survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare the survival of the patients based on socio-demographics and clinical presentation. Only 108 patients, 87.0%, were included who were of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included menopause in 67.6% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 39.8% of patients; additionally, 63.4% of patients were nulliparous. Tumour staging was as follows: 24.5% stage I, 10.8% stage II, 26.5% stage III and 38.2% stage IV. The overall median survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was 70.20 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.79, 88.61). The significant factors were age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and treatment received. The overall survival of endometrial cancer was low. A prospective study needs to be carried out to discover more effective and accurate tests for the early detection of endometrial cancer.

  13. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT - the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  14. Median of patient results as a tool for assessment of analytical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the well-established external quality assessment and proficiency testing surveys of analytical quality performance in laboratory medicine, a simple tool to monitor the long-term analytical stability as a supplement to the internal control procedures is often needed. METHOD......: Patient data from daily internal control schemes was used for monthly appraisal of the analytical stability. This was accomplished by using the monthly medians of patient results to disclose deviations from analytical stability, and by comparing divergences with the quality specifications for allowable...... analytical bias based on biological variation. RESULTS: Seventy five percent of the twenty analytes achieved on two COBASs INTEGRA 800 instruments performed in accordance with the optimum and with the desirable specifications for bias. DISCUSSION: Patient results applied in analytical quality performance...

  15. A molecular census of arcuate hypothalamus and median eminence cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John N; Macosko, Evan Z; Fenselau, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate-median eminence complex (Arc-ME) controls energy balance, fertility and growth through molecularly distinct cell types, many of which remain unknown. To catalog cell types in an unbiased way, we profiled gene expression in 20,921 individual cells in and around the adult...... mouse Arc-ME using Drop-seq. We identify 50 transcriptionally distinct Arc-ME cell populations, including a rare tanycyte population at the Arc-ME diffusion barrier, a new leptin-sensing neuron population, multiple agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) subtypes, and an orexigenic...... somatostatin neuron population. We extended Drop-seq to detect dynamic expression changes across relevant physiological perturbations, revealing cell type-specific responses to energy status, including distinct responses in AgRP and POMC neuron subtypes. Finally, integrating our data with human genome...

  16. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited...... knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we...... implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined...

  17. Estimation of mean and median pO2 values for a composite EPR spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Vikram, Deepti S; Potter, Lee C; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2008-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based oximetry is capable of quantifying oxygen content in samples. However, for a heterogeneous environment with multiple pO2 values, peak-to-peak linewidth of the composite EPR lineshape does not provide a reliable estimate of the overall pO2 in the sample. The estimate, depending on the heterogeneity, can be severely biased towards narrow components. To address this issue, we suggest a postprocessing method to recover the linewidth histogram which can be used in estimating meaningful parameters, such as the mean and median pO2 values. This information, although not as comprehensive as obtained by EPR spectral-spatial imaging, goes beyond what can be generally achieved with conventional EPR spectroscopy. Substantially shorter acquisition times, in comparison to EPR imaging, may prompt its use in clinically relevant models. For validation, simulation and EPR experiment data are presented.

  18. A Divergence Median-based Geometric Detector with A Weighted Averaging Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Yubo; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2018-01-01

    To overcome the performance degradation of the classical fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based constant false alarm rate detector with the limited sample data, a divergence median-based geometric detector on the Riemannian manifold of Heimitian positive definite matrices is proposed in this paper. In particular, an autocorrelation matrix is used to model the correlation of sample data. This method of the modeling can avoid the poor Doppler resolution as well as the energy spread of the Doppler filter banks result from the FFT. Moreover, a weighted averaging filter, conceived from the philosophy of the bilateral filtering in image denoising, is proposed and combined within the geometric detection framework. As the weighted averaging filter acts as the clutter suppression, the performance of the geometric detector is improved. Numerical experiments are given to validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  19. KEHONKUVA JA MEDIA : 9.-luokkalaisten tyttöjen kehonkuva ja median vaikutus siihen

    OpenAIRE

    Vainionpää, Charlotta; Koski, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen aiheena oli kehonkuva ja media: 9.-luokkalaisten tyttöjen kehonkuva ja median vaikutus siihen. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää minkälaisena tytöt kokevat oman kehonkuvansa, minkälaisia ulkonäköpaineita tytöillä on ja miten media vaikuttaa heidän kehonkuvaansa. Työn teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä pääkäsitteet olivat nuoruus, kehonkuva ja media. Nuoruus-osiossa käsiteltiin nuoruuden määrittelyn lisäksi murrosikää ja murrosiän fyysisiä sekä psyykkisiä muutoksia. Keh...

  20. Cooling modifies mixed median and ulnar palmar studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rogério Gayer Machado de; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2007-09-01

    Temperature is an important and common variable that modifies nerve conduction study parameters in practice. Here we compare the effect of cooling on the mixed palmar median to ulnar negative peak-latency difference (PMU) in electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Controls were 22 subjects (19 women, mean age 42.1 years, 44 hands). Patients were diagnosed with mild symptomatic CTS (25 women, mean age 46.6 years, 34 hands). PMU was obtained at the usual temperature, >32 degrees C, and after wrist/hand cooling to PMU and mixed ulnar palmar latency in patients versus controls. We concluded that cooling significantly modifies the PMU. We propose that the latencies of compressed nerve overreact to cooling and that this response could be a useful tool for incipient CTS electrodiagnosis. There was a significant latency overreaction of the ulnar nerve to cooling in CTS patients. We hypothesize that subclinical ulnar nerve compression is associated with CTS.

  1. Efficient Architecture and Implementation of Vector Median Filter in Co-Design Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Masmoudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient fast parallel architecture of the Vector Median Filter (VMF using combined hardware/software (HW/SW implementation. The hardware part of the system is implemented using VHDL language, whereas the software part is developed using C/C++ language. The software part of the embedded system uses the NIOS-II softcore processor and the operating system used is μClinux. The comparison between the software and HW/SW solutions shows that adding a hardware part in the design attempts to speed up the filtering process compared to the software solution. This efficient embedded system implementation can perform well in several image processing applications.

  2. Time course and predictors of median nerve conduction after carpal tunnel release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Mitchell B; Enkvetchakul, Bobby V; Megerian, J Thomas; Gozani, Shai N

    2004-05-01

    To identify predictors of outcome and of electrophysiologic recovery in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treated by endoscopic carpal tunnel release using a nerve conduction testing system (NC-Stat; NEUROMetrix, Inc, Waltham, MA). Validity of the automated nerve conduction testing system was shown by comparing presurgical distal motor latencies (DMLs) against a reference obtained by referral to an electromyography laboratory. The DML was evaluated in 48 patients with CTS. Measurements were obtained within 1 hour of surgery and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after carpal tunnel release. Presurgical and postsurgical DMLs were then compared and correlated with variables and possible predictors of outcome including age, body mass index, gender, and presurgical DMLs. The automated nerve conduction testing system DMLs matched those of reference electromyography/nerve conduction study values with high correlation. Sensitivity of the automated nerve conduction testing system when compared with a standardized CTS case definition was 89%, with a specificity of 95%. A significant correlation was found between the DML before release and the DML 1 hour after release. Moreover, maximal postsurgical DML improvement was highly dependent on the presurgical DML, with no improvement shown for the 6-ms group. Among the clinical variables of age, gender, and body mass index only age was mildly predictive of postrelease DML changes at 6 months. No other correlations between clinical variables and postsurgical DMLs were significant. In addition the predictive value of age was lost when combined with the presurgical DML in a multivariate analysis. Postsurgical changes in the median nerve DML were highly dependent on the prerelease latency. The sensitivity and specificity of a nerve conduction monitoring system in detecting and aiding in the diagnosis of CTS is useful in the long-term management of patients with CTS and can aid in determining the level of improvement

  3. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Michalik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Celiac trunk (CT compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT – the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. Aim: To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Material and methods : Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Results : In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. Conclusions : The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  4. Does Full Wound Rupture following Median Pilonidal Closure Alter Long-Term Recurrence Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Dietrich; Matevossian, Edouard; Luedi, Markus M; Schneider, Ralf; van Zypen, Dominic; Novotny, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the recurrence rate of wound rupture in primary pilonidal sinus disease (PSD) after median closure. A total of 583 patients from the German military cohort were interviewed. We compared the choice of surgical therapy, wound dehiscence (if present) and long-term recurrence-free survival for patients with primary open treatment, marsupialization and primary median treatment (closed vs. secondary open, respectively). Actuarial recurrence rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier calculation with a follow-up of up to 20 years after primary PSD surgery. Patients with excision followed by primary open wound treatment showed a significantly lower 5- than 10-year recurrence rate (8.3 vs. 11.2%) compared to the patients with primary midline closure (17.4 vs. 20.5%, p = 0.03). The 20-year recurrence rate was 28% in primary open wound treatment versus 44% in primary midline closure without wound rupture. In contrast to these findings, long-term recurrence rates following secondary open wound treatment (12.2% at 5 years vs. 17.1% at 10 years) tended to be higher (although not significantly, p = 0.57) compared to primary open treatment (8.3% at 5 years vs. 11.2% at 10 years). There was no statistical difference in long-term recurrence rates between secondary open and primary midline closure (p = 0.7). Hence, despite only a short wound closure time experienced before wound rupture, the patient does not fully benefit from an open wound treatment in terms of recurrence rate. The postoperative pilonidal sinus wound rupture of primary midline closures did not significantly increase the 5- and 10-year long-term recurrence rates compared to uneventfully healing primary midline closures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. MRI shows thickening and altered diffusion in the median and ulnar nerves in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakma, Wieke [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aarhus University, Department of Forensic Medicine and Comparative Medicine Lab, Aarhus (Denmark); Jongbloed, Bas A.; Goedee, H.S.; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Pol, W.L. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Froeling, Martijn; Bos, Clemens; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leemans, Alexander [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To study disease mechanisms in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median and ulnar nerves. We enrolled ten MMN patients, ten patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ten healthy controls (HCs). Patients underwent MRI (in a prone position) and nerve conduction studies. DTI and fat-suppressed T2-weighted scans of the forearms were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Fibre tractography of the median and ulnar nerves was performed to extract diffusion parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) were measured on T2-weighted scans. Forty-five out of 60 arms were included in the analysis. AD was significantly lower in MMN patients (2.20 ± 0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared to ALS patients (2.31 ± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05) and HCs (2.31± 0.17 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; p < 0.05). Segmental analysis showed significant restriction of AD, RD and MD (p < 0.005) in the proximal third of the nerves. CSA was significantly larger in MMN patients compared to ALS patients and HCs (p < 0.01). Thickening of nerves is compatible with changes in the myelin sheath structure, whereas lowered AD values suggest axonal dysfunction. These findings suggest that myelin and axons are diffusely involved in MMN pathogenesis. (orig.)

  6. Variability and Reliability of Paired-Pulse Depression and Cortical Oscillation Induced by Median Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideaki; Otsuru, Naofumi; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Saito, Kei; Inukai, Yasuto; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2018-05-08

    Paired-pulse depression (PPD) has been widely used to investigate the functional profiles of somatosensory cortical inhibition. However, PPD induced by somatosensory stimulation is variable, and the reasons for between- and within-subject PPD variability remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the factors influencing PPD variability induced by somatosensory stimulation. The study participants were 19 healthy volunteers. First, we investigated the relationship between the PPD ratio of each component (N20m, P35m, and P60m) of the somatosensory magnetic field, and the alpha, beta, and gamma band changes in power [event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS)] induced by median nerve stimulation. Second, because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms reportedly influence the PPD ratio, we assessed whether BDNF genotype influences PPD ratio variability. Finally, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of PPD and the alpha, beta, and gamma ERD/ERS induced by somatosensory stimulation. Significant positive correlations were observed between the P60m_PPD ratio and beta power change, and the P60m_PPD ratio was significantly smaller for the beta ERD group than for the beta ERS group. P35m_PPD was found to be robust and highly reproducible; however, P60m_PPD reproducibility was poor. In addition, the ICC values for alpha, beta, and gamma ERD/ERS were 0.680, 0.760, and 0.552 respectively. These results suggest that the variability of PPD for the P60m deflection may be influenced by the ERD/ERS magnitude, which is induced by median nerve stimulation.

  7. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-26

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet\\'s performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  8. Evaluation of a novel median power spectrogram for seizure detection by non-neurophysiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peter; Melman, Tamar; Yan, Sherry; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Grinspan, Zachary

    2017-08-01

    (1) To evaluate how well resident physicians use a novel EEG spectral analysis tool (the median power spectrogram; MPS) to detect seizures. (2) To assess the capability of the MPS to identify different seizure types. 120 EEG records from children with intractable seizures were converted to MPS by taking the median power across leads and using multi-taper spectral estimation. Twelve blinded neurology residents were trained to interpret the spectrogram with a five-minute video tutorial and post-test. Two residents independently assessed each set for presence of seizures. Their performance was compared to seizures identified using conventional EEG. Two blinded neurologists separately reviewed the EEGs and spectrograms to independently categorize the seizures. Their results were used to determine the spectrogram's capability to reveal seizures and visualize different seizure types for the user. Three key MPS features distinguished seizures from inter-ictal background: power difference relative to background, down-sloping resonance bands, and power in high frequencies. Using these features, residents identified seizures with 77% sensitivity and 72% specificity. 86% (51/59) of focal seizures and 81% (22/27) of generalized seizures were detected by at least one resident. Missed seizures included brief (seizures, tonic seizures, seizures with predominant delta (0-4Hz) activity, and seizures evident primarily in supplementary low temporal leads. The MPS is a novel qEEG modality that requires minimal training to interpret. It enables physicians without extensive neurophysiology training to identify seizures with sensitivity and specificity comparable to more complex multi-modal qEEG displays. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contemporary management of median arcuate ligament syndrome provides early symptom improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, Jesse A.; Trus, Thadeus; Nolan, Brian; Goodney, Philip; Rzucidlo, Eva; Powell, Richard; Walsh, Daniel; Stone, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective Optimal diagnosis and management of median arcuate ligament (MAL) syndrome (MALS) remains unclear in contemporary practice. The advent and evolution of laparoscopic and endovascular techniques has redirected management toward a less invasive therapeutic algorithm. This study examined our contemporary outcomes of patients treated for MALS. Methods All patients treated for MALS at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center from 2000 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Freedom from symptoms and freedom from reintervention were the primary end points. Return to work or school was assessed. Follow-up by clinic visits and telephone allowed quantitative comparisons among the patients. Results During the study interval, 21 patients (24% male), with a median age of 42 years, were treated for MALS. All patients complained of abdominal pain in the presence of a celiac stenosis, 16 (76%) also reported weight loss at the time of presentation, and 57% had a concomitant psychiatric history. Diagnostic imaging most commonly used included duplex ultrasound (81%), computed tomography angiography (66%), angiography (57%), and magnetic resonance angiography (5%). Fourteen patients (67%) underwent multiple diagnostic studies. All patients underwent initial laparoscopic MAL release. Seven patients (33%) underwent subsequent celiac stent placement in the setting of recurrent or unresolved symptoms with persistent celiac stenosis at a mean interval of 49 days. Two patients required surgical bypass after an endovascular intervention failed. The 6-month freedom from symptoms was 75% and freedom from reintervention was 64%. Eighteen patients (81%) reported early symptom improvement and weight gain, and 66% were able to return to work. Conclusions A multidisciplinary treatment approach using initial laparoscopic release and subsequent stent placement and bypass surgery provides symptom improvement in most patients treated for MALS. The

  10. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Abbas, Ahmed; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet's performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  11. Evaluation of a non-proprietary, high-tension, four-cable median barrier on level terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    During the last decade, the use of cable median barriers has risen dramatically. Cable barriers are often utilized in depressed medians : with widths ranging from 30 to 50 ft (9.1 to 15.2 m) and with fill slopes as steep as 4H:1V. A careful review of...

  12. Early Cretaceous dextral transpressional deformation within the Median Batholith, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The character, timing, and significance of deformation within the Median Batholith has been debated since at least 1967, with allochthonous and autochthonous models proposed to account for internal variations in the character of the batholith. Stewart Island provides excellent exposures of intrabatholithic structures, allowing many aspects of the deformation history within the batholith to be analysed, far removed from the effects of later deformation related to the current plate boundary. Median Batholith rocks in northern and central Stewart Island are deformed by three major structures: the Freshwater Fault System, Escarpment Fault, and Gutter Shear Zone. Lineation orientations, Al in hornblende geobarometry, and Ar-Ar thermochronology indicate up to c. 7 km of NNE-directed uplift of the hanging wall of the Escarpment Fault between c. 110 and 105 Ma. Unlike the Escarpment Fault, a wide range of mineral elongation lineation orientations, including many oblique to the strike and dip of related foliations, characterise both the Gutter Shear Zone and Freshwater Fault System. Lineation and limited sense of shear data indicate dextral-reverse movement on both structures during development of their dominant ductile fabrics. Crosscutting and intrusive relationships indicate movement on the Freshwater Fault System after c. 130 Ma and on the Gutter Shear Zone between 120 and 112 Ma. The amount of movement on the Freshwater Fault System and Gutter Shear Zone remains largely unconstrained. However, the 342 ± 24 Ma age of a granite clast in a Paterson Group lithic tuff horizon at Abrahams Bay overlaps that of Carboniferous plutons in the block immediately south of the Freshwater Fault System, implying that the Paterson Group is little displaced from the basement rocks through which it was erupted. The three structures mapped on Stewart Island form part of a narrow transpressional mobile belt active within the Jurassic-Cretaceous arc on the outboard margin of the Western

  13. Ultrasound-guided hydrodissection decreases gliding resistance of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Stefanie; Thoreson, Andrew R; Smith, Jay; Zhao, Chunfeng; Geske, Jennifer R; Amadio, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess alterations in median nerve (MN) biomechanics within the carpal tunnel resulting from ultrasound-guided hydrodissection in a cadaveric model. Twelve fresh frozen human cadaver hands were used. MN gliding resistance was measured at baseline and posthydrodissection, by pulling the nerve proximally and then returning it to the origin. Six specimens were treated with hydrodissection, and 6 were used as controls. In the hydrodissection group there was a significant reduction in mean peak gliding resistance of 92.9 ± 34.8 mN between baseline and immediately posthydrodissection (21.4% ± 10.5%; P = 0.001). No significant reduction between baseline and the second cycle occurred in the control group: 9.6 ± 29.8 mN (0.4% ± 5.3%; P = 0.467). Hydrodissection can decrease the gliding resistance of the MN within the carpal tunnel, at least in wrists unaffected by carpal tunnel syndrome. A clinical trial of hydrodissection seems justified. Muscle Nerve 57: 25-32, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pinhole single-photon emission tomography reconstruction based on median root prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlberg, Antti; Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    The maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM) algorithm can be used to reduce reconstruction artefacts produced by filtered backprojection (FBP) methods in pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET). However, ML-EM suffers from noise propagation along iterations, which leads to quantitatively unpleasant reconstruction results. To avoid this increase in noise, the median root prior (MRP) algorithm for pinhole SPET was implemented. Projection data of a line source and Picker's thyroid phantom were collected using a single-head gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. MRP was added to existing pinhole ML-EM reconstruction algorithm and the phantom studies were reconstructed using MRP, ML-EM and FBP for comparison. Coefficients of variation, contrasts and full-widths at half-maximum were calculated and showed a clear reduction in noise without significant loss of resolution or decrease in contrast when MRP was applied. MRP also produced visually pleasing images even with high iteration numbers, free of the checkerboard-type noise patterns which are typical of ML-EM images. (orig.)

  15. Median effective dose of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Brosnan, Robert J; Antognini, Joseph F; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-03-01

    To determine the median effective dose (ED(50); equivalent to the minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane for anesthesia in iguanas. 6 healthy adult green iguanas. In unmedicated iguanas, anesthesia was induced and maintained with each of the 3 volatile drugs administered on separate days according to a Latin square design. Iguanas were endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for cardiovascular and respiratory measurements. During each period of anesthesia, MAC was determined in triplicate. The mean value of 2 consecutive expired anesthetic concentrations, 1 that just permitted and 1 that just prevented gross purposeful movement in response to supramaximal electrical stimulus, and that were not different by more than 15%, was deemed the MAC. Mean +/- SD values for the third MAC determination for isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane were 1.8 +/- 0.3%, 3.1 +/- 1.0%, and 8.9 +/- 2.1% of atmospheric pressure, respectively. The MAC for all inhaled agents was, on average, 22% greater for the first measurement than for the third measurement. Over time, MACs decreased for all 3 agents. Final MAC measurements were similar to values reported for other species. The decrease in MACs over time may be at least partly explained by limitations of anesthetic uptake and distribution imposed by the reptilian cardiorespiratory system. Hence, for a constant end-tidal anesthetic concentration in an iguana, the plane of anesthesia may deepen over time, which could contribute to increased morbidity during prolonged procedures.

  16. Presentation and management of keloid scarring following median sternotomy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javangula Kalyana C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Keloid scars following median sternotomy are rare and occur more frequently in pigmented skin. Different management strategies have been described with variable success. We present a case of keloid scar formation following cardiac surgery including our management and the final aesthetic result. Case description A 64 year old female of fair complexion underwent mitral valve replacement. The procedure and postoperative recovery were uncomplicated, however, during the following year, thick keloid scars formed over the incision sites. Initial non surgical measures failed to relieve pain and did not offer any tangible aesthetic benefit. Eventually surgical excision was attempted. She presented to our clinic for nine months follow up with significant improvement in pain and aesthetic result. Discussion and Evaluation Several theories have attempted to explore the pathophysiology of keloid scar formation. A number of predisposing factors have been documented however none existed in this case. A variety of invasive and non invasive approaches have been described but significant differences in success rates and methodology of investigations still precludes a standardized management protocol. Conclusions In this case study a rare presentation of keloid scar has been presented. The variety of methods used to improve pain and aesthetic result demonstrates the propensity of keloid scars to recur and the therapeutic challenges that surgeons have to face in their quest for a satisfactory patient outcome.

  17. Clinical importance of median mandibular flexure in oral rehabilitation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, K; Chopra, A; Venkatesh, S B

    2016-03-01

    The mandible has a property to flex inwards around the mandibular symphysis with change in shape and decrease in mandibular arch width during opening and protrusion of the mandible. The mandibular deformation may range from a few micrometres to more than 1 mm. The movement occurs because of the contraction of lateral pterygoid muscles that pulls mandibular condyles medially and causes a sagittal movement of the posterior segments. This movement of mandible can have a profound influence on prognosis and treatment outcome for various restorative, endodontics, fixed, removable and implant-related prosthesis. The review unfolds the causes, importance and clinical implications of median mandibular flexure in oral rehabilitation. This review also highlights the appropriate preventive measures and techniques that should be adopted by clinicians to minimise the effect of flexural movement of the jaw during oral rehabilitation. This would not only help clinicians to achieve a good prosthesis with accurate fit and longevity but also maintain the health of the surrounding periodontal or periimplant gingival tissues and bone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Filtering with the Centered Moving Median to Effectively Monitor Solution Processes for Safeguard Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richir, Patrice; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, Varese (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Reprocessing plants require continuous and integrated safeguards activities by inspectors of the IAEA and Euratom because of their proliferation-sensitivity as complex facilities handling large quantities of direct use nuclear material. In support of both organizations, the JRC has developed a solution monitoring software package (DAI, Data Analysis and Interpretation) which has been implemented in the main commercial European reprocessing plants and which allows enhanced monitoring of nuclear materials in the processed solutions. This tool treats data acquired from different sensor types (e.g. from pressure transducers monitoring the solution levels in tanks). Collected signals are often noisy because of the instrumentation itself and/or because of ambient and operational conditions (e.g. pumps, ventilation systems or electromagnetic interferences) and therefore require filtering. Filtering means reduction of information and has to be applied correctly to avoid misinterpretation of the process steps. This paper describes the study of some filters one of which is the centered moving median which has been revealed as a powerful tool for solution monitoring.

  19. Accelerated median root prior reconstruction for pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohlberg, Antti [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777 FIN-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Ruotsalainen, Ulla [Institute of Signal Processing, DMI, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 553 FIN-33101, Tampere (Finland); Watabe, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujisihro-dai, Suita City, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujisihro-dai, Suita City, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Kuikka, Jyrki T [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777 FIN-70211, Kuopio (Finland)

    2003-07-07

    Pinhole collimation can be used to improve spatial resolution in SPET. However, the resolution improvement is achieved at the cost of reduced sensitivity, which leads to projection images with poor statistics. Images reconstructed from these projections using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithms, which have been used to reduce the artefacts generated by the filtered backprojection (FBP) based reconstruction, suffer from noise/bias trade-off: noise contaminates the images at high iteration numbers, whereas early abortion of the algorithm produces images that are excessively smooth and biased towards the initial estimate of the algorithm. To limit the noise accumulation we propose the use of the pinhole median root prior (PH-MRP) reconstruction algorithm. MRP is a Bayesian reconstruction method that has already been used in PET imaging and shown to possess good noise reduction and edge preservation properties. In this study the PH-MRP algorithm was accelerated with the ordered subsets (OS) procedure and compared to the FBP, OS-EM and conventional Bayesian reconstruction methods in terms of noise reduction, quantitative accuracy, edge preservation and visual quality. The results showed that the accelerated PH-MRP algorithm was very robust. It provided visually pleasing images with lower noise level than the FBP or OS-EM and with smaller bias and sharper edges than the conventional Bayesian methods.

  20. Low Median Nerve Palsy as Initial Manifestation of Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Koh, Young Do; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) syndrome is typically characterized by forearm pain and partial or complete dysfunction of the AIN-innervated muscles. Although the exact etiology and pathophysiology of the disorder remain unclear, AIN syndrome is increasingly thought to be an inflammatory condition of the nerve rather than a compressive neuropathy because the symptoms often resolve spontaneously following prolonged observation. However, peripheral neuropathy can be 1 of the first symptoms of systemic vasculitis that needs early systemic immunotherapy to prevent extensive nerve damage. Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS; eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis) is 1 type of primary systemic vasculitis that frequently damages the peripheral nervous system. CSS-associated neuropathy usually involves nerves of the lower limb, and few studies have reported on the involvement of the upper limb alone. We report on a rare case of low median nerve palsy as the initial manifestation of CSS. The patient recovered well with early steroid treatment for primary systemic vasculitis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve: clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, M F; Moore, D C; Weiss, A P; Akelman, E; Sikirica, M

    1996-07-01

    A detailed anatomic, histologic, and immunohistochemical study of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN) and its distal arborization was undertaken on 12 fresh human cadaveric hands. Small unmyelinated fibers terminated in the superficial loose connective tissue of the transverse carpal ligament. There were no nerve fibers detected in the deep, dense collagen aspect of the ligament. Based on these findings, during open carpal tunnel release, the skin incision should be placed along the axis of the ring finger to avoid injury to the superficial branches of the PCBMN. When open release is used, the very small terminal branches in the loose tissue of the ligament will be transected; this may in part be responsible for postoperative soft tissue pain. For endoscopic releases, some risk for transection of the main trunk of the PCBMN at the proximal incision exists. Repeated passes of the endoscopic knife should be avoided in an attempt to limit damage to the small fibers in the superficial aspect of the ligament.

  2. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Anterolateral minithoracotomy versus median sternotomy for mitral valve disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chao; Jiang, Da-ming; Tao, Kai-yu; Duan, Qun-jun; Li, Jie; Kong, Min-jian; Shen, Zhong-hua; Dong, Ai-qiang

    2014-06-01

    Mitral valve disease tends to be treated with anterolateral minithoracotomy (ALMT) rather than median sternotomy (MS), as ALMT uses progressively smaller incisions to promote better cosmetic outcomes. This meta-analysis quantifies the effects of ALMT on surgical parameters and post-operative outcomes compared with MS. One randomized controlled study and four case-control studies, published in English from January 1996 to January 2013, were identified and evaluated. ALMT showed a significantly longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (P=0.001) and aortic cross-clamp time (P=0.05) compared with MS. However, the benefits of ALMT were evident as demonstrated by a shorter length of hospital stay (PALMT decreased significantly as compared with MS (P=0.05); however, the incidence of peri-operative mortality (P=0.62), re-operation for bleeding (P=0.37), neurologic events (P=0.77), myocardial infarction (P=0.84), gastrointestinal complications (P=0.89), and renal insufficiency (P=0.67) were similar to these of MS. Long-term follow-up data were also examined, and revealed equivalent survival and freedom from mitral valve events. Current clinical data suggest that ALMT is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional approach and is associated with better short-term outcomes and a trend towards longer survival.

  4. A center-median filtering method for detection of temporal variation in coronal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plowman Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Events in the solar corona are often widely separated in their timescales, which can allow them to be identified when they would otherwise be confused with emission from other sources in the corona. Methods for cleanly separating such events based on their timescales are thus desirable for research in the field. This paper develops a technique for identifying time-varying signals in solar coronal image sequences which is based on a per-pixel running median filter and an understanding of photon-counting statistics. Example applications to “EIT waves” (named after EIT, the EUV Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and small-scale dynamics are shown, both using 193 Å data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The technique is found to discriminate EIT waves more cleanly than the running and base difference techniques most commonly used. It is also demonstrated that there is more signal in the data than is commonly appreciated, finding that the waves can be traced to the edge of the AIA field of view when the data are rebinned to increase the signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sölétormos, György

    2018-04-25

    Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient is sitting or recumbent during phlebotomy. We therefore investigated only examinations requested by general practitioners (GPs) to provide data from sitting patients. Weekly and monthly patient medians of serum albumin requested by GP for both male and female patients were calculated from the raw data obtained from three analysers in the hospital laboratory on examination of samples from those >18 years. The half-range of medians were applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were calculated (females/males). The medians for male and female patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two independent estimates of changes in (delta) bias: only results requested by GP are of value in this application to ensure that all patients are sitting during phlebotomy.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of median and ulnar nerves in the wrist and palm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Hongjing; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Guangbin; Hasan, Mansoor-ul; Yao, Bin; Wu, Chao; Wu, Lebin [Shandong University, Department of MR, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Yang, Li [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xu [Shandong Chest Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance neurography (DW-MRN) in the visualisation of extremity nerves in the wrist and palm. Thirty-two volunteers and 21 patients underwent imaging of the wrist and palm on a 3-T MR scanner. In all subjects, two radiologists evaluated the image quality on DW-MRN using a four-point grading scale. Kappa statistics were obtained for inter-observer performance. In volunteers, the chi-squared test was used to assess the differences in nerve visualisation on DW-MRN and axial fat-suppressed proton density weighted imaging (FS-PDWI). In volunteers, the mean image quality scores for the median nerve (MN) and ulnar nerve (UN) were 3.71 ± 0.46 and 3.23 ± 0.67 for observer 1, and 3.70 ± 0.46 and 3.22 ± 0.71 for observer 2, respectively. The inter-observer agreement was excellent (k = 0.843) and good (k = 0.788), respectively. DW-MRN provided significantly improved visualisations of the second and the third common palmar digital nerves and three branches of UN compared with FS-PDWI (P < 0.05). In patients, the mean image quality scores for the two observers were 3.24 ± 0.62 and 3.10 ± 0.83, inter-observer performance was excellent (k = 0.842). DW-MRN is feasible for improved visualisation of extremity nerves and their lesions in the wrist and palm with adequate image quality, thereby providing a supplementary method to conventional MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Bayesian image reconstruction for emission tomography based on median root prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenius, S.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate a new type of Bayesian one-step late reconstruction method which utilizes a median root prior (MRP). The method favours images which have locally monotonous radioactivity concentrations. The new reconstruction algorithm was applied to ideal simulated data, phantom data and some patient examinations with PET. The same projection data were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) and maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) methods for comparison. The MRP method provided good-quality images with a similar resolution to the FBP method with a ramp filter, and at the same time the noise properties were as good as with Hann-filtered FBP images. The typical artefacts seen in FBP reconstructed images outside of the object were completely removed, as was the grainy noise inside the object. Quantitativley, the resulting average regional radioactivity concentrations in a large region of interest in images produced by the MRP method corresponded to the FBP and ML-EM results but at the pixel by pixel level the MRP method proved to be the most accurate of the tested methods. In contrast to other iterative reconstruction methods, e.g. ML-EM, the MRP method was not sensitive to the number of iterations nor to the adjustment of reconstruction parameters. Only the Bayesian parameter β had to be set. The proposed MRP method is much more simple to calculate than the methods described previously, both with regard to the parameter settings and in terms of general use. The new MRP reconstruction method was shown to produce high-quality quantitative emission images with only one parameter setting in addition to the number of iterations. (orig.)

  8. Serial recording of median nerve stimulated subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in developing brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A; Hacke, W

    1988-01-01

    Subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation were recorded serially in 35 patients during the evolution towards brain death and in brain death. Neuropathological alterations of the central nervous system down to the C1/C2 spinal cord segment in brain death are well known. SEP components supposed to be generated above this level should be lost in brain death, while components generated below should not be altered. Erb's point, scalp and neck potentials were recorded at C3/4, or over the spinous process C7, using an Fz reference. In 10 patients additional montages, including spinous process C2-Fz, a non-cephalic reference (Fz-contralateral shoulder) and a posterior to anterior neck montage (spinous process C7-jugulum) were used. The cephalic referenced N9 and N11 peaks remained unchanged until brain death. N9 and N11 decreased in parallel in amplitude and increased in latency after systemic effects like hypoxia or hypothermia occurred. The cephalic referenced 'N14' decreased in amplitude and increased in latency after the clinical brain death syndrome was observed, while N13 in the posterior to anterior neck montage remained unchanged. The alteration of 'N14' went parallel to the decrease of the P14 amplitude. The subcortical SEPs in the cephalic referenced lead are supposed to be a peak composed by a horizontally orientated dorsal horn generated N13 and a rostrally orientated P14 arising at the level of the foramen magnum. The deterioration of the non-cephalic referenced P14 and of its cephalic referenced reflection 'N14' seems to provide an additional objective criterion for the diagnosis of brain death.

  9. Adaptive partial median filter for early CT signs of acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Detection of early CT signs of infarct in non- enhanced CT image is mandatory in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the gray-white matter interface at the lentiform nucleus or the insular ribbon has been an important early CT sign of acute cerebral infarction, which affects decisions on thrombolytic therapy. However, its detection is difficult, since the principal early CT sign is subtle hypoattenuation. An image processing method to reduce local noise with edges preserved was developed to improve infarct detection. Rationale: An adaptive partial median filter (APMF) was selected for this application, since the APMF can markedly improve the visibility of the normal gray-white matter interface. APMF should enhance the conspicuity of gray-white matter interface changes due to hypoattenuation that accompanies cerebral infarction. Method: In a criterion referenced performance study using simulated CT images with gray-white matter interfaces, a total of 14 conventional smoothing filters were also used for comparison to validate the usefulness of the proposed APMF. The APMF indicated the highest performance among the compared methods. Then, observer performance study by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed with 4 radiologist observers using a database with 18 abnormal and 33 normal head CT images. The average A z values of ROC curves for all radiologists increased from 0.876 without the APMF images to 0.926 with the APMF images, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.04). The results from the two observer performance studies demonstrated that APMF has significant potential to improve the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction using non-enhanced CT images. (orig.)

  10. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of median and ulnar nerves in the wrist and palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Hongjing; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Guangbin; Hasan, Mansoor-ul; Yao, Bin; Wu, Chao; Wu, Lebin; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance neurography (DW-MRN) in the visualisation of extremity nerves in the wrist and palm. Thirty-two volunteers and 21 patients underwent imaging of the wrist and palm on a 3-T MR scanner. In all subjects, two radiologists evaluated the image quality on DW-MRN using a four-point grading scale. Kappa statistics were obtained for inter-observer performance. In volunteers, the chi-squared test was used to assess the differences in nerve visualisation on DW-MRN and axial fat-suppressed proton density weighted imaging (FS-PDWI). In volunteers, the mean image quality scores for the median nerve (MN) and ulnar nerve (UN) were 3.71 ± 0.46 and 3.23 ± 0.67 for observer 1, and 3.70 ± 0.46 and 3.22 ± 0.71 for observer 2, respectively. The inter-observer agreement was excellent (k = 0.843) and good (k = 0.788), respectively. DW-MRN provided significantly improved visualisations of the second and the third common palmar digital nerves and three branches of UN compared with FS-PDWI (P < 0.05). In patients, the mean image quality scores for the two observers were 3.24 ± 0.62 and 3.10 ± 0.83, inter-observer performance was excellent (k = 0.842). DW-MRN is feasible for improved visualisation of extremity nerves and their lesions in the wrist and palm with adequate image quality, thereby providing a supplementary method to conventional MR imaging. (orig.)

  11. Platelet-rich plasma limits the nerve injury caused by 10% dextrose in the rabbit median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in a rabbit model of dextrose-induced median nerve injury. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 15) were divided randomly into 3 groups. Three different regimens (group 1: 0.1 ml saline; group 2: 10% dextrose with PRP; group 3: 10% dextrose with saline) were injected within the carpal tunnel. Electrophysiological and histological findings were evaluated 12 weeks after the injection. The mean median motor latency in group 3 was significantly longer than that in groups 1 and 2. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve and subsynovial connective tissue thickness in group 3 were significantly larger than those in groups 1 and 2. PRP injection may be effective in controlling median nerve injury, as demonstrated by improvement in electrophysiological and histological findings 12 weeks after dextrose injection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Manual therapy intervention in the treatment of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: median nerve mobilization versus medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten I Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion CTS improves after median nerve mobilization, which is better than conventional medical treatment. It provides support for the use of manual therapy in conservative management of CTS with satisfactory Results .

  13. Comparison between minimal right vertical infra-axillary thoracotomy and standard median sternotomy for repair of atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Yaliniz

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Minimal right vertical infra-axillary thoracotomy can be performed with favorable cosmetic and clinical results for atrial septal defects closure. Infra-axillary thoracotomy provides a good alternative to standard median sternotomy for patients with atrial septal defects.

  14. Heterogeneous chloride homeostasis and GABA responses in the median preoptic nucleus of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Magali; Mouginot, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) is an integrative structure of the hypothalamus receiving periphery-derived information pertinent to hydromineral and cardiovascular homeostasis. In this context, excitability of MnPO neurones is controlled by fast GABAergic, glutamatergic and angiotensinergic projection from the subfornical organ (SFO). Taking advantage of a brain slice preparation preserving synaptic connection between the SFO and the MnPO, and appropriate bicarbonate-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we investigated a possible implication of an active outward Cl− transport in regulating efficacy of the GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory response at the SFO–MnPO synapse. When somata of the MnPO neurones was loaded with 18 mm chloride, stimulation of the SFO evoked outward inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in 81% of the MnPO neurones held at −60 mV. Accordingly, EIPSC was found 25 mV hyperpolarized from the theoretical value calculated from the Nernst equation, indicating that IPSC polarity and amplitude were driven by an active Cl− extrusion system in these neurones. EIPSC estimated with gramicidin-based perforated-patch recordings amounted −89.2 ± 4.3 mV. Furosemide (100 μm), a pharmacological compound known to block the activity of the neurone-specific K+–Cl− cotransporter, KCC2, reversed IPSC polarity and shifted EIPSC towards its theoretical value. Presence of the KCC2 protein in the MnPO was further detected with immunohistochemistry, revealing a dense network of KCC2-positive intermingled fibres. In the presence of a GABAB receptor antagonist, high-frequency stimulation (5 Hz) of the SFO evoked a train of IPSCs or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), whose amplitude was maintained throughout the sustained stimulation. Contrastingly, similar 5 Hz stimulation carried out in the presence of furosemide (50 μm) evoked IPSCs/IPSPs, whose amplitude collapsed during the high-frequency stimulation. Similar reduction in

  15. Distinct Contributions of Median Raphe Nucleus to Contextual Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R. C. B.; Cruz, A. P. M.; Avanzi, V.; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; Brandão, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Ascending 5-HT projections from the median raphe nucleus (MRN), probably to the hippocampus, are implicated in the acquisition of contextual fear (background stimuli), as assessed by freezing behavior. Foreground cues like light, used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical fear conditioning, also cause freezing through thalamic transmission to the amygdala. As the MRN projects to the hippocampus and amygdala, the role of this raphe nucleus in fear conditioning to explicit cues remains to be explained. Here we analyzed the behavior of rats with MRN electrolytic lesions in a contextual conditioning situation and in a fear-potentiated startle procedure. The animals received MRN electrolytic lesions either before or on the day after two consecutive training sessions in which they were submitted to 10 conditioning trials, each in an experimental chamber (same context) where they. received foot-shocks (0.6 mA, 1 sec) paired to a 4-sec light CS. Seven to ten days later, the animals were submitted to testing sessions for assessing conditioned fear when they were placed for five shocks, and the duration of contextual freezing was recorded. The animals were then submitted to a fear-potentiated startle in response to a 4-sec light-CS, followed by white noise (100 dB, 50 ms). Control rats (sham) tested in the same context showed more freezing than did rats with pre- or post-training MRN lesions. Startle was clearly potentiated in the presence of light CS in the sham-lesioned animals. Whereas pretraining lesions reduced both freezing and fear-potentiated startle, the post-training lesions reduced only freezing to context, without changing the fear-potentiated startle. In a second experiment, neurotoxic lesions of the MRN with local injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate or the activation of 5-HT1A somatodendritic auto-receptors of the MRN by microinjections of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy- 2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) before the training sessions also

  16. Isotopic ages of rocks along the Median Tectonic Line in the Yoshino area, Nara Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Ken; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Uchiumi, Shigeru; Takagi, Hideo.

    1988-01-01

    K-Ar, Rb-Sr and fission-track age determinations were carried out on rocks along the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) in the Yoshino area, Nara Prefecture. K-Ar ages on th Ryoke granitic rocks range from 35.3 to 75.9 Ma. Within about 1000 m of MTL the ages decrease toward MTL, probably caused by the hydrothermal alteration associated with cataclasis. The Takamiyama acidic rocks give a K-Ar age of 12.8 Ma. The cooling rate of the granitic rocks, calculated from K-Ar ages and closure temperatures of minerals, is 23 - 27degC/Ma. K-Ar ages for muscovites from pelitic schists in the Sambagawa belt are 62.3 - 69.4 Ma, whereas K-Ar whole-rock ages for phyllites in the Shimanto belt are 57.1 - 76.7 Ma; decrease in age is not observed even near MTL. Rb-Sr ages for muscovites from the schists are 70.4 and 72.5 Ma, which are assumed to indicate the time of metamorphism. The phyllites give a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 77.1±6.1 Ma, which is interpreted to represent the time of diagenesis or weak metamorphism. Fission-track ages for zircons from the Ryoke granitic rocks range from 37.0 to 68.2 Ma and decrease toward MTL. Fission-track ages of zircon are generally close to K-Ar ages of K-feldspar for the same rocks. From this fact the closure temperature for zircon is estimated to be lower than 200degC. The fine fractions (<2μm) separated from MTL fault gouges at Michaya and Takamiyama give K-Ar ages of 36.7 and 18.3 Ma, respectively. These ages probably represent the time of hydrothermal alteration following the major fault movement of MTL associated with cataclasis. (author)

  17. Scissoring Fault Rupture Properties along the Median Tectonic Line Fault Zone, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Sakamoto, J.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Median Tectonic Line fault zone (hereinafter MTLFZ) is the longest and most active fault zone in Japan. The MTLFZ is a 400-km-long trench parallel right-lateral strike-slip fault accommodating lateral slip components of the Philippine Sea plate oblique subduction beneath the Eurasian plate [Fitch, 1972; Yeats, 1996]. Complex fault geometry evolves along the MTLFZ. The geomorphic and geological characteristics show a remarkable change through the MTLFZ. Extensional step-overs and pull-apart basins and a pop-up structure develop in western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ, respectively. It is like a "scissoring fault properties". We can point out two main factors to form scissoring fault properties along the MTLFZ. One is a regional stress condition, and another is a preexisting fault. The direction of σ1 anticlockwise rotate from N170°E [Famin et al., 2014] in the eastern Shikoku to Kinki areas and N100°E [Research Group for Crustral Stress in Western Japan, 1980] in central Shikoku to N85°E [Onishi et al., 2016] in western Shikoku. According to the rotation of principal stress directions, the western and eastern parts of the MTLFZ are to be a transtension and compression regime, respectively. The MTLFZ formed as a terrain boundary at Cretaceous, and has evolved with a long active history. The fault style has changed variously, such as left-lateral, thrust, normal and right-lateral. Under the structural condition of a preexisting fault being, the rupture does not completely conform to Anderson's theory for a newly formed fault, as the theory would require either purely dip-slip motion on the 45° dipping fault or strike-slip motion on a vertical fault. The fault rupture of the 2013 Barochistan earthquake in Pakistan is a rare example of large strike-slip reactivation on a relatively low angle dipping fault (thrust fault), though many strike-slip faults have vertical plane generally [Avouac et al., 2014]. In this presentation, we, firstly, show deep subsurface

  18. Median artery of the forearm in human fetuses in northeastern Brazil: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; da Silva, Ana Caroline Ferreira; Anunciação, Caio Barretto; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2017-01-01

    A persistent median artery is a rare anomaly. It accompanies the median nerve along its course in the forearm and is of variable origin. It is associated with other local anatomical variations and may contribute significantly towards formation of the superficial palmar arch. In embryos, it is responsible mainly for the blood supply to the hand. The objective of this study was to research the frequency, type (forearm or palmar) and origin of the median artery in fetuses, correlating its presence with sex and body side. Red-colored latex was injected into 32 brachial arteries of human fetuses until its arrival in the hand could be seen. Twenty-four hours after the injection, the median arteries were dissected without the aid of optical instruments. Among the 32 forearms dissected, the median artery was present in 81.25 % (26) of the cases, and it was found more frequently in females and on the left side. Regarding origin, most of the median arteries originated in the common interosseous artery (38.5 %) and anterior interosseous artery (34.6 %). The mean length of the median arteries was 21.1 mm for the palmar type and 19.8 mm for the forearm type. The median artery has a high rate of persistence. It is important to be aware of this anatomical variation, since its presence may give rise to difficulties during routine surgical procedures on the wrist. Its presence may cause serious functional complications in the carpal tunnel, anterior interosseous nerve, round pronator syndromes, and ischemia of the hand.

  19. Akıllı telefon kullanımının median sinir üzerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    İlik, Faik; Büyükgöl, Huseyin; Eren, Fatma A.; İlik, Mustafa K.; Kayhan, Fatih; Köse, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of smartphone use on the median nerve. Materials and Methods: Participants were classified into three groups according to their smartphone use frequencies; high smartphone users (with Smartphone addiction scale (SAS) score of higher than 71), low smartphone users (SAS score less than 71) and classical type mobile phones users. The Visual analogue scale (VAS), quick-disabilities of arm, shoulder, hand (qDASH) and median nerve conduction...

  20. A Comparison of Ultrasound and MRI Measurements of the Cross-Sectional Area of the Median Nerve at the Wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Beverly; D'Auria, Jennifer; Scott, Michael; Fowler, John R

    2018-05-01

    Ultrasound (US) measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve has emerged as a viable alternative to electromyography/nerve conduction studies (EMG/NCS) for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The purpose of this study is to compare CSA of the median nerve between US and MRI using current MRI and US technology. The null hypothesis is there is no difference between US and MRI CSA measurements. The study design was an observational cohort, enrolling patients presenting to clinic with MRI of the wrist. Participants with clinical signs and symptoms of CTS were excluded. The CSA measurements of the median nerve on MRI T1-weighted axial images were performed by a hand fellow blinded to results of US measurements, and US measurement of median nerve CSA was performed by a hand fellowship trained surgeon blinded to results of the MRI measurements. Results were analyzed via percent error, Pearson correlation, and t tests. Twenty participants were enrolled with mean age of 29.4 years. Four left wrists and 16 right wrists were measured. The US mean CSA of the median nerve was 6.8 mm 2 (±2.330 mm 2 ). The MRI mean CSA of the median nerve was 6.8 mm 2 (±2.153 mm 2 ), P = .442. Pearson correlation between modalities was 0.93, suggesting near-perfect correlation. Mean percent error was 8.8%. Results of this study suggest that US is an accurate method to measure CSA of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet. The mean difference between US and MRI was unlikely to be clinically significant.

  1. Gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin requested by general practitioners for the assessment of analytical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of separate gender-partitioned patient medians of serum sodium has revealed potential for monitoring analytical stability within the optimum analytical performance specifications for laboratory medicine. The serum albumin concentration depends on whether a patient...... patients were closely related despite considerable variation due to the current analytical variation. This relationship was confirmed by the calculated half-range for the monthly ratio between the genders of 0.44%, which surpasses the optimum analytical performance specification for bias of serum albumin...... (0.72%). The weekly ratio had a half-range of 1.83%, which surpasses the minimum analytical performance specifications of 2.15%. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly gender-partitioned patient medians of serum albumin are useful for monitoring of long-term analytical stability, where the gender medians are two...

  2. Estudio del comportamiento de zapatas de medianería con viga centradora mediante modelos de elementos finitos

    OpenAIRE

    Galletero Montero, Pablo; Fernandez Gomez, Jaime Antonio; Perepérez Ventura, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Investigación sobre el cálculo de zapatas de medianería utilizando métodos no convencionales. Las dos soluciones más empleadas en edificación para el problema de las cimentaciones de medianería son la utilización de una viga centradora que conecta la zapata de medianería con la zapata del pilar interior más próximo y la colaboración de la viga de la primera planta trabajando como tirante. Los modelos convencionales existentes para el cálculo de este tipo de cimentaciones presentan una serie d...

  3. Hotellin ravitsemispalveluiden markkinointiviestinnän kehittäminen sosiaalisen median keinoin, esimerkkinä case: Digihotelli

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokolainen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kehitetään hotellin ravitsemispalveluiden markkinointiviestintää sosiaalisen median tarjoamin keinoin. Työn toimeksiantaja on majoitus- ja ravitsemispalveluita tarjoava yritys. Työn tavoitteena on laatia konkreettisia kehitysideoita markkinointiviestintää varten. Lisäksi tavoitteena on kehittää uusia tapoja hyödyntää sosiaalista mediaa yrityksen markkinointiviestinnässä. Työssä perehdytään myös sosiaalisen median uusiin trendeihin ja kehityssuuntiin. Työn teoreettinen vii...

  4. Median nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the New Jersey Highlands Region estimated using regression models and land-surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Chepiga, Mary M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate-concentration data are used in conjunction with land-use and land-cover data to estimate median nitrate concentrations in groundwater underlying the New Jersey (NJ) Highlands Region. Sources of data on nitrate in 19,670 groundwater samples are from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the NJ Private Well Testing Act (PWTA).

  5. Use of the temporal median and trimmed mean mitigates effects of respiratory motion in multiple-acquisition abdominal diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, N P; Orton, M R; D’Arcy, J A; Leach, M O; Collins, D J; Feiweier, T; Tunariu, N; Koh, D-M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion commonly confounds abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, where averaging of successive samples at different parts of the respiratory cycle, performed in the scanner, manifests the motion as blurring of tissue boundaries and structural features and can introduce bias into calculated diffusion metrics. Storing multiple averages separately allows processing using metrics other than the mean; in this prospective volunteer study, median and trimmed mean values of signal intensity for each voxel over repeated averages and diffusion-weighting directions are shown to give images with sharper tissue boundaries and structural features for moving tissues, while not compromising non-moving structures. Expert visual scoring of derived diffusion maps is significantly higher for the median than for the mean, with modest improvement from the trimmed mean. Diffusion metrics derived from mono- and bi-exponential diffusion models are comparable for non-moving structures, demonstrating a lack of introduced bias from using the median. The use of the median is a simple and computationally inexpensive alternative to complex and expensive registration algorithms, requiring only additional data storage (and no additional scanning time) while returning visually superior images that will facilitate the appropriate placement of regions-of-interest when analysing abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, for assessment of disease characteristics and treatment response. (note)

  6. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  7. Resuscitation therapy for traumatic brain injury-induced coma in rats: mechanisms of median nerve electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rats were put into traumatic brain injury-induced coma and treated with median nerve electrical stimulation. We explored the wake-promoting effect, and possible mechanisms, of median nerve electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation upregulated the expression levels of orexin-A and its receptor OX1R in the rat prefrontal cortex. Orexin-A expression gradually increased with increasing stimulation, while OX1R expression reached a peak at 12 hours and then decreased. In addition, after the OX1R antagonist, SB334867, was injected into the brain of rats after traumatic brain injury, fewer rats were restored to consciousness, and orexin-A and OXIR expression in the prefrontal cortex was downregulated. Our findings indicate that median nerve electrical stimulation induced an up-regulation of orexin-A and OX1R expression in the prefrontal cortex of traumatic brain injury-induced coma rats, which may be a potential mechanism involved in the wake-promoting effects of median nerve electrical stimulation.

  8. An O(n log n) Version of the Averbakh-Berman Algorithm for the Robust Median of a Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Katriel, Irit

    2008-01-01

    We show that the minmax regret median of a tree can be found in O(nlog n) time. This is obtained by a modification of Averbakh and Berman's O(nlog2 n)-time algorithm: We design a dynamic solution to their bottleneck subproblem of finding the middle of every root-leaf path in a tree....

  9. The effect of symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome on ultrasonographic median nerve measures before and after wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impink, Bradley G; Collinger, Jennifer L; Boninger, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    To quantify median nerve characteristics before and after strenuous wheelchair propulsion and relate them to symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We hypothesized that persons with and without symptoms of CTS would have significantly different nerve characteristics at baseline and after propulsion. A repeated-measures design was used to obtain ultrasound images of the median nerve at 3 levels of the wrist (radius, pisiform, and hamate) before and after wheelchair propulsion. Investigators were blinded to subject history related to CTS. The 2007 and 2008 National Veterans Wheelchair Games and the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Fifty-four participants between the ages of 18 and 65 years with a nonprogressive disability who used a manual wheelchair as their primary means of mobility completed this study. Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics and the presence and severity of symptoms of CTS. Ultrasound images of the median nerve were obtained before and after a 15-minute strenuous wheelchair-propulsion task. Baseline values and post-propulsion changes were determined for median nerve cross-sectional area, flattening ratio, and swelling ratio. Differences in median nerve variables between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were assessed. No significant differences between symptom groups were identified at baseline; however, persons with symptoms of CTS showed a significantly different percent change from baseline compared with the asymptomatic participants for cross-sectional area at pisiform (P = .014) and flattening ratio at hamate (P = .022), and they showed a strong trend toward a difference in swelling ratio (P = .0502). For each of these variables, the change in the symptomatic group was in the opposite direction of the change in the asymptomatic group. We found several median nerve responses to wheelchair propulsion associated with symptoms of CTS. These responses occurred even though no baseline ultrasound difference was

  10. Synthesis and properties of A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Anderson, E-mail: anderson_dias@iceb.ufop.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, ICEB II, Sala 67, Ouro Preto-MG, 35400-000 (Brazil); Cunha, Lumena; Vieira, Andiara C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, ICEB II, Sala 67, Ouro Preto-MG, 35400-000 (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials were synthesized. {yields} Chemical synthesis produced different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree. {yields} Structural investigation by Raman scattering revealed a complex band structure. {yields} A strong correlation between band structure and ionic radius was determined. -- Abstract: Double layered hydroxide materials of composition A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) were synthesized by chemical precipitation at 60 {sup o}C. Different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree were observed depending upon the chemical environment or the combination between divalent and trivalent cations. The results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanostructured layered samples were obtained with interplanar spacing compatible with previous literature. Raman scattering was employed to investigate the complex band structure observed, particularly the lattice vibrations at lower frequencies, which is intimately correlated to the cationic radius of both divalent and trivalent ions. The results showed that strongly coordinated water and chloride ions besides highly structured hydroxide layers have a direct influence on the stability of the hydrotalcites. It was observed that transition and decomposition temperatures varied largely for different chemical compositions.

  11. Verkkosivujen ja sosiaalisen median käyttäminen ennakoivan turvallisuusviestinnän välineenä

    OpenAIRE

    Virta, Esa-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia selvitys eräälle ammattikorkeakoululle verkkosivujen sekä sosiaalisen median käyttämisestä ennakoivan turvallisuusviestinnän välineenä. Ennakoivaa turvallisuusviestintää on Suomessa tutkittu melko vähän kun sitä verrataan turvallisuusjohtamista koskeviin tutkimuksiin. Verkkosivujen sekä sosiaalisen median käyttämistä ennakoivan turvallisuusviestinnän välineenä ei ole tutkittu juuri ollenkaan ja tästä syntyi idea tuottaa tämä selvitys. Opinnäytetyön t...

  12. Sample size calculations based on a difference in medians for positively skewed outcomes in health care studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan G. O’Keeffe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healthcare research, outcomes with skewed probability distributions are common. Sample size calculations for such outcomes are typically based on estimates on a transformed scale (e.g. log which may sometimes be difficult to obtain. In contrast, estimates of median and variance on the untransformed scale are generally easier to pre-specify. The aim of this paper is to describe how to calculate a sample size for a two group comparison of interest based on median and untransformed variance estimates for log-normal outcome data. Methods A log-normal distribution for outcome data is assumed and a sample size calculation approach for a two-sample t-test that compares log-transformed outcome data is demonstrated where the change of interest is specified as difference in median values on the untransformed scale. A simulation study is used to compare the method with a non-parametric alternative (Mann-Whitney U test in a variety of scenarios and the method is applied to a real example in neurosurgery. Results The method attained a nominal power value in simulation studies and was favourable in comparison to a Mann-Whitney U test and a two-sample t-test of untransformed outcomes. In addition, the method can be adjusted and used in some situations where the outcome distribution is not strictly log-normal. Conclusions We recommend the use of this sample size calculation approach for outcome data that are expected to be positively skewed and where a two group comparison on a log-transformed scale is planned. An advantage of this method over usual calculations based on estimates on the log-transformed scale is that it allows clinical efficacy to be specified as a difference in medians and requires a variance estimate on the untransformed scale. Such estimates are often easier to obtain and more interpretable than those for log-transformed outcomes.

  13. Preparation of denatured sup(99m)Tc labeled HSA aerosols of different median diameters for various imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, B.; Kotrappa, P.; Soni, P.S.; Ganatra, R.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1982-02-01

    The preparation of denatured sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) aerosols of different median diameters is described using the BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) dry aerosol generation and delivery system. The applications of these radioactive aerosols are demonstrated in aerosol scintigraphy of lungs, mucociliary movement studies and lymphoscintigraphy in rabbits. It is concluded that the BARC system gives a simplified, rapid and versatile procedure for generation of denatured volume tagged HSA aerosols for a variety of clinical applications.

  14. Anatomical study of the motor branches of the median nerve to the forearm and guidelines for selective neurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Catalina; Leclercq, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    The median nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of most of the muscles usually involved in upper limb spasticity. Selective neurectomy is one of the treatments utilized to reduce spasticity. The purpose of this study was to describe the variations of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm and draw recommendations for an appropriate planning of selective neurectomy. The median nerve was dissected in the forearm of 20 fresh cadaver upper limbs. Measurements included number, origin, division, and entry point of each motor branch into the muscles. One branch for the pronator teres was the most common pattern. In 9/20 cases, it arose as a common trunk with other branches. A single trunk innervated the flexor carpi radialis with a common origin with other branches in 17/20 cases. Two, three or four branches innervated the flexor digitorum superficialis, the first one frequently through a common trunk with other branches. They were very difficult to identify unless insertions of pronator teres and flexor digitorum superficialis were detached. The flexor digitorum profundus received one to five branches and flexor pollicis longus one to two branches from the anterior interosseous nerve. There is no regular pattern of the motor branches of the median nerve in the forearm. Our findings differ in many points from the classical literature. Because of the frequency of common trunks for different muscles, we recommend the use of peroperative electrical stimulation. Selective neurotomy of flexor digitorum superficialis is technically difficult, because the entry point of some of their terminal branches occurs just below the arch and deep to the muscle belly.

  15. Understanding Fish Linear Acceleration Using an Undulatory Biorobotic Model with Soft Fluidic Elastomer Actuated Morphing Median Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Ren, Ziyu; Di Santo, Valentina; Hu, Kainan; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Tianmiao; Lauder, George V

    2018-04-10

    Although linear accelerations are an important common component of the diversity of fish locomotor behaviors, acceleration is one of the least-understood aspects of propulsion. Analysis of acceleration behavior in fishes with both spiny and soft-rayed median fins demonstrates that fin area is actively modulated when fish accelerate. We implemented an undulatory biomimetic robotic fish model with median fins manufactured using multimaterial three-dimensional printing-a spiny-rayed dorsal fin, soft-rayed dorsal/anal fins, and a caudal fin-whose stiffnesses span three orders of magnitude. We used an array of fluidic elastomeric soft actuators to mimic the dorsal/anal inclinator and erector/depressor muscles of fish, which allowed the soft fins to be erected or folded within 0.3 s. We experimentally show that the biomimetic soft dorsal/anal fin can withstand external loading. We found that erecting the soft dorsal/anal fins significantly enhanced the linear acceleration rate, up to 32.5% over the folded fin state. Surprisingly, even though the projected area of the body (in the lateral plane) increased 16.9% when the median fins were erected, the magnitude of the side force oscillation decreased by 24.8%, which may have led to significantly less side-to-side sway in the robotic swimmer. Visualization of fluid flow in the wake of median fins reveals that during linear acceleration, the soft dorsal fin generates a wake flow opposite in direction to that of the caudal fin, which creates propulsive jets with time-variant circulations and jet angles. Erectable/foldable fins provide a new design space for bioinspired underwater robots with structures that morph to adapt to different locomotor behaviors. This biorobotic fish model is also a potentially promising system for studying the dynamics of complex multifin fish swimming behaviors, including linear acceleration, steady swimming, and burst and coast, which are difficult to analyze in freely swimming fishes.

  16. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later on. Inflammation of the tendons ( tendonitis ) or joints ( arthritis ) can also put pressure on the nerve. ... how fast electrical signals move through a nerve Neuromuscular ultrasound to view problems with the muscles and ...

  17. Ranking by Medians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Brian Martin describes a difficult committee meeting he once attended which consisted of one representative from each department. When the meeting ended it left a bitter taste for many who participated. Having learned from this experience, Martin became a chair of the committee and tried a new system that overcame many of the previous problems.…

  18. Hyperbolicity in median graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mic problems in hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic graphs have been .... that in general the main obstacle is that we do not know the location of ...... [25] Jonckheere E and Lohsoonthorn P, A hyperbolic geometry approach to multipath routing,.

  19. Median sternotomy and ventral stabilisation using pins and polymethylmethacrylate for a comminuted T5 vertebral fracture in a Miniature Schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, L P; Allman, D A

    2011-01-01

    A 2.9 kg Miniature Schnauzer was referred to our clinic, the Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Service at the Michigan State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, following a dog fight. Physical examination findings upon admission included multiple thoracic wounds, absence of hindlimb deep pain, and marked Schiff-Sherrington syndrome. Computed tomography imaging revealed thoracic wall penetration and a comminuted T5 vertebral fracture. Thoracic exploration and thoracic wall repair were performed through a median sternotomy. The vertebral fracture was exposed and stabilised intra-thoracically through the same approach using pins and polymethylmethacrylate. The pins were placed percutaneously into the vertebral bodies of the adjacent vertebrae. Recovery was uncomplicated and fracture healing was documented eight weeks postoperatively. Spinal trauma secondary to dog fights is relatively common. The presence of concurrent penetrating thoracic injury negatively affects prognosis and necessitates thoracic exploration as soon as feasible. The approach should allow complete thoracic exploration to repair parietal and visceral damage, thus indicating the need for median sternotomy rather than an intercostal approach. The present case report suggested that median sternotomy can be used to safely apply stabilisation devices for the treatment of concurrent spinal trauma. Direct visualisation of the vertebral bodies permitted optimal implant anchorage as compared to potentially more hazardous techniques such as dorsal pinning.

  20. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in an adolescent with a history of a median sternotomy as an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Huckaby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The report by Nuss et al., in 1998 of their 10-year experience with minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum introduced the possibility of a less invasive approach for the correction of chest wall abnormalities. This procedure is now well-accepted around the world, although serious complications such as intraoperative cardiac perforation and postoperative bar displacement have been reported. The Nuss procedure has been performed concurrently with sternotomy for cardiac operations. However, there have been no reports of minimally invasive pectus excavatum correction in a child with a remote history of a median sternotomy. With IRB approval (Protocol #1308002283 we report the successful completion of a Nuss procedure in an adolescent with a history of a median sternotomy in infancy. During the procedure, thoracoscopy on the right side revealed significant adhesions of the lung and pericardium to the posterior sternum. Additional trocars were placed bilaterally to facilitate visualization and to allow for lysis of the adhesions with bipolar cautery. Passage of the bar was accomplished uneventfully and the patient has an excellent cosmetic outcome 28 months following the operation. We believe that a previous median sternotomy should not be viewed as a contraindication to the minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum.