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Sample records for globulus labill sobre

  1. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

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    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  2. MODELACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA PODA Y RALEO SOBRE LAS DEFORMACIONES RESIDUALES LONGITUDINALES EN Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

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    Eduardo Navarrete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se estudió una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus ubicada en el sector precordillerano andino de la región del Bío Bío, Chile, c on el objetivo de evaluar y modelar el efecto de la poda y raleo sobre las deformaciones residuales longitudinales (DRL . El lugar de estudio correspondió a un rodal de 12 años de edad, el cual fue intervenido a los 2 años y medio de establecido, donde se evaluaron distintas intensidades de poda (0% y 60% de la altura total y densidades de raleo (1.600 árb·ha -1 (sin raleo y 800 árb·ha -1 . En cada tratamiento definido por la combinación de los dos niveles de poda y raleo, se estudió además, el efecto de la clase de copa (dominante, codominante e intermedia sobre el comportamiento de las DRL. En cada unidad de muestreo se registraron variables a nivel de árbol individual, estimando los parámetros de rodal más relevantes. Se muestreó un total de 36 árboles, midiéndose en cada uno de ellos las DRL a nivel del Dap con un extensómetro diseñado por el CIRAD-Forêt. Los resultados determinaron que la poda y raleo no afectaron significativamente el comportamiento de las DRL en Eucalyptus globulus ; en cambio, la clase de copa, tuvo un efecto altamente significativo sobre la variación de las deformaciones residuales, presentando los árboles dominantes mayores niveles de deformación que las clases de copa codominante e intermedia, respectivamente. El modelo de estimación incluyó como variables predictivas del comportamiento de las DRL , las expresiones logarítmicas del Dap y del inverso multiplicativo de la varianza de los radios de copa, además de la poda, presentando un R 2 de 0,44 y un EEE de 0,132.

  3. ESTUDIOS SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO DE Acromyrmex lundi Guering (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE PROCEDENCIAS DE Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae

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    Carmen Lidia Martínez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El ataque de las hormigas cortadoras es una de las principales razones de pérdida de plantas durante la etapa de establecimiento de un monte forestal. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la intensidad de forrajeo de Acromyrmex lundi asociado a algunas condiciones ambientales y procedencias de Eucalyptus globulus y estimar el impacto de la herbivoría sobre el crecimiento inicial de estos árboles. Dos ensayos se llevaron a cabo durante dos temporadas estivo-otoñales consecutivas, en el Campo Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Luján, Argentina. Los materiales de diferentes procedencias fueron dispuestos en bloques equidistantes a 5 m de un nido activo de A. lundi. Durante doce semanas se contabilizó el número de hojas cortadas por las hormigas y se registraron algunas variables meteorológicas. En el segundo año la mitad de las parcelas fue protegida de las hormigas y se midieron variables de crecimiento. Los materiales de todas las procedencias fueron atacadas por A. lundi, aunque el número de hojas cosechada fue significativamente diferente sólo entre los orígenes Flinders Island (52,5 hojas y Nullo Mountain (28,5 hojas. El número de días lluviosos fue el único factor ambiental que se relacionó positivamente con la actividad de las hormigas.Todos los tratamientos redujeron significativamente la altura, el diámetro y el área foliar cuando fueron atacados por las hormigas. Las distintas procedencias compensaron diferencialemnte la herbivoría. Se discuten los resultados en función de los criterios a tener en cuenta para la selección de materiales genéticos como herramienta de manejo y control del ataque de A. lundi.

  4. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

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    Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

  5. Phyllosphere mycobiota of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and E. globulus Labill.

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    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of phyllosphere microfungi of two Eucalypti species (E. camaldulensis and E. globulus was investigated using moist chamber method. A total of 19 different taxa of phyllosphere microfungal community were identified in leaves and seed bearing capsules. Aspergillus niger was the most frequent isolate in both investigated Eucalyptus species along with Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. Saprotrophic species occurred more frequently in Eucalypti phyllosphere compared to plant pathogens. Epiphytes were quantitatively prevalent. Microscopic analyses of E. globulus phylloplane microfungal community revealed potential inhibitory effect of Trichoderma viride against Eucalypti pathogenic species Seimatosporium eucalypti which formed aberrant, collapsed conidia. The study of phyllosphere mycobiota is of significant importance, considering that numerous leaf inhabiting fungi are in complex interactions with each other and their host plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  6. Variation in growth traits and survival of landraces of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in the Ethiopian highlands

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    P. Guzman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is the most planted tree species in the Ethiopian highlands due to its potential to satisfy the increasing wood demand of the population. The objectives of this study are to assess the variation in growth traits and survival among E. globulus landraces and clones and to evaluate correlations between growth traits on saplings established in the field.Area of study: The study was performed in the central highlands of Ethiopia.Material and Methods: A landrace trial with Ethiopian seedlings and Spanish cuttings (Sancho and Tinto clones of E. globulus was carried out. Root collar diameter, height and survival were evaluated on saplings one year after outplanted in the field.Main results: The Spanish landrace showed an improved field performance with 35% higher root collar diameter, 35% taller saplings and 27% higher survival rates as compared to the Ethiopian plants. Sancho clone attained 10% higher root collar diameter than Tinto clone. Strong positive correlation between root collar diameter and height for all saplings was observed (r=0.8785.Research highlights: The present study can be considered as a starting point to implement a breeding program for E. globulus, which is nowadays of great importance in Ethiopia. The introduction of a new Spanish landrace may contribute to broadening the genetic base of this species in Ethiopia. Further tree breeding efforts with E. globulus should be undertaken to raise such genetic base and to increase the productivity of eucalypt plantations in the Ethiopian highlands.Keywords: clone; rural development; tree breeding.

  7. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

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    Puig, Carolina G; Reigosa, Manuel J; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Pedrol, Nuria

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  8. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

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    Carolina G Puig

    Full Text Available In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus

  9. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Galicia

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    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Rodriquez-Anon, J.A. [University of Santiago (Spain). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2002-03-01

    The possibility of retrieving the energy contained in forest residues originating from wood exploitation in Galicia (Spain) is evaluated. This study was made on Eucalyptus globulus Labill occupying a forest surface of 240 000 ha. This species plays an important role in the economical development of Galicia, as it is the main forest species for production of pulp. Sampling was made over 1999 in seven different zones, three main stations plus four selected for comparison, situated in Galicia. The residues originating from cutting were sorted into three different groups and their calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These calorific values, close to 7200 kJ kg{sup -1}, make possible the use of this residual biomass as an energy source. Calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimeter in an oxygen atmosphere. Flammability was determined using a standard epiradiator. Simultaneously, some other parameters, elementary chemical composition, heavy metal contents, moisture, density, ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, and main bioclimatic characteristics, were also determined. (author)

  10. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.

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    Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

    2012-03-01

    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6 mg/kg and 3.25 mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14 mg/kg and 3.54 mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Antibiofilm and Synergistic Properties of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Seven Mediterranean Aromatic Plants.

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    Vieira, Maria; Bessa, Lucinda J; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Teixeira, António P S; Mendes, Ângelo; Martins da Costa, Paulo; Belo, Anabela D F

    2017-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus and from Mediterranean autochthonous aromatic plants - Thymus mastichina L., Mentha pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. nepeta, Cistus ladanifer L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter ssp. viscosa - were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and NMR spectroscopy. EOs were evaluated for antimicrobial properties against several bacterial strains, using diverse methods, namely, the agar disc-diffusion method, the microdilution method, the crystal violet assay and the Live/Dead staining for assessment of biofilm formation. Potential synergy was assessed by a checkerboard method. EOs of R. officinalis and C. ladanifer showed a predominance in monoterpene hydrocarbons (> 60%); EOs of C. nepeta, M. pulegium, T. mastichina, E. globulus and F. vulgare were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (62 - 96%) whereas EO of D. viscosa was mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (54%). All EOs showed antimicrobial activity; M. pulegium and E. globulus generally had the strongest antimicrobial activity. EO of C. nepeta was the most promising in hampering the biofilm formation. The combinations D. viscosa/C. nepeta and E. globulus/T. mastichina were synergistic against Staphylococcus aureus. These results support the notion that EOs from the aromatic plants herein reported should be further explored as potential pharmaceuticals and/or food preservatives. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Restauración ecológica en plantaciones forestales de Eucalyptus globulus Labill y Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

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    Lina Rocío Guio Cortés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El aumento en la degradación de las condiciones naturales del ecosistema de los cerros orientales de Bogotá, Colombia, ha promovido la generación de nuevas estrategias que permitan restaurar ecosistemas de forma integral y adecuada, de acuerdo con sus características. Los escenarios de plantaciones forestales de Eucalyptus globulus Labill y Acacia melanoxylon R. Br han sido intervenidos con procesos de restauración ecológica, generando una disminución en el impacto ocasionado al suelo por los fuertes procesos erosivos inherentes a estas especies. En este artículo de investigación se hace una revisión de los casos reportados de restauración ecológica realizados en E. globulus Labill y A. melanoxylon R. Br, con el fin de identificar actividades que puedan complementar la gestión realizada en restauración ecológica en Bogotá D.C. Se concluye que las actividades de restauración ecológica se deben desarrollar siguiendo un orden lógico teniendo en cuenta el principal objetivo de esta estrategia. Resumiendo, las actividades de restauración ecológica deben iniciar con una caracterización de las especies que se encuentran en la zona y la vegetación típica. Posteriormente se deben implementar las estrategias más adecuadas acorde con las características de la región, con el fin de reintroducir las especies nativas, de forma paulatina. Es necesario realizar un seguimiento y control constante con el fin de procurar el mayor éxito en las actividades de restauración realizadas.

  13. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill

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    Márcio L. Aumond

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression (TPL, IAA12 or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process.

  14. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill

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    Aumond, Márcio L.; de Araujo, Artur T.; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Matsuura, Hélio N.; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression (TPL, IAA12) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process. PMID:29067033

  15. Drought tolerance acquisition in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.): a research on plant morphology, physiology and proteomics.

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    Valdés, Ana Elisa; Irar, Sami; Majada, Juan P; Rodríguez, Ana; Fernández, Belén; Pagès, Montserrat

    2013-02-21

    Plants perceiving drought stress activate multiple responses to synchronise developmental and molecular activities aimed at improving survival. In this study we attained a multidisciplinary approach to examine the interplay among plant morphology, physiology and proteomics for understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptive response to drought stress. The stress-related phenotype, the differential expression of putative members of the LEA family of proteins, the seed proteomic profile, and the endogenous content of free and conjugated abscisic acid (ABA and ABAGE) were analysed in two Eucalyptus globulus provenances with contrasting drought tolerance. Differences in morphology were noticeable, drought-tolerant genotypes displaying smaller seeds with higher desiccation in the mature state and a more developed root system that was not reduced under water stress treatments. From physiological and molecular points of view, the endogenous contents of ABA and ABAGE were also higher in the tolerant provenance, as well as the accumulation of proteins involved in abiotic stress tolerance processes. In addition, evidence of two immunologically-related proteins to the maize RAB17 and RAB28 proteins is first reported in Eucalyptus, showing similarities between species. Our results show that E. globulus displays simultaneous adjustments for acquiring drought tolerance that are expressed at physiological, developmental and molecular levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methodology for logistic planning of forest roads for harvesting Eucalyptus globulus Labill. using optimization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Robert, Orlando; Lopez, Cesar Amilcar

    2011-01-01

    Using an un capacitated and non directed network model, we propose a methodology for the preliminary design of second order forests roads to extract products from Eucalyptus globulus plantations using an aerial cable system to minimize road network construction costs. The model takes into account topographical conditions and road construction costs related to the terrain slope. In order to solve the problem the Dijstrak algorithm was used, in which the minimum cost of the shortest paths that connect all the stockyards are defined. In addition, the Kruskal algorithm was used to obtain the minimum spanning tree. Finally, the network was connected to an open road for the timber to be taken to consumption centers. In order to develop the algorithms mentioned above, an application on Mat lab was designed, which gave an easier handling of the cartography data obtained from these algorithms.

  17. Efeito do teor de lignina da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. no desempenho da polpação kraft

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    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20.53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23.02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18.5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2.49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2.2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1.2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4.2% is

  18. Interactive effects of water supply and defoliation on photosynthesis, plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

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    Quentin, A G; O'Grady, A P; Beadle, C L; Mohammed, C; Pinkard, E A

    2012-08-01

    Increased climatic variability, including extended periods of drought stress, may compromise on the health of forest ecosystems. The effects of defoliating pests on plantations may also impact on forest productivity. Interactions between climate signals and pest activity are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the combined effects of reduced water availability and defoliation on maximum photosynthetic rate (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), plant water status and growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Field-grown plants were subjected to two water-availability regimes, rain-fed (W-) and irrigated (W+). In the summer of the second year of growth, leaves from 75% of crown length removed from trees in both watering treatments and physiological responses within the canopies were examined. We hypothesized that defoliation would result in improved plant water status providing a mechanistic insight into leaf- and canopy-scale gas-exchange responses. Defoliated trees in the W+ treatment exhibited higher A(sat) and g(s) compared with non-defoliated trees, but these responses were not observed in the W- treatment. In contrast, at the whole-plant scale, maximum rates of transpiration (E(max)) and canopy conductance (G(Cmax)) and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (K(P)) increased in both treatments following defoliation. As a result, plant water status was unaffected by defoliation and trees in the defoliated treatments exhibited homeostasis in this respect. Whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance was strongly correlated with leaf scale g(s) and A(sat) following the defoliation, providing a mechanistic insight into compensatory up-regulation of photosynthesis. Above-ground height and diameter growth were unaffected by defoliation in both water availability treatments, suggesting that plants use a range of responses to compensate for the impacts of defoliation.

  19. Characterization of phenolic components in polar extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bark by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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    Santos, Sónia A O; Freire, Carmen S R; Domingues, M Rosário M; Silvestre, Armando J D; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2011-09-14

    High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) were used to investigate the phenolic constituents in methanol, water, and methanol/water extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bark. Twenty-nine phenolic compounds were identified, 16 of them referenced for the first time as constituents of E. globulus bark, namely, quinic, dihydroxyphenylacetic, and caffeic acids, bis(hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP))-glucose, galloyl-bis(HHDP)-glucose, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, isorhamentin-hexoside, quercetin-hexoside, methylellagic acid (EA)-pentose conjugate, myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, mearnsetin, phloridzin, mearnsetin-hexoside, luteolin, and a proanthocyanidin B-type dimer. Digalloylglucose was identified as the major compound in the methanol and methanol/water extracts, followed by isorhamnetin-rhamnoside in the methanol extract and by catechin in the methanol/water extract, whereas in the water extract catechin and galloyl- HHDP-glucose were identified as the predominant components. The methanol/water extract was shown be the most efficient to isolate phenolic compounds identified in E. globulus bark.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and phenolic profile of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezsi, Ștefan; Bădărău, Alexandru Sabin; Bischin, Cristina; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-03-16

    This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the phenolic profile of Eucalytus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves. Both leave extracts contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC/MS method. The main flavonoid was hyperoside and its highest amount was found in E. globulus (666.42 ± 5.02 μg/g dw plant material). Regarding the flavonol profile, myricetin was the dominant compound and its highest amount was found in C. ficifolia leaves (124.46 ± 0.24 μg/g dw plant material). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays, revealing an important antioxidant potential for both species. In the antimicrobial assays, C. ficifolia extract was found to be more active than E. globulus against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with the exception of Bacillus subtilis. The results of the present study provide new valuable data regarding the bioactivities of these medicinal species.

  1. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Profile of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell. K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan Dezsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the phenolic profile of Eucalytus globulus Labill. and Corymbia ficifolia (F. Muell. K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson leaves. Both leave extracts contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phenolic compounds were performed using a HPLC/MS method. The main flavonoid was hyperoside and its highest amount was found in E. globulus (666.42 ± 5.02 μg/g dw plant material. Regarding the flavonol profile, myricetin was the dominant compound and its highest amount was found in C. ficifolia leaves (124.46 ± 0.24 μg/g dw plant material. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays, revealing an important antioxidant potential for both species. In the antimicrobial assays, C. ficifolia extract was found to be more active than E. globulus against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains with the exception of Bacillus subtilis. The results of the present study provide new valuable data regarding the bioactivities of these medicinal species.

  2. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

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    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  3. Insecticidal activity of young and mature leaves essential oil from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Serafina Russo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jaquelin Du Val, 1868, is a common pest insect known for attacking and infesting stored flour and grain. Biodegradable and ecologically natural products such as essential oils are emerging candidates for replacement of usually applied chemical pesticides. This work reported the chemical composition and effects caused by young and mature leaves essential oils (EOs from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. against T. confusum. For both oils, no significant differences between yields were observed, being 1,8-cineole the main common constituent. Mature leaves extracts were rich in oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, whereas young leaves showed greater content of non-oxygenated compounds. Bioassay was performed using EOs and 1,8-cineole solutions at different concentrations and time intervals. Adult mortality increased according to concentration and exposure time; young leaves extracts exhibited the greater effectiveness, highest mortalities (31.67% at the minor time (2 h. At the lowest concentrations, 1,8-cineole solutions and mature leaves EOs did not achieve 100% mortality even when the bioassay was concluded (12 h, while at major doses no insects were alive. These results suggested that young and mature EOs from E. globulus constitute an alternative natural product to the control of T. confusum, since young leaves extracts, rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, may be potential eligible candidates considering their noticeable insecticidal effects at low applied concentrations and short times of exposure.

  4. Ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, de um fitoterápico composto (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill

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    Patrícia Trindade C. Paulo

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram realizados ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, do produto fitoterápico composto pelas plantas medicinais Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB e, para isto, foram selecionados 28 voluntários sadios, sendo 14 homens e 14 mulheres que ingeriram por via oral, ininterruptamente durante 8 semanas, 15 mL do produto, três vezes ao dia; e no 3º e 7º dia, 3ª e 6ª semanas e 24 h após a 8ª semana, foram feitas avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais para análise da toxicidade aguda e crônica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pacientes não apresentaram alterações clínicas, laboratoriais e reações adversas significantes, apenas pequenas alterações foram detectadas no sangue através da aspartato transaminase (AST e fosfatase alcalina no grupo feminino para um p < 0,05; no entanto, estes valores determinados permaneceram dentro dos valores de normalidade para indivíduos adultos. Conclui-se que estes dados, em complementação àqueles obtidos com os estudos pré-clínicos, confirmam a baixa toxicidade do produto fitoterápico.

  5. Effect of the activity of the Brazilian polyherbal formulation: Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Radd in inflammatory models

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    Karina C.P. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The Brazilian polyherbal formulation (BPF is composed by dyes of Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in alcohol at 13.3° GL. The formulation is popularly used in Paraíba state, Brazil since 1889 and it is used as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the polyherbal formulation. For this purpose it was used the12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced mouse ear edema and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The BPF at dose of 26 mL/Kg inhibited both 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced ear edema by 49% (p < 0.05 and 24% (p < 0.01 respectively. Preliminary results on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema demonstrated that oral administration also inhibited the paw edema by approximately 29%. The results demonstrate that the Brazilian polyherbal formulation has anti-inflammatory activity and the better dose was the one used by the population.

  6. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  7. Spectral mixture analysis to monitor defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantations in southern Australia using Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2010-08-01

    Defoliation is a key parameter of forest health and is associated with reduced productivity and tree mortality. Assessing the health of forests requires regular observations over large areas. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health, but assessing defoliation can be difficult due to mixed pixels where vegetation cover is low or fragmented. In this study we apply a novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), to Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed-aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. There is considerable variability in the degree of defoliation as well as in stand age among sites and in this study we found that results were significantly improved by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for both the multi-spectral ( R2no age correction = 0.55 vs R2age correction = 0.73 for Landsat) and hyperspectral ( R2no age correction = 0.12 vs R2age correction = 0.50 for Hyperion) image data. The improved accuracy obtained from Landsat compared to the Hyperion data illustrates the potential of applying SMA techniques for analysis of multi-spectral datasets such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION.

  8. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill

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    Pasquali Giancarlo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs indentified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Conclusion Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes

  10. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Sperotto, Raul A; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2010-09-20

    Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs identified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes tested in E. globulus. Based on the AGO1 relative expression

  11. Aclimatación al frío en diferentes clones de Eucalyptus globulus Labill durante el régimen natural de endurecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Gallino, J. P.; Fernández Martínez, Manuel; Tapias Martín, Raúl; Alcuña, M.M .; Cañas, I.

    2007-01-01

    En la región mediterránea la principal limitación de la expansión del las plantaciones de Eucalyptus es la ocurrencia periódica de temperaturas bajas durante los meses de invierno (-5 a -10 oC). Por esta razón es crucial implementar un programa para mejorar la resistencia al frío en las especies utilizadas de este género. E. globulus, la especie más extendida en la península ibérica es considerada una especie moderadamente susceptible al frío. Se testaron 16 clones a los cuales se les realizó...

  12. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  13. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W c ; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W a ) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha -1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha -1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  14. Atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre Haemonchus contortus Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Eucalyptus globulus essential oils on Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara T. F. Macedo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus (OEEG sobre a eclosão e desenvolvimento de larvas de Haemonchus contortus. A determinação da composição química do OEEG foi feita por meio de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa. No teste de eclosão de ovos (TEO, utilizaram-se as concentrações 21,75; 17,4; 8,7; 5,43 e 2,71 mg.mL-1; e no de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL as concentrações foram 43,5; 21,75; 10,87; 5,43 e 2,71 mg.mL-1. Cada ensaio foi acompanhado por um controle positivo, 0,02 mg.mL-1 tiabendazol, no TEO e 0,008 mg.mL-1 ivermectina no TDL, e por um controle negativo com o diluente Tween 80 (3%. A eficácia máxima obtida pelo OEEG sobre ovos foi de 99,3% na concentração de 21,75 mg.mL-1 e, sobre larvas, 98,7% na concentração de 43,5 mg.mL-1. A concentração do OEEG, que inviabilizou 50% dos ovos e das larvas do parasito, foi de 8,3 e 6,92 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. A análise química do óleo identificou como principal componente o monoterpeno 1,8-cineol. O OEEG apresentou atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro sobre H. contortus, determinando um bom potencial para utilização no controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos e caprinos.The objective of this work was to evaluate ovicidal and larvicidal effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO on Haemonchus contortus. The chemical composition determination of EGEO was through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Egg hatch test (EHT was performed in concentrations 21.75; 17.4; 8.7; 5.43 e 2.71 mg.mL-1. In larval development test (LDT were used the concentrations 43.5; 21.75; 10.87; 5.43 e 2.71 mg.mL-1. Each trial was conducted by negative control with Tween 80 (3% and positive control, 0.02 mg.mL -1 of thiabendazole in EHT and 0.008 mg.mL-1 of ivermectin in LDT. The maximum effectiveness of EGEO on eggs was 99.3% in concentration of 21.75 mg.mL-1 and on larvae was 98.7% in concentration 43

  15. Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Vaillancourt, René E; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Marques, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus Labill. (Tasmanian Blue Gum), native to southeast Australia, is a benchmark species for the pulp and paper industry. We genotyped 397 trees from 16 populations of E. globulus representing the native diversity in Australia using 24 microsatellite loci. Eight genetically distinct groups were detected, consistent with genetic groupings detected in previous quantitative and molecular studies. A sample of 29 Portuguese individuals was added to help clarify the origin of the Portuguese landrace. The results suggest a southern and eastern Tasmania origin for the Portuguese landrace. This genetic framework will enable researchers to investigate the provenance of individuals of unknown pedigree and assess the levels of representation of E. globulus natural variation in the Portuguese landrace.

  16. Toxicidad, efecto antialimentario y repelente de metabolitos secundarios de Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) (Myrtaceae) sobre coleópteros de importancia agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Serafina

    2013-01-01

    Las plantas aromáticas y sus aceites esenciales han sido utilizados desde la antigüedad como condimento, por su sabor y aroma; también como agente antimicrobiano e insecticida, para repeler insectos y/o para proteger los productos almacenados. Constituyen eficaces alternativas a los plaguicidas sintéticos convencionales de amplio espectro con baja toxicidad para el medio ambiente, mayor biodegradabilidad y baja generación de resistencia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue: I) analizar la composi...

  17. ESTABELECIMENTO IN VITRO DE CLONES HÍBRIDOS DE Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Silvano Rodrigues; Xavier, Aloisio; Oliveira, Leandro Silva de; Lopes, Aline Pontes; Otoni, Wagner Campos; Takahashi, Elizabete Keiko; Melo, Lucas Amaral de

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o comportamento de clones de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus globulus Labill e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blake x Eucalyptus globulus Labill e o efeito de diferentes introduções in vitro (aos 30, 90 e 150 dias após a poda do ápice das minicepas) na fase de estabelecimento in vitro. As minicepas, fornecedoras dos explantes para a introdução in vitro, foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais de 2...

  18. In vitro effect of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil on Penicillium sp.Efeito in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento de Penicillium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Holanda Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium sp. is the casual agent of moulds, considered the main citrus post-harvest disease, causing loss on the quality and quantity of marketable fruits. Besides economic loss, it can be included costs, transportation and fruit storage problems. The present work had the objective to verify the fungitoxic action of Eucalyptus globules essential oil on the in vitro control of Penicillium sp., evaluating mycelial growth, production and spores germination. The experiment was conduced on the Microbiology laboratory of PUC, Toledo campus, with eight treatments: 1%, 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,1%, 0,05% e 0,025% concentrations of eucalyptus oil added to PDA media (potato-dextrose-agar, negative control (PDA with addition of 40mg of azoxystrobin/L and positive control (PDA media only. The experimental design was according to a completely randomized design, with five replicates each treatment. The eucalyptus essential oil inhibited significantly the growth in the 1%, 0,5% e 0,25% concentrations, not differing statistically from control with fungicide azoxystrobin. The treatments presented the same behavior for spores production. For spores germination, the 1% e 0,5% concentrations had better control than treatment with azoxystrobin and the concentration of 0,25%. Others oil concentrations did not present significative results on the evaluations, being statistically equal to positive control (PDA.O fungo Penicillium sp. é o agente causal dos bolores, considerada a principal doença pós-colheita em citros, levando à perdas na qualidade e quantidade dos frutos comercializáveis. Além de perdas econômicas, uma vez que nas perdas pós-colheitas estão inclusos os custos, transporte e armazenagem de frutos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a ação fungitóxica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus no controle in vitro de Penicillium sp., avaliando seu crescimento micelial, produção e a germinação de esporos. O experimento foi conduzido no

  19. Biomass and nutrient mass of Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus bioenergy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Albaugh; Rafael A. Rubilar; Chris A. Maier; Eduardo A. Acuña; Rachel L. Cook

    2017-01-01

    We quantified biomass and nutrient accumulation of Acacia dealbata Link and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. planted at stem densities of 5000 and 15000 ha-1 in a bioenergy plantation in Chile. We tested the hypotheses that species and stocking will not affect biomass or nutrient accumulation. Species and...

  20. Water Relations Link Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Discrimination to Phloem Sap Sugar Concentration in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Arthur, David J.; Pate, John S.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2003-01-01

    A strong correlation was previously observed between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) of phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration in the phloem-bleeding tree Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (J. Pate, E. Shedley, D. Arthur, M. Adams [1998] Oecologia 117: 312–322). We hypothesized that correspondence between these two parameters results from covarying responses to plant water potential. We expected Δ13C to decrease with decreasing plant water potential and phloem sap sugar concentration to increase, thereby maintaining turgor within sieve tubes. The hypothesis was tested with analyses of E. globulus trees growing on opposite ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. The Δ13C of phloem sap sugars was closely related to phloem sap sugar concentration (r = −0.90, P globulus. PMID:12692314

  1. DETERMINACIÓN DE MEDIOS DE CULTIVO Y PH PARA LA MASIFICACIÓN in vitro DE CEPAS DE Suillus luteus Aubl. ASOCIADAS A Pinus radiata D. Don Y Scleroderma citrinum Pers. ASOCIADAS A Eucalyptus globulus Labill. DE LA REGIÓN DEL BIOBÍO, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso de agentes biológicos en la producción en vivero ha aflorado como un elemento que permite no sólo mejorar la calidad morfológica y fisiológica de las plantas, sino que también posibilitar un mayor éxito en el ámbito silvicultural de una plantación. Estos agentes biológicos requieren de un ambiente óptimo para crecer, asociarse y reproducirse. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la dependencia del pH y el medio de cultivo en el crecimiento in vitro de distintas cepas de Suillus luteus y Scleroderma citrinum asociadas a Pinus radiata y Eucalyptus globulus, respectivamente. El estudio se realizó en condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad, disponiendo los inóculos en placas Petri con diferentes medios cultivo, evaluando parámetros de crecimiento y biomasa a los 38 días para S. luteus y 105 días para S. citrinum. Los resultados indican que tanto el medio de cultivo, el pH del medio, así como las cepas de cada especie estudiada, son determinantes en las respuestas de crecimiento de los hongos ectomicorrícicos in vitro evaluados. Las cepas de S. luteus se desarrollaron adecuadamente en un medio de cultivo con abundancia de nutrientes (BAF, MMN como en baja presencia de ellos (EMA, y con pH más bien ácido (4,8 y 5,8. Por otro lado, las cepas de S. citrinum presentaron, para los mismos ambientes, un desarrollo inferior y lento, no obstante, la cepa Sc8 se reprodujo de forma óptima y rápida bajo un medio de cultivo BAF y con un pH moderadamente ácido de 5,8.

  2. Growth and yield in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Rinehart; Richard B. Standiford

    1983-01-01

    A study of the major Eucalyptus globulus stands throughout California conducted by Woodbridge Metcalf in 1924 provides a complete and accurate data set for generating variable site-density yield models. Two models were developed using linear regression techniques. Model I depicts a linear relationship between age and yield best used for stands between five and fifteen...

  3. Growth potential of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With forestry expanding into mid-altitude drier and warmer, or drier and colder, sites the search to identify reasonably well-performing species/provenances for such ... susceptible than other provenances and controls, also outperformed other E. globulus subsp. bicostata provenances for dbh, height, basal area and volume.

  4. TENSIONES DE CRECIMIENTO EN Eucalyptus globulus DE GALICIA (ESPAÑA): INFLUENCIA DE LA SILVICULTURA Y ESTRATEGIAS DE ASERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Touza Vázquez,Manuel C

    2001-01-01

    El eucalipto blanco (Eucalyptus globulus Labill) constituye el principal recurso forestal de las áreas de influencia atlántica de la Península Ibérica, donde ocupa una franja costera que da forma a los bosques más productivos de Europa. De forma paralela a la expansión de las plantaciones orientadas hacia la producción de fibra, numerosos industriales están interesados en diversificar las aplicaciones de la madera de eucalipto. No obstante, el mayor problema para procesar eucaliptos es la apa...

  5. Genetic control of heterochrony in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Corey J; Freeman, Jules S; Jones, Rebecca C; Potts, Brad M; Wong, Melissa M L; Weller, James L; Hecht, Valérie F G; Poethig, R Scott; Vaillancourt, René E

    2014-05-08

    A change in the timing or rate of developmental events throughout ontogeny is referred to as heterochrony, and it is a major evolutionary process in plants and animals. We investigated the genetic basis for natural variation in the timing of vegetative phase change in the tree Eucalyptus globulus, which undergoes a dramatic change in vegetative morphology during the juvenile-to-adult transition. Quantitative trait loci analysis in an outcross F2 family derived from crosses between individuals from a coastal population of E. globulus with precocious vegetative phase change and individuals from populations in which vegetative phase change occurs several years later implicated the microRNA EglMIR156.5 as a potential contributor to this heterochronic difference. Additional evidence for the involvement of EglMIR156.5 was provided by its differential expression in trees with early and late phase change. Our findings suggest that changes in the expression of miR156 underlie natural variation in vegetative phase change in E. globulus, and may also explain interspecific differences in the timing of this developmental transition. Copyright © 2014 Hudson et al.

  6. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Control of Botrytis cinerea in Eucalyptus globulus Mini-Cuttings Using Clonostachys and Trichoderma Strains Control de Botrytis cinerea en miniestacas de Eucalyptus globulus Utilizando Cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zaldúa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. causes the disease known as gray mold in more than 200 hosts. It is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is one of the most susceptible species, especially in vegetative reproduction systems. Clonostachys and Trichoderma strains were selected as potential biocontrol agents of gray mold in previous research by the authors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic fungi to control B. cinerea in E. globulus mini-cuttings. Five fungi strains were tested and applied weekly, two Clonostachys and three Trichoderma (5 x 10(6 conidia mL-1. In addition, comparison treatments were also used: absolute control (water and fungicide application. The experiment was carried out under operational conditions to produce E. globulus mini-cuttings. The Clonostachys UDC-A10 and UDC-A11 strains reduce mini-cutting mortality caused by B. cinerea in 54 and 71%, respectively, and with effects similar to those achieved by fungicides. Clonostachys UDC-A11 reduces the disease progression rate with the same statistical results as fungicides. A negative effect of applying fungicides on rooting of the surviving mini-cuttings was also confirmed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Clonostachys as a control agent against gray mold disease in E. globulus mini-cuttings.Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como moho gris en más de 200 hospederos. En Chile es uno de los patógenos más importantes en viveros forestales, siendo Eucalyptus globulus Labill. una de las especies más susceptibles, especialmente en los sistemas de reproducción vegetativa. En investigaciones previas, realizadas por los autores, se seleccionaron cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma como potenciales agentes de biocontrol del moho gris. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia de hongos antagonistas en el control de B. cinerea en mini-estacas de E

  8. Induction of defensive response in Eucalyptus globulus plants and its persistence in vegetative propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Christian; Perez, Claudia; Hernandez, Victor; Sanchez-Olate, Manuel; Rios, Darcy; San Martin, Aurelio; Becerra, José

    2013-03-01

    The expression of defensive compounds derived from secondary metabolism in plants of Eucalyptus globulus Labill, and the persistence of these in vegetative propagation was evaluated by gas chromatography with flame ionization (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (MS). The plants were induced by attack from the insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti ("blue gum psyllid") and by mechanical damage. Defense responses were activated in plants for the different types of tested induction. We identified four defensive compounds present in the leaves of plants induced in entomological form (beta-terpineol, aromadendrene, caryophyllene-oxide and eremophilene); all remained in the vegetative propagation. After mechanical induction, we identified three compounds (beta-terpineol, aromadendrene and ledol), of which ledol and aromadendrene persisted in the vegetative propagation. Virtually all the compounds detected, in addition to persisting in the vegetative propagation, showed specificity for the induction type, whether entomological or mechanical, except for aromadendrene, which was expressed in both types of induction.

  9. Photosynthesis of temperate Eucalyptus globulus trees outside their native range has limited adjustment to elevated CO2 and climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Kristine Y; Quentin, Audrey G; Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E; Williams, David G; Barton, Craig V M; Ellsworth, David S

    2013-12-01

    Eucalyptus species are grown widely outside of their native ranges in plantations on all vegetated continents of the world. We predicted that such a plantation species would show high potential for acclimation of photosynthetic traits across a wide range of growth conditions, including elevated [CO2] and climate warming. To test this prediction, we planted temperate Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings in climate-controlled chambers in the field located >700 km closer to the equator than the nearest natural occurrence of this species. Trees were grown in a complete factorial combination of elevated CO2 concentration (eC; ambient [CO2] +240 ppm) and air warming treatments (eT; ambient +3 °C) for 15 months until they reached ca. 10 m height. There was little acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to eC and hence the CO2-induced photosynthetic enhancement was large (ca. 50%) in this treatment during summer. The warming treatment significantly increased rates of both carboxylation capacity (V(cmax)) and electron transport (Jmax) (measured at a common temperature of 25 °C) during winter, but decreased them significantly by 20-30% in summer. The photosynthetic CO2 compensation point in the absence of dark respiration (Γ*) was relatively less sensitive to temperature in this temperate eucalypt species than for warm-season tobacco. The temperature optima for photosynthesis and Jmax significantly changed by about 6 °C between winter and summer, but without further adjustment from early to late summer. These results suggest that there is an upper limit for the photosynthetic capacity of E. globulus ssp. globulus outside its native range to acclimate to growth temperatures above 25 °C. Limitations to temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in summer may be one factor that defines climate zones where E. globulus plantation productivity can be sustained under anticipated global environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regional population expansion in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Suat Hui; Ho, Simon Y W; Thornhill, Andrew H; Foley, William J

    2013-09-01

    Foundation tree species define the structure of forest habitat and influence their ecosystem dynamics. However, there is limited understanding of both the patterns and timing of population fluctuations in foundation trees and how they vary among geographical regions. We have reconstructed the demographic history of five genetically distinct populations of the Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus) at the species and regional levels, using three nuclear loci sequenced from 104 individuals. Analysis using a Bayesian skyline plot indicated that the species experienced two periods of expansion, commencing in the Pliocene. Regional analyses showed that island populations expanded earlier, but that the rate of expansion was relatively slow when compared to that of the mainland group. This highlights the need for local demographic history to be taken into account when inferring local adaptation for candidate genes. Population growth throughout the Quaternary signals the ability of the species to persist and thrive under the predominantly harsh conditions of this period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  12. A comparison of growth, photosynthetic capacity and water stress in Eucalyptus globulus coppice regrowth and seedlings during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Paul L; Mendham, Daniel S; White, Don A; Ogden, Gary N

    2009-05-01

    Eucalyptus globulus Labill., a globally significant plantation species, is grown commercially in a multiple rotation framework. Second and subsequent crops of E. globulus may be established either by allowing the cut stumps to resprout (commonly referred to as coppice) or by replanting a new crop of seedlings. Currently, long-term growth data comparing coppice and seedling productivity in second or later rotations in southern Australia is limited. The capacity to predict productivity using these tools is dependent on an understanding of the physiology of seedlings and coppice in response to light, water and nutrient supply. In this study, we compared the intrinsic (independent of the immediate environment) and native (dependent on the immediate environment) physiology of E. globulus coppice and second-generation seedlings during their early development in the field. Coppice not only grew more rapidly, but also used more water and drew on stored soil water to a depth of at least 4.5 m during the first 2 years of growth, whereas the seedlings only accessed the top 0.9 m of the soil profile. During the same period, there was no significant difference between coppice and seedlings in either their stomatal response to leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (D) or intrinsic water-use efficiency; CO(2)- and light-saturated rates of photosynthesis were greater in seedlings than that in coppice as were the quantum yield of photosynthesis and total leaf chlorophyll content. Thus, at a leaf scale, seedlings are potentially more productive per unit leaf area than coppice during early development, but this is not realised under ambient conditions. The underlying cause of this inherent difference is discussed in the context of the allocation of resources to above- and below-ground organs during early development.

  13. Eucalyptus globulus Inhibits Inflammasome-Activated Pro-Inflammatory Responses and Ameliorate Monosodium Urate-Induced Peritonitis in Murine Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Eun; Sun, Xiao; Kim, Myong-Ki; Li, Wan Yi; Lee, Sang Woo; Koppula, Sushruta; Yu, Sang-Hyeun; Kim, Han-Bi; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2018-02-12

    Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (E. globulus, Myrtaceae) is used in Europe as a traditional folk remedy for inflammation-related disorders such as arthritis, diabetes, asthma, and gout. We investigated this study to evaluate the protective effects of E. globulus extract (EG) on inflammatory responses, and provide scientific and mechanistic evidence in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of EG on inflammasome activation in vitro. Monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis was used to study the effect of EG in an in vivo murine model. EG suppressed IL-1β secretion via the regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization and caspase-1 maturation, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. In the in vivo study, EG suppressed the MSU-induced peritonitis by attenuating interleukin (IL)-1β, providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders.

  14. In-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: nitric oxide inhibition in J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, E; Cepeda, A; Gualillo, O; Perez-Fernandez, R

    2004-02-01

    It is well known that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Thymus vulgaris L. have been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory diseases. The present study focuses on the effects of these two extracts on NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. In addition, cell viability, scavenging activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression were evaluated. E. globulus and T. vulgaris extracts significantly inhibited the enhanced production of NO induced by LPS and IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with these two extracts did not reduce cell viability at any dose used. Both plant extracts showed significant scavenging of NO radicals released by an NO donor, PAPA-NONOate. Results also show that pre-treatment with E. globulus and T. vulgaris extracts significantly inhibits iNOS mRNA expression. This study thus suggests that the inhibition of net NO production by these two extracts may be due to their NO scavenging activity and/or their inhibitory effects on iNOS gene expression.

  15. Pharmacologic treatment of emotional lability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannaccone, S; FeriniStrambi, L

    1996-01-01

    Emotional lability may be a part of the syndrome of pseudobulbar palsy. Here we report our experience with fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, used to treat 10 patients with emotional incontinence. Over a 7-month period, we studied and treated 10 consecutive patients (mean age, 61

  16. Enraizamento de miniestacas de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Rodrigues Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do regulador de crescimento ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de miniestacas apicais e intermediárias de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus e Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus. O enraizamento das miniestacas foi conduzido durante 30 dias em casa de vegetação climatizada e, em seguida, as mudas foram transferidas para casa de sombra, permanecendo por 10 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial triplo, constituído de dois tipos de miniestacas (apicais e intermediárias, três concentrações de AIB (0, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 e 11 clones, em três repetições, compostas de parcelas com 12 miniestacas por repetição. Não houve efeito do AIB sobre as características avaliadas. A sobrevivência e o enraizamento das miniestacas apicais foram significativamente superiores. Houve diferença significativa entre clones quanto às características avaliadas, exceto a sobrevivência após 30 dias na casa de vegetação.

  17. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of methanol extracts and isolated compounds from Eucalyptus globulus and Melaleuca styphelioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Hamid, Hoda Abdel; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

    2014-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that results in severe organ damage. Snail control is the best measure to control schistosomiasis. Plant-derived molluscicides have gained increasing attention for the control of schistosomiasis because they have low toxicity towards non-target organisms. Tannins are particularly suitable for snail control because they are less toxic than saponins to non-target organisms. To identify the most toxic components of two plants belonging to the family Myrtaceae, namely Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Melaleuca styphelioides Sm against the different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail host. The 80% MeOH leaf extracts of the tested plants and their isolated compounds were screened for their molluscicidal activity (expressed as LC50 and LC90 after 24 h exposure) against the snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. The anti-schistosomal activity of the tested samples was determined at 20 ppm (after 1 or 2 h exposure) against the different developmental stages of S. mansoni, including the miracidia, cercariae and worms. Biochemical parameters were measured to determine the toxicity mechanisms of the treated snails. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on NMR, UV and HRESI-MS/MS data. Potent molluscicidal activity was observed for the ellagitannin dimer eucalbanin B (12), with an LC50 value of 55 ppm. Treatment of the snails with the LC25 of eucalbanin B (30.8 ppm) resulted in a significant decrease in the protein level by 22.7% and 25.8% in the snail tissues and hemolymph, respectively. The decreased protein content was attributed to destruction of the snail tissue and impairment in protein synthesis under stress conditions of intoxication with eucalbanin B. Alterations in the activities of the transaminases and phosphatases in the treated snails indicated destruction and intoxication of the snail tissues. A significant increase in the levels of the transaminases alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (57

  20. Daily patterns of stem size variation in irrigated and unirrigated Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David M; O'Grady, Anthony P; Downes, Geoffrey M; Read, Jennifer; Worledge, Dale

    2008-10-01

    High resolution measurements of stem diameter variation provide a means to study short-term dynamics of tree growth and water status. In this 14-month study, daily changes in stem radius of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings were measured with electronic point dendrometers in a plantation in southern Tasmania, Australia. The daily patterns of stem expansion and shrinkage were classified into three phases: shrinkage; recovery; and increase in diameter from one maximum to the next, or increment. This study showed that rapid onset of even mild drought in irrigated trees caused distinct changes in daily patterns of stem diameter variation, particularly the duration of daily stem increment. The duration of the daily increment phase was directly related to increment magnitude. The dynamics of daily increment were significantly affected by mean minimum temperature, indicating a temperature limitation on metabolic processes underlying diameter growth in these trees. Most likely due to differences in conductance, the duration but not rate of the incremental daily expansion was greater in fast- than in slow-growing trees.

  1. Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of this study, essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and three Boswellia rivae species were analyzed using GC-MS. Comparison of the chemical compositions of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene in the assessment of these oils' quality will help in the production of high value essential oils that will enhance the economic ...

  3. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  4. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  5. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  6. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  7. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways. © 2015 University of Tasmania New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. ESTABELECIMENTO IN VITRO DE CLONES HÍBRIDOS DE Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Rodrigues Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the behavior of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus clones and the effect of different in vitro insertions (at 30, 90 and 150 days after pruning the donor plants in the in vitro establishment phase. The mini-stump plants, explant providers for the in vitro introductions, were cultivated under an indoor semi-hydroponic clonal mini-hedging. Nodal segment explants of 21 Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus clones and eight Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus globulus clones were harvested, disinfected and inoculated in an MS culture medium, supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 0.1 mg L-1 of NAA. After 30 days in culture, evaluations were made and it was concluded that there were variations among the clones, as well as in vitro introductions, for the studied variables, where the in vitro establishment was possible for most clones.

  9. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    OpenAIRE

    Bison,Odair; Ramalho,Magno Antonio Patto; Rezende,Gabriel Dehon Sampaio Peçanha; Aguiar,Aurélio Mendes; Resende,Marcos Deon Vilela de

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones...

  10. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ângelo; Neiva, Duarte; Pereira, Helena; Gominho, Jorge; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2014-10-13

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips). The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract) in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood.

  11. Photosynthetic enhancement by elevated CO₂ depends on seasonal temperatures for warmed and non-warmed Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, A G; Crous, K Y; Barton, C V M; Ellsworth, D S

    2015-11-01

    Arguments based on the biochemistry of photosynthesis predict a positive interaction between elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature on photosynthesis as well as growth. In contrast, few long-term studies on trees find greater stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated [CO2] at warmer compared with cooler temperatures. To test for CO2 × temperature interactions on leaf photosynthesis and whole-plant growth, we planted Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in climate-controlled chambers in the field at the Hawkesbury Forest Experiment research site, and investigated how photosynthetic enhancement changed across a range of seasonal temperatures. Trees were grown in a complete two-way factorial design with two CO2 concentrations (ambient and ambient + 240 ppm) and two temperatures (ambient and ambient + 3 °C) for 15 months until they reached ∼10 m height, after which they were harvested for biomass. There was significant enhancement of photosynthesis and growth with elevated [CO2], with the photosynthetic stimulation varying with season, but there was no significant effect of warming. Photosynthetic enhancement was higher in summer (+46% at 28 °C) than in winter (+14% at 20 °C). Photosynthetic enhancement as a function of leaf temperature was consistent with theoretical expectations, but was strongly mediated by the intercellular [CO2]/ambient [CO2] (Ci/Ca) ratio across seasons. Total tree biomass after 15 months was 66% larger in elevated CO2 (P = 0.017) with no significant warming effect detected. The fraction of biomass in coarse roots was reduced in warmed trees compared with ambient temperature controls, but there was no evidence of changed biomass allocation patterns in elevated CO2. We conclude that there are strong and consistent elevated CO2 effects on photosynthesis and biomass of E. globulus. It is crucial to consider stomatal conductance under a range of conditions to appraise the interactive effect of [CO2] and temperature on

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids from Eucalyptus globulus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, F J; Bautista, J M; Gutiérrez, A; Del Rio, J C; González, A G

    2000-07-05

    Various typical lipid components of wood extractives have been isolated from Eucalyptus globulus wood by supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol. The influence of various extraction parameters on the yield and qualitative composition of the extracts have been studied. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with acetone, the standard method for the determination of wood extractives. The qualitative and quantitative results obtained by both methods were in good agreement. The experimental planning to asses the influence of pressure, temperature and percentage of methanol and their interactions on the extraction efficiency was carried out with a factorial design, followed by multiple linear regression algorithm.

  13. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  14. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in explants of shoot cultures established from adult Eucalyptus globulus and E. saligna × E. maidenii trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, E; Ballester, A; Ibarra, M; Vieitez, A M

    2015-06-01

    A reproducible procedure for induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) from adult trees of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and the hybrid E. saligna Smith × E. maidenii has been developed for the first time. Somatic embryos were obtained from both shoot apex and leaf explants of all three genotypes evaluated, although embryogenic frequencies were significantly influenced by the species/genotype, auxin and explant type. Picloram was more efficient for somatic embryo induction than naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), with the highest frequency of induction being obtained in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 µM picloram and 40 mg l(-1) gum Arabic, in which 64% of the shoot apex explants and 68.8% of the leaf explants yielded somatic embryos. The embryogenic response of the hybrid was higher than that of the E. globulus, especially when NAA was used. The cultures initiated on picloram-containing medium consisted of nodular embryogenic structures surrounded by a mucilaginous coating layer that emerged from a watery callus developed from the initial explants. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were differentiated after subculture of these nodular embryogenic structures on a medium lacking plant growth regulators. Histological analysis confirmed the bipolar organization of the somatic embryos, with shoot and root meristems and closed procambial tissue that bifurcated into small cotyledons. The root pole was more differentiated than the shoot pole, which appeared to be formed by a few meristematic layers. Maintenance of the embryogenic lines by secondary SE was attained by subculturing individual cotyledonary embryos or small clusters of globular and torpedo embryos on medium with 16.11 µM NAA at 4- to 5-week intervals. Somatic embryos converted into plantlets after being transferred to liquid germination medium although plant regeneration remained poor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  15. Selecting ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculating plantations in south China: effect of Scleroderma on colonization and growth of exotic Eucalyptus globulus, E. urophylla, Pinus elliottii, and P. radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying Long; Kang, Li Hua; Malajczuk, Nicholas; Dell, Bernard

    2006-06-01

    Plantation forestry with exotic trees in south China needs compatible symbionts to improve the growth of seedlings in nurseries and to enhance establishment and growth in the field. Scleroderma, a potentially suitable symbiont for inoculation, is not being used in containerized nurseries in the region due to poor knowledge of its host range. The ability of 15 collections of Scleroderma, nine from Australia and six from Asia, to colonize and promote growth of four important exotic plantation trees (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, Pinus elliottii Engl., and Pinus radiata D. Don) was examined in a nursery potting mix. There was generally low host specificity of Scleroderma between tree genera. At 12 weeks after inoculation, 13 to 14 of the 15 spore collections formed ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of eucalypts or pines. The extent of colonization differed between spore treatments with two or four collections forming abundant mycorrhizas (>50% fine roots colonized) on E. globulus or E. urophylla, respectively, and three or five on P. radiata or P. elliottii, respectively. Three collections from Australia strongly colonized all hosts resulting in 26 to 100% of short roots being colonized. Chinese Scleroderma collections resulted in fewer mycorrhizas on eucalypts than on pines. Inoculation stimulated the growth (shoot height and dry weight) of eucalypt and pine seedlings by up to 105% where Scleroderma mycorrhizas developed. The results suggest that there is a need to source Scleroderma from outside China for inoculating eucalypts in Chinese nurseries whereas Chinese collections of Scleroderma could be used in pine nurseries. Further screening of Australian and Chinese Scleroderma should be performed in Chinese nurseries and in the field before final commercial decisions are made.

  16. Fungi associated to bark lesions of Eucalyptus globulus stems in plantations from Uruguay Fungos asociados as lesões da casca do caule de Eucalyptus globulus em plantações no uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alonso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Trees with stem bark lesions are frequently observed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations, particularly in the central west region of Uruguay. These lesions constitute a problem for trunk decortications at harvest and they also facilitate the access of fungi that could cause wood decay. Seven, three and oneyear-old plantations, located at three sites in close proximity were selected. Four types of trunk lesions were present in trees regardless the age of plantation and more than one type was found in each plantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fungal composition associated with these lesions and compare them to healthy tissues and try to find out the origin of these symptoms. Another purpose was to elucidate the real role of the fungi considered pathogens by means of experimental inoculations. Segments from lesions and healthy tissues yielded 897 fungal isolates belonging to 32 taxa, 681 isolates from bark lesions and 216 from healthy tissues. Both healthy and symptomatic tissues showed similar fungal species composition, but with differences in frequencies of colonization. Cytospora eucalypticola Van der Westhuizen, Botryosphaeria spp., Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Desm. Stey. and Penicillium spp. were the dominant species isolated. As symptoms were not reproduced after experimental inoculation with Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. & Duggar and B. eucalyptorum Crous, & M.J. Wingf, it could be suggested that these lesions were originated by unfavorable environmental conditions. The frost that occurred for several days out of season and flooding may have been involved in the development of bark lesion.As lesões na casca de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. são frequentemente observadas nas plantações da Região Centro-Oeste do Uruguai. Constituem problema para o descortiçamento na colheita e, além disso, facilita a penetraçao de fungos apodrecedores da madeira. Selecionaram-se plantações com 1, 3 e 7 anos de idade, em tr

  17. EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD DE PLANTACIÓN EN LA RENTABILIDAD DE PLANTACIONES DE Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guerra-Bugueño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio evaluó, económicamente, la respuesta de densidades de plantación y marcos de espaciamiento de Eucalyptus globulus establecido con fines pulpables. La técnica de Montecarlo se usó para examinar el efecto de las variaciones de precios y la tasa de descuento sobre la rentabilidad. El ensayo fue realizado en el Valle Central de la IX Región de Chile. Los tratamientos fueron: 1,000 árboles·ha-1(T1; 1,428 árboles·ha-1 (T2; 1,667 árboles·ha-1 (T3 y 2,000 árboles·ha-1 (T4. El volumen de producción de cada tratamiento se midió a la edad de cosecha (10 años y posteriormente se realizó un análisis financiero, para obtener la rentabilidad (valor actual neto [VAN], valor económico del suelo [VES] y tasa interna de retorno [TIR]. Los mayores valores de VAN se obtuvieron con el T1 (US$ 330·ha-1 y T4 (US$ 322·ha-1. Los pronósticos obtenidos para el VAN de T1 mostraron una probabilidad de ocurrencia de 73 %, resultando ser la opción menos riesgosa para la inversión. Los mayores rendimientos volumétricos (T4 y T3 no propician las mayores rentabilidades, pues el incremento de la densidad de plantación aumenta los costos por unidad de planta con relación al manejo de suelos, control de malezas y fertilización.

  18. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment.

  19. Functional relationships between wood structure and vulnerability to xylem cavitation in races of Eucalyptus globulus differing in wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Fernandez, María Elena

    2018-02-01

    Wood density can be considered as a measure of the internal wood structure, and it is usually used as a proxy measure of other mechanical and functional traits. Eucalyptus is one of the most important commercial forestry genera worldwide, but the relationship between wood density and vulnerability to cavitation in this genus has been little studied. The analysis is hampered by, among other things, its anatomical complexity, so it becomes necessary to address more complex techniques and analyses to elucidate the way in which the different anatomical elements are functionally integrated. In this study, vulnerability to cavitation in two races of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. with different wood density was evaluated through Path analysis, a multivariate method that allows evaluation of descriptive models of causal relationship between variables. A model relating anatomical variables with wood properties and functional parameters was proposed and tested. We found significant differences in wood basic density and vulnerability to cavitation between races. The main exogenous variables predicting vulnerability to cavitation were vessel hydraulic diameter and fibre wall fraction. Fibre wall fraction showed a direct impact on wood basic density and the slope of vulnerability curve, and an indirect and negative effect over the pressure imposing 50% of conductivity loss (P50) through them. Hydraulic diameter showed a direct negative effect on P50, but an indirect and positive influence over this variable through wood density on one hand, and through maximum hydraulic conductivity (ks max) and slope on the other. Our results highlight the complexity of the relationship between xylem efficiency and safety in species with solitary vessels such as Eucalyptus spp., with no evident compromise at the intraspecific level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  1. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  2. [Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Valéria de Siqueira; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria de Siqueira Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  4. Phytoremediation potential of cadmium-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus under different coppice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Xie, Xianming

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the phytoremediation potential of Eucalyptus globulus in Cd contaminated soil through two different harvest methods. Although replanting is more expensive than coppicing and produces less aboveground biomass, more Cd can be removed from the soil with roots removal at each harvest as the E. globulus absorbs vast majority of heavy metals in non-metabolically active parts like roots. Despite the higher cost of replanting in a single harvest, when phytoremediation efficiency and total duration are considered as important factors, the replanting treatment should be recommended as an appropriate method which can decrease the phytoremediation time obviously.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Resitência de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens à ferrugem (Puccinia psidii Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelica Aparecida Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência das espécies de Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus nitens inoculadas com um isolado uredinospórico monopustular de Puccinia psidii origininário de plantio de Eucalypstus grandis (UFV-2 em Itapetininga, SP. A avaliação foi realizada aos 12 dias após a inoculação, e quantificou-se a doença por meio de uma escala de notas com quatro classes de severidade da doença (S0, S1, S2 e S3. Em média, aproximadamente 60% das plantas de E. globulus e 50% de E. nitens foram resistentes a P. psidii. A variabilidade intra-específica nos materiais estudados indica ser possível a clonagem de genótipos resistentes para plantio comercial ou para uso em programas de melhoramento genético.Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were evaluated for resistance to rust caused by Puccinia psidii. Seedlings were inoculated with a single urediniosporic pustule isolate of P. psidii (UFV-2 obtained from E. grandis from Itapetininga, SP. Disease assessment was carried out 12 days after inoculation based on a rust rating scale with four class of severity (S0, S1, S2 and S3. Percentages of resistant plants were 60% and 50% for E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The high intra-specific variability found in this study allows using the clonal propagation of resistant genotypes in commercial plantations or in breeding programs.

  7. Workflow to improve the forest management of Eucalyptus globulus stands affected by Gonipterus scutellatus in Galicia, Spain using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Taboada, M. Flor; Lorenzo Cimadevila, Henrique; Rodriguez Perez, Jose Ramon; Picos Martin, Juan

    2004-10-01

    In Spain there are more than 500,000 ha of Eucalyptus plantations. These represent 3,5% of the national forest and the 25% of the timber harvested. Galicia monocultures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations cover 177,679 ha, and mixed stands of eucalyptus cover 200,000 ha more. This high productivity has been powered by the absence of pests and pathogens. However, since 1991 the health and productivity of these stands has been threatened by the Eucalyptus snout beetle (Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll.), which causes a severe defoliation to eucalyptus stands in Galicia. The aim of this paper is to establish a workflow to locate the areas affected by the defoliator, and determinate the basics patterns of spatial distribution, in order to predict future hot spots and develop more integrated pests management. This information will be part of a wider Information System, develop to improve the forest management and monitoring of these stands. The damaged area and the level of defoliation will be mapped using satellite imagery. The additional information of stand conditions, such as site index, climate and microclimatic conditions, digital terrain model, dendrometric and dasometric variables, will be integrated also in a Geographical Information System.

  8. Effects of the sequence wildfire-harvesting-coppice sprout selection on nutrient export via streamfloe in a small E. globulus watershed in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Vega, J. A.; Bara, S.; Alonso, M.; Fonturbel, T.

    2011-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out between 1987 and 1999, to assess the effect of the sequence wildfire-clear felling-coppice sprout selection thinning, on stream flow nutrient export in a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. watershed in Galicia (NW Spain). The effects of such a sequence on nutrient export via stream flow had not been previously evaluated. A wildfire in 1989 caused a significant increase in nutrient exports in stream flow during the following two years. No significant effect was observed the third year after wildfire. After clear felling in 1992, inputs via precipitation compensated for nutrient exports in stream flow, except for K the first year following harvest and NO{sub 3}- during the three years after this operation. Coppice sprout selection thinning in 1995 had less effect on nutrient exports than wildfire or harvest. The results presented here could may help in evaluating the effects of current intensive forest management and perturbations that affect eucalypt stands in NW Spain. (Author) 39 refs.

  9. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  10. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015

  11. Biomass Losses Caused by Teratosphaeria Leaf Disease in Eucalyptus globulus Short Rotation Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano Pérez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that examines the loss of biomass and energy, per hectare, caused by Teratosphaeria leaf disease (TLD in Eucalyptus globulus short rotation forestry. The 95 Eucalyptus globulus taxa analyzed are from seeds of open pollinated families of both Spanish and Australian origin. Tree height and diameter were measured and the crown damage index (CDI assessed at 27 months of age. Taxa that have a certain tolerance to the disease have been identified. The taxon identified as code 283 is the one that shows lower CDI (42% and with an average volume that exceeded 0.017 m3 at 27 months of age. Biomass losses were determined for each fraction of dry biomass of the tree (leaves, branches, twigs and bark based on CDI. These losses were translated into terms of energy lost per hectare, depending on the CDI. A comparison was then carried out between the productivity of Eucalyptus globulus exhibiting various levels of TLD severity and poplar and willow clones used for bioenergy in Europe. In our region, the results show that despite the losses of biomass associated with TLD, Eucalyptus globulus remains competitive as long as CDI values are lower than 56%.

  12. Structural features and properties of soluble products derived from Eucalyptus globulus hemicelluloses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gullon, P.; González-Muñoz, M.J.; Gool, van M.P.; Schols, H.A.; Hirsch, J.; Ebringerová, A.; Parajo, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to double hydrothermal processing to remove extractives in the first stage, and to cause the selective solubilisation of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan in the second stage. The hemicellulose-derived products present in the liquors from the second

  13. Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrote, G.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H.; Parajo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides,

  14. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodoro, M.G.; Ferreira, M.A.; Guimarães, L.M.S.; Mafia, R.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Alfenas, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was

  15. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  16. Labile hypertension and jogging: new diagnostic tool or spurious discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, W

    1981-01-01

    A labile hypertensive black man reviews his own personal history of hypertension, based on intensive self-study. The evidence suggests that aerobic isotonic exercise (jogging) depresses labile pressure values, forcing them down to near basal levels and preventing a rise to previous blood pressure levels for several hours. PMID:6780119

  17. Lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes in electrochemical speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Herman P.; Town, Raewyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Lability concepts are elaborated for metal complexes with soft (3D) and hard (2D) aqueous nanoparticles. In the presence of a non-equilibrium sensor, e.g. a voltammetric electrode, the notion of lability for nanoparticulate metal complexes, M-NP, reflects the ability of the M-NP to maintain

  18. Sources of variation in self-incompatibility in the Australian forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowen, Marian H; Vaillancourt, René E; Pilbeam, David J; Potts, Brad M

    2010-05-01

    One of the major factors affecting the outcrossing rate in Eucalyptus globulus is thought to be the inherent self-incompatibility (SI) level of the female tree. SI in this species is mainly due to late-acting pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms operating in the ovary, and not S alleles. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic variation in SI levels within E. globulus and determine its genetic control and stability across pollination techniques, sites and seasons. SI levels were estimated for 105 genotypes originating from across the geographical range of E. globulus over multiple years of crossing. Separate grafted trees of some genotypes growing at the same and different sites allowed the genetic basis of the variation in SI to be tested and its stability across sites and seasons to be determined. The SI level of a tree was measured as the relative reduction in seeds obtained per flower pollinated following selfing compared with outcross pollinations. Thus, if seed set is the same, SI is 0 %, and if no self seed is set, SI is 100 %. The average SI in E. globulus was 91 % and genotypes ranged from 8 to 100 % SI. Most genotypes (>75 %) had SI levels >90 %. There were highly significant differences between genotypes and the within-site broad-sense heritability of percentage SI was high (H(2) = 0.80 +/- 0.13). However, there was evidence that growing site, and to a lesser extent season, can affect the expression of SI levels. Trees with low reproductive loads produced relatively more seed from selfed flowers. There is a strong genetic basis to the phenotypic variation in SI in E. globulus within a site. However, the level of SI was affected, but to a lesser extent, by the environment, which in part may reflect the higher probability of selfed zygotes surviving on sites or in seasons where competition for resources is less.

  19. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Raho G; Benali, M

    2012-09-01

    To examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus). The essential oils of this plant were obtained by the hydrodistillation method. The inhibitory effects of this essential oil were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by using agar disc diffusion and dilution broth methods. The results obtained showed that essential oil of the leaves of E. globulus has antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria (E. coli) as well as gram positive bacteria (S. aureus). The encouraging results indicate the essential oil of E. globulus leaves might be exploited as natural antibiotic for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these two germs, and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medicines.

  1. Labile and Non-labile Soil Carbon Fractions Equally Contributed to Carbon Changes under Long-term Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F.; Li, J.; Xu, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storages are altered under long-term fertilization in croplands, it however remains unclear how fast- to slow-cycling SOC fractions each respond to fertilization practices. Based on five two-decade Chinese long-term fertilization experiments (GZL: Gongzhuling; ZZ: Zhengzhou; CQ: Chongqing; JX: Jinxian; QY: Qiyang) under three fertilization treatments (CK: cropping with no fertilizer input; NPK: chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers; and NPKM: NPK with manure input), we quantified very labile, labile, non-labile and total SOC stocks at 0-20cm soil depth. Results showed that SOC stocks varied among sites (GZL, JX, CQ > ZZ, QY) and generally increased with fertilizations (CK-1 at ZZ, GZL, QY, CQ and JX, respectively. The corresponding changes of the sum of very labile and labile SOC fractions were 2.6, 2.0, 1.8, 0.8 and -0.5 Mg ha-1 at ZZ, QY, GZL, CQ and JX, respectively. Also, NPKM increased total SOC stock by 18.3, 16.2, 14.4, 10.5, and 6.5 Mg ha-1 at QY, GZL, ZZ, CQ and JX, respectively. The corresponding changes of the sum of very labile and labile SOC fractions were 8.6, 6.8, 6.6, 3.2 and -1.6 Mg ha-1 at QY, GZL, ZZ, CQ and JX, respectively. These results suggested that about half or more than half SOC stock accretions under fertilization were induced by increase in non-labile SOC fractions. It thus informs the importance of non-labile SOC fractions in contributing to soil C sequestration under long-term fertilizations in Chinese croplands. Future research should improve our mechanistic understanding of biogeochemical transformation of non-labile organic C in soils.

  2. Leaf respiration rates are increased by warm season as well as by elevated temperature treatment in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenstam, Angelica af; Wallin, Göran; Ellsworth, David; Uddling Fredin, Johan; Crous, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Plant leaf respiration is one of the major CO2 fluxes between terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, and its responses to elevated CO2 and temperature thus have important implications for the carbon cycle and rate on ongoing climate change. Non-photorespiratory leaf respiration is reduced in light, Rlight, compared with the rate in the dark, Rdark. It is therefore important to consider both Rlight and Rdark when estimating the exchange of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere, during current and future climates. This study was conducted at the Hawkesbury Forest Experiment, HFE, in Richmond, NSW, Australia. Trees of Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) were exposed in whole tree chambers (WTC) to a complete factorial combination of ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 (+3 °C and +240 ppm CO2, respectively). The measurements of Rlight and Rdark were made in 2011 after 9 - 15 months exposure in the WTCs. The measurements were made in March (after the year's hottest months) and October (after the coldest period). Rlight was determined at four temperatures ranging between 20 and 40 °C on attached leaves using a portable gas exchange system (LI-6400XT). Rdark was measured at 20-40 °C in October and at 25 °C in March. Rdark was measured after dark acclimation for at least 30 min and Rlight was determined from the intersection of the photosynthetic CO2 responses measured at three different light intensities using the Laisk metod. Trees grown in elevated temperature had a considerably higher Rdark (+53% across all measurement temperatures in October). However, Rlight did not respond significantly to either CO2 or temperature. In October, the Rlight to Rdark ratio indicated an overall light inhibition of respiration of 31% across all temperatures and in March the light inhibition was 22 % at 25 °C. The seasonal comparisons showed that both Rlight and Rdark were considerably higher after the warm compared to cold season, especially when measured

  3. Spectral mixture analysis to monitor defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantations in southern Australia using Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E.M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W.W.; Coppin, P.

    2010-01-01

    Defoliation is a key parameter of forest health and is associated with reduced productivity and tree mortality. Assessing the health of forests requires regular observations over large areas. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of

  4. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela G. TEODORO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was conducted to identify the pathogen(s involved. Symptomatic leaves were collected in the Brazilian states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, single ascospore cultures established, and isolates were investigated using DNA-based molecular tools. A species-specific PCR and sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA operon were used for species identification. The following seven species were identified: Mycosphaerella scytalidii, Dissoconium dekkeri (=M. lateralis, Teratosphaeria ohnowa, T. perpendicularis, T. pseudafricana, T. flexuosa and T.nubilosa. Of the recorded species, T. nubilosa is regarded as the most serious threat to the cultivation of E. globulus in the states surveyed.

  5. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  6. Lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes in electrochemical speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Herman P.; Town, Raewyn M.

    2016-01-01

    equilibrium with the reduced concentration of the electroactive free M2+ in its diffusion layer. Since the metal ion binding sites are confined to the NP body, the conventional reaction layer in the form of a layer adjacent to the electrode surface is immaterial. Instead an intraparticulate reaction zone may...... of the electrochemical technique is crucial in the lability towards the electrode surface. In contrast, for nanoparticulate complexes it is the dynamics of the exchange of the electroactive metal ion with the surrounding medium that governs the effective lability towards the electrode surface.......Lability concepts are elaborated for metal complexes with soft (3D) and hard (2D) aqueous nanoparticles. In the presence of a non-equilibrium sensor, e.g. a voltammetric electrode, the notion of lability for nanoparticulate metal complexes, M-NP, reflects the ability of the M-NP to maintain...

  7. Fate and lability of silver in soils: Effect of ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settimio, Lara; McLaughlin, Mike J.; Kirby, Jason K.; Langdon, Kate A.; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2014-01-01

    The fate and lability of added soluble Ag in soils over time was examined by measurement of labile metal (E-value) by isotopic dilution using the 110m Ag radioactive isotope and the solid-phase speciation of Ag by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. After two weeks of ageing the E-values for Ag decreased by 20–90% with a further decrease of 10–40% after six months. The overall decrease in labile Ag for all soils after the 6 month ageing period was 50–100%. The ageing was more rapid and pronounced in the alkaline soils. XANES results for Ag in soils indicated that for the majority of soils the added Ag + was reduced to metallic Ag over time, and associations with Fe-oxohydroxides and reduced S groups in organic matter also decreased Ag lability. Strong positive correlations were found between metallic Ag and non-labile Ag and between organic carbon and Ag bonded with S species. - Highlights: • Rapid ageing of Ag was observed after 14 days with a decrease in lability of 20–90%. • A further decrease of 10–40% was observed after 6 months. • Over time Ag + formed metallic Ag which was positively correlated to non-labile Ag. • A positive correlation was found between organic carbon and Ag bonded with sulfur. - The decrease in the lability of soluble Ag added to soils over 6 months is explained by formation of metallic Ag and associations with Fe-oxohydroxides and S groups in organic matter

  8. Life cycle assessment of printing and writing paper produced from Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, A.; Lopes, E.; Arroja, L.; Capela, M.; Pereira, F. [Environmental and Planning Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Tome, M. [Agronomy Superior Institute, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-06-01

    The environmental impacts of the production of Portuguese printing and writing paper from Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system under study includes forestry, pulp production, paper production, wastepaper final disposal, transports and production of energy, chemicals and fuels. The results are presented and discussed at inventory analysis and impact assessment levels. The results suggest that the pulp and paper production processes contribute significantly to almost all of the analysed inventory parameters and impact assessment categories. (orig.)

  9. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  10. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  11. Evaluation of Stability and In Vitro Security of Nanoemulsions Containing Eucalyptus globulus Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Sagrillo, Michele Rorato; Nascimento, Kátia

    2017-01-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus presents several pharmacological properties. However, their therapeutic efficacy may be affected by limitations due to several conditions, rendering it difficult to obtain stable and effective pharmaceutical formulations. The use of nanotechnology is an alternative to improve their characteristics aiming to ensure their stability and effectiveness. Furthermore, studies about the possible toxic effects of nanostructures are necessary to evaluate safety when the formulation comes into contact with human cells. Hence, in this paper, we evaluate for the first time the stability and in vitro cytogenotoxicity of nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As a result, the stability study found that the best condition for storage up to 90 days was refrigeration (4°C); it was the condition that best preserved the nanometric features. The content of the major compounds of oil was maintained after nanoencapsulation and preserved over time. In tests to evaluate the safety of this formulation, we can conclude that, at a low concentration (approximately 0.1%), Eucalyptus globulus nanoemulsion did not cause toxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and also showed a protective effect in cells against possible damage when compared to oil in free form. PMID:28691021

  12. Oral administration of Eucalyptus globulus extract reduces the alloxan-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlem, Soussi; Khaled, Hamden; Wafa, Marouane; Sofiane, Bezzine; Mohamed, Damak; Jean-Claude, Murat; Abdelfattah, El Feki

    2009-09-14

    In light of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the putative protective effect of Eucalyptus globulus, a medicinal plant, was investigated in alloxan-diabetic rats. E. globulus extract was given in drinking water for 15 days at a daily dose equivalent to 130 mg dry leaves/kg of body weight. Lipids peroxidation level and activities of catalase, superoxide-dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were then measured in liver and kidney. Under our experimental conditions, eucalyptus extract was found to significantly reduce the blood glucose level in diabetic animals but failed to restore the liver glycogen level, whereas insulin lowered blood glucose and restored liver glycogen to high concentration. Our results suggest that the antihyperglycemic action of eucalyptus extract is not exerted via the stimulation of insulin secretion but rather unveil a proper effect of the extract involving the enhancement of peripheral glucose uptake. In addition, eucalyptus extract appears to exert an antioxidative activity demonstrated (1) by the increase of catalase, superoxide-dismutase and gluthatione-peroxidase activities in liver and kidney, and (2) a lowering of lipids peroxidation level in these organs. In conclusion, the present study indicates that extract of E. globulus, administered per os, could be used with some profit in diabetic patients.

  13. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  14. Consequences of resource limitation for recovery from repeated defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus Labilladière.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Quentin, Audrey; Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Recovery following defoliation can be modified by co-occurring site resource limitations. The growth response of young Eucalyptus globulus saplings to two defoliation events was examined in an experimental plantation with combinations of low (-) or high (+) water (W) and nitrogen (N) resources. Artificial defoliation was applied at 3 and 9 months of age to remove ~40 and 55% of leaf area in the upper crown, respectively. At 18 months of age, height, stem diameter and leaf area were not significantly different between control and defoliated saplings, across all resource treatments. However, stem volume, bark volume and branch number were significantly increased in defoliated saplings, including a significant interaction with resource treatment. Total above-ground biomass of saplings in response to defoliation was significantly higher (almost double) than controls for the low water (N + W-) treatment only. Significantly increased foliar starch content (and a trend for increased soluble sugars) in the upper crown zone was found in the defoliated saplings of the N + W- treatment compared with the upper zone of control saplings. Foliar total non-structural carbohydrates were significantly correlated to stem biomass regardless of resource treatment or defoliation, and we suggest that foliar resources are most important for stem growth in E. globulus rather than stored carbon (C) from other tissues. After repeated defoliation and several months recovery, E. globulus saplings were generally not C limited in this study.

  15. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I. [Environmental and Planning Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets.

  16. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D.

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43 o 28'N, and longitude 3 o 48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  17. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets

  18. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

  19. Multiplicação in vitro de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Rodrigues Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a resposta de clones híbridos de Eucalyptus globulus nos meios de cultura MS e JADS durante a fase de multiplicação in vitro. Os explantes foram provenientes da fase de estabelecimento in vitro de 21 clones de Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, sendo 11 clones com três introduções in vitro, e de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis x E. globulus, sendo dois clones com três introduções. Os clones foram subcultivados mensalmente nos meios de cultura MS e JADS, com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e 0,01 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. Concluiu-se que: houve tendência de maiores taxas de multiplicação no meio MS; a maioria dos clones se estabeleceu na fase de multiplicação in vitro, enquanto alguns clones se mostraram recalcitrantes nesta fase da micropropagação; a taxa de multiplicação apresentou tendência de aumento nos primeiros subcultivos e posterior queda para a maioria dos clones.

  20. Evaluation of Stability and In Vitro Security of Nanoemulsions Containing Eucalyptus globulus Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Nunes de Godoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus presents several pharmacological properties. However, their therapeutic efficacy may be affected by limitations due to several conditions, rendering it difficult to obtain stable and effective pharmaceutical formulations. The use of nanotechnology is an alternative to improve their characteristics aiming to ensure their stability and effectiveness. Furthermore, studies about the possible toxic effects of nanostructures are necessary to evaluate safety when the formulation comes into contact with human cells. Hence, in this paper, we evaluate for the first time the stability and in vitro cytogenotoxicity of nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As a result, the stability study found that the best condition for storage up to 90 days was refrigeration (4°C; it was the condition that best preserved the nanometric features. The content of the major compounds of oil was maintained after nanoencapsulation and preserved over time. In tests to evaluate the safety of this formulation, we can conclude that, at a low concentration (approximately 0.1%, Eucalyptus globulus nanoemulsion did not cause toxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and also showed a protective effect in cells against possible damage when compared to oil in free form.

  1. Emotional lability and affective synchrony in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berghoff, Christopher R; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2016-07-01

    Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task). State ratings of SCE, anger, and anxiety were provided at 14 time points (before and after each laboratory task and resting period). Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that women with BPD reported greater mean levels of SCE and Anxiety (but not Anger), and greater lability of Anxiety. Women with BPD also exhibited greater variability in lability of all 3 emotions (suggestive of within-group differences in the relevance of lability to BPD). Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive relations) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of BPD status. Follow-up regression analyses suggest the importance of accounting for lability when examining the role of synchrony in BPD, as the relation of SCE-Anger synchrony to BPD symptom severity was moderated by Anger and SCE lability. Specifically, synchronous changes in SCE and Anger were associated with greater BPD symptom severity when large shifts in SCE were paired with minor shifts in Anger. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects against UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen synthesis via regulation of TGF-β/Smad signals and attenuation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bom; Hwang, Eunson; Seo, Seul A; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-01-01

    UV irradiation triggers the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen degradation, which in turn causes increased pigmentation, dryness, and deep wrinkling of the skin. These chronic symptoms are collectively referred to as photoaging. Eucalyptus globulus is an evergreen tree that is widely used in cosmetics because of its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of 50% ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus globulus on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were treated with Eucalyptus globulus at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL after UVB or non-UVB irradiation. We found that Eucalyptus globulus suppressed the expression of MMPs and IL-6, but increased the expression of TGF-β1 and procollagen type 1. In addition, Eucalyptus globulus inhibited activation of the AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Eucalyptus globulus was also found to regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling by reversing the activity of negative Smad regulators. Lastly, in vivo studies showed that topical application of Eucalyptus globulus on UVB-irradiated hairless mice reduced wrinkle formation and dryness by down-regulating MMP-1 and up-regulating expression of elastin, TGF-β1, and procollagen type 1. Taken together, these data suggest that Eucalyptus globulus may be a useful agent in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking photosynthesis and leaf N allocation under future elevated CO2 and climate warming in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E; Crous, Kristine Y; Whitney, Spencer M; Ellsworth, David S; Ghannoum, Oula

    2017-02-01

    Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and Vcmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees. The kinetics of E. globulus and tobacco Rubisco at 25 °C were similar. In vitro estimates of Vcmax derived from measures of E. globulus Rubisco content and kinetics were consistent, although slightly lower, than the in vivo rates extrapolated from gas exchange. In E. globulus, the fraction of N invested in Rubisco was substantially lower than for crop species and varied with treatments. Photosynthetic acclimation of E. globulus leaves to eC was underpinned by reduced leaf N and Rubisco contents; the opposite occurred in response to eT coinciding with growth resumption in spring. Our findings highlight the adaptive capacity of this key forest species to allocate leaf N flexibly to Rubisco and other photosynthetic proteins across differing canopy positions in response to future, warmer and elevated [CO2] climates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Rescue of syringyl lignin and sinapate ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by a coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase from Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José Renán; Anderson, Nickolas; Le-Feuvre, Regis; Iturra, Carolina; Elissetche, Juan; Chapple, Clint; Valenzuela, Sofía

    2014-08-01

    The gene coding for F5H from Eucalyptus globulus was cloned and used to transform an f5h -mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana , which was complemented, thus verifying the identity of the cloned gene. Coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (F5H; EC 1.14.13) is a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the 5-hydroxylation step required for the production of syringyl units in lignin biosynthesis. The Eucalyptus globulus enzyme was characterized in vitro, and results showed that the preferred substrates were coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol. Complementation experiments demonstrated that both cDNA and genomic constructs derived from F5H from E. globulus under the control of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, or a partial F5H promoter from E. globulus, can rescue the inability of the A. thaliana fah1-2 mutant to accumulate sinapate esters and syringyl lignin. E. globulus is a species widely used to obtain products that require lignin removal, and the results suggest that EglF5H is a good candidate for engineering efforts aimed at increasing the lignin syringyl unit content, either for kraft pulping or biofuel production.

  5. Linking photosynthesis and leaf N allocation under future elevated CO2 and climate warming in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Whitney, Spencer M.; Ellsworth, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and Vcmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees. The kinetics of E. globulus and tobacco Rubisco at 25 °C were similar. In vitro estimates of Vcmax derived from measures of E. globulus Rubisco content and kinetics were consistent, although slightly lower, than the in vivo rates extrapolated from gas exchange. In E. globulus, the fraction of N invested in Rubisco was substantially lower than for crop species and varied with treatments. Photosynthetic acclimation of E. globulus leaves to eC was underpinned by reduced leaf N and Rubisco contents; the opposite occurred in response to eT coinciding with growth resumption in spring. Our findings highlight the adaptive capacity of this key forest species to allocate leaf N flexibly to Rubisco and other photosynthetic proteins across differing canopy positions in response to future, warmer and elevated [CO2] climates. PMID:28064178

  6. Acclimation of light and dark respiration to experimental and seasonal warming are mediated by changes in leaf nitrogen in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, K Y; Wallin, G; Atkin, O K; Uddling, J; Af Ekenstam, A

    2017-08-01

    Quantifying the adjustments of leaf respiration in response to seasonal temperature variation and climate warming is crucial because carbon loss from vegetation is a large but uncertain part of the global carbon cycle. We grew fast-growing Eucalyptus globulus Labill. trees exposed to +3 °C warming and elevated CO2 in 10-m tall whole-tree chambers and measured the temperature responses of leaf mitochondrial respiration, both in light (RLight) and in darkness (RDark), over a 20-40 °C temperature range and during two different seasons. RLight was assessed using the Laisk method. Respiration rates measured at a standard temperature (25 °C - R25) were higher in warm-grown trees and in the warm season, related to higher total leaf nitrogen (N) investment with higher temperatures (both experimental and seasonal), indicating that leaf N concentrations modulated the respiratory capacity to changes in temperature. Once differences in leaf N were accounted for, there were no differences in R25 but the Q10 (i.e., short-term temperature sensitivity) was higher in late summer compared with early spring. The variation in RLight between experimental treatments and seasons was positively correlated with carboxylation capacity and photorespiration. RLight was less responsive to short-term changes in temperature than RDark, as shown by a lower Q10 in RLight compared with RDark. The overall light inhibition of R was ∼40%. Our results highlight the dynamic nature of leaf respiration to temperature variation and that the responses of RLight do not simply mirror those of RDark. Therefore, it is important not to assume that RLight is the same as RDark in ecosystem models, as doing so may lead to large errors in predicting plant CO2 release and productivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Contribution of the saprobic fungi Trametes versicolor and Trichoderma harzianum and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus deserticola and G. claroideum to arsenic tolerance of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, C; Aranda, E; Sampedro, I; Garcia-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A

    2009-12-01

    The presence of high concentrations of arsenic (As) decreased the shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll and P and Mg content of Eucalyptus globulus colonized with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus deserticola or G. claroideum, but these parameters were higher than in non-AM plants. As increased the percentage of AM length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in the root of E. globulus. Trichoderma harzianum, but not Trametes versicolor, increased the shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll content, the percentage of AM root length colonization and SDH activity of E. globulus in presence of all As concentrations applied to soil when was inoculated together with G. claroideum. AM fungi increased shoot As and P concentration of E. globulus to higher level than the non-AM inoculated controls. The contribution of the AM and saprobe fungi to the translocation of As from root to shoot of E. globulus is discussed.

  8. Fluoxetine as a treatment for emotional lability after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, R L; Brown, K W; Pentland, B

    1992-01-01

    Emotional lability or emotionalism is a relatively common phenomenon and frequently occurs following vascular or traumatic brain injury. It is distressing and embarrassing to sufferers and their families, and often interferes with rehabilitation. At present there is no satisfactory or reliable treatment for this condition. We describe an open trial using fluoxetine, a newer antidepressant with a specific serotonergic action, in the treatment of emotional lability due to brain injury. Six consecutive cases of emotional lability attending a rehabilitation unit were studied (five cases of cerebrovascular accident and one of traumatic brain injury). Response to treatment was measured using a modification of the scale described by Lawson and MacLeod [1]. All showed a marked improvement within one week of commencing fluoxetine and the drug was well tolerated with no reported side-effects. The speed of onset and degree of improvement suggest that fluoxetine may be a useful agent in the treatment of emotional lability due to brain injury. Our observations indicate that further investigation of the role of fluoxetine in the treatment of emotional lability is warranted.

  9. Repeated labilization-reconsolidation processes strengthen declarative memory in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Forcato

    Full Text Available The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. Several reports have shown that after the presentation of a specific reminder, reactivated old memories become labile and again susceptible to amnesic agents. Such vulnerability diminishes with the progress of time and implies a re-stabilization phase, usually referred to as reconsolidation. To date, the main findings describe the mechanisms associated with the labilization-reconsolidation process, but little is known about its functionality from a biological standpoint. Indeed, two functions have been proposed. One suggests that destabilization of the original memory after the reminder allows the integration of new information into the background of the original memory (memory updating, and the other suggests that the labilization-reconsolidation process strengthens the original memory (memory strengthening. We have previously reported the reconsolidation of human declarative memories, demonstrating memory updating in the framework of reconsolidation. Here we deal with the strengthening function attributed to the reconsolidation process. We triggered labilization-reconsolidation processes successively by repeated presentations of the proper reminder. Participants learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. Twenty-four hours later, the paired-associate verbal memory was labilized by exposing the subjects to one, two or four reminders. The List-memory was evaluated on Day 3 showing that the memory was improved when at least a second reminder was presented in the time window of the first labilization-reconsolidation process prompted by the earlier reminder. However, the improvement effect was revealed on Day 3, only when at least two reminders were presented on Day 2 and not as a consequence of only retrieval. Therefore, we propose central concepts for the reconsolidation process, emphasizing its biological role and the

  10. Adaptación de la madera de Eucalyptus globulus a la normativa europea de durabilidad natural

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, D.; Troya, M. T. de,; Baso, Carlos; Touza, M.; Prieto, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    La madera de Eucalyptus globulus en algunos países como Australia es recomendada para situaciones de riesgo de ataque de organismos xilófagos por su elevada durabilidad. En Galicia esta madera ha sido utilizada desde hace muchas décadas en estructuras y carpinterías, que aún hoy perduran. Sin embargo, la norma europea EN-350-2 encuadra la especie E. globulus en la peor categoría de durabilidad natural, situación que no se corresponde con la realidad. El objetivo de este proyecto es constatar ...

  11. Ecovalorização de Resíduos Florestais (Casca e ramos de Eucalyptus globulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ana Paula Augusta Raposo

    2017-01-01

    A plantação da folhosa Eucalyptus globulus atinge mundialmente cerca de cerca de 18 milhões de hectares, em 90 países, e destina-se fundamentalmente à produção de pasta de papel. Promover uma ecovalorização dos resíduos florestais da biomassa de Eucalytptus globulus, principalmente das cascas e dos ramos, mediante o desenvolvimento de possíveis aplicações de valor acrescentado, para estes resíduos é o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Para tal, os resíduos florestais, cascas e...

  12. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  13. Ecophysiological responses of a young blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation to weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Worledge, Dale; Sands, Peter; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Paterson, Steve C; Mendham, Daniel; O'Grady, Anthony P

    2012-08-01

    Early weed control may improve the growth of forest plantations by influencing soil water and nutrient availability. To understand eucalypt growth responses to weed control, we examined the temporal responses of leaf gas-exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration (N) and water status of 7-month-old Eucalyptus globulus L. trees in a paired-plot field trial. In addition, we monitored the growth, leaf N and water status of the competing vegetation in the weed treatment. By the end of the 11-month experiment, complete weed control (WF treatment) of largely woody competitors increased the basal diameter of E. globulus by 14%. As indicated by pre-dawn water potentials of > - 0.05 MPa, interspecies competition for water resources was minimal at this site. In contrast, competition for N appeared to be the major factor limiting growth. Estimations of total plot leaf N (g m(-2) ground) showed that competing vegetation accounted for up to 70% of the total leaf N at the start of the trial. This value fell to 15% by the end of the trial. Despite increased leaf N(area) in WF trees 5 months after imposition of weed control, the photosynthetic capacity (A(1500)) of E. globulus was unaffected by treatment suggesting that the growth gains from weed control were largely unrelated to changes in leaf-level photosynthesis. Increased nutrient availability brought about by weed control enabled trees to increase investment into leaf-area production. Estimates of whole-tree carbon budget based on direct measurements of dark respiration and A(1500) allowed us to clearly demonstrate the importance of leaf area driving greater productivity following early weed control in a nutrient-limited site.

  14. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  15. FINE ROOT DISTRIBUTION OF Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maidenii IN RELATION TO SOME SOIL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Gaitán

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the vertical distribution of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maidenii fine root (with diameters of up to 2 mm density to a depth of  0,5 m and their relationships with soil properties. Roots were sampled near the stem of 10 trees with the soil corer method. Fine root distribution is influenced by soil physical and chemical properties. A very high density of fine roots was found at 20 cm depht,  while a low density was observed in the clayey horizon. Fine root density (DRF correlated positively with organic C and extractable P and negatively with soil bulk density.

  16. An unusual Xanthophyllomyces strain from leaves of Eucalyptus globulus in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland W S; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario J; Davoli, Paolo

    2008-07-01

    Xanthophyllomyces sp. was isolated as an epiphytic red yeast from leaves of Eucalyptus glo-bulus in Concepción, Chile. Sexual reproduction was by basidiospores produced from one or rarely two metabasidia arising from a yeast cell without preceding paedogamy. The main carotenoid pigment was astaxanthin. This isolate did not cluster with the X. dendrorhous complex (including Phaffia rhodozyma) in ITS and 26S rDNA-based phylogenetic analyses. The phylloplane may be a further habitat for Xanthophyllomyces, in addition to the well-known spring sap-flows of deciduous trees and the recently-characterised ascostromata of Cyttaria hariotii.

  17. Caracterización de la madera de E. globulus para uso estructural

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Golfin, J. I.; Díez, R.; Hermoso, E.; Casas, J. M.; Baso, Carlos; González, O.

    2007-01-01

    Los bosques de Eucalyptus globulus ocupaban en 1995 en España una superficie de 629.141 hectáreas, principalmente en Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria y la provincia de Huelva (Montoya, J. M.. 1995). Aunque, cuantitativamente, el uso principal de la madera de esta especie es la fabricación de pasta de papel y tableros de fibras, sus elevadas propiedades mecánicas ofrecen buenas posibilidades para aplicaciones estructurales. El objetivo del presente estudio de investigación ...

  18. Labile dissolved organic carbon supply limits hyporheic denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay P. Zarnetske; Roy Haggerty; Steven M. Wondzell; Michelle A. Baker

    2012-01-01

    We used an in situ steady state 15N-labeled nitrate and acetate well-to-wells injection experiment to determine how the availability of labile dissolved organic carbon as acetate influences microbial denitrification in the hyporheic zone of an upland (third-order) agricultural stream.

  19. Purification of heat labile toxin from Bordetella pertussis vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.C. Shivanandappa

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... ... °C until further use. The condition of the run must be +4 °C because the pertussis pro- teins are heat labile. Three consecutive runs were conducted for each G50 experiment. 2.10. Purification of HLT. G50 purified fractions were analyzed for its qualities through optical absorbance, and total protein SDS.

  20. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjoern; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of

  1. A GC-FID validated method for the quality control of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and its pharmaceutical products, and gc-ms fingerprinting of 12 Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenoa, Paula Carolina Pires; Junior, Milton Groppo; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2014-12-01

    In this work we have validated a method to standardize and control the quality of Eucalyptus globulus raw material and phytomedicines containing either the essential oil or the fluid extract of this plant in the final formulation. Internal standardization provided a simple, fast, and reproducible GC-FID analytical method that accurately quantified 1,8-cineol in different E. globulus sub-products, such as its essential oil, dried leaves, fluid extract, and syrup. In addition, GC-MS identification of the main compounds ofE. globulus species afforded fingerprints for the qualitative analysis of different Eucalyptus species.

  2. A model for predicting the growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedling stands in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, G.; Morales, M.; Pukkala, T.; Miguel, S. de

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most planted species in the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia, where growing conditions are different from most places where eucalyptus have been studied. This prevents a straightforward utilization of models fitted elsewhere. In this study a distance-independent individual-tree growth model for E. globulus plantations in Bolivia was developed based on data from 67 permanent sample plots. The model consists of sub-models for dominant height, tree diameter increment, height-diameter relationship and survival. According to model-based simulations, the mean annual increment with the optimal rotation length is about 13 m3 ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 on medium-quality sites and 18 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 yr -1 on the best sites. A suitable rotation length for maximizing wood production is approximately 30 years on medium sites and 20 years on the most productive sites. The developed models provide valuable information for further studies on optimizing the management and evaluating alternative management regimes for the species. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. A model system to study the lignification process in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Pedro; Cesarino, Igor; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Ferrari, Ilse Fernanda; Kiyota, Eduardo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass is closely related to the presence of the phenolic heteropolymer lignin in secondary cell walls, which has a negative effect on forage digestibility, biomass-to-biofuels conversion and chemical pulping. The genus Eucalyptus is the main source of wood for pulp and paper industry. However, when compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, relatively little is known about lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus and only a few genes were functionally characterized. An efficient, fast and inexpensive in vitro system was developed to study lignification in Eucalyptus globulus and to evaluate the potential role of candidate genes in this biological process. Seedlings were grown in four different conditions, in the presence or absence of light and with or without sucrose in the growth medium, and several aspects of lignin metabolism were evaluated. Our results showed that light and, to a lesser extent, sucrose induced lignin biosynthesis, which was followed by changes in S/G ratio, lignin oligomers accumulation and gene expression. In addition, higher total peroxidase activity and differential isoperoxidase profile were observed when seedlings were grown in the presence of light and sucrose. Peptide sequencing allowed the identification of differentially expressed peroxidases, which can be considered potential candidate class III peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization in E. globulus. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Insights into temperature modulation of the Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus grandis antioxidant and lignification subproteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Costa, Marília Gabriela; Mazzafera, Paulo; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-05-01

    Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus are among the most widely cultivated trees, differing in lignin composition and plantation areas, as E. grandis is mostly cultivated in tropical regions while E. globulus is preferred in temperate areas. As temperature is a key modulator in plant metabolism, a large-scale proteome analysis was carried out to investigate changes in the antioxidant system and the lignification metabolism in plantlets grown at different temperatures. Our strategy allowed the identification of 3111 stem proteins. A total of 103 antioxidant proteins were detected in the stems of both species. Hierarchical clustering revealed that alterations in the antioxidant proteins are more prominent when Eucalyptus seedlings were exposed to high temperature and that the superoxide isoforms coded by the gene Eucgr.B03930 are the most abundant antioxidant enzymes induced by thermal stimulus. Regarding the lignin biosynthesis, our proteomics approach resulted in the identification of 13 of the 17 core proteins involved in this metabolism, corroborating with gene predictions and the proposed lignin toolbox. Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences in 8 protein isoforms, including the ferulate 5-hydroxylase isoform F5H1, a key enzyme in catalyzing the synthesis of sinapyl alcohol, and the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isoform CAD2, the last enzyme in monolignol biosynthesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005743. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (pextract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Ouazzou, Abdenour; Lorán, Susana; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Rota, Carmen; Herrera, Antonio; Pagán, Rafael; Conchello, Pilar

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco. The composition of these species was analysed by GC-MS, and 65 components were identified. Eucalyptus globulus EO showed a great similarity with EOs from other regions, with 1,8-cineole (79.85%) the major component. Also rich in this constituent was Rosmarinus officinalis (43.99%). However, the chemical profile of Thymus algeriensis was rather different, and for the first time such a high content of borneol (23.48%) has been described in this EO. The antimicrobial activity of these species has also been studied against seven pathogenic and spoiling bacteria of significant importance. According to the results, Thymus algeriensis showed the best bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect, followed by Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis. As far as we know this is the first time that minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration values have been reported for Eucalyptus globulus EO. Our data support the possible use of this EO as well as Thymus algeriensis EO, as potential natural agents in preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can cause severe health problems to humans. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be transported over long distances before it is deposited to aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aside from accumulation in soil solid phases, Hg deposited in soils may migrate to surface- and ground-water or enter the food chain, depending on its lability. There are many operationally-defined extraction methods proposed to quantify soil labile metals. However, these methods are by definition prone to inaccuracies such as non-selectivity, underestimation or overestimation of the labile metal pool. The isotopic dilution technique (ID) is currently the most promising method for discrimination between labile and non-labile metal fractions in soil with a minimum disturbance to soil-solid phases. ID assesses the reactive metal pool in soil by defining the fraction of metal both in solid and solution phases that is isotopically-exchangeable known as the 'E-value'. The 'E-value' represents the metal fraction in a dynamic equilibrium with the solution phase and is potentially accessible to plants. This is carried out by addition of an enriched metal isotope to soil suspensions and quantifying the fraction of metal that is able to freely exchange with the added isotope by measuring the equilibrium isotopic ratio by ICP-MS. E-value (mg kg-1) is then calculated as follows: E-Value = (Msoil/ W) (CspikeVspike/ Mspike) (Iso1IAspike -Iso2IAspikeRss / Iso2IAsoil Rss - Iso1IAsoil) where M is the average atomic mass of the metal in the soil or the spike, W is the mass of soil (kg), Cspike is the concentration of the metal in the spike (mg L-1), Vspike is the volume of spike (L), IA is isotopic abundance, and Rss is the equilibrium ratio of isotopic abundances (Iso1:Iso2). Isotopic dilution has been successfully applied to determine E-values for several elements. However, to our knowledge, this method has not yet

  8. Non-labile tritium in Savannah River Plant pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1976-06-01

    Non-labile tritium bound in cellulose of pine trees was measured to learn about the effects and fate of tritium contributed to the environment by the Savannah River Plant (SRP). An estimation of the regional inventory and the distance tritium can be observed from SRP was desired because tritium is a major component of the radioactivity released by SRP, and as the oxide, it readily disperses in the environment

  9. Assessment of Affect Lability: Psychometric Properties of the ALS-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardi, Anna; Imperatori, Claudio; Amati, Italia; Balsamo, Michela; Innamorati, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Affect lability, an important aspect of emotion dysregulation, characterizes several psychiatric conditions. The short Affective Lability Scales (ALS-18) measures three aspects of changeability between euthymia and affect states (Anxiety/Depression, AD; Depression/Elation, DE; and Anger, Ang). The aim of our study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of an Italian version of the ALS-18 in a sample of adults recruited from the general population. The sample was composed of 494 adults (343 women and 151 men) aged 18 and higher (mean age = 31.73 years, SD = 12.6). All participants were administered a checklist assessing socio-demographic variables, the ALS-18 and measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated adequate fit of the three-factor model (RMSEA = 0.061, 95% CI = 0.054/0.069; CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.055), and the presence of a higher-order general factor. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all the lower-order dimensions and the general factor (ordinal α > 0.70). The ALS-18 was significantly associated with concurrent measures of depression and difficulties in emotion regulation. These findings indicate that the ALS-18 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect lability, although discriminant validity of subdimensions scores could be problematic.

  10. Labile complexes facilitate cadmium uptake by Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheyen, L., E-mail: Liesbeth.Verheyen@ees.kuleuven.be [Division of Soil and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, Box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Degryse, F. [Division of Soil and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, Box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Niewold, T. [Division Animal-nutrition-quality, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, Box 2456, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Smolders, E. [Division of Soil and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, Box 2459, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2012-06-01

    The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) predicts that metal uptake in biota is related to the free ion activity in the external solution and that metal complexes do not contribute. However, studies with plants have shown that labile metal complexes enhance metal bioavailability when the uptake is rate-limited by transport of the free ion in solution to the uptake site. Here, the role of labile complexes of Cd on metal bioavailability was assessed using Caco-2 cells, the cell model for intestinal absorption. At low Cd{sup 2+} concentration (1 nM), the CdCl{sub n}{sup 2-n} complexes contributed to the uptake almost to the same extent as the free ion. At large Cd{sup 2+} concentration (10 {mu}M), the contribution of the complexes was much smaller. At constant Cd{sup 2+} concentration, Cd intake in the cells from solutions containing synthetic ligands such as EDTA increased as the dissociation rate of the cadmium complexes increased, and correlated well with the Cd diffusion flux in solution measured with the Diffusive Gradient in Thin Films technique (DGT). The Cd intake fluxes in the cells were well predicted assuming that the specific uptake is limited by diffusion of the free Cd{sup 2+} ion to the cell surface. Our results underline that speciation of Cd has a major effect on its uptake by intestinal cells, but the availability is not simply related to the free ion concentration. Labile complexes of Cd enhance metal bioavailability in these cells, likely by alleviating diffusive limitations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the role of labile complexes on the uptake of Cd and Zn by Caco-2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The availability of Cd and Zn is not simply related to the free ion activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labile complexes of Cd enhance metal bioavailability in the Caco-2 cells at low free ion activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The active uptake is limited by diffusion of the free Cd{sup 2+} ion to the cell surface.

  11. Organosolv delignification of Eucalyptus globulus: Kinetic study of autocatalyzed ethanol pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J.

    2000-01-01

    The autocatalyzed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus in 50% ethanol (w/w) was modeled as the irreversible and consecutive dissolution of initial, bulk, and residual lignin. Their respective contributions to total lignin was estimated as 9, 75, and 16%. Isothermal pulping experiments were carried out to evaluate an empirical kinetic model among eight proposals corresponding to different reaction schemes. The calculated activation energy was found to be 96.5, 98.5, and 40.8 kJ/mol for initial, bulk, and residual delignification, respectively. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was expressed by a power-law function model. The kinetic model developed here was validated using data from nonisothermal pulping runs.

  12. Clearcutting effects on streamflow in coppiced Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J. S.; Henriques, M. O.; David, T. S.; Tomé, J.; Ledger, D. C.

    1994-10-01

    Two Eucalyptus globulus catchments in Central Portugal were instrumented to gain some understanding of the hydrological effects of coppicing forest stands of this fast-growing species. Suspected increases in total flow, quick flow and delayed flow after clearcutting were tested statistically using the R-Student statistic for outlier detection. Under normal climatic conditions, significant annual flow increases were found only during the water-year immediately after clearcutting. However, when the water-year following harvesting was extremely dry, no flow increase occurred during that year although flow increases were found during the second water-year. Nevertheless, owing to the rapid regrowth of the stands, the hydrological effects of clearcutting were always short lived. Depending on the dominant runoff-generating processes, increases in total flow were due to increases in both the quick and delayed flow components or to increases only in the quick flow component.

  13. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Macrocarpal C isolated from Eucalyptus globulus inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase 4 in an aggregated form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eisuke; Kawakami, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Jun

    2018-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Various synthetic inhibitors have been developed to date, and plants containing natural DPP-4 inhibitors have also been identified. Here, 13 plant samples were tested for their DPP-4 inhibitory activity. Macrocarpals A-C were isolated from Eucalyptus globulus through activity-guided fractionation and shown to be DPP-4 inhibitors. Of these, macrocarpal C showed the highest inhibitory activity, demonstrating an inhibition curve characterised by a pronounced increase in activity within a narrow concentration range. Evaluation of macrocarpal C solution by turbidity, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicated its aggregation, which may explain the characteristics of the inhibition curve. These findings will be valuable for further study of potential small molecule DPP-4 inhibitors.

  15. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Verdi, Camila Marina; de Souza, Márcia Ebling; de Godoi, Samantha Nunes; Klein, Bruna; Gundel, Andre; Wagner, Roger; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-11-01

    Candida species are the main responsible microorganisms for causing fungal infections worldwide, and Candida albicans is most frequently associated with infectious processes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium commonly found in immunocompromised patients. The infection persistence caused by these microorganisms is often related to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. In this context, the objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil and to verify its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa and Candida spp. The nanoemulsions had a size of approximately 76 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.22, a zeta potential of - 9,42 mV and a pH of approximately 5.0. The E. globulus oil was characterized by gas chromatography, being possible to observe its main components, such as 1-8-Cineol (75.8%), p- Cymene (7.5%), α-Pinene (7.4%) and Limonene (6.4%). The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsion was determined from the macrodilution tests and the cell viability curve, where the minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.7 mg/mL for C. albicans and 1.4 mg/mL for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were obtained. However, the nanoemulsions did not present antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, since it contains only 5% of the oil, being ineffective for this microorganism. The nanoencapsulated oil action against the formed biofilm was evaluated by atomic force microscopy and calcofluor staining, and the nanoemulsion was more efficient for two of the three Candida species when compared to free oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carla; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  17. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-05-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (900 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage.

  18. Antidiabetic effects of Eucalyptus globulus on pancreatic islets: a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H; Heidari, Z; Bokaeian, M; Moudi, B

    2010-05-01

    The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced damage in pancreatic islands by stereological methods. Fifty mature normoglycaemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): control; STZ-induced diabetic (D) - by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin; treated control (TC); and treated diabetic (TD1, 2), respectively, received 20 and 62.5 g/kg of eucalyptus in their diet, and 2.5 g/L aqueous extract of eucalyptus in their drinking water from one week after induction of diabetes. After four weeks of the experiment, stereological estimation of volume density and total volume of islets and beta cells, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of the islets and pancreas, and total number of islets were carried out. Administration of eucalyptus significantly decreased the weight loss and increase of water and food intake in the treated diabetic groups in comparison to the STZ-induced diabetic (D) group. Volume density and total volume of islets, volume-weighted mean islet volume, mass of islets, and mass of pancreas of both treated diabetic groups were higher than the D group. In TD2, these stereological parameters increased significantly compared to the D group (p 0.05). The results suggested that Eucalyptus globulus with a dose-dependent manner ameliorates diabetic states by partial restoration of pancreatic beta cells and repair of STZ-induced damage in rats. This study suggests a beneficial effect of eucalyptus in the treatment of diabetes.

  19. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    Full Text Available The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2 mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  20. Effects of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Leaves on Soil Organisms Involved in Leaf Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Maria José; Salgueiro, Lígia; Canhoto, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum) were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5–20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25–5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6–41.2) mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates. PMID:23577212

  1. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  2. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Labile Chromium Complex with Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex [CrO2 (C7H5O2 C2H5OH (H2O2] was prepared by using benzoic acid. Its spectral characterization was done by using Elemental analysis (C and H, Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP - OES, Ultraviolet - visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and Fast Atomic Bombardment (FAB Mass spectrometry. Whereas thermal decomposition was investigated by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC. The low value of activation energy of exothermic change indicated lability of complex.

  3. Heat-Labile Enterotoxin: Beyond G M1 Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mudrak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One major virulence factor released by ETEC is the heat-labile enterotoxin LT, which is structurally and functionally similar to cholera toxin. LT consists of five B subunits carrying a single catalytically active A subunit. LTB binds the monosialoganglioside GM1, the toxin’s host receptor, but interactions with A-type blood sugars and E. coli lipopolysaccharide have also been identified within the past decade. Here, we review the regulation, assembly, and binding properties of the LT B-subunit pentamer and discuss the possible roles of its numerous molecular interactions.

  4. VARIABILIDAD Y RELACION ENTRE LAS PROPIEDADES ANATOMICAS, QUIMICAS Y LA APTITUD PULPABLE, EN CLONES DE EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS.

    OpenAIRE

    RAMIREZ VIDAL, MAURICIO HERNAN; RAMIREZ VIDAL, MAURICIO HERNAN

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió la variación de la anatomía de la madera, variables biornétricas, aptitud pulpable y propiedades de la pulpa, en 14 clones de E. globulus de 7 años de edad, creciendo en un ensayo clonal en la zona de Arauco, región del Bio-Bio, Chile. Las Cara 61p.

  5. Torrefaction of wood and bark from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens: Focus on volatile evolution vs feasible temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga-Pérez, Luis E.; Segura, Cristina; Bustamante-García, Verónica; Gómez Cápiro, Oscar; Jiménez, Romel

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment leading to the improvement of most of the fuel properties of biomass, namely energy density, HHV (higher heating value), grindability and hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to identify the most feasible temperature to carry out torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus and nitens, based on chemical evidences associated to the release of volatiles during thermal treatment of biomass. With that end: (i) Devolatilization kinetics, (ii) Effects of temperature and residence time and (iii) volatiles composition during torrefaction of both wood and bark were analyzed. In all cases DTG (derivative thermogravimetric curves) exhibited the typical shape of lignocellulosic materials, with three decomposition phases and two reaction zones. Values of activation energies for hemicellulose decomposition, were in agreement with those reported in the literature (121–170 kJ/mol). Carboxylic acids, water and phenolic compounds showed two peaks, which were associated to torrefaction (below 310 °C) and pyrolysis (310–410 °C) respectively. The most feasible temperatures for torrefaction were estimated as a function of these peaks, and it ranged between 295 °C and 310°C for all samples. Main volatile species at the torrefaction peaks were distributed as Water > Acetic Acid > CO 2  > Others, while Levoglucosan formation was marginal, due to the catalytic effect of inorganics. - Highlights: • Identification of torrefaction peaks for E. globulus and E. nitens using dynamic TGA-MS. • Devolatilization kinetics of E. globulus and E. nitens (wood and bark). • Effect of operation parameters on torrefaction of E. globulus and E. nitens. • Most feasible temperatures for torrefaction based on chemical and thermal evidences. • Definition of atomic indicator to estimate degradation degree based on TGA-MS.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Bunium persicum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rose Water on Multidrug-Resistant Listeria Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafati Chaleshtori, Farhad; Saholi, Mohamad; Sharafati Chaleshtori, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Bunium persicum, Eucalyptus globulus, and rose water on multidrug-resistant Listeria species. The antibiotic resistance of Listeria spp obtained from seafood samples were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method. The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the essential oils and extracts were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power and microdilution methods, respectively. A total 2 samples (1.88%) were positive for Listeria spp. L monocytogenes was found to be resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, penicillin, vancomycin, and kanamycin. B persicum essential oil showed the greatest antioxidant activity (248.56 ± 1.09 µM Fe 2+ /g). The E globulus essential oil showed consistently strong antimicrobial activity against L monocytogenes and L grayi, while rose water showed no antimicrobial activity against any of the tested bacterial strains. The results showed that after adding the B persicum and E globulus essential oils to bacteria, the cell components' release increased significantly.

  7. Bioethanol production from tension and opposite wood of Eucalyptus globulus using organosolv pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Claudio; Baeza, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    During tree growth, hardwoods can initiate the formation of tension wood, which is a strongly stressed wood on the upper side of the stem and branches. In Eucalyptus globulus, tension wood presents wider and thicker cell walls with low lignin, similar glucan and high xylan content, as compared to opposite wood. In this work, tension and opposite wood of E. globulus trees were separated and evaluated for the production of bioethanol using ethanol/water delignification as pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Low residual lignin and high glucan retention was obtained in organosolv pulps of tension wood as compared to pulps from opposite wood at the same H-factor of reaction. The faster delignification was associated with the low lignin content in tension wood, which was 15% lower than in opposite wood. Organosolv pulps obtained at low and high H-factor (3,900 and 12,500, respectively) were saccharified by cellulases resulting in glucan-to-glucose yields up to 69 and 77%, respectively. SSF of the pulps resulted in bioethanol yields up to 35 g/l that corresponded to 85-95% of the maximum theoretical yield on wood basis, considering 51% the yield of glucose to ethanol conversion in fermentation, which could be considered a very satisfactory result compared to previous studies on the conversion of organosolv pulps from hardwoods to bioethanol. Both tension and opposite wood of E. globulus were suitable raw materials for organosolv pretreatment and bioethanol production with high conversion yields.

  8. Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianyang; Price, Margaret P; Taugher, Rebecca J; Grigsby, Daniel; Ash, Jamison J; Stark, Austin C; Hossain Saad, Md Zubayer; Singh, Kritika; Mandal, Juthika; Wemmie, John A; Welsh, Michael J

    2017-06-26

    Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO 2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO 2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca 2+ -impermeable to Ca 2+ -permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories.

  9. Facile synthesis of labile gold nanodiscs by the Turkevich method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasseschi, Daniel; de O. Pereira, Maria Luiza; Shinohara, Jorge S.; Toma, Henrique E.

    2018-02-01

    The Turkevich method has been the preferred one for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), owing to its apparent simplicity and facility of replacing the citrate ions on the particle surface by molecules exhibiting different functionalities. Using the most common procedure labile spherical nanoparticles are usually obtained by this method. Here, by using factorial design of experiments, we demonstrated that gold nanodiscs (AuNDs) with short aspect ratio can be generated by the Turkevich method when Au:citrate ratio is 1:1. In comparison with the CTAB capped gold nanorods (AuNR), the citrate stabilized AuNDs exhibited a more labile character, allowing fast ligand exchange reactions and easy functionalization of the nanoparticle surface. In the presence of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-mpy), the surface enhancement Raman scattering effect was 100 and 1000 times higher than the one observed for CTAB-AuNR and spherical AuNPs, respectively, increasing the 4-mpy detection limit to 2.5 × 10-9 molL-1.

  10. Labile neurotoxin in serum of calves with "nervous" coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, C M; Bellamy, J E; Wobeser, G A

    1987-01-01

    Mouse inoculation was used to test for the presence of a toxin in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and intestinal contents collected from cases of bovine enteric coccidiosis, with and without neurological signs, and from control calves. Intravenous inoculation of mice with 10 mL/kg of serum from calves showing nervous signs caused effects significantly different from those caused by the inoculation of serum from calves not showing nervous signs and from control calves. The effect was particularly evident in female mice. At this dosage severe neurological signs such as loss of righting reflex, seizures and death occurred only with serum from calves with "nervous coccidiosis". The results suggest that serum from the calves with neurological signs contains a neurotoxin. This toxin appears to be highly labile. It was not present in the cerebrospinal fluid at levels comparable to those in the serum. The significance of this labile neurotoxin with respect to the pathogenesis of the neurological signs associated with bovine enteric coccidiosis is unknown. PMID:2955865

  11. Assessing soil carbon lability by near infrared spectroscopy and NaOCL oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantifying labile organic matter (OM) in arable soils and for predicting soil refractory OM fractions was tested on 37 soils varying in texture and soil carbon (C) content. Three sets of arable soils (0-20 cm depth) were sampled from 1) long...... incubated for 34 weeks while refractory OM was obtained by NaOCl oxidation. The labile fraction of the soil C accounted for 2-12% of the total soil C content. No systematic relationship between labile C content and total soil C or clay was found, but NIR spectra could be correlated well with the labile C...

  12. How does P affect photosynthesis and metabolite profiles of Eucalyptus globulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles R

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) has multiple effects on plant metabolism, but there are many unresolved questions especially for evergreen trees. For example, we do not know the general effects of P on metabolism, or if P affects photosynthesis via the internal conductance to CO(2) transfer from sub-stomatal cavities to chloroplast or amounts of Rubisco. This study investigates how P deficiency affects seedlings of the evergreen tree Eucalyptus globulus grown for 2.5 months with four nutrient solutions differing in P concentration. To determine why photosynthesis was affected by P supply, Rubisco was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, internal conductance was quantified from gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination, and biochemical parameters of photosynthesis were estimated from A/C(c) responses. Additional insights into the effect of P on metabolism were provided by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolite profiling. Larger concentrations of P in the nutrient solution led to significantly faster rates of photosynthesis. There was no evidence that stomatal or internal conductances contributed to the effect of P supply on photosynthesis. The increase in photosynthesis with P supply was correlated with V(cmax), and amounts of P, phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate (6-P). Phosphorous supply affected approximately one-third of the 90 aqueous metabolites quantified by GC-MS, but the effect size was generally smaller than reported for experiments on herbaceous species. Phosphorus deficiency decreased concentrations of phosphate, glucose 6-P and fructose 6-P more than it decreased photosynthesis, suggesting faster turnover of smaller pools of phosphate and phosphorylated intermediates. The effect of P supply on most amino acids was small, with the exception of arginine and glutamine, which increased dramatically under P deficiency. P deficiency had small or non-significant effects on carbohydrates and organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The

  13. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus: steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C; Eugenio, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Steam explosion and steam pre-treatment have proved capable of enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. However, until now, these methods had not been compared under the same operational conditions and using the same raw material. Both pre-treatments lead to increased yields in the saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus; but results have been better with steam pre-treatments, despite the more accessible surface of exploded samples. The reason for this finding could be enzymatic inhibition: steam explosion causes a more extensive extraction of hemicelluloses and releases a greater amount of degradation products which can inhibit enzymatic action. Enzymatic inhibition is also dependent on the amount and chemical structure of lignin, which was also a contributing factor to the lower enzymatic yields obtained with the most severe pre-treatment. Thus, the highest yields (46.7% glucose and 73.4% xylose yields) were obtained after two cycle of steam treatment, of 5 and 3 min, at 183°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of Eucalyptus globulus bark-A promising approach for triterpenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rui M A; Oliveira, Eduardo L G; Freire, Carmen S R; Couto, Ricardo M; Simões, Pedro C; Neto, Carlos P; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, Carlos M

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100-200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold.

  15. Woody clockworks: circadian regulation of night-time water use in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco de Dios, Víctor; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Goulden, Michael L; Barton, Craig V M; Boer, Matthias M; Gessler, Arthur; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Tissue, David T

    2013-11-01

    The role of the circadian clock in controlling the metabolism of entire trees has seldom been considered. We tested whether the clock influences nocturnal whole-tree water use. Whole-tree chambers allowed the control of environmental variables (temperature, relative humidity). Night-time stomatal conductance (gs ) and sap flow (Q) were monitored in 6- to 8-m-tall Eucalyptus globulus trees during nights when environmental variables were kept constant, and also when conditions varied with time. Artificial neural networks were used to quantify the relative importance of circadian regulation of gs and Q. Under a constant environment, gs and Q declined from 0 to 6 h after dusk, but increased from 6 to 12 h after dusk. While the initial decline could be attributed to multiple processes, the subsequent increase is most consistent with circadian regulation of gs and Q. We conclude that endogenous regulation of gs is an important driver of night-time Q under natural environmental variability. The proportion of nocturnal Q variation associated with circadian regulation (23-56%) was comparable to that attributed to vapor pressure deficit variation (25-58%). This study contributes to our understanding of the linkages between molecular and cellular processes related to circadian regulation, and whole-tree processes related to ecosystem gas exchange in the field. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rui M. A.; Oliveira, Eduardo L. G.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Simões, Pedro C.; Neto, Carlos P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Silva, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold. PMID:22837719

  17. Air temperatures in a power line corridor over 10 years following afforestation with Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, J. A.; Soto, B.; Perez, R.; Diaz-Fierros, F.

    2011-03-01

    Over the 10 years following the planting of Eucalyptus globulus on an area of 320 ha in 1998, air temperature was measured in the middle of a power line corridor and compared with temperatures recorded at meteorological stations located 11.2 and 35.7 km away. At these reference stations, the annual means of both daily minimum and daily maximum temperature remained approximately constant. In the power line corridor, annual mean daily minimum temperature also remained approximately constant, but annual mean daily maximum temperature fell by about 3.6°C; in particular, between years 4 and 7 the cooling rate was on average about 0.7°C per year. The resulting sigmoid time course of annual mean daily temperature range may partly reflect the evolution of evapotranspiration from the plantation, but seems to be mainly attributable to the shading of the power line corridor by the growing trees, being closely correlated with solar irradiance at the center of the corridor as estimated from tree growth data using sun charts and standard formulae for clear-sky solar irradiance.

  18. The molecular basis of quantitative variation in foliar secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Wallis, Ian R; Laffan, Shawn; Moran, Gavin F; Foley, William J

    2011-09-01

    Eucalyptus is characterized by high foliar concentrations of plant secondary metabolites with marked qualitative and quantitative variation within a single species. Secondary metabolites in eucalypts are important mediators of a diverse community of herbivores. We used a candidate gene approach to investigate genetic associations between 195 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 24 candidate genes and 33 traits related to secondary metabolites in the Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus). We discovered 37 significant associations (false discovery rate (FDR) Q < 0.05) across 11 candidate genes and 19 traits. The effects of SNPs on phenotypic variation were within the expected range (0.018 < r(2) < 0.061) for forest trees. Whereas most marker effects were nonadditive, two alleles from two consecutive genes in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) showed additive effects. This study successfully links allelic variants to ecologically important phenotypes which can have a large impact on the entire community. It is one of very few studies to identify the genetic variants of a foundation tree that influences ecosystem function. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Kinetics of Eucalyptus globulus delignification in a methanol-water medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Oliet, M.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-09-01

    The kinetics of Eucalyptus Globulus delignification in methanol-water pulping has been studied. A total of 17 isothermal runs at a liquor-to-wood ratio of 50 L/kg were carried out to develop the kinetic model describing the system. In a first series of experiments, eight models were considered to study the influence of temperature on the delignification rate. The most suitable model, which was discriminated according to statistical criteria, describes delignification as the consecutive dissolution of three lignin species: initial, bulk, and residual lignin, their content in wood being 10, 69, and 21%, respectively. Initial and residual delignification were considered as irreversible reactions and bulk delignification as reversible. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was validated by reproducing the experimental data from four runs carried out under nonisothermal conditions and a liquor-to-wood ratio of 7 L/kg, which are closer to industrial operating conditions.

  20. Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) treatment of candidiasis in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-07-01

    The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eucalyptus + C. albicans, diabetic control, diabetic + C. albicans, diabetic + eucalyptus + C. albicans. Diabetes was induced after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) of treated animals for 4 weeks. The concerned groups were inoculated with C. albicans 15 days after diabetes induction. At the end of one month experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (P less than 0.05). Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (P less than 0.01). The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic patients.

  1. Steam torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus for producing black pellets: A pilot-scale experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga-Pérez, Luis E; Grandón, Héctor; Flores, Mauricio; Segura, Cristina; Kelley, Stephen S

    2017-08-01

    Steam torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus was performed at temperatures between 245°C and 265°C in a 100kg/h pilot plant. Torrefied biomass was then pelletized in a 300kg/h unit and the pellets were subject to durability, density and combustion tests. The structural changes measured with FTIR were studied along with the combustion behavior of the materials. Compositional analysis showed that increasing the torrefaction temperature reduced both hemicellulose fraction and overall mass yield (MY). Furthermore, there was a linear relationship between the energy yield (EY) and mass yield (EY=[1.04-0.9(1-MY)]) for these samples. The ignition and comprehensive indexes confirmed that the stability of the torrefied biomass in a combustion environment was higher than for untreated biomass. Finally, pellets showed high durability (98%), and had an energy density (13-14GJ/m 3 ), which is comparable to low-rank coals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  3. BAYESIAN PREDICTION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN Eucalyptus globulus CLONES UNDER WATER SUPPLY CONDITIONS

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    Freddy Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989297A Bayesian analysis of genetic parameters for growth traits at twelve months after planting was carried out in twenty nine Eucalyptus globulus clones in southern Chile. Two different environmental conditions were considered: 1 Non-irrigation and; 2 Plants were irrigated with a localized irrigation system. The Bayesian approach was performed using Gibbs sampling algorithm in a clone-environment interaction model. Inheritability values ​​were high in the water supply condition (posterior mode: H2=0.41, 0.36 and 0.39 for height, diameter and sectional area, respectively, while in the environment without irrigation, the inheritabilities were significantly lower, which was confirmed by the Bayesian credible intervals (95% probability. The posterior mode of the genetic correlation between sites was positive and high for all traits (r=0.7, 0.65 and 0.8, for height, diameter and sectional area, respectively and according to the credible interval, it was statistically different from zero, indicating a non-significant interaction.

  4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Madheswaran; Saravanan, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    A single step eco-friendly, energy efficient and economically scalable green method was employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with water as solvent at normal room temperature is described. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from aqueous silver nitrate solution by adding the leaf extract. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIS). X-ray diffraction studies brought to light the crystalline nature and the face centered cubic structure of the silver nanoparticles. Using HR-TEM. the nano sizes and morphology of the particles were studied. The mean sizes of the prepared silver nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 36 nm. The density of the particles was tuned by varying the molar ratio of silver nitrate. FTIS studies showed the functional group of organic molecules which were located on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. Originating from the leaf extracts, these organic molecules reduced and capped the particles.

  5. Effects of labile carbon addition on a headwater stream food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi S. Wilcox; J. Bruce Wallace; Judy L. Meyer; Jonathan P. Benstead

    2005-01-01

    We added dextrose for two 8-week periods (summer and autumn) to a highly heterotrophic headwater stream in North Carolina, U.S.A., to examine the responses of its benthic food web to increased labile carbon. We hypothesized that addition of labile carbon would elevate microbial abundance and activity, resulting in greater resource availability and higher...

  6. Knowledge Lability: Within-Person Changes in Parental Knowledge and Their Associations with Adolescent Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities have been associated with lower levels of youth risky behavior. Yet little is known about how parental knowledge fluctuates during early adolescence and how those fluctuations are associated with the development of problem behavior. We use the term lability to describe within-person fluctuations in knowledge over time with higher lability indicating greater fluctuations in knowledge from year-to-year. This longitudinal study of rural adolescents (N = 840) investigated if change in parental knowledge across four waves of data from grades 6 to 8 is characterized by lability, and if greater lability is associated with higher youth substance use, delinquency, and internalizing problems in grade 9. Our models indicated that only some of the variance in parental knowledge was accounted for by developmental trends. The remaining residual variance reflects within-person fluctuations around these trends, lability, and measurement and occasion-specific error. Even controlling for level and developmental trends in knowledge, higher knowledge lability (i.e., more fluctuation) was associated with increased risk for later alcohol and tobacco use, and for girls, higher delinquency and internalizing problems. Our findings suggest that lability in parental knowledge has unique implications for adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that may link knowledge lability to substance use. Interventions may be most effective if they teach parents to consistently and predictably decrease knowledge across early adolescence.

  7. Estimating soil labile organic carbon and potential turnover rates using a sequential fumigation–incubation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.M. Zoua; H.H. Ruanc; Y. Fua; X.D. Yanga; L.Q. Sha

    2005-01-01

    Labile carbon is the fraction of soil organic carbon with most rapid turnover times and its oxidation drives the flux of CO2 between soils and atmosphere. Available chemical and physical fractionation methods for estimating soil labile organic carbon are indirect and lack a clear biological definition. We have modified the well-established Jenkinson and Powlson’s...

  8. The Extended Community-Level Effects of Genetic Variation in Foliar Wax Chemistry in the Forest Tree Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Benjamin; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne; Forster, Lynne; Whiteley, Carmen; Potts, Brad

    2017-05-01

    Genetic variation in foundation trees can influence dependent communities, but little is known about the mechanisms driving these extended genetic effects. We studied the potential chemical drivers of genetic variation in the dependent foliar community of the focal tree Eucalyptus globulus. We focus on the role of cuticular waxes and compare the effects to that of the terpenes, a well-studied group of secondary compounds known to be bioactive in eucalypts. The canopy community was quantified based on the abundance of thirty-nine distinctive arthropod and fungal symptoms on foliar samples collected from canopies of 246 progeny from 13 E. globulus sub-races grown in a common garden trial. Cuticular waxes and foliar terpenes were quantified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MC). A total of 4 of the 13 quantified waxes and 7 of the 16 quantified terpenes were significantly associated with the dependent foliar community. Variation in waxes explained 22.9% of the community variation among sub-races, which was equivalent to that explained by terpenes. In combination, waxes and terpenes explained 35% of the genetic variation among sub-races. Only a small proportion of wax and terpene compounds showing statistically significant differences among sub-races were implicated in community level effects. The few significant waxes have previously shown evidence of divergent selection in E. globulus, which signals that adaptive variation in phenotypic traits may have extended effects. While highlighting the role of the understudied cuticular waxes, this study demonstrates the complexity of factors likely to lead to community genetic effects in foundation trees.

  9. Oligo-carrageenans enhance growth and contents of cellulose, essential oils and polyphenolic compounds in Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-07-24

    Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) originated in Australia and has been introduced in countries with temperate weather in order to obtain wood for cellulose extraction and building purposes. In this work, we analyzed the potential stimulation of growth in height and trunk diameter as well as the content of holo-cellulose, α-cellulose (long cellulose chains), essential oils and polyphenolic compounds (PPCs) in E. globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenans (OCs) kappa, lambda and iota, at 1 mg mL⁻¹, once a week, four times in total and then cultivated for three additional years without further treatment. Eucalyptus treated with OCs kappa, lambda and iota showed an increase in height, mainly with OCs kappa and iota by 58% and 47%, respectively, and in trunk diameter by 44% and 40%, respectively. In addition, OCs induced an increase in the contents of holo-cellulose and α-cellulose, mainly OCs kappa and iota which increased holo-cellulose by 8% and 5%, respectively, and α-cellulose by 16 and 13%, respectively. Moreover, OCs increased the content of essential oils, mainly OCs kappa and iota by 67% and 39%, respectively. Furthermore, OCs decreased the concentration of total phenolic compounds but differentially changed the concentration of several PPCs such as genistein, rutin, ellagic acid, morin, luteolin and quercetin with potential antimicrobial activities. Thus, marine algae OCs kappa, lambda and iota stimulate growth of E. globulus trees by enhancing height and trunk diameter as well as the content of α-cellulose, total essential oils, and some PPCs with potential antimicrobial activities.

  10. Teratosphaeria nubilosa em plantações comerciais de Eucalyptus globulus nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Passador

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Muitos patógenos, principalmente fungos, ocorrem em várias espécies de eucalipto, desde a fase de viveiro até os plantios adultos. Dentre as doenças fúngicas, destaca-se a mancha de micosferela, considerada uma das principais doenças, e o Eucalyptus globulus, uma das espécies mais suscetíveis. Esta doença é causada por várias espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Teratosphaeria e Mycosphaerella, sendo T. nubilosa de maior importância. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a presença do fungo T.nubilosa em materiais coletados nos seguintes locais: Bagé-RS, Pedras Altas-RS, Botucatu-SP, Jacareí- SP e Itapeva-SP. Por meio de isolamentos a partir de folhas de E. globulus apresentando mancha de micosferela, foi possível a obtenção de isolados do fungo. A observação quanto ao padrão de germinação dos ascósporos, o seu crescimento micelial, e também por meio de PCR com primers da região genômica ITS1 e ITS4 e sequenciamento, e submissão ao GenBank, foi possível a determinação do gênero e da espécie do patógeno como T. nubilosa. Nos cinco locais estudados foi confirmada a presença deste agente causal de mancha de micosferela em plantios de E. globulus nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil.

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for rapid assessment of soil properties after land use change from pastures to Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Dinesh B; Kitching, Matt; Mendham, Daniel S; Weston, Christopher J; Baker, Thomas G

    2016-06-15

    There is an increasing demand for rapid and cost effective techniques to accurately measure the effects of land use change on soil properties. This study evaluated the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) to rapidly predict soil properties affected by land use change from agriculture (mainly pasture) to Eucalyptus globulus plantations in south-western Australia. We measured total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Total N), TOC/Total N (C/N ratio), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and total phosphorus (Total P). The PLSR calibration models were developed using mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000 to 450 cm(-1)) and square root transformed measured soil data (n = 180) from 23 paired pasture and E. globulus plantation sites representing the soils and climate of E. globulus plantation estates in south-western Australia. The calibration models for TOC, Total N, C/N ratio and Total P showed excellent correlations between measured and predicted data with coefficient of determination (R(2)) exceeding 0.91 and minimum root-mean-square error (RMSE) of calibration [TOC (R(2) = 0.95, RMSE = 0.36), Total N (R(2) = 0.96, RMSE = 0.10), C/N ratio (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 0.14) and Total P (R(2) = 0.91, RMSE = 0.06)]. The calibration models had reasonable predictions for MBC (R(2) = 0.66, RMSE = 0.07) and MBN (R(2) = 0.63, RMSE = 0.06). The calibrated models were validated using soils from 8 independent paired pasture and E. globulus sites (n = 64). The validated predictions were excellent for TOC (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 0.40) and Total N (R(2) = 0.91, RMSE = 0.12), but less so for C/N ratio (R(2) = 0.80, RMSE = 0.35), MBC (R(2) = 0.70, RMSE = 0.08) and Total P (R(2) = 0.75, RMSE = 0.12). The results demonstrate the potential of MIRS-PLSR to rapidly, accurately and simultaneously determine several properties in land use change affected soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life cycle impacts of topsoil erosion on aquatic ecosystems: case study on Eucalyptus globulus forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Paula; Van de Broek, Marijn; Cláudia Dias, Ana; Ridoutt, Bradley; Arroja, Luís

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of suspended solids (SS), particularly in the clay and silt size fractions, reaching lotic environments and remaining in suspension can be a significant stressors to the biodiversity of these aquatic systems, degrading the water quality and directly affecting the aquatic biota, namely macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. This damage is presently not considered in Life Cycle Assessment studies. This study is devoted to the effects of SS into freshwater systems due to topsoil erosion by water (environmental mechanism), translated into damage to aquatic ecosystem diversity (endpoint impact category), namely to macroinvertebrates, algae and macrophytes. For this, we have developed a framework to conduct an erosion inventory using the WaTEM/SEDEM model and linked this with, a method to derive regional characterisation for endpoint damage on aquatic ecosystem diversity. A case study was performed for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal, with a functional unit of one hectare of land under production forestry management. To demonstrate how this newly SS ecosystem method can help to improve the environmental assessment in forestry, results were compared with the earlier commonly used impact categories from ReCiPe method. The relevance of the impact from SS delivery to freshwater streams is shown, providing a more comprehensive assessment of the SS impact from land use systems on aquatic environments. The SS impacts ranged from 15.5 to 1234.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for macroinvertebrates, and from 5.2 to 411.9 PDF.m3.yr.ha-1.revolution-1 for algae and macrophytes. For some stands, SS potential impacts on macroinvertebrates have the same order of magnitude than freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and terrestrial acidification impacts. For algae and macrophytes, most of the stands present SS impacts of the same order of magnitude as terrestrial ecotoxicity, one order of magnitude higher than freshwater

  13. Hydrological implications of soil water-repellency in Eucalyptus globulus forests, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.; Ceballos, A.; Doerr, S. H.

    2000-05-01

    Soil water-repellency (hydrophobicity) is a widespread property of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest soils in central and north littoral Portugal and is particularly severe during the summer dry conditions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of water repellency on overland flow and runoff generation at plot and catchment scales for two types of terrain with differing land management and degree of soil hydrophobicity: (i) highly hydrophobic land with regenerating eucalyptus forest following fire; and (ii) largely hydrophilic land on which deep-ploughing prior to planting eucalyptus seedlings had eliminated hydrophobicity. Overland flow responses were monitored over a 40-month period for two 8 m×2 m plots and streamflow was recorded continuously at gauging stations for two small catchments of predominantly regrowth eucalyptus and ploughed/planted eucalyptus, respectively. Soil hydrophobicity was assessed using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test. Seasonal variations in the factors influencing plot overland flow response were assessed for each land management type using multivariate analysis. For the regrowth eucalyptus plot, overland flow generation was found to be negatively correlated with antecedent soil moisture in summer (suggesting that hydrophobicity-linked Hortonian overland flow is then dominant), but positively related to throughflow in winter (suggesting that saturation overland flow generation in a hydrophilic-phase soil was at that time the dominant mechanism). In the ploughed/planted areas, negative correlations with soil moisture were found neither in summer nor winter. Rainfall amount (and in winter also antecedent precipitation) were found to be the variables most strongly and positively related to overland flow volume. The plot results are compared with streamflow responses for the small catchments.

  14. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Hydrogel control of water uptake by pectins during in vitro pollen hydration of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Maria; Feijó, José A

    2016-03-01

    Upon pollination, dehydrated pollen grains take water out of the stigma surface, an event that constitutes the first functional checkpoint of sexual reproduction in higher plants. Little is known about possible functional connections between rehydration speed and further steps of fertilization. Here we addressed the mechanisms of water uptake control by dehydrated pollen grains. Because dehydrated cells have no energy-driven active mechanism such as membrane-based osmoregulation for controlling water movement, we tested the hypothesis that another mechanism might exist, namely, the use of hydrogel-behaving molecules. We developed an imaging protocol to visualize and quantify the rate of water entry into pollen grains of Eucalyptus globulus and tested the influence of different treatments linked to hydrogel-behaving molecules. We complemented these analyses by immunostaining pectins in the pollen grain with monoclonal antibodies JIM5 and JIM7. Water entry seemed to proceed exclusively through the germination apertures of the pollen grain, and the changes observed in different hydration media are compatible with hydrogel behavior. When JIM5 and JIM7 were used to characterize pectins on the germination apertures during hydration, pectin localization and esterification changed during hydration and were affected by the hydration solutions. These results suggest that chemical modification of the pectins may change their hydrogel behavior, thus modifying the hydration speed. The hydrogel behavior of pectins and pectin localization on apertures strongly suggest that pectins act like "valves" for water entry, enabling a regulated process of water uptake into the dehydrated pollen grain. We propose that this regulation evolved in terms of achieving the correct self-organization of molecules and cellular components to resume metabolism and pollen tube growth, especially in species that are subject to demanding environmental water stress. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Hormonal dynamics during recovery from drought in two Eucalyptus globulus genotypes: from root to leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Castro, Bruno B; Brossa, Ricard; López-Carbonell, Marta; Pinto, Glória

    2014-09-01

    Drought is a limiting environmental stress that represents a growing constraint to the forestry sector. Eucalyptus globulus is a widely planted coppice species, which capacity to cope with water deficit has already been described. However, the capacity of this species to recover is still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in abscisic acid (ABA), ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in leaves, xylem sap and roots of two genotypes (AL-10 and AL-18) during rewatering (2 h, 4 h, 24 h, and 168 h), after a drought stress period (0 h). We wished to clarify the role of these hormones in the recovery from drought and to determine whether these hormonal relations were related to specific genotype metabolisms. Our results showed that drought caused an increased in ABA and ABA-GE levels in all analysed plant parts, while JA content decreased in leaves, increased in xylem sap and did not change in roots. Some of these responses were genotype specific. During rewatering, ABA and ABA-GE content decreased in both genotypes and all plant parts, but at different time scales, and JA levels did not greatly change. Again, the genotypes responded differently. Altogether, our results characterised the response pattern of clone AL-10 as more responsive and defended that leaf should be used in preliminary screening methods of stress tolerance. The hormonal dynamics were related to the previously documented responses of these genotypes and sustain further physiological and molecular studies of water stress in this and other tree species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of age and environment on the expression of inbreeding depression in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, J; Hardner, C; Tilyard, P; Potts, B M

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding adversely affects fitness traits in many plant and animal species, and the magnitude, stability and genetic basis of inbreeding depression (ID) will have short- and long-term evolutionary consequences. The effects of four degrees of inbreeding (selfing, f=50% full- and half-sib matings, f=25 and 12.5% and unrelated outcrosses, f=0%) on survival and growth of an island population of Eucalyptus globulus were studied at two sites for over 14 years. For selfs, ID in survival increased over time, reaching a maximum of 49% by age 14 years. However, their inbreeding depression for stem diameter remained relatively stable with age, and ranged from 28 to 36% across years and sites. ID for survival was markedly greater on the more productive site, possibly due to greater and earlier onset of inter-tree competition, but was similar on both sites for the diameter of survivors. The deleterious trait response to increasing inbreeding coefficients was linear for survival and diameter. Non-significant quadratic effects suggested that epistasis did not contribute considerably to the observed ID at the population level. Among- and within-family coefficients of variation for diameter increased with inbreeding degree, and the variance among the outcrossed families was significant only on the more productive site. The performance of self-families for diameter was highly stable between sites. This suggests that, for species with mixed mating systems, environmentally stable inbreeding effects in open-pollinated progenies may tend to mask the additive genotype-by-environment interaction for fitness traits and the adaptive response to the environment. PMID:21224873

  18. Effect of E.globulus upon Candida colonization in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bokaeian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Method: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n=10: I. normal control, II. control+C. albicans, III. control+eucalyptus+C. albicans, IV. Diabetic control, V. diabetic+C. albicans, VI. diabetic+eucalyptus+C. albicans. Experimental diabetes was induced in IV-VI groups after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg and drinking water (2.5 g/L of III and VI groups for 3 weeks. The II, III, V, and VI groups were inoculated with C. albicans in seventh day using intraperitoneal injection of C. albicans. At the end of 23 days experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (p=0.05. Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats

  19. Embryological evidence for developmental lability during early angiosperm evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E

    2006-05-18

    Recent advances in angiosperm phylogeny reconstruction, palaeobotany and comparative organismic biology have provided the impetus for a major re-evaluation of the earliest phases of the diversification of flowering plants. We now know that within the first fifteen million years of angiosperm history, three major lineages of flowering plants-monocotyledons, eumagnoliids and eudicotyledons-were established, and that within this window of time, tremendous variation in vegetative and floral characteristics evolved. Here I report on a novel type of embryo sac (angiosperm female gametophyte or haploid egg-producing structure) in Amborella trichopoda, the sole member of the most ancient extant angiosperm lineage. This is the first new pattern of embryo sac structure to be discovered among angiosperms in well over half a century. This discovery also supports the emerging view that the earliest phases of angiosperm evolution were characterized by an extensive degree of developmental experimentation and structural lability, and may provide evidence of a critical link to the gymnospermous ancestors of flowering plants.

  20. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  1. Nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal delivery of acid labile lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen Jen; Duh, Yi Shein

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for transdermal delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole (LPZ). The drug loading, particle size, zeta potential, thermal behavior and stability of NLCs were evaluated. The particle size of NLCs was in the range of 90-210nm and the zeta potential was -61.9 to +3.2mV dependent of the compositions. Stearylamine (SA) prevented lansoprazole degradation and maintained drug stable in NLCs. The anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) adsorbed on the lipid surface and formed complex with cationic SA to prevent NLCs aggregation. The effects of type (e.g., isopropyl myristate (IPM), menthol) and concentration (e.g., 1.25, 2.50, 3.75%w/w) of enhancers on penetration of lansoprazole NLC hydrogels were investigated in vitro using Wistar rat skin. The steady-state flux of lansoprazole NLC hydrogel containing 3.75% IPM was the highest which was enhanced by 2.7 folds as compared to enhancer-free NLC hydrogel. In vivo pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole following transdermal delivery of NLC hydrogel showed that the elimination of drug was significantly reduced and the mean residence time of drug was prominently prolonged as compared to intravenous drug solution (p<0.005). The accumulation of drug in the skin and continuous penetration of drug through the skin accounted for the maintenance of drug concentration for at least 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Barad, Mahesh B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

  3. Formulation of enterosoluble microparticles for an acid labile protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Ahmed Kashif; Squillante, Emilio; Mehta, Ketan A

    2002-01-01

    A microencapsulation method that preserves the activity of an acid labile protein was developed. Solvent evaporation technique that employed ICH class 2 and 3 solvents methanol and acetone, respectively to dissolve pH-sensitive Eudragit polymers was investigated. Total protein released and lactase activities were measured using the USP method A for enteric cores and optimized with respect to process parameters. The percentage yields and entrapment efficiencies were directly proportional to solid content. The mean percentage yield and entrapment efficiency of selected sample was 84 +/- 0.9% and 88 +/- 0.7%, respectively. The residual specific activity of lactase in the selected sample was 89% +/- 0.8 with a net activity loss of 2 +/- 0.28% and 4 +/- 0.52% under ambient and stressed storage, respectively. Dibutyl sebacate levels, lower processing temperatures and lower processing speeds were influential in modulating enzyme activity. The most important formulation factor affecting lactase stability was Eudragit type, followed in decreasing order by processing temperature, processing speed, and solid percentage. Reliable control of lactase release was achieved by microencapsulating the enzyme with pH-sensitive Eudragit L and S enteric polymers using either acetone- or methanol-based solvent but lactase activity was preserved only in acetone-based formulations.

  4. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated

  5. Cold lability of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase in the maize leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahashi, K; Hayakawa, S; Sugiyama, T

    1978-11-01

    Cold lability of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase was investigated using a homogeneous, purified enzyme preparation from maize (Zea mays L. var. Golden Cross Bantam T51) leaves. Its stability was markedly reduced below about 10 C and the rate of cold inactivation followed first order kinetics at a concentration lower than about 0.1 milligram of enzyme per milliliter. Cold inactivation was little affected by pH in the range which gives good stability for the enzyme at warm temperatures and the enzyme activity was protected strongly by inclusion of substrates (pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate) and polyols such as sucrose, sorbitol, and glycerol. Loss of catalytic activity was accompanied by an apparent dissociation of a tetrameric form of the enzyme (9S form) into a new, more slowly sedimenting (5.1S) component. Inclusion of pyruvate at 4 mM in the cold-treated enzyme had no effect on the sedimentation value. A sharp change in activation energy of the dikinase-catalyzed reaction was observed near 12 C and its break point appears to be close to the generally accepted critical low temperature limit for the growth of maize plants.

  6. Affect lability predicts occurrence of suicidal ideation in bipolar patients: a two-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Jaussent, I; Guillaume, S; Azorin, J M; Bellivier, F; Belzeaux, R; Bougerol, T; Etain, B; Gard, S; Henry, C; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Loftus, J; Passerieux, C; Olié, E; Courtet, P

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate, in bipolar patients, whether affect lability was associated with suicidal ideation incidence during 2-year follow-up, and which subtype of affect lability was associated with suicidal ideation. A total of 319 euthymic or mildly depressed bipolar outpatients recruited in the French FondaMental Advanced Centres of Expertise for Bipolar Disorder were divided into two subgroups according to the occurrence of suicidal ideation during a 2-year follow-up. Affect lability was assessed by the French version of the Affect Lability Scale. Bipolar patients with high affect lability were more likely to report suicidal ideation during follow-up, even after adjustment for age, study level, rapid cycling, current depression level, anxiety disorder, and lifetime history SA (OR = 2.47; 95% CI [1.15-5.30], P = 0.01). The risk of suicidal ideation increased with the level of affect lability. More specifically, the propensity to switch from neutral to elation affect, from anxious to depressive affect (or inversely), and from neutral to anger affect predicted suicidal ideation. Reducing affective lability could become a new therapeutic target of suicidal prevention in bipolar disorder. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Relative Toxicity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against Mosquito Vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sekhar Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of different solvent leaf extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and methanol of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against two geographically different strains of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was investigated. The extracts were tested against the late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, and larval mortality was observed after 24 hours of treatment. LC50 and LC90 were calculated. The LC50 values of hexane extract of Eucalyptus globulus against the late third instar larvae of the BSN and JPN strains of Aedes aegypti and the DLC and KNG strains of Anopheles stephensi were 225.2, 167.7, 118.8, and 192.8 ppm, while those of the hexane extract of Centella asiatica were 246.5, 268.7, 50.6, and 243.5 ppm, respectively. The LC50 values of diethyl ether extract of Centella asiatica were 339.6, 134.5, 241, and 14.7 ppm. The hexane extracts of both plants and the diethyl ether extract of C. asiatica presented the highest potential for the control of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The present findings also reveal the necessity of assaying multiple strains of a species to fully comprehend the larvicidal efficacy of a compound.

  8. Evaluation the Antibacterial Effects of Two Commercial Products of Eucalyptus globulus Against Common Microbial Causes of Respiratory Tract Infections

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    Mohammadreza Nahaei, Mahsa Kalejahi 1, Parisa Rahbarfam 1, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj 2, Farzaneh Lotfipour *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants have attained once more importance due to drug resistance of microbial isolates to common antibiotics as well as fewer side effects and low cost of herbal products comparing to chemical drugs. Eucalyptus globules (E. globulus has been widely applied as a natural remedy in respiratory tract infections. The present study focused on the evaluation of antibacterial effect of two commercial products of E. globulus against common microbial causes of respiratory tract infections. To this end, two commercial products of E. globules including inhaler and oral soft capsule with standard expiration date, (in three different batch numbers were purchased from the pharmacy stores of Tabriz city. Methods: The antibacterial efficiency of these products were investigated using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC and disk diffusion methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomona aeruginosa. Results: Based on the obtained results, these commercial products of E. globules showed significant inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria. The findings also indicated that the Eucalyptus inhaler products had more inhibitory effects than Eucalyptus oral soft capsule, however batch to batch variations were of concern. Conclusion: This research presents optimistic result on using the Eucalyptus as an alternative antibacterial agent against respiratory tract pathogenic microorganisms.

  9. Molecular characterization of a novel Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter cDNA from Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltierra, Fabiola; Castillo, Mabel; Gamboa, María Cecilia; Rothhammer, Matías; Krauskopf, Erwin

    2013-01-11

    Environmental stress factors such as salt, drought and heat are known to affect plant productivity. However, high salinity is spreading throughout the world, currently affecting more than 45 millionha. One of the mechanisms that allow plants to withstand salt stress consists on vacuolar sequestration of Na(+), through a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter. We isolated a new vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from Eucalyptus globulus from a cDNA library. The cDNA had a 1626 bp open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 542 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 59.1 KDa. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses indicated that EgNHX1 localized in the vacuole. To assess its role in Na(+) exchange, we performed complementation studies using the Na(+) sensitive yeast mutant strain Δnhx1. The results showed that EgNHX1 partially restored the salt sensitive phenotype of the yeast Δnhx1 strain. However, its overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis confers tolerance in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations while the wild type plants exhibited growth retardation. Expression profiles of Eucalyptus seedlings subjected to salt, drought, heat and ABA treatment were established. The results revealed that Egnhx1 was induced significantly only by drought. Together, these results suggest that the product of Egnhx1 from E. globulus is a functional vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary gland structure of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (MASKELL, 1890 (Hemiptera and phloem exudate in Eucalyptus globulus LABILLARDIÈRE, 1799 (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anamika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the salivary glands of the free-living aphalarid Ctenarytaina eucalypti, which infests multiple species of Eucalyptus in Australasia and has been introduced into many other regions of the world, is described and illustrated. The principal salivary gland is multilobed whereas the accessory gland is tubular. 1-D electrophoresis revealed proteins of approximately 58 and 64 kDa in the salivary gland extracts and proteins of similar molecular weights in the extracted plant exudates, including phloem, from infested leaves and tender shoots of E. globulus. Proteins that could fall within this range include, but are not limited to, glucosemethanol- choline-oxidoreductase (53-66 kDa, Zn-binding dehydrogenase (67 kDa and esterase (65-96 kDa, in addition to cytochrome P-450 (50-55 kDa, trehalase (56 kDa, amylase (50-75 kDa and lipase (48-52 kDa. Previous studies indicate that glucose-methanol-cholineoxidoreductase, Zn-binding dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 and trehalase suppress plantdefence mechanisms, whereas the cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase, lipase and esterase have a possible role in enabling C. eucalypti to insert its stylet into leaf and shoot tissues of E. globulus.

  11. Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Activities of Shoya Powder and Essential Oils of Thymus Vulgaris and Eucalyptus Globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, D; Mobarez, A Mohabati; Tohidpour, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, an infective agent of more than 50% of the world population is prominent to be the main causative factor in the etiologies of chronic, active or type B gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tumors. A high prevalence of this bacterium in dental plaque is always reported. Pharmacological treatment of H. pylori infections includes administration of 3-fold therapeutic regimens which are typically used to suppress H. pylori activity. However, antibiotic resistance frequently develops as a consequence of such treatment. Thus, searching for alternative therapies for H. pylori infections is of special interest. Materials and Methods: In this study, anti H. pylori activities of a traditional antimicrobial drug so-called Shoya and also essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus were investigated using antimicrobial analysis and serological screening methods. Results: The agar dilution method results revealed the Shoya with the highest inhibitory effect against H. pylori. Also serological screening on tested mice showed a significant effect of this drug in lowering the sera amount of anti H. pylori specific IgA and IgG titers. Both of the essential oils showed different degrees of antibacterial effect against H. pylori. Conclusion: The obtained results showed the antibacterial effect of Shoya powder and Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus and purposes new therapeutical alternatives to control the H. pylori infection. Additional studies and clinical trials are necessary to approve the use of these data in health care and pharmacopeia systems. PMID:22927892

  12. Elution of labile fluorescent dye from nanoparticles during biological use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tenuta

    Full Text Available Cells act as extremely efficient filters for elution of unbound fluorescent tags or impurities associated with nanoparticles, including those that cannot be removed by extensive cleaning. This has consequences for quantification of nanoparticle uptake and sub-cellular localization in vitro and in vivo as a result of the presence of significant amount of labile dye even following extensive cleaning by dialysis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE can be used to monitor the elution of unbound fluorescent probes from nanoparticles, either commercially available or synthesized in-house, and to ensure their complete purification for biological studies, including cellular uptake and sub-cellular localisation. Very different fluorescence distribution within cells is observed after short dialysis times versus following extensive dialysis against a solvent in which the free dye is more soluble, due to the contribution from free dye. In the absence of an understanding of the presence of residual free dye in (most labeled nanoparticle solutions, the total fluorescence intensity in cells following exposure to nanoparticle solutions could be mis-ascribed to the presence of nanoparticles through the cell, rather than correctly assigned to either a combination of free-dye and nanoparticle-bound dye, or even entirely to free dye depending on the exposure conditions (i.e. aggregation of the particles etc. Where all of the dye is nanoparticle-bound, the particles are highly localized in sub-cellular organelles, likely lysosomes, whereas in a system containing significant amounts of free dye, the fluorescence is distributed through the cell due to the free diffusion of the molecule dye across all cellular barriers and into the cytoplasm.

  13. Construction of hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks through linker labilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2017-05-01

    A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.

  14. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Scheckel, K.; Sekine, R.; Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Brunetti, G.; Naidu, R.; McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with 110m Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO 3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002–3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. - Highlights: • Biosolids silver (Ag) concentrations appear to have decreased in recent decades. • Ag 2 S dominates Ag speciation in freshly produced sludge. • Ag 2 S is also the dominant species in aged biosolids. • Upon land application biosolids will mainly contain Ag-sulfides and have low isotopic lability. - Analysis of historic and contemporary biosolids from three continents indicated decreasing wastewater silver releases, and non-labile, extremely stable silver speciation

  15. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Escala diagramática para quantificação da severidade de manchas em folhas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. causadas por Teratosphaeria nubilosa (Cooke Crous & U. Braun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Passador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf spot (Mycosphaerella leaf disease = MLD caused by Teratosphaeria nubilosa has caused damage in eucalypt plantations in southern and southeastern Brazil. The need to assess the disease in the field to evaluate of this damage, efficiency control, evaluation of germplasm induces to the necessity of having a visual scale for evaluation of disease. The objective was to develop a diagrammatic scale for young leaves and one for adult leaves of Eucalyptus globules for MLD. To do so, the leaves collected in the field were scanned for image analysis. The damaged area, the healthy leaf area and the external area of the same scale RGB (Red, Green, Blue were determined. Subsequently, it was determinate the levels of severity depending on the sample distribution with seven levels for young leaves and six for adult leaves. For the visual acuity test and validate the scale, the leaves were evaluated for severity, with and without scale. With this proposed scales, the assessors showed good accuracy both for young and adult leaves with R2=0,98 and R2=0,80, respectively. The importance of the development of diagrammatic scales for assessing MLD in eucalyptus must to the fact that allows quantification of the symptoms accurately and precisely.

  17. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  18. A water availability gradient reveals the deficit level required to affect traits in potted juvenile Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Hovenden, Mark J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Davies, Noel W; Rodemann, Thomas; McAdam, Scott A M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2017-04-01

    Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species. Juvenile Eucalyptus globulus were grown for 8 weeks at one of ten water deficit levels based on evapotranspiration from control plants (100 %). Treatments ranged from 90 % of control evapotranspiration (mild water deficit) to 0 % of control evapotranspiration (severe water deficit) in 10 % steps. Plant biomass, foliar abscisic acid (ABA) levels, Ψ leaf , leaf C/N, selected terpenes and phenolics were quantified to assess responses to each level of water deficit relative to a control. Withholding ≥30 % water resulted in higher foliar ABA levels and withholding ≥40 % water reduced leaf water content. Ψ leaf became more negative when ≥60 % water was withheld. Plant biomass was lower when ≥80 % water was withheld, and no water for 8 weeks (0 % water) resulted in plant death. The total oil concentration was lower and C/N was higher in dead and desiccated juvenile E. globulus leaves (0 % water). Concentrations of individual phenolic and terpene compounds, along with condensed tannin and total phenolic concentrations, remained stable regardless of water deficit or plant stress level. These juvenile E. globulus became stressed with a moderate reduction in available water, and yet the persistent concentrations of most PSMs in highly stressed or dead plants suggests no PSM re-metabolization and continued ecological roles of foliar PSMs during drought. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  19. Antimicrobial interactions of Khoi-San poly-herbal remedies with emphasis on the combination; Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonyane, S; Van Vuuren, S F; Makunga, N P

    2013-06-21

    Plants are often combined in traditional herbal remedies to increase medicinal efficacy, thus this investigation provides some insight into the antimicrobial efficacies of selected combinations. The first aim was to scientifically validate antibacterial efficacy of plant mixtures that are traded within peri-urban centres of Cape Town (Western Cape, South Africa). This was followed by an in-depth evaluation of the most antimicrobially active mixture; Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa with Eucalyptus globulus. Methanol and aqueous extracts of six plant mixtures were screened for antibacterial properties against two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory microdilution method. Thereafter, chloroform: methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts, essential oils and aqueous extracts of Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus were assayed for antimicrobial activity independently and in various combinations. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices (ƩFIC) were determined for double and triple plant combinations to establish antimicrobial interactions. From the six plant mixtures prepared by herbalists, a methanol extract derived from combining Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus showed the best antibacterial activity. The MIC values of 49μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and 98μg/ml for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were recorded. When Agathosma crenulata, Dodonaea viscosa and Eucalyptus globulus were mixed in various 1:1 combinations, mostly additive and synergistic interactions were noted. The most noteworthy synergistic (ΣFIC value 0.07) 1:1 combinations were observed for the chloroform: methanol extracts of Agathosma crenulata mixed with Eucalyptus globulus against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. When combined in a mixture of three plants (1:1:1), enhanced efficacy was evident against most of the pathogens, for both

  20. A field study on phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus in an abandoned mine site - Alagoa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, R.; Kikuchi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Current engineering-based technologies used to clean up soils are very costly and need lots of work. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove pollutants (i.e. heavy metals) from the environment or render them harmless. In the phytoremediation process several plant species can be used to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in contaminated soils to environmentally acceptable levels. The idea of using rare plants which hyperaccumulate metals to selectively remove and recycle excessive soil metals has increasingly been examined as a potential practical and more cost effective technology than soil replacement, solidification, or washing strategies presently used. However, most hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for phytoremediation application in the field due to their small biomass and slow growth. Cultivation of woody plants in contaminated soils has showed potential for use in phytoremediation but also it provides aesthetic improvement in the field. In this study we studied the possibility of using the approach of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus in a lead-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine. Although Eucalytpus globulus prefer good ecological conditions in humid temperate climates, there are few studies that have showed their great potential in contaminated areas and important biomonitors of environmental quality. A test field was set up in an abandoned mine site (Alagoa, Portugal) in order to investigate the feasibility of phytoremediation of lead by Eucalyptus globulus. The field soil was characterized as follows: humus - 2.56-7.08%, pH in the soil water - 4.50-5.10, silte - 18-15% and total Pb - 67-239 mg/kg. The soils in some areas exceed the critical value (150 mg/kg) according with Portuguese law. Eucalytus globulus growing on the abandoned mine, contaminated with lead was studied. The results of shoots sample analysis (n = 15) show the total Pb levels of 0.170-0.093 mg/kg in the stem and 2.94-5.14 mg/kg in the leaves

  1. Production of phytohormones, siderophores and population fluctuation of two root-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus globulus cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Katy Díaz; Araya, Támara; Valenzuela, Sofía; Sossa, Katherine; Martínez, Miguel; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Sanfuentes, Eugenio

    2012-05-01

    Vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and mini-cuttings has been used worldwide for growing Eucalyptus plants. However, clones and hybrids of this plant present a great variability in their rooting capacity, apart from a gradual decrease in the rooting potential due to the ontogenetic age of the mother plant. Several studies have demonstrated that some bacteria promote plant growth and rooting through the action of direct and indirect mechanisms that are not still completely clear. Considering this, the objective of this study was to assess the production of auxins, abscisic acid and siderophores in Bacillus subtilis and Stenotrophomona maltophilia, which in previous studies increased rooting of E. globulus cuttings. Additionally, the population of these bacteria in the rhizosphere, superficial tissues of the stem-base and callus of the mini-cuttings was identified, and quantified by real-time PCR. Only S. maltophilia produced IAA in the presence of tryptophan; none of the bacterial strains produced ABA, but both produced siderophores. A comparative analysis of the separation profiles showed that there is a diverse microbial community in the rhizosphere, and only S. maltophilia was capable of keeping its population at a density of 2.03 × 10(7) cells/mg in different tissues of the mini-cuttings. The results would indicate that the rooting stimulus in E. globulus could be related to the action of one or several mechanisms such as the production of auxins and siderophores, and it could also be associated with the ability of bacteria to stay in the rhizosphere or in plant callus tissues.

  2. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection mass spectrometry of phenolic compounds in fruit of Eucalyptus globulus cultivated in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Chibane, Mohamed; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Slimani, Sakina; Henry, Max; Cheynier, Veronique; Madani, Khodir

    2010-12-22

    A method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) following fractionation by chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 column has been developed to determine the phenolic composition of fruit of Eucalyptus globulus growing in Algeria. The presence of 18 gallotannins, 26 ellagitannins, and 2 flavonols was established. Tentative identification is provided for these compounds on the basis of UV-visible spectra and mass spectrometry data. Most compounds described in this study have not previously detected in fruit of E. globulus. Moreover, this is the first report of methyl digalloyl diglucose, 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid 4-O-β-glucopyranoside, ellagic acid hexose, methyl ellagic acid pentose, methyltetragalloylglucose, and valoneic acid isomers (sanguisorbic, flavogallic acid dilactone) in the genus Eucalyptus. Quantitatively, ellagic acid and its derivatives, including ellagitannins, are largely predominant.

  3. Potent HGF/c-Met axis inhibitors from Eucalyptus globulus: the coupling of phloroglucinol and sesquiterpenoid is essential for the activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Ai, Jing; Gan, Li-She; Xu, Jin-Biao; Wang, Ying; Su, Zu-Shang; Wang, Lu; Ding, Jian; Geng, Mei-Yu; Yue, Jian-Min

    2012-09-27

    Eucalyptin A (1), together with two known compounds 2 and 3 exhibiting potent inhibition on HGF/c-Met axis, was discovered from the fruits of Eucalyptus globulus. 1 possessed an unprecedented carbon framework of phloroglucinol-coupled sesquiterpenoid, and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic method and ECD calculation. A brief structure-activity relationship discussion indicated that the coupling of a phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpenoid is essential for the activity.

  4. Vertebrate Fidgetin Restrains Axonal Growth by Severing Labile Domains of Microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranco Leo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual microtubules (MTs in the axon consist of a stable domain that is highly acetylated and a labile domain that is not. Traditional MT-severing proteins preferentially cut the MT in the stable domain. In Drosophila, fidgetin behaves in this fashion, with targeted knockdown resulting in neurons with a higher fraction of acetylated (stable MT mass in their axons. Conversely, in a fidgetin knockout mouse, the fraction of MT mass that is acetylated is lower than in the control animal. When fidgetin is depleted from cultured rodent neurons, there is a 62% increase in axonal MT mass, all of which is labile. Concomitantly, there are more minor processes and a longer axon. Together with experimental data showing that vertebrate fidgetin targets unacetylated tubulin, these results indicate that vertebrate fidgetin (unlike its fly ortholog regulates neuronal development by tamping back the expansion of the labile domains of MTs.

  5. LABILE IRON IN CELLS AND BODY FLUIDS . Physiology, Pathology and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ioav Cabantchik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In living systems iron appears predominantly associated with proteins, but can also be detected in forms referred as labile iron, which denotes the combined redox properties of iron and its amenability to exchange between ligands, including chelators. The labile cell iron (LCI composition varies with metal concentration and substances with chelating groups but also with pH and the redox potential. Although physiologically in the lower µM range, LCI plays a key role in cell iron economy as cross-roads of metabolic pathways. LCI levels are continually regulated by an iron-responsive machinery that balances iron uptake versus deposition into ferritin. However, LCI rises aberrantly in some cell types due to faulty cell utilization pathways or infiltration by pathological iron forms that are found in hemosiderotic plasma. As LCI attains pathological levels, it can catalyze reactive O species (ROS formation that, at particular threshold, can surpass cellular anti-oxidant capacities and seriously damage its constituents. While in normal plasma and interstitial fluids, virtually all iron is securely carried by circulating transferrin (that renders iron essentially non-labile, in systemic iron overload (IO, the total plasma iron binding capacity is often surpassed by a massive iron influx from hyperabsorptive gut or from erythrocyte overburdened spleen and/or liver. As plasma transferrin approaches iron saturation, labile plasma iron (LPI emerges in forms that can infiltrate cells by unregulated routes and raise LCI to toxic levels. Despite the limited knowledge available on LPI speciation in different types and degrees of iron overload, LPI measurements can be and are in fact used for identifying systemic IO and for initiating/adjusting chelation regimens to attain full-day LPI protection. A recent application of labile iron assay is the detection of labile components in iv iron formulations per se as well as in plasma (LPI following parenteral iron

  6. Assessment of the antibiofilm and antiquorum sensing activities of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil and its main component 1,8-cineole against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Noumi, Emira; Hadded, Ons; Dridi, Neyla; Panwar, Harsh; Ceylan, Ozgur; Mastouri, Maha; Snoussi, Mejdi

    2018-03-06

    Antibacterial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health. The search for new anti-infection agents from natural resources, with different mode of actions and competitive effects became a necessity. In this study, twenty height methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were investigated for their biofilm formation ability. Subsequently, the antibiofilm effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil and its main component 1,8-cineole, against MRSA, as well as their antiquorum sensing potential, were evaluated. Our results displayed the potent efficacy of both E. globulus essential oil and 1,8-cineole against the development of biofilms formed by the methicillin-resistant strains. Additionally, E. globulus essential oil showed more potent of anti-QS activity, even at a low concentration, when compared to 1,8-cineole. All these property of tested agents may pave the way to prevent the development of biofilm formation by MRSA and subsequently the spreading of nosocomial infection. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Seasonal changes and biochemical composition of the labile organic matter flux in the Cretan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Della Croce, Norberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Mauro Fabiano; Marrale, Daniela; Martorano, Daniela

    2000-08-01

    Downward fluxes of labile organic matter (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) at 200 (trap A) and 1515 m depth (trap B), measured during a 12 months sediment trap experiment, are presented, together with estimates of the bacterial and cyanobacterial biomasses associated to the particles. The biochemical composition of the settling particles was determined in order to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the flux of readily available organic carbon supplying the deep-sea benthic communities of the Cretan Sea. Total mass flux and labile carbon fluxes were characterised by a clear seasonality. Higher labile organic fluxes were reported in trap B, indicating the presence of resuspended particles coming from lateral inputs. Particulate carbohydrates were the major component of the flux of labile compounds (on annual average about 66% of the total labile organic flux) followed by lipids (20%) and proteins (13%). The biopolymeric carbon flux was very low (on annual average 0.9 and 1.2 gC m -2 y -1, at trap A and B). Labile carbon accounted for most of the OC flux (on annual average 84% and 74% in trap A and B respectively). In trap A, highest carbohydrate and protein fluxes in April and September, corresponded to high faecal pellet fluxes. The qualitative composition of the organic fluxes indicated a strong protein depletion in trap B and a decrease of the bioavailability of the settling particles as a result of a higher degree of dilution with inorganic material. Quantity and quality of the food supply to the benthos displayed different temporal patterns. Bacterial biomass in the sediment traps (on average 122 and 229 μgC m -2 d -1 in trap A and B, respectively) was significantly correlated to the flux of labile organic carbon, and particularly to the protein and carbohydrate fluxes. Cyanobacterial flux (on average, 1.1 and 0.4 μgC m -2 d -1, in trap A and B, respectively) was significantly correlated with total mass and protein fluxes only in trap A

  8. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  9. Glaciers as a source of ancient and labile organic matter to the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran Hood; Jason Fellman; Robert G.M. Spencer; Peter J. Hernes; Rick Edwards; David D' Amore; Durelle Scott

    2009-01-01

    Riverine organic matter supports of the order of one-fifth of estuarine metabolism. Coastal ecosystems are therefore sensitive to alteration of both the quantity and lability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) delivered by rivers. Here we characterize streamwater DOM from 11 coastal watersheds on the Gulf of Alaska that vary widely in glacier coverage. In...

  10. Metal speciation dynamics in colloidal ligand dispersions. Part 3: Lability features of steady-state systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, J.P.; Domingos, R.; Minor, M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    A lability criterion is developed for dynamic metal binding by colloidal ligands with convective diffusion as the dominant mode of mass transport. Scanned stripping chronopotentiometric measurements of Pb(II) and Cd(II) binding by carboxylated latex core-shell particles were in good agreement with

  11. Urinary labile iron in obese and non-obese industrial workers in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity precedes the development of many of the cardiovascular risk factors, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Labile iron, which has been associated with these chronic diseases, may be one of the links between obesity and these disorders. Aim: To determine the ...

  12. Effects of wetland recovery on soil labile carbon and nitrogen in the Sanjiang Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Song, Changchun; Nkrumah, Philip Nti

    2013-07-01

    Soil management significantly affects the soil labile organic factors. Understanding carbon and nitrogen dynamics is extremely helpful in conducting research on active carbon and nitrogen components for different kinds of soil management. In this paper, we examined the changes in microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to assess the effect and mechanisms of land types, organic input, soil respiration, microbial species, and vegetation recovery under Deyeuxia angustifolia freshwater marshes (DAMs) and recovered freshwater marsh (RFM) in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Identifying the relationship among the dynamics of labile carbon, nitrogen, and soil qualification mechanism using different land management practices is therefore important. Cultivation and land use affect intensely the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN in the soil. After DAM soil tillage, the DOC, DON, MBC, and MBN at the surface of the agricultural soil layer declined significantly. In contrast, their recovery was significant in the RFM surface soil. A long time was needed for the concentration of cultivated soil total organic carbon and total nitrogen to be restored to the wetland level. The labile carbon and nitrogen fractions can reach a level similar to that of the wetland within a short time. Typical wetland ecosystem signs, such as vegetation, microbes, and animals, can be recovered by soil labile carbon and nitrogen fraction restoration. In this paper, the D. angustifolia biomass attained natural wetland level after 8 years, indicating that wetland soil labile fractions can support wetland eco-function in a short period of time (4 to 8 years) for reconstructed wetland under suitable environmental conditions.

  13. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Half the global soil carbon (C) is held in high-latitude systems. Climate change will expose these to warming and a shift towards plant communities with more labile C input. Labile C can also increase the rate of loss of native soil organic matter (SOM); a phenomenon termed 'priming'. We investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m -2  yr -1 ) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously reported findings termed 'preferential substrate utilization' or 'negative apparent priming', while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of 'real priming' of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together: This suggested that the microbial SOM-use decreased in magnitude and shifted to components richer in N. This finding highlights that only considering SOM in terms of C may be simplistic, and will not capture all changes in SOM decomposition. The selective mining for N increased in climate change treatments with higher fungal dominance. In conclusion, labile C appeared to trigger catabolic responses of the resident microbial community that shifted the SOM mining to N-rich components; an effect that increased with higher fungal dominance. Extrapolating from these findings, the predicted shrub expansion in the subarctic could result in an altered microbial use of SOM, selectively mining it for N-rich components, and leading to a reduced total SOM-use. © 2016 John Wiley

  14. Post-operative pressure lability and cardiac baroreflex in normotensive patients as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cividjian, A; Meyrieux, V; Gratadour, P; Sagnard, P; Annat, G; Boulez, J; Viale, J P; Quintin, L

    2008-10-01

    Pressure lability may be linked to the loss of the cardiac baroreflex. The reduction of the sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex has not been delineated in the post-operative period according to age in normotensive patients. This study addresses pressure lability and slope of the cardiac baroreflex as a function of age. Patients were allocated to the following three groups: young (20-39 years, n=7), middle aged (40-59 years, n=7) and elderly (60-79 years, n=6), and studied before minor intra-abdominal surgery under CO(2) peritoneal insufflation and nitrous oxide-isoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia, up to 24 h after extubation. An electrocardiogram and non-invasive beat-by-beat pressure monitoring (Finapres) allowed offline calculation of the sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex ('sequence' technique) and standard deviation (SD) of heart rate (HR; HR variability) and systolic blood pressure (SBP; pressure lability). Before anesthesia, (a) an inverse relationship was observed between the slope of the cardiac baroreflex and age and (b) a trend (P<0.09) existed between the slope of the cardiac baroreflex and pressure lability, irrespective of age. During the early post-operative period, young patients returned to their baseline slope of the cardiac baroreflex; no inverse relationship between increased SD of SBP and decreased SD of RR interval was observed. Middle-aged and elderly patients displayed a depressed slope of the cardiac baroreflex both before and after anesthesia. At variance with the pre-operative period, no simple inverse relationship was observed between increased pressure lability and depressed HR variability in young patients during the early post-operative period.

  15. Deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × E. globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar a deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram alocadas sistematicamente quatro parcelas de 20 m × 20 m, cada uma com quatro coletores de serapilheira de 1 m². A serapilheira foi coletada quinzenalmente, entre janeiro/2007 e dezembro/2010. A produção de serapilheira foi crescente, com o aumento da idade do povoamento, sendo 6,9 Mg ha-1 aos seis e 8,5 Mg ha-1 aos nove anos. A fração folhas correspondeu, em média, a 66,9% da serapilheira total, seguida pelos galhos finos (14,7%, miscelânea (10,5% e galhos grossos (7,9%. A deposição apresentou padrão sazonal, sendo maior no período de aumento da temperatura do ar. A fração folhas foi responsável por maior parte do retorno de nutrientes via serapilheira, variando de 58,2 a 81,8% da quantidade de Cu e N, respectivamente.

  16. Few Mendelian genes underlie the quantitative response of a forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus, to a natural fungal epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2008-01-01

    Foliar fungal pathogens from the genus Mycosphaerella affect eucalyptus in natural forests and plantations worldwide. QTL analysis was conducted to dissect the genetic control of resistance in Eucalyptus globulus to a natural infection by Mycosphaerella leaf disease, using a clonally replicated outbred F2 family (112 genotypes) planted in a field trial. Two major QTL, with high LOD support (20.2 and 10.9) and high genomewide significance, explained a large proportion (52%) of the phenotypic variance in the severity of damage by Mycosphaerella cryptica, which may be indicative of oligogenic control. Both QTL were validated in a second F2 family and one was validated in a third F2 family. The mean values of different genotype classes at both major QTL argue for Mendelian inheritance with resistance dominant over susceptibility. There were strong correlations between the levels of Mycosphaerella damage in related genetic material planted in three widely separated locations in Tasmania. These findings together provide evidence that the genes controlling resistance to Mycosphaerella damage are stable in different genetic backgrounds and across different environments.

  17. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Paula; Fernández, Victoria; Graça, José; Cabral, Vanessa; Kayali, Nour; Khayet, Mohamed; Gil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids), coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies. PMID:25278953

  18. The choline oxidase gene codA confers salt tolerance to transgenic Eucalyptus globulus in a semi-confined condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Kikuchi, Akira; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Nanto, Kazuya; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2013-06-01

    The performance of tree species is influenced by environmental factors and growth stages. To evaluate the practical performance of transgenic tree species, it is insufficient to grow small, young trees under controlled conditions, such as in a growth chamber. Three transgenic Eucalyptus globulus lines, carrying the choline oxidase gene, were investigated for their salt tolerance and expression of the transgene at the young plantlet stage in a special netted-house. To clarify the characteristics at the young as well during the later stages, salt tolerance and the properties of the transgenic lines at large juvenile and adult stages were evaluated in the special netted-house. All transgenic lines showed high glycinebetaine content, particularly in young leaves. Trees of the transgenic line 107-1 showed low damage because of salinity stress based on the results from the chlorophyll analysis and malondialdehyde content, and they survived the high-salt-shock treatment at the large juvenile and adult stages. Only this line showed salt tolerance at all stages in the special netted-house. In this evaluation in the special netted-house, the tolerant line among young plantlets might perform better at all stages. Since evaluation in these special netted-house mimics field evaluation, line 107-1 is a potential tolerant line.

  19. Understanding changes in lignin of Panicum virgatum and Eucalyptus globulus as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Patanjali; Singh, Priyanka; Arora, Rohit; Adams, Paul D; Auer, Manfred; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2012-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown great potential for the reduction of lignin in biomass after pretreatment. Although dilute acid and base pretreatments have been shown to result in pretreated biomass with substantially different lignin composition, there is scarce information on the composition of lignin of IL pretreated biomass. In this work, temperature dependent compositional changes in lignin after IL pretreatment were studied to develop a mechanistic understanding of the process. Panicum virgatum and Eucalyptus globulus were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]). Measurement of syringyl and guaiacyl ratio using pyrolysis-GC/MS and Kamlet-Taft properties of [C(2)mim][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C strongly suggest two different modes of IL pretreatment. Preferential breakdown of S-lignin in both eucalyptus and switchgrass at high pretreatment temperature (160 °C) and breakdown of G-lignin for eucalyptus and no preferential break down of either S- or G-lignin in switchgrass was observed at lower pretreatment temperatures (120 °C). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cytotoxic and molecular impacts of allelopathic effects of leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus on soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abdelmigid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus trees litter plays a crucial role in structuring plant populations and regulating crop quality. To help characterize the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus plantations and understand the interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations, we performed two different genomic approaches to determine soybean (Glycine max crop plant response to biotic stress induced by leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus trees. For assessing cell death, a qualitative method of DNA fragmentation test (comet assay was employed to detect cleavage of the genomic DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments and help to characterize the apoptotic event among the experimental samples. In addition, quantitative method of genome analysis at the transcriptional level also was conducted to investigate the expression responses of soybean genome to allelochemicals. Expression of specific genes, which are responsible for the breakdown of proteins during programmed cell death PCD (cysteine proteases and their inhibitors, was examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR. Results of both conducted analyses proved significant genetic effects of Eucalyptus leaf residues on soybean crop genome, revealed by steady increase in DNA damage as well as variation in the transcript levels of cysteine proteases and inhibitors. Further detailed studies using more sensitive methods are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus plantations on crops.

  1. Low flow and high flow responses to converting natural grassland into bluegum ( Eucalyptus globulus) in Nilgiris watersheds of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, A. K.; Samra, J. S.; Sharda, V. N.; Samraj, P.; Lakshmanan, V.

    2003-01-01

    A concern has been raised in many parts of the world over the effect of large scale planting of Eucalyptus on hydrological behaviour of small watersheds. Hydrological response of watersheds due to conversion of natural grasslands into bluegum ( Eucalyptus globulus) plantations on low flows and high flows has been presented in this paper. The concept of using low flow index (LFI) as a tool to study and quantify the effects of bluegum plantation on low flow regime has been demonstrated. Conversion of natural grasslands into bluegum plantations has resulted in decreased low flow volume as well as peak flow, which in turn increased the soil moisture losses. These effects were more pronounced during the second rotation (i.e. first coppiced growth) as compared to the first rotation. Significant reduction in low flow as a result of decline in base flow could be predicted with LFI decreasing by 2.0 and 3.75 times, in the first and second rotation, respectively. Moderation in peak discharge rates was also observed as a result of bluegum plantation. Probability plots of peak discharge tend to suggest that the effect of bluegum plantation on peak flows become insignificant for the floods with higher return periods. These results clearly suggest that caution need to be exercised while planning large scale conversion of natural grasslands into bluegum plantations in the catchments of hydro-electric reservoirs in the Nilgiris which adversely affects water availability especially during lean flow period.

  2. Stability of quantitative trait loci for growth and wood properties across multiple pedigrees and environments in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Downes, Geoffrey M; Pilbeam, David; Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Vaillancourt, René E

    2013-06-01

    · Eucalypts are one of the most planted tree genera worldwide, and there is increasing interest in marker-assisted selection for tree improvement. Implementation of marker-assisted selection requires a knowledge of the stability of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This study aims to investigate the stability of QTLs for wood properties and growth across contrasting sites and multiple pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus. · Saturated linkage maps were constructed using 663 genotypes from four separate families, grown at three widely separated sites, and were employed to construct a consensus map. This map was used for QTL analysis of growth, wood density and wood chemical traits, including pulp yield. · Ninety-eight QTLs were identified across families and sites: 87 for wood properties and 11 for growth. These QTLs mapped to 38 discrete regions, some of which co-located with candidate genes. Although 16% of QTLs were verified across different families, 24% of wood property QTLs and 38% of growth QTLs exhibited significant genotype-by-environment interaction. · This study provides the most detailed assessment of the effect of environment and pedigree on QTL detection in the genus. Despite markedly different environments and pedigrees, many QTLs were stable, providing promising targets for the application of marker-assisted selection. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eGuzmán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids, coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  4. Lability in the parent's hostility and warmth toward their adolescent: Linkages to youth delinquency and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Hussong, Andrea; Fosco, Gregory M; Ram, Nilam

    2018-02-01

    According to family systems and life course theories, periods of intense change, such as early adolescence, can disrupt stable family systems, leading to changes in family relationships. In this longitudinal study, we investigate 2 types of change in parental hostility and warmth toward their children during early adolescence (Grades 6 to 8)-developmental trends (linear declines) and lability (within-person fluctuations around developmental trends)-and their linkages to youth substance use and delinquency in Grade 9 (N = 618). We also test if the linkages between lability and youth risky behavior are moderated by youth gender. After controlling for between-person differences in level and developmental trends, we find greater lability (more fluctuations) in youth-reported parents' warmth and hostility are associated with greater youth delinquency, tobacco use, and polysubstance use initiation. The associations between youth-reported lability in mother and father hostility and polysubstance use demonstrated an inverted U shape pattern: Moderate levels of lability were associated with higher substance use but very low and high lability was associated with relatively lower rates of substance use. Many of the linkages between lability and youth delinquency were significant for girls but not boys. Fewer effects of lability on youth outcomes were found using parent reports. Developmental trends in parents' warmth and hostility were also associated with youth delinquency. Lability has unique implications for youth adjustment, yet appears to differ by youth outcome, gender, and reporter. The discussion focuses on mechanisms that might link changes in parent-youth warmth and hostility to youth risky behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of phenolics in Eucalyptus globulus leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Madani, Khodir; Cheynier, Véronique

    2013-02-01

    Eucalyptus species are widely cultivated in Mediterranean regions. Moreover, plants of this family have been utilized for medicinal purposes. A number of studies have been devoted to the identification of eucalypt phenolics, all of them have focused on specific families of compounds, and no exhaustive profiling has been reported in leaves of this plant. To develop methods that allows the identification and quantification of different classes of phenolics in Eucalyptus globulus leaf. Acetonic extract was fractionated by chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 column using consecutive elution with ethanol, methanol and aqueous acetone (60%). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) were applied to determine the structure of different compounds. Quantities were evaluated from peak areas in the HPLC profile, using external calibration curves. Fractionation of acetonic extract yielded three fractions: F1, F2 and F3. In total 39 phenolic compounds are detected. Among them: 16 hydrolyzable tannins, 3 terpenyl derivatives, 12 ellagic acid derivatives, 5 flavonols, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids and 1 formylated phloroglucinol. 26 compounds described in this study have not previously detected in leaves of this plant and this is the first report of quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside-6"-O-gallate and cypellogin A and B, in E. globulus plant. Quantitatively, ellagic acid derivatives and sideroxylonal A or B are largely predominant. Fractionation of crude extract by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 was efficient to separate different molecular weight compounds. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS enabled detection of gallotannin, ellagitannin and flavonol derivatives, in leaves of E. globulus. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Assessing soil constituents and labile soil organic carbon by midinfrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    signal. This also means that it should be advantageous for soil analysis because of its highly opaque nature. However, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS to soil characterization and investigation is still required into its potential to determine soil organic carbon (SOC......) degradability. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterisation of the labile fraction of SOC and more classical soil parameters, such as carbon and clay content, for a range of 36 soils collected from various field experiments in Denmark. Partial least squares (PLS......) regressionwas used to correlate the collected FTIR-PAS spectra with the proportion of soil organic carbon mineralised after 238 days of incubation at 15 C and pF 2 (C238d) taken as an indicator of the labile fraction of SOC. Results showed that it is possible to predict total organic carbon content, total...

  7. Labile phytochrome and photoperiodic flower induction in Pharbitis nil Chois. The irreversible phytochrome hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Cymerski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Pharbitis nil cultivated under non-inductive conditions of white light were subjected to generative induction applying one 16-hour-long period of inductive night. During the eighth hour the night was interrupted with 1 min of red light pulse which completely inhibited the flowering. Treating the plants with KCN blocked the inhibiting effect of red light. Because KCN lowers considerably the rate of destruction of labile Pfd in some plant systems, it seems probable that red light night-break irradiation (without KCN, which blocked the flowering, leads also to the accumulation of unknown Pfd destruction products (irreversible phytochrome. It also suggests that it is not the labile PfrI itself but the products of its irreversible transformation that could be active in the photoperiodic control of flowering.

  8. Correlation between lability and relative turnover rate of soluble protein of the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Satoshi; Kimura, Shuichi

    1977-01-01

    A study was made on whether or not the lability of protein generally correlates with its metabolic turnover rate. Two fractions of soluble protein were prepared from rat liver. Using the double isotope method, it was revealed that the fraction precipitated with half-saturated ammonium sulfate had a larger turnover rate than the supernatant one. Both dietary protein depletion and starvation, though they significantly decreased total protein content, did not affect the ratio of the amount of protein the precipitate to that of the supernatant fraction. These results suggested that both fractions, though they had a different turnover rates, were equally influenced by dietary protein depletion or fasting. In consequence, the results imply that the lability of protein does not necessarily in parallel with the metabolic turnover rate. (auth.)

  9. Microbial control of soil organic matter mineralization responses to labile carbon in subarctic climate change treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders; Rousk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    investigated how warming (+1.1 °C over ambient using open top chambers) and litter addition (90 g m−2 yr−1) treatments in the subarctic influenced the susceptibility of SOM mineralization to priming, and its microbial underpinnings. Labile C appeared to inhibit the mineralization of C from SOM by up to 60......% within hours. In contrast, the mineralization of N from SOM was stimulated by up to 300%. These responses occurred rapidly and were unrelated to microbial successional dynamics, suggesting catabolic responses. Considered separately, the labile C inhibited C mineralization is compatible with previously...... reported findings termed ‘preferential substrate utilization’ or ‘negative apparent priming’, while the stimulated N mineralization responses echo recent reports of ‘real priming’ of SOM mineralization. However, C and N mineralization responses derived from the same SOM source must be interpreted together...

  10. Hereditary heat-labile hexosaminidase B: a variant whose homozygotes synthesize a functional HEX A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, R; Kopel, R; Nutman, J; Frisch, A; Conzelmann, E; Sandhoff, K; Adam, A

    1985-01-01

    Homozygosity for a mutant allele at the beta-chain locus of hexosaminidase (HEX), resulting in a variant of heat-labile HEX B, is reported for the first time in two healthy children. HEX activity in their sera, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts is severely deficient when measured on the synthetic substrate 4-MU-GLcNAc. However, their cultured skin fibroblasts synthesize and process both alpha and beta chains of HEX, and their lymphoid cells hydrolyze normally the natural ganglioside GM2. This mutation is, therefore, different from at least one of the beta-chain mutations found in previously published families with heat-labile HEX B. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3156493

  11. Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

  12. Protein degradation by ubiquitin–proteasome system in formation and labilization of contextual conditioning memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Fustiñana, María; de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation has been evaluated in different forms of neural plasticity and memory. The role of UPS in such processes is controversial. Several results support the idea that the activation of this system in memory consolidation is necessary to overcome negative constrains for plasticity. In this case, the inhibition of the UPS during consolidation impairs memory. Similar results were reported for memory reconsolidation. However, in other cases, the inhibition of UPS had no effect on memory consolidation and reconsolidation but impedes the amnesic action of protein synthesis inhibition after retrieval. The last finding suggests a specific action of the UPS inhibitor on memory labilization. However, another interpretation is possible in terms of the synthesis/degradation balance of positive and negative elements in neural plasticity, as was found in the case of long-term potentiation. To evaluate these alternative interpretations, other reconsolidation-interfering drugs than translation inhibitors should be tested. Here we analyzed initially the UPS inhibitor effect in contextual conditioning in crabs. We found that UPS inhibition during consolidation impaired long-term memory. In contrast, UPS inhibition did not affect memory reconsolidation after contextual retrieval but, in fact, impeded memory labilization, blocking the action of drugs that does not affect directly the protein synthesis. To extend these finding to vertebrates, we performed similar experiments in contextual fear memory in mice. We found that the UPS inhibitor in hippocampus affected memory consolidation and blocked memory labilization after retrieval. These findings exclude alternative interpretations to the requirement of UPS in memory labilization and give evidence of this mechanism in both vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:25135196

  13. Helically labile bis(haloBODIPYs): an advantageous platform for the development of CPL-SOMs

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, C��sar; S��nchez-Carnerero, Esther M.; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L.; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R.; Ortiz, Mar��a J.; L��pez-Arbeloa, ����igo; Ba��uelos, Jorge; Cohovi, Komlan D.; Lunkley, Jamie L.; Muller, Gilles; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Simple organic molecules (SOM) based on bis(haloBODIPY) are shown to enable circularly polarized luminescence (CPL), giving rise to a new structural design for technologically valuable CPL-SOMs. The established design comprises together synthetic accessibility, labile helicity, possibility of reversing the handedness of the circularly polarized emission, and reactive functional groups, making it unique and attractive as advantageous platform for the development of smart CPL-SOMs.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of oral multiparticulate formulations of acid-labile drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Säure-labile Medikamente werden leicht in saurem Medium abgebaut, welche hauptsächlich als enterisch beschichtete Dosierungsformen für die orale Verabreichung formuliert wurden. Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, orale multipartikuläre Formulierungen von säure-labilen Medikamenten, mit Ilaprazol, Lansoprazol und Rabeprazol Natrium als Modellarzneistoffe vorzubereiten. Der Einfluss der Wirkstofflöslichkeit von Lansoprazol und Rabeprazol Natrium und des Kerntyps, wurde auf das Übe...

  15. Labile plasma iron levels predict survival in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, Louise; Reiniers, Chloé; Bagguley, Timothy; van Marrewijk, Corine; Bowen, David; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Tatic, Aurelia; Symeonidis, Argiris; Huls, Gerwin; Cermak, Jaroslav; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Garelius, Hege; Culligan, Dominic; Macheta, Mac; Spanoudakis, Michail; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Krejci, Marta; Blijlevens, Nicole; Langemeijer, Saskia; Droste, Jackie; Swinkels, Dorine W; Smith, Alex; de Witte, Theo

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell transfusions remain one of the cornerstones in supportive care of lower-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. We hypothesized that patients develop oxidant-mediated tissue injury through the formation of toxic iron species, caused either by red blood cell transfusions or by ineffective erythropoiesis. We analyzed serum samples from 100 lower-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes at six-month intervals for transferrin saturation, hepcidin-25, growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor, non-transferrin bound iron and labile plasma iron in order to evaluate temporal changes in iron metabolism and the presence of potentially toxic iron species and their impact on survival. Hepcidin levels were low in 34 patients with ringed sideroblasts compared to 66 patients without. Increases of hepcidin and non-transferrin bound iron levels were visible early in follow-up of all transfusion-dependent patient groups. Hepcidin levels significantly decreased over time in transfusion-independent patients with ringed sideroblasts. Increased soluble transferrin receptor levels in transfusion-independent patients with ringed sideroblasts confirmed the presence of ineffective erythropoiesis and suppression of hepcidin production in these patients. Detectable labile plasma iron levels in combination with high transferrin saturation levels occurred almost exclusively in patients with ringed sideroblasts and all transfusion-dependent patient groups. Detectable labile plasma iron levels in transfusion-dependent patients without ringed sideroblasts were associated with decreased survival. In conclusion, toxic iron species occurred in all transfusion-dependent patients and in transfusion-independent patients with ringed sideroblasts. Labile plasma iron appeared to be a clinically relevant measure for potential iron toxicity and a prognostic factor for survival in transfusion-dependent patients. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: 00600860. Copyright

  16. Life history lability underlies rapid climate niche evolution in the angiosperm clade Montiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Ogburn, R; Edwards, Erika J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the recent focus on phylogenetic niche conservatism in macroevolutionary studies, many clades have diversified widely along multiple niche dimensions. The factors underlying lineage-specific niche lability are still not well understood. We examined morphological and climate niche evolution in Montiaceae (Caryophyllales), an ecologically variable plant lineage distributed primarily along the mountain chains of the western Americas. Montiaceae inhabit a broader range of temperatures than their relatives, with an increase in the evolutionary rate of temperature niche diversification at the node subtending this clade. Within Montiaceae, life history is highly labile and significantly correlated with temperature, with perennials consistently occurring in cooler environments. This elevated evolutionary lability facilitated repeated shifts between habitats as new environments were created by post-Eocene orogenic events and aridification in the western Americas. The shifts between annual and perennial forms are elaborations of an underlying rosette body plan in most cases, and may involve simple alterations in biomass allocation. Montiaceae stand as another clear counterexample to phylogenetic niche conservatism, and demonstrate a mechanism by which pronounced ecological shifts may occur frequently and rapidly among closely related species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole-plant versus leaf-level regulation of photosynthetic responses after partial defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Davies, Noel W; Corkrey, Ross; Churchill, Keith; O'Grady, Anthony P; Sands, Peter; Mohammed, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Increases in photosynthetic capacity (A1500) after defoliation have been attributed to changes in leaf-level biochemistry, water, and/or nutrient status. The hypothesis that transient photosynthetic responses to partial defoliation are regulated by whole-plant (e.g. source-sink relationships or changes in hydraulic conductance) rather than leaf-level mechanisms is tested here. Temporal variation in leaf-level gas exchange, chemistry, whole-plant soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance (KP), and aboveground biomass partitioning were determined to evaluate mechanisms responsible for increases in A1500 of Eucalyptus globulus L. potted saplings. A1500 increased in response to debudding (B), partial defoliation (D), and combined B&D treatments by up to 36% at 5 weeks after treatment. Changes in leaf-level factors partly explained increases in A1500 of B and B&D treatments but not for D treatment. By week 5, saplings in B, B&D, and D treatments had similar leaf-specific KP to control trees by maintaining lower midday water potentials and higher transpiration rate per leaf area. Whole-plant source:sink ratios correlated strongly with A1500. Further, unlike KP, temporal changes in source:sink ratios tracked well with those observed for A1500. The results indicate that increases in A1500 after partial defoliation treatments were largely driven by an increased demand for assimilate by developing sinks rather than improvements in whole-plant water relations and changes in leaf-level factors. Three carbohydrates, galactional, stachyose, and, to a lesser extent, raffinose, correlated strongly with photosynthetic capacity, indicating that these sugars may function as signalling molecules in the regulation of longer term defoliation-induced gas exchange responses.

  18. Modelling stand biomass fractions in Galician Eucalyptus globulus plantations by use of different LiDAR pulse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Miranda, D.; Barreiro-Fernandez, L.; Bujan, S.; Garcia-Gutierrez, J.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2013-07-01

    Aims of study: To evaluate the potential use of canopy height and intensity distributions, determined by airborne LiDAR, for the estimation of crown, stem and aboveground biomass fractions. To assess the effects of a reduction in LiDAR pulse densities on model precision. Area of study: The study area is located in Galicia, NW Spain. The forests are representative of Eucalyptus globulus stands in NW Spain, characterized by low-intensity silvicultural treatments and by the presence of tall shrub. Material and methods: Linear, multiplicative power and exponential models were used to establish empirical relationships between field measurements and LiDAR metrics. A random selection of LiDAR returns and a comparison of the prediction errors by LiDAR pulse density factor were performed to study a possible loss of fit in these models. Main results: Models showed similar goodness-of-fit statistics to those reported in the international literature. R2 ranged from 0.52 to 0.75 for stand crown biomass, from 0.64 to 0.87 for stand stem biomass, and from 0.63 to 0.86 for stand aboveground biomass. The RMSE/MEAN 100 of the set of fitted models ranged from 17.4% to 28.4%. Models precision was essentially maintained when 87.5% of the original point cloud was reduced, i.e. a reduction from 4 pulses m{sup 2} to 0.5 pulses m{sup 2}. Research highlights: Considering the results of this study, the low-density LiDAR data that are released by the Spanish National Geographic Institute will be an excellent source of information for reducing the cost of forest inventories. (Author)

  19. Trans labilization of am(m)ine ligands from platinum(II) complexes by cancer cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasherman, Yonit; Sturup, Stefan; Gibson, Dan

    2009-03-01

    Cisplatin, cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl(2)], is an effective anticancer agent in wide clinical use whose efficacy is affected by cellular interactions with sulfur-containing nucleophiles. These interactions can potentially enhance the efficacy of the drug by mediating its delivery to nuclear DNA or inactivate the drug by binding to it irreversibly or by labilizing the NH(3) ligands. Despite the potential importance of trans-labilization reactions in the mechanism of action of the drug, few detailed studies on trans labilization of the ammines have been conducted. We used 2D NMR to show that some trans labilization occurs in proliferating cells and that aqueous extracts of cancer cells labilized 20% of the amine ligands of cis-[PtCl(2)((13)CH(3)NH(2))(2)] after a 12-h incubation. Both low molecular mass nucleophiles (less than 3 kDa) and high molecular mass nucleophiles (more than 3 kDa) labilize the amines with similar efficiency. Studies with model compounds show that thiols and thioethers bind to platinum(II) at similar rates, but thioethers are significantly more efficient at labilizing the am(m)ine at lower pH. N-Acetylcysteine is a more efficient trans-labilizer than glutathione, suggesting that the displacement of the amine proceeds through an associative mechanism. The lag time, the time that elapses from the formation of the Pt-S bond till the release of the amine trans to the sulfur, depends on the pH (for thiols), increasing at lower pH. Quantification of the platinum adducts obtained from incubation of cisplatin with cell extracts indicates that two thirds of the platinum is bound to cellular components with molecular mass greater than 3 kDa.

  20. Drought and salt tolerance enhancement of transgenic Arabidopsis by overexpression of the vacuolar pyrophosphatase 1 (EVP1) gene from Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, M C; Baltierra, F; Leon, G; Krauskopf, E

    2013-12-01

    Vacuolar solute accumulation has been shown to be a mechanism by which plants are capable of increasing drought and salt tolerance. The exposure of plants to NaCl induces H+ transport into the vacuole by specialized pumps. One of them corresponds to the vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase, which generates a H+ gradient across the vacuolar membrane. In our laboratory we isolated the first cDNA sequence of a vacuolar pyrophosphatase type I (EVP1) from Eucalyptus globulus. Using real-time PCR we confirmed that EVP1 participates in Eucalyptus plants' response to drought and salt stress through an ABA independent pathway. Additionally, the overexpression of EVP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in an enhancement of drought and salt tolerance. Interestingly we established that the transgenic plants had a higher number of root hairs, which may have a positive effect on the plant's response to drought and salt stress. These results suggest that EVP1 plays an active role in abiotic stress tolerance in E. globulus, and that it may be potentially used to enhance drought and stress tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Transfer Rates of 238U and 232Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tshivhase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as 238U and 232Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of 238U and 232Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS, located at longitude 27°55′00″E and latitude 26°09′30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of 238U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10−2 was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of 232Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29, followed by E. globulus (0.10 and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10−2. The ratio of TF average value i.e., 238U to 232Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula.

  2. Lability of High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter Polysaccharides Increases with Mild Acid or Base Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler Sherwood, B.; Sosa, O.; Nelson, C. E.; Repeta, D.; DeLong, E.

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 662 Pg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has accumulated in the global ocean, yet the biological and chemical constraints on DOC turnover remain poorly understood. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM) is largely comprised of semi-labile polysaccharides. These polysaccharides resist degradation even in the presence of nutrient amendments, suggesting unknown factors of polysaccharide composition affect microbial degradation. In a series of microcosm incubations conducted at station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, we tested the affect of mild base (KOH-DOM) and acid (HCl-DOM) treatments on polysaccharide lability. KOH-DOM, HCl-DOM, and untreated HMWDOM was added to seawater from the deep chlorophyll maximum and 200m. Microcosms amended with KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM yielded higher bacterial abundance and greater carbon drawdown relative to untreated HMWDOM and unamended controls. Microcosms amended with KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM also showed significant production of fluorescent DOM (fDOM), whereas untreated HMWDOM and unamended controls showed a net decrease in fDOM as measured by parallel factor analysis of DOM excitation-emission spectra. Metagenomic analyses revealed that microcosms amended with untreated HMWDOM and controls became dominated by Alteromonas genera ( 60% total sequence reads). In contrast, KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM amended microcosms yielded greater bacterial diversity; Alteromonas genera comprised 25% of sequence reads, with differences primarily accounted for by proportional increases in vibrio, roseobacter, rugeria and marinomonas clades. Transcriptomic analyses identified differential gene expression during growth on each DOM fraction. This study provides new insight into specific chemical moieties that may limit the bacterial degradation rate of semi-labile HMWDOM in the ocean.

  3. Labile anger during interferon alfa treatment is associated with a polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrich, Francis E; Ferrell, Robert E; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Pollock, Bruce G

    2010-07-01

    Inflammatory cytokines may influence both labile anger and depression. Both psychiatric conditions can occur during interferon alfa-based treatments. Evidence also indicates a central nervous system role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), whose expression may be increased by interferon alfa. A polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-alpha has been associated with various inflammatory illnesses. We therefore hypothesized that this TNF-alpha polymorphism would influence susceptibility to psychiatric symptoms during interferon alfa therapy. One hundred five patients with hepatitis C, initially without active major depression (major depressive disorder), were treated with interferon alfa and then prospectively monitored using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Anger Irritability and Assault Questionnaire, and circulating TNF-alpha levels. The A-308G polymorphism (rs1800629) was determined using the 5'-nuclease assay. Repeated-measure mixed-effect analyses compared changes in symptoms over time. Beck Depression Inventory II score increased during interferon alfa therapy (F = 6.2; P depression incidence (chi = 0.0; P = 0.99) or increased Beck Depression Inventory II (F = 1.2; P = 0.31). Labile anger was not predicted by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (F = 0.8; P = 0.59). During treatment with an exogenous cytokine, vulnerability to worsening labile anger-distinct from major depression-is associated with genetic variability in TNF-alpha. This has implications both for patients being treated with interferon alfa and our understanding of genetic vulnerability for different subtypes of dysphoric and mood disorders.

  4. Effect of temperature on the decomposition of labile and recalcitrant organic matter in Chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larioinova, Alla; Kvitkina, Anna; Bykhovets, Sergey; Stulin, Alexandr; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the recalcitrant pool of soil organic matter (SOM) is more temperature sensitive to decomposition than the labile one. The hypothesis was verified for Chernozem soil sampled from the control (unfertilized) and fertilized with NPK experimental plots of the 50 year field experiment with maize monoculture in Voronezh Region, Russia (51o41'N, 39o15'E). The labile and recalcitrant SOM pools at 2, 12, and 22°C in a long-term (430 d) incubation experiment were traced using the method of 13C natural abundance by C3-C4 transition. Based on decomposition rate constants, the SOM pools followed the order plant residues < new (C4) SOM < old (C3) SOM, with plant residues as the most labile C pool. The hypothesis was valid only for the temperature interval of 12-22°C, where Q10 values increased in the recalcitrance order from 1.2 (plant residues) to 4.3 (C3 SOM). At low temperatures (2-12°C), the values of Q10 varied in the narrow range of 2.2-2.8 irrespective of a SOM pool. In the soil under maize monoculture fertilized with NPK, the increased decomposition of C3 SOM was observed compared to the unfertilized control. The input of new C4 carbon decreased the rate of CO2 emission during the decomposition of the old C3 SOM, i.e. induced negative priming effect (PE). To the contrast, the fertilization increased the positive PE for the C3 SOM. Along with the SOM decomposition rate constants, the magnitude of PE was also temperature dependent. The maximal negative PE in control treatment was found at the lowest temperature of 2oC, while the highest positive PE in NPK fertilized soil was observed at the highest temperature of 22oC.

  5. Characterizing organic matter lability in Alaskan tundra soils using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z.; Matamala, R.; Jastrow, J. D.; Liang, C.; Calderon, F.; Michaelson, G. J.; Ping, C. L.; Mishra, U.; Hofmann, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soils in permafrost regions contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) that is preserved in a relatively undecomposed state due to cold and often wet conditions, yet the potential lability of these SOC stocks is still largely unknown. Traditional methods of assessing SOC lability (e.g., laboratory incubation studies) are labor intensive and time consuming. Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (MidIR) provides a means to quickly estimate SOC quantity and quality based on the wealth of spectral information. In this study, we explored the possibility of linking MidIR spectra with SOC lability in Arctic tundra soils. Soils from four sites on the North Slope of Alaska were used in this study: a wet non-acidic tundra site in the coastal plain (CP), two moist acidic tundra sites between the northern foothills and the coastal plain (HC and SH), and another moist acidic tundra site in the northern foothills (HV). Active-layer organic and mineral soils and upper permafrost soils from the four sites were incubated for 60 days at -1, 1, 4, 8 and 16 °C. Thawed soils were allowed to drain to field capacity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) production was measured throughout the study. The chemical composition (e.g., total organic carbon and nitrogen) and MidIR spectra of soil samples were obtained before and after the incubations. CO2 production varied among soils and temperatures. CO2 production was greatest at 16 °C for CP and SH organic layers and for HC and HV permafrost layers. These trends among soil layers and sites remained similar at all temperatures. We found a good correlation between MidIR and cumulative 60-day CO2 production across different soils and temperatures. Characteristic MidIR bands and band ratios previously identified in the literature were also correlated with total CO2 production. For example, several band ratios (such as the ratio of aliphatics to clay or the ratio of lignin or phenolics to minerals) in the mineral active layer were highly

  6. Essential oil composition of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae - Periplocoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    The essential oil of the fruits of Periploca laevigata Aiton subsp. angustifolia (Labill.) Markgraf (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition was analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 64 volatile compounds belonging to different classes. The most abundant compounds were nonacosane, heptacosane, hentriacontane and δ-cadinene. Among the volatile compounds identified in the fruits of P. laevigata subsp. angustifolia, 31 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 19 have antimicrobial activity and four are pheromones for the butterfly Danaus chrysippus. The possible ecological role of the volatile compounds found is briefly discussed.

  7. Organic chemistry of basal ice - presence of labile, low molecular weight compounds available for microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Grzegorz P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Lawson, Emily; Stibal, Marek; Telling, Jon

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies show that subglacial environments previously thought to be devoid of life contain a host of active microbial organisms. Presence of liquid water due to overburden pressure, the release of nutrients from chemical erosion of bedrock, and the potential carbon sources in overridden sediments facilitate life in this extreme environment. However, little is still known of concentrations and diversity of labile organic compounds essential for sustaining microbial metabolism in subglacial environments. Three subglacial ecosystems that considerably differ in range and amount of available organic compounds were selected for this study 1-Engabreen, northern Norway, overlying high-grade metamorphic rocks with low organic carbon content; 2-Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, overriding ancient black shales with a relatively high carbon content yet recalcitrant to microbiological consumption; and 3-Russell Glacier in western Greenland with recently overridden quaternary organic rich paleosols. Basal and pressure ridge ice samples were collected and subsequently analysed for low molecular weight organic compounds, with the emphasis on volatile fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. The highest concentration of labile organic compounds in Greenland basal ice suggest that recently overridden paleosols have the greatest potential for sustaining microbial populations present within and underneath basal ice. The high concentration of "ancient" organic carbon in basal ice from Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, doesn't correlate with the presence of labile organic compounds. This indicates the inability of microbes to digest recalcitrant kerogen carbon in cold temperatures. In all three investigated environments, concentrations of labile organic compounds are elevated in basal ice with a high debris content. Until recently, most models of the global carbon cycle tend to neglect the pool of subglacial organic carbon as little is known about the range and concentrations of

  8. Two clusters of GABAergic ellipsoid body neurons modulate olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Jing; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2013-03-20

    In Drosophila, aversive olfactory memory is believed to be stored in a prominent brain structure, the mushroom body (MB), and two pairs of MB intrinsic neurons, the dorsal paired medial (DPM) and the anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons, are found to regulate the consolidation of middle-term memory (MTM). Here we report that another prominent brain structure, the ellipsoid body (EB), is also involved in the modulation of olfactory MTM. Activating EB R2/R4m neurons does not affect the learning index, but specifically eliminates anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM), the labile component of olfactory MTM. We further demonstrate that approximately two-thirds of these EB neurons are GABAergic and are responsible for the suppression of ASM. Using GRASP (GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners), we reveal potential synaptic connections between the EB and MB in regions covering both the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of EB neurons, suggesting the presence of bidirectional connections between these two important brain structures. These findings suggest the existence of direct connections between the MB and EB, and provide new insights into the neural circuit basis for olfactory labile memory in Drosophila.

  9. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  10. Interaction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with ceruloplasmin: role of labile copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostevich, Valeria A; Sokolov, Alexey V; Grudinina, Natalia A; Zakharova, Elena T; Samygina, Valeria R; Vasilyev, Vadim B

    2015-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is a target for pharmacological treatment of sepsis and malignant tumors. Inhibition of tautomerase activity of MIF in reaction with p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) was observed in the presence of ceruloplasmin (CP), a copper-containing plasma protein. Binding labile copper ions to CP (CP+Cu(II)) is a prerequisite for MIF inhibiting. CP+Cu(II) is shown to be an uncompetitive inhibitor of MIF (Ki ~ 37 nM), which suggests formation of a complex 'MIF-HPP-CP-Cu(II)'. Filtration of CP+Cu(II) on a column with Chelex-100, otherwise the presence of high concentrations of histidine, cysteine or methionine abrogated the inhibitory effect of CP. Adding salts of Co(II) and Ni(II) that replace copper ions in the labile sites prevented the inhibitory effect of CP+Cu(II). Limited proteolysis of CP by thrombin diminished its oxidase activity in reaction with p-phenylenediamine, but endowed it with the capacity of inhibiting MIF. Covalent modification of MIF by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) resulted in binding of MIF-PMSF to CP immobilized on CM5 chip, the dissociation constant being 4.2 μM. In D-galactosamine-sensitized mice CP+Cu(II) increased the LPS-induced lethality from 54 to 100%, while administration of antibodies against MIF prevented the lethal effect. The enhancement by CP+Cu(II) of the pro-inflammatory signal of MIF is discussed.

  11. The temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition is not related to labile and recalcitrant carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Cheng, Hao; Fang, Changming

    2017-01-01

    The response of resistant soil organic matter to temperature change is crucial for predicting climate change impacts on C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the response of the decomposition of different soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions to temperature is still under debate. To investigate whether the labile and resistant SOC components have different temperature sensitivities, soil samples were collected from three forest and two grass land sites, along with a gradient of latitude from 18°40'to 43°17'N and elevation from 600 to 3510 m across China, and were incubated under changing temperature (from 12 to 32 oC) for at least 260 days. Soil respiration rates were positively related to the content of soil organic carbon and soil microbial carbon. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, presented as Q10 value, varies from 1.93 ± 0.15 to 2.60 ± 0.21. During the incubation, there were no significant differences between the Q10 values of soil samples from different layers of the same site, nor a clear pattern of Q10 values along with the gradient of latitude. The result of this study does not support current opinion that resistant soil carbon decomposition is more sensitive to temperature change than labile soil carbon.

  12. Localization of alkali-labile sites in donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Crespo, Francisco; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-15

    The presence of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALS) has been investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization and comet assay in spermatozoa of donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus). These results were compared with those obtained using a similar experimental approach using somatic cells. The relative abundance of ALS was of the order of four times more in spermatozoa than in somatic cells. Alkali-labile sites showed a tendency to cluster localized at the equatorial-distal regions of the sperm. The amount of hybridized signal in the ALS in the sperm of donkey (Equus asinus) was 1.3 times greater than in stallion (Equus caballus), and the length of the comet tail obtained in donkey sperm was 1.6 times longer than that observed in stallion (P < 0.05); however, these differences were not appreciated in somatic cells. In conclusion, ALS localization in sperm is not a randomized event and a different pattern of ALS distribution occurs for each species. These results suggest that ALS represents a species-specific issue related to chromatin organization in sperm and somatic cells in mammalian species, and they might diverge even with very short phylogenetic distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. NATURE OF THE LABILE IMMUNOGENIC SUBSTANCE IN THE PARTICULATE FRACTION ISOLATED FROM MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Anne S.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1964-01-01

    Youmans, Anne S. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.), and Guy P. Youmans. Nature of the labile immunogenic substance in the particulate fraction isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 88:1030–1037. 1964.—Deoxyribonuclease had no effect on the immunogenic activity of the labile particulate fraction isolated from ruptured viable cells of the H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but decreased the ropiness of the ruptured cellular mass. Ribonuclease, in a high concentration, decreased the immunogenic activity slightly. Addition of yeast ribonucleic acid to particulate fraction incubated at 37 C prevented the decrease in immunogenic activity which normally occurs at this temperature, suggesting that endogenous ribonuclease may be involved in the reduction of activity. Differential centrifugation by the use of Brodie's (1962) method showed that the particles which sedimented at 56,550 × g were immunogenically active. Experiments were done to determine whether the integrity of the structure of the particle was necessary for immunogenic activity. It was found that sonic oscillation, freezing and thawing several times, the addition of surface-active agents (sodium lauryl sulfate or deoxycholate), and preparation of the particulate fraction in hypotonic solutions either decreased or destroyed immunogenic activity. This strengthens the evidence that a structural unit is necessary for activity. In addition, both a waxy sediment and the smallest particles which sedimented only at 144,000 × g were highly immunogenic if incorporated into Freund's incomplete adjuvant. In the absence of adjuvant, neither produced any immunity. PMID:14219015

  14. Strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds induced by ultraviolet light in DNA with 5-bromouracil in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasin, F; Hutchinson, F

    1978-01-01

    Supercircular gamma phage DNA with 10 bromouracils/100 thymine bases, irradiated with 313 nm light in Tris buffer and sedimented on alkaline and neutral gradients, showed 4.6 alkali-labile bonds per true single-strand break, in agreement with Hewitt and Marburger (1975 Photochem. Photobiol. 21:413). The same DNA irradiated in Escherichia coli host cells showed about the same number of breaks in alkaline gradients for equal fluence, but only 0.5 alkali-labile bond per true break. Similarly, E. coli DNA with bromouracil irradiated in the cells showed only 10--20% more breaks when denatured with 0.1 M NaOH than under neutral conditions with 9 M sodium perchlorate at 50 degrees C. These results show that true single-strand breaks occur more frequently than alkali-labile bonds after ultraviolet irradiation of DNA containing bromouracil in cells. PMID:367462

  15. Distribución de raíces finas de eucalyptus globulus ssp. maidenii y su relación con algunas propiedades del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Gaitán; Eduardo Augusto Penón; María Cristina Costa

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la distribución vertical de la densidad de raíces finas (hasta 2 mm de diámetro) de Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maidenii y su relación con algunas propiedades del suelo hasta una profundidad de 0,5 m. Las raíces fueron muestreadas en la zona cercana el tronco de 10 árboles, utilizando el método del cilindro. La distribución de raíces finas fue influenciada por las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo. La mayor densidad de raíces finas (DRF) fue...

  16. Exploring the effect of different plant lignin content and composition on ionic liquid pretreatment efficiency and enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus L. mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, G; Varanasi, P; Sun, L; Cheng, G; Stavila, V; Holmes, B; Simmons, B A; Adani, F; Singh, S

    2012-08-01

    There are several approaches being investigated to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion into fermentable sugars, including those that engineer the feedstocks to enhance digestibility. In this study it was evaluated the impact of genotype modifications of three mutants of Eucalyptus globulus L., and of the corresponding wild type on cellulose hydrolyzability before and after ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment. Both untreated and IL-treated samples were chemically characterized and tested for cellulose hydrolizability. Results obtained indicate that genetic modifications altered wood lignin-S/G ratio. This alteration resulted in a different hydrolyzability of cellulose for untreated samples, i.e. high lignin-S/G ratio produced low glucose yield (r=-0.97; Pglobulus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Eucalyptus globulus using explants with shoot apex with introduction of bacterial choline oxidase gene to enhance salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Oishi, Masatoshi; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most economically important plantation hardwoods for paper making. However, its low transformation frequency has prevented genetic engineering of this species with useful genes. We found the hypocotyl section with a shoot apex has the highest regeneration ability among another hypocotyl sections, and have developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using these materials. We then introduced a salt tolerance gene, namely a bacterial choline oxidase gene (codA) with a GUS reporter gene, into E. globulus. The highest frequency of transgenic shoot regeneration from hypocotyls with shoot apex was 7.4% and the average frequency in four experiments was 4.0%, 12-fold higher than that from hypocotyls without shoot apex. Using about 10,000 explants, over 250 regenerated buds were confirmed as transformants by GUS analysis. Southern blot analysis of 100 elongated shoots confirmed successful generation of stable transformants. Accumulation of glycinebetaine was investigated in 44 selected transgenic lines, which showed 1- to 12-fold higher glycinebetaine levels than non-transgenic controls. Rooting of 16 transgenic lines was successful using a photoautotrophic method under enrichment with 1,000 ppm CO(2). The transgenic whole plantlets were transplanted into potting soil and grown normally in a growth room. They showed salt tolerance to 300 mM NaCl. The points of our system are using explants with shoot apex as materials, inhibiting the elongation of the apex on the selection medium, and regenerating transgenic buds from the side opposite to the apex. This approach may also solve transformation problems in other important plants.

  18. Sources, lability and solubility of Pb in alluvial soils of the River Trent catchment, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M; Tye, A M; Chenery, S R

    2012-09-01

    Alluvial soils are reservoirs of metal contaminants such as Pb that originate from many different sources and are integrated temporally and spatially through erosional and depositional processes. In this study the source, lability and solubility of Pb were examined in a range of alluvial soils from the middle and lower River Trent and its tributary the River Dove using Pb isotope apportionment and isotopic dilution. All samples were collected within 10 m of the river bank to represent the soil that is most likely to be remobilised during bank erosion. Paired samples were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (35-50 cm) to assess differences with depth. Lead concentrations in soil ranged from 43 to 1282 mg/kg. The lability of soil Pb varied between 9 and 56% of total metal concentration whilst Pb concentrations in pore water varied between 0.2 and 6.5 μg/L. There was little difference in the % Pb lability between paired top and sub soils, possibly because soil characteristics such as pH, iron oxides and clay content were generally similar; a result of the recycling of eroded and deposited soils within the river system. Soil pH was found to be negatively correlated with % Pb lability. Source apportionment using (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed that the isotopic ratios of Pb in the total, labile and solution pools fitted along a mixing line between Broken Hill Type ('BHT') Pb, used as an additive in UK petrol, and the local coal/Southern Pennine ore Pb. Various anomalies were found in the Pb isotopes of the bankside alluvial soils which were explained by point source pollution. Statistically significant differences were found between (i) the isotopic composition of Pb in the total soil pool and the labile/solution pools and (ii) the isotopic composition of Pb in the labile and solution pools, suggesting an enrichment of recent non-Pennine sources of Pb entering the soils in the labile and solution pools. Copyright © 2012 Natural Environment

  19. Developmental Change and Intraindividual Variability: Relating Cognitive Aging to Cognitive Plasticity, Cardiovascular Lability, and Emotional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis; Lindenberger, Ulman; Smith, Jacqui

    2010-01-01

    Repeated assessments obtained over years can be used to measure individuals’ developmental change, whereas repeated assessments obtained over a few weeks can be used to measure individuals’ dynamic characteristics. Using data from a burst of measurement embedded in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE: Baltes & Mayer, 1999), we illustrate and examine how long-term changes in cognitive ability are related to short-term changes in cognitive performance, cardiovascular function, and emotional experience. Our findings suggest that “better” cognitive aging over approximately13 years was associated with greater cognitive plasticity, less cardiovascular lability, and less emotional diversity over approximately 2 weeks at age 90 years. The study highlights the potential benefits of multi-time scale longitudinal designs for the study of individual function and development. PMID:21443355

  20. Lability of soil organic carbon in tropical soils with different clay minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Elberling, Bo; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    of SOC was lowest in the allophanic and chloritic soil, higher in the kaolinitic soils and highest in the smectitic soil. Our results contrast with conventional concepts of the greater capacity of smectite than of kaolinite to stabilize SOC. Contents of dithionite–citrate–bicarbonate extractable Fe...... stabilization in the kaolinitic soils. Our results suggest that the validity of predictive models of SOC turnover in tropical soils would be improved by the inclusion of soil types and contents of Fe and Al (hydr-) oxides.......Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover is influenced by interactions between organic matter and the mineral soil fraction. However, the influence of clay content and type on SOC turnover rates remains unclear, particularly in tropical soils under natural vegetation. We examined the lability...

  1. BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. PLANTATIONS IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferrere

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the West of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina with the objective of adjusting functions of biomass of individual trees, in their different compartments and in the understorey. Stands of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. were identified, with ages between 4 and 14 years-old. Twenty-one individuals were felled with diameters ranging from 9,2 to 32,5 cm. Simple and multiple regression models were developed and volume, branch leaf and stem biomass were estimated. The best volume equations were based on lineal models and the most adequate behavior was obtained with d2. To estimate leaf, branch and stem, ln-ln models have been suggested, with diameter and h or only diameter. The leaf biomass presented the weakest adjustment. The distribution of trees biomass agrees with the bibliography. The proportion of crown biomass decreases with age; on the other hand, the proportion of stem biomass increases with age.

  2. Acid-Labile Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Containers for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dake; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yamin; Zhou, Xianhao; Ma, Jiaqi; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Jia; Ma, Da

    2017-10-02

    Stimuli-responsive molecular containers are of great importance for controlled drug delivery and other biomedical applications. A new type of acid labile acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecular containers is presented that can degrade and release the encapsulated cargo at accelerated rates under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5). These containers retain the excellent recognition properties of CB[n]-type hosts. A cell culture study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of cargos could be fine-tuned by complexation with different containers. The release and cell uptake of cargo dye was promoted by acidic pH. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  4. High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Thomas C; Hammond, Robert L; Jenner, Ronald A; Zierold, Thorid; Hänfling, Bernd; Gómez, Africa

    2013-02-05

    Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy - where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations - is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual systems, including androdioecy. An understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in this group has been hampered by poor phylogenetic resolution and confounded by the widespread occurrence of cryptic species. Here we use a multigene supermatrix for 30 taxa to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of Notostraca. Based on this phylogenetic reconstruction we use character mapping techniques to investigate the evolution of sexual systems. We also tested the hypothesis that reproductive assurance has driven the evolution of androdioecy in Notostraca. Character mapping analysis showed that sexual system is an extremely flexible trait within Notostraca, with repeated shifts between gonochorism and androdioecy, the latter having evolved a minimum of five times. In agreement with the reproductive assurance hypothesis androdioecious notostracans are found at significantly higher latitudes than gonochoric ones indicating that post glacial re-colonisation may have selected for the higher colonisation ability conferred by androdioecy. In contrast to their conserved morphology, sexual system in Notostraca is highly labile and the rare reproductive mode androdioecy has evolved repeatedly within the order. Furthermore, we conclude that this lability of sexual system has been maintained for at least 250 million years and may have contributed to the long term evolutionary persistence of Notostraca. Our results further our understanding of the evolution of androdioecy

  5. High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathers Thomas C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy – where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations – is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual systems, including androdioecy. An understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in this group has been hampered by poor phylogenetic resolution and confounded by the widespread occurrence of cryptic species. Here we use a multigene supermatrix for 30 taxa to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of Notostraca. Based on this phylogenetic reconstruction we use character mapping techniques to investigate the evolution of sexual systems. We also tested the hypothesis that reproductive assurance has driven the evolution of androdioecy in Notostraca. Results Character mapping analysis showed that sexual system is an extremely flexible trait within Notostraca, with repeated shifts between gonochorism and androdioecy, the latter having evolved a minimum of five times. In agreement with the reproductive assurance hypothesis androdioecious notostracans are found at significantly higher latitudes than gonochoric ones indicating that post glacial re-colonisation may have selected for the higher colonisation ability conferred by androdioecy. Conclusions In contrast to their conserved morphology, sexual system in Notostraca is highly labile and the rare reproductive mode androdioecy has evolved repeatedly within the order. Furthermore, we conclude that this lability of sexual system has been maintained for at least 250 million years and may have contributed to the long term evolutionary persistence of Notostraca. Our

  6. Processing thermally labile drugs by hot-melt extrusion: The lesson with gliclazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siyuan; O'Donnell, Kevin P; Delpon de Vaux, Sophie M; O'Brien, John; Stutzman, John; Williams, Robert O

    2017-10-01

    The formation of molecularly dispersed amorphous solid dispersions by the hot-melt extrusion technique relies on the thermal and mechanical energy inputs, which can cause chemical degradation of drugs and polymeric carriers. Additionally, drug degradation may be exacerbated as drugs convert from a more stable crystalline form to a higher energy amorphous form. Therefore, it is imperative to study how drug degrades and evaluate methods to minimize drug degradation during the extrusion process. In this work, gliclazide was used as a model thermally labile drug for the degradation kinetics and process optimization studies. Preformulation studies were conducted using thermal analyses, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify drug degradation pathways and to determine initial extrusion conditions. Formulations containing 10% drug and 90% AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME 100LV were then extruded using a twin screw extruder, and the extrudates were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, modulated dynamic scanning calorimetry, and potency testing to evaluate physicochemical properties. The energies of activation for both amorphous gliclazide, crystalline gliclazide, and gliclazide solution were calculated using the Arrhenius equation to further guide the extrusion optimization process. Preformulation studies identify two hydrolysis degradation pathways of gliclazide at elevated temperatures. The activation energy study indicates a significantly higher degradation rate for the amorphous gliclazide compared to the crystalline form. After optimization of the hot-melt extrusion process, including improved screw designs, machine setup, and processing conditions, gliclazide amorphous solid dispersion with ∼95% drug recovery was achieved. The ability to process thermally labile drugs and polymers using hot-melt extrusion will significantly expand the possible applications of this manufacturing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Computer assisted prescription of labile blood products: What are we expecting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G

    2016-11-01

    Computer assisted prescription of labile blood products is just at its beginning. Current programs already allow embedding automatically such data as patient's and prescribers' identification or ward details to produce readable prescriptions, also complying with part of Good Practice guidelines. Now prescriptions can also be sent electronically to the Etablissement Francais du Sang, the French blood products services. Usually they are computer programs specialised in transfusion and interfaced with the main patient's file software. Hardly ever the main software is able to manage transfusion itself. Next step would consist in performing checks, calculations or displaying warning or help messages based on academic or local medical recommendations or even tailored to pre-defined individual requirements. But these call for direct access to patient's data such as diagnosis or tests results, that must be accurately classified and coded before use. The main software could provide such functionalities: but actually that would be infrequent and difficult to transpose from one hospital to the other, regarding to the diversity of main software and their settings. Another solution would be to enhance the very few transfusion specialised programs in order to assist prescribers. Data could be prepared and sent by the main software according to a standardised format each time a prescription is to be entered. This standardised format should be independent from software in order to ensure interoperability, whatever the main and specialised programs. The content and format of this data exchange has to be defined, but this would allow hundreds of hospitals to provide a comprehensive tool for prescription of labile blood products, regardless of their main patient's file software. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Emotional Lability in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Ann C; Sallee, Floyd R

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder defined by persistent inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These symptoms occur more frequently and are more severe in individuals with ADHD compared with those at a similar developmental level without ADHD, and can be conceptualized as deficits in executive functioning (EF). EF includes domains of metacognition and inhibition, which influence the ability to regulate responses elicited by emotional stimuli. EF deficits can lead to emotional lability (EL), which is characterized by sudden changes in emotion and behaviors of inappropriately high intensity that may include sudden bouts of anger, dysphoria, sadness, or euphoria. EL is common and estimated to occur in about 3.3-10% of the population. Recent estimates of EL prevalence in children and adolescents with ADHD range from 38 to 75%. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not include EL in diagnostic criteria for ADHD, but does include ADHD-associated features of low frustration tolerance, irritability, or mood lability. The neurobiological basis of EL is not well understood, but brain imaging studies support dividing EF into "cool" cognitive networks encompassing attention and planning activities, and "hot" motivational networks involved in temporal discounting, reward processing, and reward anticipation. Dysfunction in "hot" networks is thought to be related to EL. EL symptoms are associated with more severe ADHD and co-morbidities, have significant impact on functioning, and may respond to treatment with medications frequently used to treat ADHD. Treatment outcomes and areas for future research are discussed.

  9. Variations temporelles à haute résolution des propriétés du bois d'Eucalyptus globulus irrigués et non irrigués

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, David M.; Downes, Geoffrey M.; O'Grady, Anthony P.; Read, Jennifer; Worledge, Dale

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Environmental determinants of wood properties variation were examined in Eucalyptus globulus, a globally important hardwood plantation species, in southern Tasmania, Australia. * Radial variation in wood properties, measured with the SilviScan system, were re-scaled from distance to time abscissa using stem radial growth data measured with dendrometers. With this re-scaled data it was possible to evaluate how water availability and temperature affected wood density, mi...

  10. Tumor marker disaccharide D-Gal-beta 1,3-GalNAc complexed to heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenAkker, F; Steensma, E; Hol, WGJ

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is part of the cholera toxin (CT) family and consists of a catalytic A subunit and a B pentamer that serves to recognize the oligosaccharide part of the G(M1) ganglioside receptor. We report here the crystal structure of heat-labile enterotoxin in complex with the

  11. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C. M.; van der Vorm, Lisa N.; Cabantchik, Z. Ioav; Evans, Patricia J.; Hod, Eldad A.; Brittenham, Gary M.; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Porter, John B.; Mattijssen, Vera E. J. M.; Biemond, Bart J.; MacKenzie, Marius A.; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C.; Swinkels, Dorine W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron)

  12. Forms and lability of phosphorus in algae and aquatic macrophytes characterized by solution 31P NMR coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased information on forms and lability of phosphorus (P) in aquatic macrophytes and algae is crucial for better understanding of P biogeochemical cycling in eutrophic lakes. In this work, solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used ...

  13. Analysis and modeling of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli suggests a novel space with insights into receptor preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Raja, M; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Vino, S; Sajitha Lulu, S

    2015-01-01

    Features of heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli which make them fit to use as novel receptors for antidiarrheals are not completely explored. Data-set of 14 different serovars of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxins were taken from NCBI Genbank database and used in the study. Sequence analysis showed mutations in different subunits and also at their interface residues. As these toxins lack crystallography structures, homology modeling using Modeller 9.11 led to the structural approximation for the E. coli producing heat-labile toxins. Interaction of modeled toxin subunits with proanthocyanidin, an antidiarrheal showed several strong hydrogen bonding interactions at the cost of minimized energy. The hits were subsequently characterized by molecular dynamics simulation studies to monitor their binding stabilities. This study looks into novel space where the ligand can choose the receptor preference not as a whole but as an individual subunit. Mutation at interface residues and interaction among subunits along with the binding of ligand to individual subunits would help to design a non-toxic labile toxin and also to improve the therapeutics.

  14. On the Labile Memory Buffer in the Attentional Blink: Masking the T2 Representation by Onset Transients Mediates the AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Report of a second target (T2) is impaired when presented within 500 ms of the first (T1). This attentional blink (AB) is known to cause a delay in T2 processing during which T2 must be stored in a labile memory buffer. We explored the buffer's characteristics using different types of masks after T2. These characteristics were inferred by…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  16. Effect of land use and longitudinal gradient on carbon quality and lability in the Vesdre River catchment, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, G. M.; Bravo-Palacios, L.; Gupta, S.

    2011-12-01

    In order to construct accurate terrestrial carbon budgets, it is necessary to understand how land use and river processing affect the export and quality of organic matter. Fluorescence spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality, but how fluorescence characteristics relate to the functional properties of DOM is hardly known. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Characterize DOM quality in diverse land-use types and along a longitudinal gradient in the Vesdre River, Belgium; and 2. At the same sites, relate fluorescence characteristics to DOM lability, which was quantified by microbial respiration and denitrification measurements. The Vesdre basin is 710 km2, contains 429 people/km2, and is characterized by peat, forest, agricultural, and urban land use. Surface water samples from main stem sites (14), tributaries (13), and reservoirs (2) were collected along a 40 km section of the River Vesdre in January 2011. Main stem sites were used to examine the effect of longitudinal processing while tributary sites were used to assess the effects of land use, which included peat, forest, agriculture and urban. Samples were analyzed for DOC concentration, fluorescence, and absorbance spectra. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) were generated and analyzed in a 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. Lability was determined by 42-day incubations in which DOC consumption was fitted with a 3-pool kinetics model, which partitioned the DOM into labile, semi-labile, and refractory pools and generated a decay rate (k) for each pool. The effect of DOM quality on denitrification was also determined using an acetylene block assay in which only excess NO3 was added and samples were normalized to a similar DOC concentration. Mulitivariate regression was used to relate land use and river position to fluorescence properties and DOM lability. High concentration of DOC and intensity of fluorophore C (humic-like fraction, also

  17. Impuesto sobre la renta

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Grup d'Innovació Docent en Economia dels Impostos (GIDEI)

    2016-01-01

    Tema 7. Esquema de presentación del tema "Impuesto sobre la renta". Incorpora datos actuales, gráficos, cuadros y tablas. Esquema de presentació del tema "Impuesto sobre la renta". Incorpora dades actuals, gràfics, quadres i taules.

  18. 14C as a tracer of labile organic matter in Antarctic benthic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Brett L.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2008-11-01

    14C measurements were made on surface plankton, particle-trap material, surface sediment, benthic invertebrate gut contents, and body tissue samples to assess the effectiveness of this radioisotope as a tracer of labile organic carbon in Antarctic benthic food webs. Samples were collected on five cruises to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf between November 1999 and March 2001 as part of the Food for Benthos on the ANtarctic Continental-Shelf (FOODBANCS) Project. The 14C contents of the body tissues from a variety of deposit feeders (-126±13 per mil) were substantially enriched relative to the surface sediment (-234±13 per mil) and statistically similar to the organic matter collected in plankton tows (-135±10 per mil), indicating that recently produced marine plankton are the primary source of nutrition for these deposit feeders on the West Antarctic shelf. Selective ingestion was the primary feeding strategy used by echiuran worms and certain holothurians (i.e. Peniagone vignoni) for incorporating labile organic carbon into their tissues as demonstrated by the large differences (105±13 per mil) between surface sediment and gut content 14C activities. In contrast, digestive and/or assimilatory selection was the predominant strategy used by an irregular urchin ( Amphipneustes lorioli) and several other holothurians ( Protelpidia murrayi, Bathyplotes fuscivinculum and the head-down conveyor belt feeder, Molpadia musculus), as demonstrated by large differences (42±7 per mil) between the 14C activities of their foregut or whole-gut organic contents and their body tissues. Despite large fluctuations in carbon export from the euphotic zone, benthic feeding strategies remained essentially constant over the 15-month sampling period. No seasonal variation was evident in either the 14C abundance of the deposit-feeder body tissues, or in the 14C abundance of their gut contents. The mean 14C abundance in the body tissues of the two sub-surface deposit feeders ( A

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus communis and Satureja hortensis against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in minced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, D; Yangüela, J; Amrouche, T; Boubrit, S; Boussad, N; Roncalés, P

    2011-12-01

    Essential oils (EOs) extracted by hydrodistillation from leaf parts of Algerian Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus communis and Satureja hortensis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main components of EOs obtained were γ-terpinene (94.48%), 1,8-cineole (46.98%) and carvacrol (46.10%), respectively, for E. globulus, M. communis and S. hortensis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 CECT 4267 using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that E. globulus and S. hortensis EOs had more antibacterial effects than that from M. communis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) showed a range of 0.05-0.22% (volume by volume [v/v]). Sensitivity of gram-positive S. aureus was much higher than that of gram-negative E. coli. Plant EOs were added to minced beef (two-fold MIC value) at 0.10-0.44%, experimentally inoculated with the same pathogens at a level of 5 × 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/g and stored at 5 ± 2 °C. Results showed that the EOs of E. globulus and S. hortensis had remarkable antibacterial properties, higher than that of M. communis, against S. aureus and E. coli. Indeed, a reduction of 5.8 log cfu/g (70.74% of reduction) was recorded after 7 days of storage for S. hortensis against E. coli. However, regarding S. aureus, both S. hortensis and E. globulus caused a highly significant (p < 0.05) decrease of microbial counts, most evident after 5 days of storage; S. aureus numbers were 3.50 and 2.50 cfu/g, respectively, corresponding to a reduction of 2.20 and 3.20 log cfu/g (38.60 and 56.14% of reduction) after 1 week of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that the aroma of minced beef meat treated with EOs was acceptable by panelists at the levels used.

  20. Salt tolerance is evolutionarily labile in a diverse set of angiosperm families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Camile; Hua, Xia; Bromham, Lindell

    2015-05-19

    Salt tolerance in plants is rare, yet it is found across a diverse set of taxonomic groups. This suggests that, although salt tolerance often involves a set of complex traits, it has evolved many times independently in different angiosperm lineages. However, the pattern of evolution of salt tolerance can vary dramatically between families. A recent phylogenetic study of the Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family) concluded that salt tolerance has a conserved evolutionary pattern, being gained early in the evolution of the lineage then retained by most species in the family. Conversely, a phylogenetic study of the Poaceae (grass family) suggested over 70 independent gains of salt tolerance, most giving rise to only one or a few salt tolerant species. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach to explore the macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in a sample of angiosperm families, in order to ask whether either of these two patterns - deep and conserved or shallow and labile - represents a common mode of salt tolerance evolution. We analyze the distribution of halophyte species across the angiosperms and identify families with more or less halophytes than expected under a random model. Then, we explore the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes in 22 families using phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that salt tolerance species have been reported from over one-third of angiosperm families, but that salt tolerant species are not distributed evenly across angiosperm families. We find that salt tolerance has been gained hundreds of times over the history of the angiosperms. In a few families, we find deep and conserved gains of salt tolerance, but in the majority of families analyzed, we find that the pattern of salt tolerant species is best explained by multiple independent gains that occur near the tips of the phylogeny and often give rise to only one or a few halophytes. Our results suggest that the pattern of many independent gains of salt tolerance near the tips

  1. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the

  2. Interspecific variations in mangrove leaf litter decomposition are related to labile nitrogenous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Salewski, Tabea; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove leaves form a large pool of carbon, nitrogen and energy that is a major driver of element cycles and detrital food webs inside mangrove forests as well as in adjacent coastal waters. However, there are large gaps in knowledge on the transformation pathways and ultimate fate of leaf nitrogen. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the amount and composition of nitrogenous organic matter and possible species-specific differences during the decomposition of mangrove leaf litter. For that purpose a three month decomposition experiment with litterbags was conducted using leaves of Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia alba, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, and Sonneratia caseolaris in the mangrove forest of the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Detrital leaves were analyzed for bulk carbon and total nitrogen (N), stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (δ13C, δ15N), total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA) and total hydrolyzable hexosamines (THHA). Decomposition rates (k d-1) were highest and tM50 values (when 50% of the original mass had been degraded) lowest in S. caseolaris (k = 0.0382 d-1; tM50 = 18 days), followed by A. alba, C. decandra, A. corniculatum, and R. apiculata (k = 0.0098 d-1; tM50 = 71 days). The biochemical composition of detrital leaves differed significantly among species and over time. S. caseolaris and A. alba had higher concentrations of N, THAA and THHA and a lower C/N ratio than the other three species. For most of the species concentrations of N, THAA and THHA increased during decomposition. The hexosamine galactosamine, indicative of bacterial cell walls, was first found in leaves after 5-7 days of decomposition and increased afterwards. Our findings suggest an increasing, but species-specific varying, portion of labile nitrogenous OM and total N in decomposing leaves over time that is partly related to the activity of leaf-colonizing bacteria. Despite a higher relative nitrogen content in the

  3. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  4. Stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) for the passive, integrative sampling of labile metals in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Manahan, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    A stabilized liquid membrane device (SLMD) is described for potential use as an in situ, passive, integrative sampler for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in natural waters. The SLMD (patent pending) consists of a 2.5-cm-wide by 15-cm-long strip of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tubing containing 1 mL of an equal mixture (v/v) of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and EMO-8Q (7-[4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl]-8-quinolinol). The reagent mixture continuously diffuses to the exterior surface of the LDPE membrane, and provides for sequestration of several divalent metals for up to several weeks. Depending on sampler configuration, concentration factors of several thousand can be realized for these metal ions after just a few days. In addition to in situ deployment, the SLMD may be useful for laboratory determination of labile metal species in grab samples. Methods for minimizing the effects of water flow on the sampling rate are currently under investigation.

  5. The baubellum is more developmentally and evolutionarily labile than the baculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough-Stevens, Michael; Schultz, Nicholas G; Dean, Matthew D

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence sexual dimorphism is a fundamental goal in biology. Here, we focus on one particularly extreme example of sexual dimorphism. Many mammal species possess a bone in their penis called a baculum. The female equivalent of this bone is called the baubellum and occurs in the clitoris, which is developmentally homologous to the male penis. To understand the potential linkage between these two structures, we scored baculum/baubellum presence/absence across 163 species and analyzed their distribution in a phylogenetic framework. The majority of species ( N  = 134) shared the same state in males and females (both baculum and baubellum present or absent). However, the baubellum has experienced significantly more transitions, and more recent transitions, so that the remaining 29 species have a baculum but not a well-developed baubellum. Even in species where both bones are present, the baubellum shows more ontogenetic variability and harbors more morphological variation than the baculum. Our study demonstrates that the baculum and baubellum are generally correlated across mammals, but that the baubellum is more evolutionarily and developmentally labile than the baculum. The accumulation of more evolutionary transitions, especially losses in the baubellum, as well as noisier developmental patterns, suggests that the baubellum may be nonfunctional, and lost over time.

  6. BIOMASA EN PLANTACIONES DE Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferrere

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el oeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina con el objetivo de ajustar funciones de biomasa de árboles individuales y determinar la biomasa en diferentes compartimientos de la planta y el sotobosque. Se identificaron rodales de Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. cuyas edades oscilaron entre 4 y 14 años. Se apearon 21 árboles con diámetros entre 9,2 y 32,5 cm. Se desarrollaron regresiones simples y múltiples y se estimó el volumen, la biomasa en ramas, hojas y fuste. Las ecuaciones de volumen de mejor comportamiento son basadas en modelos lineales en su forma normal, y el modelo más adecuado fue el que incorporó al d2 (R2 = 0,92. Para la estimación de la biomasa en hojas, ramas, copa y fuste se recomienda los modelos ln-ln que consideran el d y h o solo el d. El componente de la biomasa en hojas presentó una estimación más débil. La distribución de la biomasa en los individuos sigue el patrón de desarrollo que se encuentra en la bibliografía. La proporción de la biomasa en la copa disminuye con la edad, contrariamente a lo sucedido con el fuste.

  7. A novel nanoparticulate system for sustained delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind Sadashiv; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, an effort was made to develop the Eudragit RS100 based nanoparticulate system for sustained delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ). LPZ-loaded Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs) were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The effects of various formulation variables such as polymer concentration, drug amount and solvent composition on physicochemical performance of nanoparticles and in vitro drug release were investigated. All nanoparticles were spherical with particle size 198.9 ± 8.6-376.9 ± 5.6 nm and zeta potential +35.1 ± 1.7 to +40.2 ± 0.8 mV. The yield of nanoparticles was unaffected by change of these three variables. However, the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were affected by polymer concentration and drug amount. On the other hand, the particle size of nanoparticles was significantly affected by polymer concentration and internal phase composition due to influence of droplet size during emulsification process. All nanoparticles prolonged drug release for 24h which was dominated by a combination of drug diffusion and polymer chain relaxation. The fastest and the slowest release rates were observed in C2-1002-10/0 and C8-4001-10/0, respectively, based on the release rate constant (k). Thus, the developed nanoparticles possessed a potential as a nano-carrier to sustain drug delivery for treatment of acid related disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant regulation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon lability in a Neotropical peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girkin, Nicholas; Vane, Christopher; Turner, Benjamin; Ostle, Nicholas; Sjogersten, Sofie

    2017-04-01

    Tropical peatlands are under significant threat from land use changes but there remains a significant knowledge gap regarding the influences of contrasting plant types on greenhouse gas emissions and belowground carbon dynamics. We investigated differences in surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes and differences in soil organic carbon chemistry under contrasting surface vegetation types, a palm (Raphia taedigera) and a broadleaved evergreen tree (Campnosperma panamensis), in a Neotropical peatland. CO2 and CH4 production differed significantly between species, with higher fluxes measured under R. taedigera. There were significant differences in peat carbon properties under each species as revealed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Peat from under each species showed contrasting trends in degradation inside and outside the rooting zone, and strong differences in the presence of the most labile fractions of carbon. These results highlight the strong impacts that surface vegetation can have on surface gas emissions as well as the influences exerted on peat carbon chemistry within a tropical forested peatland, with implications for our understanding of changes in land use type across the tropics.

  9. Labile organic carbon regulates phosphorus release from eroded soil transported into anaerobic coastal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Jouni; Ekholm, Petri; Wahlström, Stella; Tallberg, Petra; Uusitalo, Risto

    2015-03-01

    Coastal eutrophication is expected to increase due to expanding and intensifying agriculture which causes a large amount of soil-associated P to be transported into aquatic systems. We performed anaerobic long-term incubations on field soil to mimic the conditions that eroded soil encounters in brackish sediments. The release of P from soil increased with the amount of labile organic C (acetate) addition and decreased with the soil/solution ratio. We deduce that in less-productive brackish systems, microbial Fe reduction allows for the maintenance of the coupled cycling of Fe and P and restricts the amount of P entering the oxic water. In more eutrophic systems, the formation of Fe sulfides as a result of SO4 reduction inactivates Fe, and leads to a higher release of P, thus generating an adverse feedback effect. The dependence of the fate of soil-bound Fe and P on the trophic status of the receiving water should be recognized in eutrophication management.

  10. Labile Zn ions on octacalcium phosphate-derived Zn-containing hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Anada, Takahisa; Morimoto, Shinji [Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (CFE), Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu, E-mail: suzuki-o@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (CFE), Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    We previously synthesized and characterized zinc-containing octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and its hydrolyzed Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA). In the present report, we attempted to define the state of Zn in the OCP-derived Zn-calcium phosphates (CaPs) in relation to the presence of specific amino acids. Zn-containing OCPs were prepared in solutions that included Zn ions up to a concentration of 3.5 mM, and their hydrolyzates [hydrolyzed (hy)-Zn-CaP] were obtained in hot water. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The concentration of Ca and Zn ions at room temperature was determined by analyzing the supernatant after incubating the materials in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) and HEPES buffer including cysteine, histidine, lysine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Zn ions were more dissolved in α-MEM than HEPES buffer in the absence of amino acids. The inclusion of the amino acids enhanced Zn dissolution by several hundred fold, even in HEPES buffer. Among the amino acids, both cysteine and histidine enhanced the release of Zn. The effect was particularly remarkable with cysteine even in the presence of the other amino acids tested. These results indicate that Zn ions are present as a surface labile pool, which tends to be preferentially desorbed by cysteine, a ubiquitous molecule present in serum.

  11. Isolation and evolution of labile sulfur allotropes via kinetic encapsulation in interactive porous networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuba Kitagawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of small sulfur allotropes have long remained unachievable because of their extreme lability. This study reports the first direct observation of disulfur (S2 with X-ray crystallography. Sulfur gas was kinetically trapped and frozen into the pores of two Cu-based porous coordination networks containing interactive iodide sites. Stabilization of S2 was achieved either through physisorption or chemisorption on iodide anions. One of the networks displayed shape selectivity for linear molecules only, therefore S2 was trapped and remained stable within the material at room temperature and higher. In the second network, however, the S2 molecules reacted further to produce bent-S3 species as the temperature was increased. Following the thermal evolution of the S2 species in this network using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy unveiled the generation of a new reaction intermediate never observed before, the cyclo-trisulfur dication (cyclo-S32+. It is envisaged that kinetic guest trapping in interactive crystalline porous networks will be a promising method to investigate transient chemical species.

  12. Cold Lability of Pyruvate, Orthophosphate Dikinase in the Maize Leaf 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahashi, Kenji; Hayakawa, Shinobu; Sugiyama, Tatsuo

    1978-01-01

    Cold lability of pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase was investigated using a homogeneous, purified enzyme preparation from maize (Zea mays L. var. Golden Cross Bantam T51) leaves. Its stability was markedly reduced below about 10 C and the rate of cold inactivation followed first order kinetics at a concentration lower than about 0.1 milligram of enzyme per milliliter. Cold inactivation was little affected by pH in the range which gives good stability for the enzyme at warm temperatures and the enzyme activity was protected strongly by inclusion of substrates (pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate) and polyols such as sucrose, sorbitol, and glycerol. Loss of catalytic activity was accompanied by an apparent dissociation of a tetrameric form of the enzyme (9S form) into a new, more slowly sedimenting (5.1S) component. Inclusion of pyruvate at 4 mM in the cold-treated enzyme had no effect on the sedimentation value. A sharp change in activation energy of the dikinase-catalyzed reaction was observed near 12 C and its break point appears to be close to the generally accepted critical low temperature limit for the growth of maize plants. ImagesFig. 6 PMID:16660615

  13. Sequence specificity of alkali-labile DNA damage photosensitized by suprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, S M; Davies, R J

    2000-09-01

    On irradiation at UVB wavelengths, in aerated neutral aqueous solution, the anti-inflammatory drug suprofen (SP) photosensitizes the production of alkali-labile cleavage sites in DNA much more efficiently than direct strand breaks. It is active at submillimolar concentrations despite having no significant binding affinity for DNA. Gel sequencing studies utilizing 32P-end-labeled oligonucleotides have revealed that piperidine-sensitive lesions are formed predominantly at the positions of guanine (G) bases, with the extent of modification being UV dose- and SP concentration-dependent. Quite distinct patterns of G-specific damage are observed in single-stranded and duplex DNA molecules. The uniform attack at all G residues in single-stranded DNA, which is enhanced in D2O, is compatible with a Type-II mechanism. SP is a known generator of singlet oxygen whose participation in the reaction is supported by the effects of quenchers and scavengers. In duplex DNA, piperidine-induced cleavage occurs with high selectivity at the 5'-G of GG and (less prominently) GA doublets. This behavior is characteristic of a Type-I process involving electron transfer from DNA to photoexcited SP molecules. The ability of SP to sensitize the formation of Type-I and Type-II photo-oxidation products from 2'-deoxyguanosine attests to the feasibility of competing mechanisms in DNA.

  14. Influence of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of two isoetids, Littorella uniflora and Echinodorus repens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    . Hence, our objective was to study the combined effects of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of Echinodorus repens and Littorella uniflora and on the force required to uproot plants of L. uniflora. 2. Lake sediments, rich in organic matter, were collected from four lakes......, two with healthy populations of isoetids and two from which isoetids had disappeared. The four lake sediments were mixed with sand to prepare a range of experimental sediments that differed in quantity and lability of sediment organic matter. Two isoetid species, E. repens and L. uniflora, were grown...... of the experiment, plants were harvested and their biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and (for L. uniflora) uprooting force were measured. 3. For both species, all plants survived and showed no signs of stress on all types of sediment. The biomass of E. repens increased as the fraction of organic matter...

  15. ESTIMATIVA DA BIOMASSA E DO CONTEÚDO DE NUTRIENTES DE UM POVOAMENTO DE Eucalyptus globulus (Labillardière SUB-ESPÉCIE maidenii

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estimar a produção de biomassa acima do solo e determinar o conteúdo de nutrientes nos diferentes componentes das árvores de um povoamento de Eucalyptus globulus subespécie maidenii. Os dados foram coletados em um talhão de 4 anos de idade, plantado em solo argiloso, no município de Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul. Para determinar a quantidade de biomassa, foi utilizada uma equação de regressão (lnY = a + b * lnX cujos coeficientes foram calculados com base em nove árvores amostradas em diferentes classes diamétricas. A biomassa total acima do solo foi de 83,2 Mg ha-1, em que 13; 10; 9 e 68 % encontravam-se distribuídos nas folhas, ramos, casca e madeira, respectivamente. Do total dos elementos na árvore, na madeira do tronco foram encontrados 29; 29; 40; 12,5 e 34% de N, P, K, Ca e Mg respectivamente. Já na copa das árvores, esses mesmos elementos representaram 64; 56; 48,5; 32 e 39%. A casca foi o componente que acumulou as maiores quantidades de cálcio, (55,3% do total.

  16. A real scale phytoremediation of multi-metal contaminated e-waste recycling site with Eucalyptus globulus assisted by electrical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jian; Huo, Siyuan; Qi, Shihua; Gu, Xiaowen Sophie

    2018-03-05

    The combined utilization of direct or alternating electric fields and phytoremediation was designed to decontaminate multi-metal polluted soil at a field scale e-waste recycling impacted site. Eucalyptus globulus was chosen for metal purification for its resilient and unpalatable nature. Biomass production, metal concentration and water use efficiency of the species under direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) fields with various voltages were investigated. DC and AC fields stimulated the growth of the plant, except for DC field with high voltage (10 V). Metal concentrations increased in plant tissues under the influence of AC or DC fields irrespective of voltages. DC fields elevated the root and shoot metal contents of plants in equal proportions and AC fields tended to migrate metals from roots to the aboveground parts of the species. Compared to the control, soil moisture of various soil layers at the planted site was significantly lower and subsequently leading to the decrease of metal leaching. In soil profile metal distributes differently between DC and AC treatments. Compared to AC field, more metals tended to accumulate in soil surface under the influence of DC fields due to the stable converse gravitational pathway of metals. Considering decontamination efficiency, leaching interception and energy consumption, DC field with moderate voltage was a suitable candidate for real scale multi-metal polluted soil phytoremediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus

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    Márcio Viera

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes via decomposição da serapilheira foliar, em um plantio de híbrido de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foi utilizada a técnica de litter bags para a avaliação da decomposição. Ao todo, foram utilizados 648 litter bags, com coletas mensais de 18 amostras, durante o período de 36 meses. A perda de massa foliar apresentou correlação positiva com a concentração de nutrientes, indicando que, quanto maior a perda de massa, maior a concentração dos elementos no folhedo remanescente. A decomposição da serapilheira foliar apresentou inicialmente imobilização de P, Fe, Mn e Zn, e disponibilização dos demais nutrientes. O P tornou-se disponível a partir do segundo ano, enquanto o Mn e o Zn, somente a partir do terceiro ano.

  18. Estimativa da biomassa e do conteúdo de nutrientes de um povoamento de Eucalyptus globulus (Labillardière sub-espécie maidenii

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present was to estimate the above-ground biomass and nutrient content of different components of Eucalyptus globulus subspecie maidenii trees. Data were collected in a four year old plantation on clay soil in the town of Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul. A regression equation (lnY = a + b* lnX, was used to estimate biomass production whose coefficients were calculated from data from nine trees sampled in different diametric classes. The total above-ground biomass was 83,2 Mg ha -1 where 13; 10; 9 and 68 % were spread in the leaves, branches, bark and wood, respectively. In the wood of the stem were found 29; 29; 40; 12,5 and 34% of above-ground biomass N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, in the canopy of the trees these same elements have represented 64, 56, 48,5, 32 and 39%. The bark was the component which has accumulated the bigger amount of calcium, 55,3% of the total.

  19. Site-specific responses to short-term environmental variation are reflected in leaf and phloem-sap carbon isotopic abundance of field grown Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas N; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Samsa, Glen A; Adams, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (δ(13) C) of plant material has been used extensively as an indirect measure of carbon fixation per volume of water used. More recently, the δ(13) C of phloem sap (δ(13) C(phl) ) has been used as a surrogate measure of short-term, canopy scale δ(13) C. Using a combination of δ(13) C physiological, structural and chemical indices from leaves and phloem sap of Eucalyptus globulus at sites of contrasting water availability, we sought to identify short-term, canopy scale resource limitations. Results illustrate that δ(13) C(phl) offers valid reflections of short-term, canopy scale values of leaf δ(13) C and tree water status. Under conditions limited by water, leaf and phloem sap photoassimilates differ in (13) C abundance of a magnitude large enough to significantly influence predictions of water use efficiency. This pattern was not detected among trees with adequate water supply indicating fractionation into heterotrophic tissues that may be sensitive to plant water status. Trees employed a range of physiological, biochemical and structural adaptations to acclimate to resource limitation that differed among sites providing a useful context upon which to interpret patterns in δ(13) C. Our results highlight that such easily characterized properties are ideal for use as minimally invasive tools to monitor growth and resilience of plants to variations in resource availability. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  20. Condensed lignin structures and re-localization achieved at high severities in autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood and their relationship with cellulose accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Fabio; Troncoso, Eduardo; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira; Freer, Juanita

    2015-09-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood was subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment at different severity factors. The pretreated materials were enzymatically saccharified at a substrate load of 10% (w/v) using a cellulase enzyme complex. Around 82-95% of original glucans were retained in the pretreated material, and the enzymatic hydrolysis yields ranged from 58% to 90%. The chemical and structural changes in the pretreated materials were investigated by microscopic (SEM, LSCM) and spectroscopic (2D-HSQC NMR and FT-IR) techniques. 2D-NMR results showed a reduction in the amounts of β-O-4 aryl-ether linkages and suggested the presence of newly condensed structures of lignin in the biomass pretreated at the more severe conditions. Furthermore, the microscopic analysis showed that lignin migrates out of the cell wall and re-deposits in certain regions of the fibers at the more severe conditions to form droplet-like structures and expose the cellulose surface. These changes improved the glucose yield up to 69%, on dry wood basis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Estimativa da biomassa e do conteúdo de nutrientes de um povoamento de Eucalyptus globulus (Labillardière sub-espécie maidenii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estimar a produção de biomassa acima do solo e determinar o conteúdo de nutrientes nos diferentes componentes das árvores de um povoamento de Eucalyptus globulus subespécie maidenii. Os dados foram coletados em um talhão de 4 anos de idade, plantado em solo argiloso, no município de Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul. Para determinar a quantidade de biomassa, foi utilizada uma equação de regressão (lnY = a + b * lnX cujos coeficientes foram calculados  com base em nove árvores amostradas em diferentes classes diamétricas. A biomassa total acima do solo foi de 83,2 Mg ha-1, em que 13; 10; 9 e 68 % encontravam-se distribuídos nas folhas, ramos, casca e madeira, respectivamente. Do total dos elementos na árvore, na madeira do tronco foram encontrados 29; 29; 40; 12,5 e 34% de N, P, K, Ca e Mg respectivamente. Já na copa das árvores, esses mesmos elementos representaram 64; 56; 48,5; 32 e 39%. A casca foi o componente que acumulou as maiores quantidades de cálcio, (55,3% do total.

  2. A Biorefinery Cascade Conversion of Hemicellulose-Free Eucalyptus Globulus Wood: Production of Concentrated Levulinic Acid Solutions for γ-Valerolactone Sustainable Preparation

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    Sandra Rivas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to preliminary aqueous processing to remove water-soluble extractives and hemicelluloses, and the resulting solid (mainly made up of cellulose and lignin was employed as a substrate for converting the cellulosic fraction into mixtures of levulinic and formic acid through a sulfuric acid-catalyzed reaction. These runs were carried out in a microwave-heated reactor at different temperatures and reaction times, operating in single-batch or cross-flow modes, in order to identify the most favorable operational conditions. Selected liquid phases deriving from these experiments, which resulted in concentrated levulinic acid up to 408 mmol/L, were then employed for γ-valerolactone production by levulinc acid hydrogenation in the presence of the commercial 5% Ru/C catalyst. In order to assess the effects of the main reaction parameters, hydrogenation experiments were performed at different temperatures, reaction times, amounts of ruthenium catalyst and hydrogen pressure. Yields of γ-valerolactone in the range of 85–90 mol % were obtained from the hydrogenation of the wood-derived solutions containing levulinic acid, obtained by single-batch operation or by the cross-flow process. The negative effect of co-produced formic acid present in crude levulinic acid solutions was evidenced and counteracted efficiently by allowing the preliminary thermal decomposition of formic acid itself.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

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    Carlos M. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids. In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar, co-solvent (ethanol content (0, 5 and 8% wt, and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold.

  4. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE RAÍCES FINAS DE Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maidenii Y SU RELACIÓN CON ALGUNAS PROPIEDADES DEL SUELO

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    María Cristina Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la distribución vertical de la densidad de raíces finas (hasta 2 mm de diámetro de Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maidenii y su relación con algunas propiedades del suelo hasta una profundidad de 0,5 m. Las raíces fueron muestreadas en la zona cercana el tronco de 10 árboles, utilizando el método del cilindro. La distribución de raíces finas fue influenciada por las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo. La mayor densidad de raíces finas (DRF fue hallada en los primeros 20 cm del suelo, mientras que la menor DRF fue observada en el horizonte arcilloso. DRF se correlacionó positivamente con el contenido de carbono orgánico y fósforo extractable y negativamente con la densidad aparente del suelo.

  6. Predicción bayesiana de parámetros genéticos en clones de Eucalyptus globulus bajo condiciones de suplemento hídrico

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    Freddy Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis Bayesiano de parámetros genéticos del crecimiento en 29 clones de Eucalyptus globulus de doce meses de edad, en el sur de Chile. Se consideraron dos condiciones ambientales contrastantes en cuanto a la disponibilidad hídrica: 1. Sin irrigación, y 2. Las plantas se irrigaron con un sistema localizado de riego. Para el análisis Bayesiano se utilizó el algoritmo de Gibbs en un modelo de interacción clonambiente. Los valores de heredabilidad fueron altos en la condición de riego (moda a posteriori de H^2=0,41, 0,36 y 0,39 para la altura, diámetro y área basal, respectivamente, en tanto que en la situación sin riego, los valores de las heredabilidades fueron significativamente más bajos; confirmado por medio de los intervalos de credibilidad Bayesianos (95 % de probabilidad. La moda a posteriori de la correlación genética entre sitios fue positiva y alta para las tres características (r=0,7, 0,65 y 0,8, para altura, diámetro y área basal, respectivamente, y de acuerdo al intervalo de credibilidad, esta correlación fue estadísticamente diferente de cero, indicando una interacción no significativa.

  7. Simple atmospheric hydrogen/deuterium exchange method for enumeration of labile hydrogens by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2013-06-04

    A simple method for hydrogen/deuterium exchange in a standard electrospray (ESI) ionization source is presented. In this method, a D₂O droplet is placed between the ESI needle and the entrance of the mass spectrometer and thus saturation of the atmosphere with deuterated vapor in the ESI region is achieved. It was shown that full exchange of up to 23 labile acidic hydrogens with a minimal back exchange with the surrounding atmospheric water can be performed by this method.

  8. Dual, differential isotope labeling shows the preferential movement of labile plant constituents into mineral-bonded soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddix, Michelle L; Paul, Eldor A; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-06-01

    The formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) are major concerns in the context of global change for carbon sequestration and soil health. It is presently believed that lignin is not selectively preserved in soil and that chemically labile compounds bonding to minerals comprise a large fraction of the SOM. Labile plant inputs have been suggested to be the main precursor of the mineral-bonded SOM. Litter decomposition and SOM formation are expected to have temperature sensitivity varying with the lability of plant inputs. We tested this framework using dual (13) C and (15) N differentially labeled plant material to distinguish the metabolic and structural components within a single plant material. Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) seedlings were grown in an enriched (13) C and (15) N environment and then prior to harvest, removed from the enriched environment and allowed to incorporate natural abundance (13) C-CO2 and (15) N fertilizer into the metabolic plant components. This enabled us to achieve a greater than one atom % difference in (13) C between the metabolic and structural components within the plant litter. This differentially labeled litter was incubated in soil at 15 and 35 °C, for 386 days with CO2 measured throughout the incubation. After 14, 28, 147, and 386 days of incubation, the soil was subsequently fractionated. There was no difference in temperature sensitivity of the metabolic and structural components with regard to how much was respired or in the amount of litter biomass stabilized. Only the metabolic litter component was found in the sand, silt, or clay fraction while the structural component was exclusively found in the light fraction. These results support the stabilization framework that labile plant components are the main precursor of mineral-associated organic matter. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hourly Fluctuations in Labile Soil Phosphorus in Response to Climate Variability in a Wet Tropical Forest, La Selva, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecar, K. L.; Lawrence, D. C.; Das, R.; Clark, D. A.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2007-05-01

    Tropical rain forests are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and play a significant role in the global carbon budget. Changes in phosphorus cycling dynamics as a result of on-going climate change have the potential to limit productivity in this ecosystem. Our objective was to determine hourly patterns in labile soil phosphorus throughout the day and explore possible mechanisms driving these patterns. We conducted an in situ experiment on soils from a wet tropical forest at La Selva Biological Station located in N.E. Costa Rica. A variety of climatic and biotic variables including temperature, precipitation, PAR, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration were measured in order to determine their effect on labile phosphorus. Our results indicate that labile phosphorus does vary significantly throughout the day in response to a combination of climatic variables. An understanding of the mechanisms driving phosphorus availability at fine temporal scales can provide a valuable indicator of long term trends in phosphorus cycling dynamics.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction performed in low temperature and in vacuo for the extraction of labile compounds in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaohua; Song, Wei; Wang, Jiayue; Li, Gongke

    2012-01-27

    In this study, low temperature vacuum microwave-assisted extraction, which simultaneous performed microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) in low temperature and in vacuo environment, was proposed. The influencing parameters including solid/liquid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, degree of vacuum and microwave power were discussed. The predominance of low temperature vacuum microwave-assisted extraction was investigated by comparing the extraction yields of vitamin C, β-carotene, aloin A and astaxanthin in different foods with that in MAE and solvent extraction, and 5.2-243% increments were obtained. On the other hand, the chemical kinetics of vitamin C and aloin A, which composed two different steps including the extraction step of analyte transferred from matrix into solvent and the decomposition step of analyte degraded in the extraction solvent, were proposed. All of the decomposition rates (K(2)) for the selected analyte in low temperature, in vacuo and in nitrogen atmosphere decreased significantly comparing with that in conventional MAE, which are in agreement with that obtained from experiments. Consequently, the present method was successfully applied to extract labile compound from different food samples. These results showed that low temperature and/or in vacuo environment in microwave-assisted extraction system was especially important to prevent the degradation of labile components and have good potential on the extraction of labile compound in foods, pharmaceutical and natural products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM-REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness.

  12. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen eKirov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM and REM sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM-REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness.

  13. Parenteral adjuvant effects of an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC natural heat-labile toxin variant

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    Catarina Joelma Magalhães Braga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intranasal delivery had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2, after delivery via intradermal (i.d. and subcutaneous (s.c. routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1, produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63 were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4+ T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunised with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunised with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2 display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Heat-Labile Toxin Expressed by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Humans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaro, M. A.; Rodrigues, J. F.; Mathias-Santos, C.; Guth, B. E. C.; Balan, A.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M. E.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    The natural diversity of the elt operons, encoding the heat-labile toxin LT-I (LT), carried by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from humans was investigated. For many years, LT was supposed to be represented by a rather conserved toxin, and one derivative, produced by the reference H10407 strain, was intensively studied either as a virulence factor or as a vaccine adjuvant. Amplicons encompassing the two LT-encoding genes (eltA and eltB) of 51 human-derived ETEC strains, either LT+ (25 strains) only or LT+/ST+ (26 strains), isolated from asymptomatic (24 strains) or diarrheic (27 strains) subjects, were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Seven polymorphic RFLP types of the H10407 strain were detected with six (BsaI, DdeI, HhaI, HincII, HphI, and MspI) restriction enzymes. Additionally, the single-nucleotide polymorphic analysis revealed 50 base changes in the elt operon, including 21 polymorphic sites at eltA and 9 at eltB. Based on the deduced amino acid sequences, 16 LT types were identified, including LT1, expressed by the H10407 strain and 23 other strains belonging to seven different serotypes, and LT2, expressed by 11 strains of six different serotypes. In vitro experiments carried out with purified toxins indicated that no significant differences in GM1-binding affinity could be detected among LT1, LT2, and LT4. However, LT4, but not other toxin types, showed reduced toxic activities measured either in vitro with cultured cells (Y-1 cells) or in vivo in rabbit ligated ileal loops. Collectively, these results indicate that the natural diversity of LTs produced by wild-type ETEC strains isolated from human hosts is considerably larger than previously assumed and may impact the pathogeneses of the strains and the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:18223074

  15. Enumeration of labile hydrogens in natural organic matter by use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Kharybin, Oleg; Perminova, Irina; Konstantinov, Andrey; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2013-11-19

    A method to enumerate labile hydrogens in all constituents of molecular ensemble of natural organic matter (NOM) based on our previously developed simple hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange (electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source (Kostyukevich et al. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 5330) and ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is presented. The method was applied for analysis of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), which is an International Humic Substances Society standard, as well as Siberian crude oil; and lignosulfonate. We found that SRFA and lignosulfonate molecules contain 2-5 labile hydrogens, and their number increases with the number of oxygens in the molecule. Also, we observed that compounds of Siberian crude oil ionizing in positive-ESI mode do not have labile hydrogens, while compounds ionizing in negative-ESI mode have one labile hydrogen that detaches during ESI ionization.

  16. Comparative gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of essential oils extracted using 4 methods from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eucalyptus globulus L. (family, Myrtaceae is one of the world′s most widely planted genera. E. globulus L., commonly referred to as Tasmanian blue gum, is a fast growing, evergreen tree, native to Tasmania and South-East Australia. Apart from its extensive use in pulp industry, it is also produces Oleum Eucalypti (eucalyptus oil that is extracted on commercial scale in many countries such as China, India, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil, and Tasmania, as a raw material in perfumery, cosmetics, food beverage, aromatherapy, and phytotherapy. Materials and Methods: Traditional hydrodistillation (HD, solvent extraction (SE, ultrasonication (US, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were conducted for the extraction of essential oil from the leaves of E. globulus. Each oil was evaluated in terms of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR fingerprinting with qualitative and semi-quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS, the extract yield of essential oil was 2.60%, 2.2%, 2.0%, and 3.6% v/w, respectively, for HD, SE, US, and SFE. Results: A total of 53 compounds were identified by GCMS. Comparative analysis indicated that SFE was favorable for extraction of monoterpene hydrocarbon, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, and oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbon. HD, SE, and US had certain advantages in the extraction of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons organic acid and esters. Overlay, FTIR spectra of oil samples obtained by four extraction methods were superimposed with each other showing similar components. The maximum separation of compound seen at 254 nm and lesser at 366 nm by HPTLC fingerprinting which again showed superimposed chromatograms. Conclusion: It is concluded that different extraction method may lead to different yields of essential oils where the choice of appropriate method is very important to obtained more desired

  17. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  18. Parenteral adjuvant potential of recombinant B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB is a potent mucosal immune adjuvant. However, there is little information about LTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant. OBJECTIVES We aimed at evaluating and better understanding rLTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant using the fused R1 repeat of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin as an antigen to characterise the humoral immune response induced by this construct and comparing it to that generated when aluminium hydroxide is used as adjuvant instead. METHODS BALB/c mice were immunised intraperitoneally with either rLTBR1 or recombinant R1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. The levels of systemic anti-rR1 antibodies (total Ig, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The ratio of IgG1 and IgG2a was used to characterise a Th1, Th2, or mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. FINDINGS Western blot confirmed rR1, either alone or fused to LTB, remained antigenic; anti-cholera toxin ELISA confirmed that LTB retained its activity when expressed in a heterologous system. Mice immunised with the rLTBR1 fusion protein produced approximately twice as much anti-rR1 immunoglobulins as mice vaccinated with rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. Animals vaccinated with either rLTBR1 or rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide presented a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. We speculate this might be a result of rR1 immune modulation rather than adjuvant modulation. Mice immunised with rLTBR1 produced approximately 1.5-fold more serum IgA than animals immunised with rR1 and aluminium hydroxide. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that rLTB is a more powerful parenteral adjuvant than aluminium hydroxide when administered intraperitoneally as it induced higher antibody titres. Therefore, we recommend that rLTB be considered an alternative adjuvant, even if different administration routes are employed.

  19. Sobre software libre

    OpenAIRE

    Matellán Olivera, Vicente; González Barahona, Jesús; Heras Quirós, Pedro de las; Robles Martínez, Gregorio

    2004-01-01

    220 p. "Sobre software libre" reune casi una treintena de ensayos sobre temas de candente actualidad relacionados con el software libre (del cual Linux es su ex- ponente más conocido). Los ensayos que el lector encontrará están divididos en bloques temáticos que van desde la propiedad intelectual o las cuestiones económicas y sociales de este modelo hasta su uso en la educación y las administraciones publicas, pasando por alguno que repasa la historia del software libre en l...

  20. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  1. Targeting oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, proinflammatory cytokine, dopamine and GABA by eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus) to alleviate ketamine-induced psychosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Parle, Milind; Kumar, Anil; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-02-20

    Essential oil of eucalyptus species is among the most common traded essential oils in the world. There is an increasing interest in the application of eucalyptus oil as a natural additive in food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study was undertaken to identify the phytoconstituents present in the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EO) and ascertain their protective effect against ketamine-induced psychosis in rats. GC-MS technique was used for analysis of phytoconstituents present in EO. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce psychosis in rats. Photoactometer, forced swim test and pole climb avoidance test were used to evaluate the protective effects of the EO (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) on acute and chronic administration. Bar test was used to test the side effect of EO. Biochemical and neurochemical estimations were carried out to explore the possible mechanism of action. GC-MS analysis of EO showed the presence of a number of biologically active compounds. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o. on acute and chronic administration, decreased locomotor activity, immobility duration and latency to climb the pole. EO was effective to facilitate the release of GABA, increase GSH levels, inhibit dopamine neurotransmission and decrease TNF-α levels as well as diminish AChE activity in different regions of the brain. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 mg/kg did not produce cataleptic behavior in rats. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 mg/kg produced protective effects against ketamine-induced psychosis and can be further explored clinically against neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Eduardo P; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Garcia, Martín N; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M G; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM ) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly heterozygous

  3. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Paul P G; Crous, Kristine Y; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Ellsworth, David S; Tjoelker, Mark G; Evans, John R; Tissue, David T; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R(dark)), and the short-term T response of R(dark) were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T-response curves of R(dark) measured over the 15-65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R(dark) measured at T <35 °C and that there was no interactive effect of [CO2], growth T, and drought on T response of R(dark). However, drought increased R(dark) at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35-45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R(dark) occurred (Tmax) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R(dark) (i.e. proportional rise in R(dark) per 10 °C) over the 15-35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  5. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  6. Monitoring of (bio)available labile metal fraction in a drinking water treatment plant by diffusive gradients in thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alfredo; Arnedo, Rebeca; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Devesa, Ricard; Martin-Alonso, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A performance study of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was applied for the monitoring of the labile fraction of metals Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, in Sant Joan Despí Drinking Water Treatment Plant located in the South of Barcelona's Metropolitan Area (Spain). The DWTP monitoring protocol was optimized by working for 1 day of deployment (24 h) with the DGT device in contact with both treated and river water matrixes. Additionally, it was demonstrated that an increase in the deployment time of 1 week did not decrease the evaluated concentrations of the studied metals. The quality parameters of the DGT device and ICP-OES determination, such as limit of quantification, accuracy expressed as relative error (%) and reproducibility expressed as relative standard deviation, were evaluated. Good results were obtained for all the metals in ultrapure water; limits of quantification ranged from 1.5 μg L( - 1) for cadmium to 28 μg L( - 1) for zinc when deployment time of 24 h was used and from 0.2 μg L( - 1) for cadmium to 4 μg L( - 1) for zinc when this time was increased by 1 week. Accuracy and precisions lower than or equal to 10% were obtained at a parametric concentration value of the metals regulated in the European Drinking Water Guidelines (98/83/EC). DGT deployment was tested in river and treated water, and good results were obtained for Cd, Ni, Co and Zn, whereas for the other metals, a continuous control of their metallic labile fractions was monitored. Therefore, DGT device allows the continuous monitoring of the labile metal species in a drinking water treatment plant.

  7. [Effects of the different land use on soil labile organic matter and carbon management index in Junyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Zhu, Tao

    2013-10-01

    The impacts of different land use on soil organic matter (SOM), soil labile organic matter (SLOM) and their efficiency ratios (ER), and soil carbon management index (CMI) were studied in this study. Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest) , sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land were selected and soils at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm were sampled in the spring of 2011 to determine the contents of soil organic matter and labile organic matter. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter and soil labile organic matter both decreased with the increase of soil depth under all four land use types; however, forest and orchard enriched SOM and SLOM contents in the 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm soil layers, respectively, while the contents of SOM and SLOM decreased evenly in sloping farmland and abandoned land. In the whole soil layer (0-60 cm) , the order of SOM and SLOM contents was abandoned land > forest > orchard > sloping farmland, indicating that at the conversion from forest into orchard or sloping farmland, SOM was reduced by 21.56% (P >0.05) and 55.90% (P forest > orchard > sloping farmland, revealing that forest reclamation resulted in the reduction of soil organic carbon storage and the decline of soil quality, and the abandonment of sloping farmland would increase soil carbon sink and improve soil quality. Three kinds of SLOM were all positively correlated with soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, while negatively correlated with soil density bulk, indicating that SLOM had close relationships with soil physical and chemical characters and could be used as an important index to reflect soil nutrient status and judge soil quality.

  8. Resumen estudios sobre tabaquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gónzalez, M.M. (M.)

    2009-01-01

    Este documento se realizó para publicar en la página Web de la Gerencia de Atención primaria del Área III. Este documento es una recopilación de estudios sobre tabaquismo. Gerencia de Atención Primaria Área III

  9. Preorganized AgI Bimetallic Precursor with Labile Diphosphorus Ligands for a Programmed Synthesis of Organometallic–Organic Hybrid Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mehdi Elsayed; Seidl, Michael; Balázs, Gábor; Zabel, Manfred; Virovets, Alexander V.; Attenberger, Bianca; Schreiner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An AgI dimer capped with labile organometallic diphosphorus ligands [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(η2‐P2)] (Cp=C5H5) acts as a highly pre‐organized molecular precursor to direct the construction of 1D or 2D, and 3D organometallic–organic hybrid coordination polymers upon reaction with ditopic pyridine‐based linkers. The formation of the supramolecular aggregates can be controlled by the stoichiometry of the organic molecules, and the mechanism is supported by DFT calculations. PMID:28960509

  10. Preorganized AgIBimetallic Precursor with Labile Diphosphorus Ligands for a Programmed Synthesis of Organometallic-Organic Hybrid Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mehdi Elsayed; Seidl, Michael; Balázs, Gábor; Zabel, Manfred; Virovets, Alexander V; Attenberger, Bianca; Schreiner, Andrea; Scheer, Manfred

    2017-11-16

    An Ag I dimer capped with labile organometallic diphosphorus ligands [Cp 2 Mo 2 (CO) 4 (η 2 -P 2 )] (Cp=C 5 H 5 ) acts as a highly pre-organized molecular precursor to direct the construction of 1D or 2D, and 3D organometallic-organic hybrid coordination polymers upon reaction with ditopic pyridine-based linkers. The formation of the supramolecular aggregates can be controlled by the stoichiometry of the organic molecules, and the mechanism is supported by DFT calculations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  12. Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, R.R.; Young, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil nitrogen and favor native species. We studied the interaction of labile carbon addition (sucrose), with soil invasion status and fertilizer addition on the growth of B. tectorum. Soils were non invaded (BNI) and B. tectorum invaded (BI). Treatments were control, sucrose, combined fertilizer, and sucrose + fertilizer. The greenhouse experiment continued for 3 growth-cycles. After the 1st growth-cycle, sucrose addition reduced B. tectorum aboveground mass almost 70 times for the BI soil but did not significantly reduce growth in the BNI soil. B. tectorum aboveground mass, after the 1st growth-cycle, was over 27 times greater for BI control soils than BNI control soils. Although sucrose addition reduced soil-solution NO 3 , tissue N was not significantly lowered, suggesting that reduction of soil available N may not be solely responsible for reduction in B. tectorum growth. Non invaded soil inhibits growth of B. tectorum. Understanding this mechanism may lead to viable control strategies.

  13. Clay content drives carbon stocks in soils under a plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon accumulation is largely dependent on net primary productivity. To our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the dynamics of carbon accumulation in weathered subtropical soils, especially in managed eucalyptus plantations. We quantified the seasonal input of leaf litter, the leaf decomposition rate and soil carbon stocks in an commercial plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate, through multiple linear regression, the influence that certain chemical characteristics of litter, as well as chemical and physical characteristics of soil, have on carbon accumulation in soil organic matter fractions. Variables related to the chemical composition of litter were not associated with the soil carbon stock in the particulate and mineral fractions. However, certain soil characteristics were significantly associated with the carbon stock in both fractions. The concentrations of nutrients associated with plant growth and productivity, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper and zinc, were associated with variations in the labile carbon pool (particulate fraction. Clay content was strongly associated with the carbon stock in the mineral fraction. The carbon accumulation and stabilization in weathered subtropical Ultisol seems to be mainly associated with the intrinsic characteristics of the soil, particularly clay content, rather than with the quantity, chemical composition or decomposition rate of the litter.

  14. Argon direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry in conjunction with makeup solvents: a method for analysis of labile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-05

    Helium direct analysis in real time (He-DART) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of labile compounds usually tends to be challenging because of the occurrence of prominent fragmentation, which obscures the assigning of an ion to an independent species or merely a fragment in a mixture. In the present work, argon DART (Ar-DART) MS in conjunction with makeup solvents has been demonstrated to analyze a variety of labile compounds including nucleosides, alkaloids, glucose, and other small molecules. The results presented here confirm that Ar-DART can generate significantly less energetic ions than conventional He-DART and is able to produce the intact molecular ions with little or no fragmentation in both positive and negative ion modes. Adding a makeup solvent (absolute ethyl alcohol, methanol, fluorobenzene, or acetone) to the argon gas stream at the exit of the DART ion source can result in 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in detection signals. The sensitivity attainable by Ar-DART was found to be comparable to that by He-DART. The investigation of influence of solvents improves our understanding of the fundamental desorption and ionization processes in DART. The practical application of this rapid and high throughput method is demonstrated by the successful analysis of a natural product (Crude Kusnezoff Monkshood) extract, demonstrating the great potential in mixture research.

  15. Immunogenicity of a fusion protein comprising coli surface antigen 3 and labile B subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerasol, Masoome; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Nazarian, Shahram; Bagheri, Samane

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the major causes of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Colonization factors and enterotoxins are the major virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis. For the broad-spectrum protection against ETEC, one could focus on colonization factors and non-toxic heat labile as a vaccine candidate. A fusion protein is composed of a major fimbrial subunit of coli surface antigen 3, and the heat-labile B subunit (LTB) was constructed as a chimeric immunogen. For optimum level expression of protein, the gene was synthesized with codon bias of E. coli. Also, recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21DE3. ELISA and Western tests were carried out for determination of antigen and specificity of antibody raised against recombinant protein in animals. The anti-toxicity and anti-adherence properties of the immune sera against ETEC were also evaluated. Immunological analyses showed the production of high titer of specific antibody in immunized mice. The built-in LTB retains native toxin properties which were approved by GM1 binding assay. Pre-treatment of the ETEC cells with anti-sera significantly decreased their adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The results indicated the efficacy of the recombinant chimeric protein as an effective immunogen inducing strong humoral response. The designated chimer would be an interesting prototype for a vaccine and worthy of further investigation.

  16. Evaluation of Soil Quality Using Labile Organic Carbon and Carbon Management Indices in Agricultural Lands of Neyriz, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Salmanpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil organic matter is considered as an indicator of soil quality, because of its role on the stability of soil structure, water holding capacity, microbial activity, storage and release of nutrients. Although changes and trends of organic matter are assessed on the basis of organic carbon, it responds slowly to changes of soil management. Therefore, identifying sensitive components of organic carbon such as carbon labile lead to better understanding of the effect of land use change and soil management on soil quality. The main components of sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions are the amount of water; and soil and water salinity. Water deficit and irrigation with saline water are important limiting factors for cropping and result in adverse effects on soil properties and soil quality. Soil carbon changes is a function of addition of plant debris and removal of it from soil by its decomposition. If the amount of organic carbon significantly reduced due to the degradation of the soil physical and chemical properties and soil quality, agricultural production will face serious problems. To this end, this study was done to evaluate soil quality using soil labile carbon and soil carbon management indices in some agricultural lands of Neyriz area, Fars province, Iran. Materials and Methods: Five fields were selected in two regions, Dehfazel and Tal-e-mahtabi, consisted of irrigated wheat and barley with different amount of irrigation water and water salinity levels. Three farms were located in Dehfazel and two farms in Tal-e-Mahtabi region. In each farm, three points were randomly selected and soil samples were collected from 0-40 cm of the surface layer. Plant samples were taken from a 1x1 square meter and grain crop yield was calculated per hectare. Water samples were obtained in each region from the wells at the last irrigation. Physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and water samples were determined. Soil

  17. Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao

    2013-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids.

  18. Direct visualization by cryo-EM of the mycobacterial capsular layer: a labile structure containing ESX-1-secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Sani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The cell envelope of mycobacteria, a group of Gram positive bacteria, is composed of a plasma membrane and a Gram-negative-like outer membrane containing mycolic acids. In addition, the surface of the mycobacteria is coated with an ill-characterized layer of extractable, non-covalently linked glycans, lipids and proteins, collectively known as the capsule, whose occurrence is a matter of debate. By using plunge freezing cryo-electron microscopy technique, we were able to show that pathogenic mycobacteria produce a thick capsule, only present when the cells were grown under unperturbed conditions and easily removed by mild detergents. This detergent-labile capsule layer contains arabinomannan, alpha-glucan and oligomannosyl-capped glycolipids. Further immunogenic and proteomic analyses revealed that Mycobacterium marinum capsule contains high amounts of proteins that are secreted via the ESX-1 pathway. Finally, cell infection experiments demonstrated the importance of the capsule for binding to cells and dampening of pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Together, these results show a direct visualization of the mycobacterial capsular layer as a labile structure that contains ESX-1-secreted proteins.

  19. Labile pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon in major Siberian Arctic rivers: Implications for wildfire-stream metabolic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers-Pigg, Allison N.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amon, Rainer M. W.; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pierce, Kayce; Rubtsov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    burning produces a spectrum of thermally altered materials that releases pyrogenic carbon (PyC) to terrestrial, atmospheric, and aquatic systems. Most studies focus on the refractory end of the PyC spectrum, derived from middle- to high-temperature combustion. Low-temperature PyC is produced during wildfires and has been found to be particularly labile and water soluble. Here we find that in each of the major Siberian watersheds, low-temperature fire-derived biomarkers are present in detectable concentrations during all flow regimes of the 2004-2006 sampling period, confirming that PyC is an intrinsic component of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool mobilized by hydrologic events. Gymnosperm combustion, from the southern portions of these watersheds, is the primary source of this Py-DOC input. Using first-order degradation rates and transit times of water through these rivers, about half of the total estimated flux of this material may be remineralized during transport from fire source to river mouth (20-40 days), demonstrating the input of a labile source of PyC to these watersheds.

  20. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  1. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  2. Carta sobre una estampilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Navarro

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available Queridos compañeros colombianos del arte: la última carta que me llega de vuestro país me ha impresionado de forma inesperada tan solo con caer en mis manos, sin rasgar el sobre ni tener tiempo de conocer el remitente. Es una carta como cualquier otra: señor Fulano de Tal, calle cual, Madrid, España.

  3. Ecosystem partitioning of 15N-glycine after long-term climate and nutrient manipulations, plant clipping and addition of labile carbon in a subarctic heath tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2008-01-01

    of nitrogen (N). Here, we studied 15N label incorporation into microbes, plants and soil N pools after both long-term (12 years) climate manipulation and nutrient addition, plant clipping and a pulse-addition of labile C to the soil, in order to gain information on interactions among soil N and C pools...... addition. However, plants exerted control on the soil inorganic N concentrations and recovery of total dissolved 15N (TD15N), and likewise the microbes reduced these soil pools, but only when fed with labile C. Soil microbes in clipped plots were primarily C limited, and the findings of reduced N...... availability, both in the presence of plants and with the combined treatment of plant clipping and addition of sugar, suggest that the plant control of soil N pools was not solely due to plant uptake of soil N, but also partially caused by plants feeding labile C to the soil microbes, which enhanced...

  4. Labile copper and zinc fractions under different salinity conditions in a shipyard area in the patos lagoon estuary, south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Dy Fonseca Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are common elements in paint residues and can be toxic to estuarine organisms. This study aims to determine the labile dissolved and labile particulate fractions (LPFs of copper and zinc in the estuarine waters of a shipyard in southern Brazil under different salinity levels and in different seasons. The labile dissolved fraction was determined using the diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT technique. The variations in DGT-Cu (0.22-1.05 µg L-1, DGT-Zn (0.54-18.39 µg L-1, LPF-Cu (1.22-3.77 µg g-1, and LPF-Zn (4.29-19.12 µg g-1 concentration were related to changes in their physico-chemical parameters and as a result of boat maintenance activities.

  5. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khursheed; Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE), and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM) were mixed (1:4 v/v), and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9-4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5%) biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad spectrum

  6. Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

    2012-12-01

    Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation

  7. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Ali

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE, and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM were mixed (1:4 v/v, and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9-4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5% biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad

  8. Distribution of dissolved labile and particulate iron and copper in Terra Nova Bay polynya (Ross Sea, Antarctica) surface waters in relation to nutrients and phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Massolo, Serena; Abelmoschi, M. Luisa; De Vittor, Cinzia; Frache, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The distribution of the dissolved labile and of the particulate Fe and Cu together with dissolved oxygen, nutrients, chlorophyll a and total particulate matter was investigated in the surface waters of Terra Nova Bay polynya in mid-January 2003. The measurements were conducted within the framework of the Italian Climatic Long-term Interactions of the Mass balance in Antarctica (CLIMA) Project activities. The labile dissolved fraction was operationally defined by employing the chelating resin Chelex-100, which retains free and loosely bound trace metal species. The dissolved labile Fe ranges from below the detection limit (0.15 nM) to 3.71 nM, while the dissolved labile Cu from below the detection limit (0.10 nM) to 0.90 nM. The lowest concentrations for both metals were observed at 20 m depth (the shallowest depth for which metals were measured). The concentration of the particulate Fe was about 5 times higher than the dissolved Fe concentration, ranging from 0.56 to 24.83 nM with an average of 6.45 nM. The concentration of the particulate Cu ranged from 0.01 to 0.71 nM with an average of 0.17 nM. The values are in agreement with the previous data collected in the same area. We evaluated the role of the Fe and Cu as biolimiting metals. The N:dissolved labile Fe ratios (18,900-130,666) would or would not allow a complete nitrate removal, on the basis of the N:Fe requirement ratios that we calculated considering the N:P and the C:P ratios estimated for diatoms. This finding partially agrees with the Si:N ratio that we found (2.29). Moreover we considered a possible influence of the dissolved labile Cu on the Fe uptake process.

  9. Disruption of Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins by Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Requires Labile Apolipoprotein A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K.; Courtney, Harry S.; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipids–cholesteryl esters and some triglyceride–surrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins–apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II. HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of ~100,000 HDL particles (D ~ 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D >100 nm) leaving a new HDL-like particle–neo HDL (D ~5.8 nm) while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physico-chemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, HDL containing non-labile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. Based on kinetic cryo electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 μM) to neo HDL via a step-wise mechanism in which intermediate-size particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k = (4.400 ± 0.004) × 10−2 min−1. Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy, entropy and free energy of activation of ΔH‡ = 73.9 kJ/mol, ΔS‡ = −66.87 J/°K, and ΔG‡ = 94.6 kJ/mol respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the rate-limiting step, and nearly all HDL particles contain

  10. Excertos sobre o sedentarismo

    OpenAIRE

    Palma,Alexandre; Vilaça,Murilo Mariano; Assis,Monique Ribeiro de

    2014-01-01

    O sedentarismo tem sido tratado como algo perfeitamente determinável, objetivo e, portanto, que pode ser apreendido. Por outro lado, o conceito de sedentarismo ainda permanece questionável e, por conseguinte, os instrumentos mostram-se inconsistentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi mostrar que diferentes discursos de verdade vêm concorrendo por esse conceito, o que nos motiva a pensar qual é a verdade ou, até mesmo, se há alguma verdade sobre ele. Após apresentarmos diferent...

  11. Traumatic axonal injury and persistent emotional lability in an adolescent following moderate traumatic brain injury: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Luke C; Burkhart, Scott O; Elbin, R J; Agarwal, Vikus; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old male was treated secondary to sustaining a moderate traumatic brain injury (moderate TBI). Symptom self-report, and computerized and paper-and-pencil-based neurocognitive, vestibular/ocular motor, and imaging data were used throughout to document impairment and recovery. The patient demonstrated persistent emotional lability concurrent with vestibular impairment. In addition to clinical evaluation and management, the patient also underwent susceptibility-weighted imaging, which revealed axonal shearing across the corpus callosum and areas innervating the prefrontal cortex. Paper-and-pencil neurocognitive measures revealed persisting deficits, despite normal-appearing computerized test results. Implications of this case underline the importance of an integrative evaluation process including clinical interview, neurocognitive and vestibular/ocular physical therapy, and advanced neuroimaging, especially in cases with atypical presentation.

  12. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment......, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast...

  13. Comparison of two experimental speciation methods with a theoretical approach to monitor free and labile Cd fractions in soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parat, C.; Cornu, J.-Y.; Schneider, A.; Authier, L.; Sapin-Didier, V.; Denaix, L.; Potin-Gautier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work focused on the suitability of two techniques to monitor cadmium speciation in soil solutions collected during a 7-day incubation of a contaminated soil. Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and ion exchange were performed on soil solutions collected daily and results were compared with calculations obtained with the speciation software Visual MINTEQ. The electrochemically labile Cd fraction was greater than the exchange-estimated free Cd fraction during the first 6 days, after which it decreased sharply during the last 2 days to reach values close to the exchange-estimated free Cd fraction. Further investigations showed that the increase in pH was mainly responsible for the reduction. However, calculations performed with Visual MINTEQ software clearly demonstrated that a change in the nature of organic matter and/or its complexing capacity also needed to be taken into consideration.

  14. The acid-labile subunit of the ternary insulin-like growth factor complex in cirrhosis: relation to liver dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Juul, A; Becker, U

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the circulation, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is bound in a trimeric complex of 150 kDa with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Whereas circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are reported to be low in patients with chronic liver failure, the level...... of ALS has not been described in relation to hepatic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure circulating and hepatic venous concentrations of ALS in relation to hepatic function and the IGF axis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with cirrhosis (Child class A/B/C:5/10/10) and 30...

  15. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana; Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO 2 . On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO 2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  16. Persistent long-term facilitation at an identified synapse becomes labile with activation of short-term heterosynaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Yuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2014-04-02

    Short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity are cellular correlates of learning and memory of different durations. Little is known, however, how these two forms of plasticity interact at the same synaptic connection. We examined the reciprocal impact of short-term heterosynaptic or homosynaptic plasticity at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia in cell culture when expressing persistent long-term facilitation (P-LTF) evoked by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Short-term heterosynaptic plasticity induced by 5-HT (facilitation) or the neuropeptide FMRFa (depression) and short-term homosynaptic plasticity induced by tetanus [post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)] or low-frequency stimulation [homosynaptic depression (HSD)] of the sensory neuron were expressed in both control synapses and synapses expressing P-LTF in the absence or presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. All forms of short-term plasticity failed to significantly affect ongoing P-LTF in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, P-LTF reversed to control levels when either 5-HT or FMRFa was applied in the presence of rapamycin. In contrast, P-LTF was unaffected when either PTP or HSD was evoked in the presence of either rapamycin or anisomycin. These results indicate that synapses expressing persistent plasticity acquire a "new" baseline and functionally express short-term changes as naive synapses, but the new baseline becomes labile following selective activations-heterosynaptic stimuli that evoke opposite forms of plasticity-such that when presented in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors produce a rapid reversal of the persistent plasticity. Activity-selective induction of a labile state at synapses expressing persistent plasticity may facilitate the development of therapies for reversing inappropriate memories.

  17. Stress-induced resistance to the fear memory labilization/reconsolidation process. Involvement of the basolateral amygdala complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Pablo Javier; Ortiz, Vanesa; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Victor Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated memories can enter into a labile state after reactivation followed by a restabilization process defined as reconsolidation. This process can be interfered with Midazolam (MDZ), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor. The present study has evaluated the influence of prior stress on MDZ's interfering effect. We also assessed the influence of both systemic and intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the NMDA receptors, on the MDZ effect in previously stressed rats. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of stress on the expression of Zif-268 and the GluN2B sites, two molecular markers of the labilization/reconsolidation process, following reactivation. The results revealed that prior stress resulted into a memory trace that was insensitive to the MDZ impairing effect. Both systemic and intra-BLA DCS administration previous to reactivation restored MDZ's disruptive effect on memory reconsolidation in stressed animals. Further, reactivation enhanced Zif-268 expression in the BLA in control unstressed rats, whereas no elevation was observed in stressed animals. In agreement with the behavioral findings, DCS restored the increased level of Zif-268 expression in the BLA in stressed animals. Moreover, memory reactivation in unstressed animals elevated GluN2B expression in the BLA, thus suggesting that this effect is involved in memory destabilization, whereas stressed animals did not reveal any changes. These findings are consistent with resistance to the MDZ effect in these rats, indicating that stress exposure prevents the onset of destabilization following reactivation. In summary, prior stress limited both the occurrence of the reactivation-induced destabilization and restabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Agricultural management and labile carbon additions affect soil microbial community structure and interact with carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Buckley, Daniel H; Drinkwater, Laurie E

    2013-07-01

    We investigated how conversion from conventional agriculture to organic management affected the structure and biogeochemical function of soil microbial communities. We hypothesized the following. (1) Changing agricultural management practices will alter soil microbial community structure driven by increasing microbial diversity in organic management. (2) Organically managed soil microbial communities will mineralize more N and will also mineralize more N in response to substrate addition than conventionally managed soil communities. (3) Microbial communities under organic management will be more efficient and respire less added C. Soils from organically and conventionally managed agroecosystems were incubated with and without glucose ((13)C) additions at constant soil moisture. We extracted soil genomic DNA before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting of soil bacteria and fungi. We measured soil C and N pools before and after incubation, and we tracked total C respired and N mineralized at several points during the incubation. Twenty years of organic management altered soil bacterial and fungal community structure compared to continuous conventional management with the bacterial differences caused primarily by a large increase in diversity. Organically managed soils mineralized twice as much NO3 (-) as conventionally managed ones (44 vs. 23 μg N/g soil, respectively) and increased mineralization when labile C was added. There was no difference in respiration, but organically managed soils had larger pools of C suggesting greater efficiency in terms of respiration per unit soil C. These results indicate that the organic management induced a change in community composition resulting in a more diverse community with enhanced activity towards labile substrates and greater capacity to mineralize N.

  19. GLP-1-RA Corrects Mitochondrial Labile Iron Accumulation and Improves β-Cell Function in Type 2 Wolfram Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielpur, Liron; Sohn, Yang-Sung; Karmi, Ola; Fogel, Chen; Zinger, Adar; Abu-Libdeh, Abdulsalam; Israeli, Tal; Riahi, Yael; Pappo, Orit; Birk, Ruth; Zangen, David H; Mittler, Ron; Cabantchik, Zvi-Ioav; Cerasi, Erol; Nechushtai, Rachel; Leibowitz, Gil

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 Wolfram syndrome (T2-WFS) is a neuronal and β-cell degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CISD2 gene. The mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction in T2-WFS are not known, and treatments that effectively improve diabetes in this context are lacking. Unraveling the mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in T2-WFS and the effects of treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1-RA). A case report and in vitro mechanistic studies. We treated an insulin-dependent T2-WFS patient with the GLP-1-RA exenatide for 9 weeks. An iv glucose/glucagon/arginine stimulation test was performed off-drug before and after intervention. We generated a cellular model of T2-WFS by shRNA knockdown of CISD2 (nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 [NAF-1]) in rat insulinoma cells and studied the mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction and the effects of GLP-1-RA. Treatment with exenatide resulted in a 70% reduction in daily insulin dose with improved glycemic control, as well as an off-drug 7-fold increase in maximal insulin secretion. NAF-1 repression in INS-1 cells decreased insulin content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while maintaining the response to cAMP, and enhanced the accumulation of labile iron and reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Remarkably, treatment with GLP-1-RA and/or the iron chelator deferiprone reversed these defects. NAF-1 deficiency leads to mitochondrial labile iron accumulation and oxidative stress, which may contribute to β-cell dysfunction in T2-WFS. Treatment with GLP-1-RA and/or iron chelation improves mitochondrial function and restores β-cell function. Treatment with GLP-1-RA, probably aided by iron chelation, should be considered in WFS and other forms of diabetes associated with iron dysregulation.

  20. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG, considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos, quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar, com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com folhas de EG (Pegões e Rio Maior. Para igual período, a taxa de decomposição das agulhas de PP, estimada pelo modelo exponencial simples, foi inferior à determinada para as folhas de EG, sendo a diferença mais acentuada na fase inicial da decomposição (6 meses, em que a perda de peso das agulhas de PP foi cerca de metade da observada para as folhas de EG. Durante a fase inicial decomposição, tanto das folhas de EG como das agulhas de PP, ocorreu uma assinalável libertação de P, K e de Mg. A libertação do N dependeu da taxa de decomposição, observando- -se imobilização para as agulhas de PP com mais baixa taxa de decomposição, e libertação rápida para as folhas de EG com mais elevada taxa de decomposição. No caso do Ca o factor diferenciador foi a espécie, sendo a respectiva libertação baixa para as agulhas de PP, mas acentuada para as folhas de EG. As folhas verdes de resíduos de abate de EG decompuseram-se e libertaram os nutrientes mais rapidamente do que as folhas senescentes da mesma espécie.Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster (PP and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus (EG was assessed using the litterbag methodology. Decomposition rate of these residues and release dynamics of nutrients with more relevance to the sustainability of forest systems were measured. The study was carried out in the litoral of Central Portugal (Furadouro,Óbidos, using both PP and EG, in inland of North Portugal (Vila Pouca

  1. Evaluation of monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds in ambient air around Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus halepensis and Cedrus atlantica trees growing in Algiers city area by chiral and achiral capillary gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Youcef Meklati, Brahim; Cecinato, Angelo

    The monoterpenic biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in ambient air around either Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus atlantica and Pinus halepensis trees from El- Hamma Botanical Garden (Algiers) or from Pinus halepensis trees field located in Bab-Ezzouar (suburb of Algiers) was qualitatively and semi-quantitatively evaluated. The sampling was carried out in ambient air by adsorption through an activated charcoal cartridge followed by the carbon disulfide extraction. The solution was subjected to high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) analysis in programmed temperature. The identification of the components was established by the means of retention Kovàts indexes. The use of a β-cyclodextrin chiral capillary column allowed a good separation of monoterpenic enantiomers released in the atmosphere. The enantiomeric ratio provided a good insight into the enantiomeric compound preferentially emitted by plants.

  2. Long-term addition of fertilizer, labile carbon, and fungicide alters the biomass of plant functional groups in a subarctic-alpine community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz-Hardenberg-Reventlow, M S; Michelsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    experiment on a subarctic-alpine fellfield dominated by woody evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens. To manipulate nutrient availability additions of NPK fertilizer, labile C, and fungicide (benomyl) were done in a fully factorial design, replicated in six blocks. The treatments were run for 10 years...

  3. The ortho backbone amide linker (o-BAL) is an easily prepared and highly acid-labile handle for solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Brask, Jesper; Christensen, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    , followed by purification through steam distillation, Cleavage studies of Leu-enkephalin anchored to either o-BAL or p-BAL handles revealed that both handles were surprisingly acid-labile and released the peptide with dilute TFA (5% and even 1% TFA in CH2Cl2). This useful property allowed the synthesis...

  4. Excertos sobre o sedentarismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Palma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O sedentarismo tem sido tratado como algo perfeitamente determinável, objetivo e, portanto, que pode ser apreendido. Por outro lado, o conceito de sedentarismo ainda permanece questionável e, por conseguinte, os instrumentos mostram-se inconsistentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi mostrar que diferentes discursos de verdade vêm concorrendo por esse conceito, o que nos motiva a pensar qual é a verdade ou, até mesmo, se há alguma verdade sobre ele. Após apresentarmos diferentes possibilidades de compreender o sedentarismo, através do uso de aforismos, entendemos que postular um discurso como verdade talvez apenas signifique que as pessoas nele creem e que há uma vontade de verdade como uma vontade voltada para o poder.

  5. Disruption of human plasma high-density lipoproteins by streptococcal serum opacity factor requires labile apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-02-24

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipidscholesteryl esters and some triglyceridesurrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins [apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II]. A HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent, or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles (D approximately 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D > 100 nm), leaving a new HDL-like particle [neo HDL (D approximately 5.8 nm)] while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics, suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physicochemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, a HDL containing nonlabile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. On the basis of kinetic cryo-electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 microM) to neo HDL via a stepwise mechanism in which intermediate-sized particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k of (4.400 +/- 0.004) x 10(-2) min(-1). Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy (DeltaH()), entropy (DeltaS(++)), and free energy (DeltaG()) of activation of 73.9 kJ/mol, -66.87 J/K, and 94.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the

  6. Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenerl& #246; w, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

    2008-04-29

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

  7. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: relationships to carbon functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R(2)=0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R(2)=0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for ≤4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the understanding of the

  8. Sobre la muerte voluntaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Álvarez-Cienfuegos Fidalgo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El problema de cómo morir en nuestra sociedad se ha convertido en una inquietud para los ciudadanos y la reflexión moral. Especialmcnte por dos razones: por el desarrollo de la tecnología médica y por el hecho de que la mayor parte de los fallecimientos tienen lugar fuera del hogar, donde tradicionalmente ocurra el deceso. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo acercarse a esta cuestión. Para ello, se parte de la autonomía del ciudadano, con derecho a decidir sobre lo que considera cuál sea su manera de vivir y de morir. A tal fin, se hace una breve introducción sobre el dolor, el suicidio y la muerte, desde un punto de vista antropológico, pasando, después, a mostrar las cuestiones relacionadas con el problema de la eutanasia, donde la atención se dirigirá, ante todo, al enjuiciamiento crítico del tenso equilibrio en el que se mantienen dos principios fundamentales de la bioética: el de no maleficencia y el de autonomía del ciudadano.The problem of how to die in modern society has become a concern for both the citizen and moral reflection for two reasons in particular: due to developments in medical technology, and because most deaths occur outside the honre, where they traditionaÍlY took place. This paper addresses this issue, starting from citizen autonomy, the right to decide on what s/he considers to be his or her way of living and dying. To this end, a brief introduction considers pain, suicide and death from an anthropological viewpoint. Questions related to the problem of euthanasia are then exposed, with particular attention to, above all the critical judgement of the tense balance in which two fundamental principies of bioethics are held, the principle of non-maleficence and that of citizen autonomy.

  9. Puente sobre el Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar el lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela, el conocido ingeniero italiano Riccaido Morandi ha presentado un proyecto de puente para ferrocarril y carretera, de hormigón pretensado, de tramos independientes, constituyendo un sistema Gerber, que tiene una longitud total de 8.720 m y un vano central de 400 m de luz. Este último tramo, en unión de los dos adyacentes al mismo, constituirán, una vez terminada la obra, un conjunto continuo. El tablero del puente se halla a una altura de 45 m sobre el nivel del agua en la zona del canal, con objeto de permitir la navegación. El tablero, de 20,90 m de anchura total, se ha subdividido en tres partes, dos simétricas respecto al eje, laterales, de 7,20 m de anchura, para la circulación en sentidos opuestos por carretera, una plataforma central, de 5 m de ancho, para el ferrocarril y dos andenes para el paso de peatones y servicios.

  10. Refletindo sobre idosos institucionalizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenir Gonçalves Tier

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva que teve por objetivo identificar como vem sendo o relacionamento idoso-família, identificando os motivos que levaram os familiares a optarem pela institucionalização do seu idoso, obtendo-se também a visão da família sobre o cuidado no lar. Para coleta dos dados utilizou-se um instrumento com perguntas abertas. A coleta dos dados efetivou-se nos meses de agosto de 2002 a julho de 2003, sendo sujeitos da pesquisa, familiares de idosos de uma instituição asilar em um município da região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Através da análise de conteúdo constatou-se que a maior dificuldade encontrada pela família, visando dispensar cuidados ao idoso é a "falta de tempo para cuidar" do seu familiar idoso, pois a maioria deles exige cuidados em tempo integral.

  11. Notas sobre psicopatologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Sonenreich

    Full Text Available O termo Psicopatologia é usado em vários sentidos: equivalente da psiquiatria, da parte da psiquiatria que trata dos distúrbios leves em oposição aos graves, da sintomatologia em oposição à nosologia, teorias do psiquismo e dinâmica emocional. Os assuntos incluídos sob este título são tratados por outros autores como Psiquiatria Geral, Psicologia Médica, Psiquiatria Clínica. Autores dos mais notáveis não definem propriamente o termo, mas indicam quais devem ser os objetivos, os métodos de trabalho que atribuem à Psicopatologia. Escolhemos usar o termo para designar o estudos das teorias sobre o desenvolvimento, funcionamento e alterações das atividades mentais, a interpretação dos sintomas e sinais em função de fatores biológicos e psicológicos, o significado dos distúrbios de relacionamento e conduta, as bases principais dos sintomas de classificação nosológica. Pesquisas e reflexões precisam ser realizadas para atualizar a Psicopatologia. Neste sentido, como exemplo, apresentamos certas propostas para conceituar e trabalhar com os delirantes.

  12. Optimization of microcapsules shell structure to preserve labile compounds: A comparison between microfluidics and conventional homogenization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Raheleh; Comunian, Talita A; Dando, Robin; Abbaspourrad, Alireza

    2018-02-15

    A new technique is presented to optimize the formulation of microcapsules loaded with labile compounds. Fish oil was loaded into the microcapsule core and protected with a shell composed of whey protein microgel/beet pectin complexes. The microcapsules were formed using two different methods: microfluidics and homogenization. The microcapsules were further classified into three sub-groups. The first group was the microcapsules cross-linked with laccase (MCL), the second group was the microcapsules cross-linked with divalent cationic CaCl 2 salt (MCS), and the third group consisted of control microcapsules (CM), with no cross-linking. The microfluidics method enabled tracking of the effect of the shell cross-linking ability of laccase, or CaCl 2 , on microcapsules. It was demonstrated that MCL obtained by microfluidics are more physicochemically stable than those produced via a homogenizer. The effect of cross-linking agents on the microcapsules were more significant when the microcapsules were produced by microfluidics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Nocturnal continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion--a therapeutic possibility in labile type I diabetes under exceptional conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, W; Steinborn, F; Menzel, R; Staritz, B; Bibergeil, H

    1990-03-15

    The whole-day continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with portable pumps in daily blood glucose autocontrol guarantees a more stabile and favourable glycaemia than multiple injections in labile type I diabetics. The success is mainly to be traced back to the continuous replacement of the basal secretion, particularly to the nocturnal fasting phase. In this study the effect on the glycaemia is investigated with exclusively nocturnal administration of the CSII under maintenance of multiple insulin injections during this day. In a group of 18 type I diabetics the nocturnal CSII in comparison to intermediate insulin administrations in the evening led to a significant improvement of glycaemia (p less than 0.01), in particular to the decrease of the fasting blood sugars (p less than 0.05). In two casuistic observations in comparison to all the other conventional methods for the compensation of the nocturnal glycaemia (depot insulin, nocturnal injection of normal insulin) the nocturnal CSII proved to be superior. Therefore, the nocturnal CSII is an--though more rarely to be used--alternative, which may be taken into consideration, of a whole-day CSII is temporarily unwished for.

  14. Acid-Labile Surfactants Based on Poly(ethylene glycol, Carbon Dioxide and Propylene Oxide: Miniemulsion Polymerization and Degradation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Scharfenberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Partially degradable, nonionic AB and ABA type di- and triblock copolymers based on poly(propylene carbonate and poly(ethylene glycol blocks were synthesized via immortal copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, using mPEG or PEG as a macroinitiator, and (R,R-(salcy-CoOBzF5 as a catalyst in a solvent-free one-pot procedure. The amphiphilic surfactants were prepared with molecular weights (Mn between 2800 and 10,000 g·mol−1 with narrow molecular weight distributions (1.03–1.09. The copolymers were characterized using 1H-, 13C- and DOSY-NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Surface-active properties were determined by surface tension measurements (critical micelle concentration, CMC; CMC range: 1–14 mg·mL−1. Degradation of the acid-labile polycarbonate blocks was investigated in aqueous solution using online 1H-NMR spectroscopy and SEC. The amphiphilic polymers were used as surfactants in a direct miniemulsion polymerization for poly(styrene (PS nanoparticles with mean diameter of 270 to 940 nm. The usage of an acid-triggered precipitation of the emulsion simplified the separation of the particles from the surfactant and purification of the nanoparticles.

  15. Toxicity profile of labile preservative bronopol in water: The role of more persistent and toxic transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Na; Zhang Xiaoxiang; Xie Qing; Wang Se; Chen Jingwen; Huang Liping; Qiao Xianliang; Li Xuehua; Cai Xiyun

    2011-01-01

    Transformation products usually differ in environmental behaviors and toxicological properties from the parent contaminants, and probably cause potential risks to the environment. Toxicity evolution of a labile preservative, bronopol, upon primary aquatic degradation processes was investigated. Bronopol rapidly hydrolyzed in natural waters, and primarily produced more stable 2-bromo-2-nitroethanol (BNE) and bromonitromethane (BNM). Light enhanced degradation of the targeted compounds with water site specific photoactivity. The bond order analysis theoretically revealed that the reversible retroaldol reactions were primary degradation routes for bronopol and BNE. Judging from toxicity assays and the relative pesticide toxicity index, these degradation products (i.e., BNE and BNM), more persistent and higher toxic than the parent, probably accumulated in natural waters and resulted in higher or prolonging adverse impacts. Therefore, these transformation products should be included into the assessment of ecological risks of non-persistent and low toxic chemicals such as the preservative bronopol. - The preservative bronopol is non-persistent and low toxic, but some transformation products can cause higher or prolonging adverse impacts.

  16. Coordination chemistry strategies for dynamic helicates: time-programmable chirality switching with labile and inert metal helicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroyuki; Tsukube, Hiroshi

    2012-11-07

    'Chirality switching' is one of the most important chemical processes controlling many biological systems. DNAs and proteins often work as time-programmed functional helices, in which specific external stimuli alter the helical direction and tune the time scale of subsequent events. Although a variety of organic foldamers and their hybrids with natural helices have been developed, we highlight coordination chemistry strategies for development of structurally and functionally defined metal helicates. These metal helicates have characteristic coordination geometries, redox reactivities and spectroscopic/magnetic properties as well as complex chiralities. Several kinds of inert metal helicates maintain rigid helical structures and their stereoisomers are separable by optical resolution techniques, while labile metal helicates offer dynamic inversion of their helical structures via non-covalent interactions with external chemical signals. The latter particularly have dynamically ordered helical structures, which are controlled by the combinations of metal centres and chiral ligands. They further function as time-programmable switches of chirality-derived dynamic rotations, translations, stretching and shape flipping, which are useful applications in nanoscience and related technology.

  17. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha(-1); light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha(-1); moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha(-1), and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha(-1). Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm) under different grazing intensities. However, the SLOC including particulate organic carbon (POC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) content at a depth of 0-15 cm decreased with the increasing grazing intensity among LG, MG and HG. The SLOC content at depths of 15-30 cm under the NG and LG were significantly higher than that under the MG and the HG. The TOC and SLOC content decreased with increasing depths of soil horizons, but SIC content increased. The variation trend of the density of different soil carbon fractions and the ratio of individual SLOC fractions to TOC were similar to that of the soil carbon content of corresponding fractions. These results indicated that MG and HG treatments caused C loss at 0-30 cm; and SLOC was more sensitive than TOC in response to different grazing intensities.

  18. Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy following intranasal delivery of a genetically detoxified mutant of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J M Lewis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An association was previously established between facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy and intranasal administration of an inactivated influenza virosome vaccine containing an enzymatically active Escherichia coli Heat Labile Toxin (LT adjuvant. The individual component(s responsible for paralysis were not identified, and the vaccine was withdrawn.Subjects participating in two contemporaneous non-randomized Phase 1 clinical trials of nasal subunit vaccines against Human Immunodeficiency Virus and tuberculosis, both of which employed an enzymatically inactive non-toxic mutant LT adjuvant (LTK63, underwent active follow-up for adverse events using diary-cards and clinical examination. Two healthy subjects experienced transient peripheral facial nerve palsies 44 and 60 days after passive nasal instillation of LTK63, possibly a result of retrograde axonal transport after neuronal ganglioside binding or an inflammatory immune response, but without exaggerated immune responses to LTK63.While the unique anatomical predisposition of the facial nerve to compression suggests nasal delivery of neuronal-binding LT-derived adjuvants is inadvisable, their continued investigation as topical or mucosal adjuvants and antigens appears warranted on the basis of longstanding safety via oral, percutaneous, and other mucosal routes.

  19. Transient Facial Nerve Paralysis (Bell's Palsy) following Intranasal Delivery of a Genetically Detoxified Mutant of Escherichia coli Heat Labile Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David J. M.; Huo, Zhiming; Barnett, Susan; Kromann, Ingrid; Giemza, Rafaela; Galiza, Eva; Woodrow, Maria; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Andersen, Peter; Novicki, Deborah; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2009-01-01

    Background An association was previously established between facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) and intranasal administration of an inactivated influenza virosome vaccine containing an enzymatically active Escherichia coli Heat Labile Toxin (LT) adjuvant. The individual component(s) responsible for paralysis were not identified, and the vaccine was withdrawn. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects participating in two contemporaneous non-randomized Phase 1 clinical trials of nasal subunit vaccines against Human Immunodeficiency Virus and tuberculosis, both of which employed an enzymatically inactive non-toxic mutant LT adjuvant (LTK63), underwent active follow-up for adverse events using diary-cards and clinical examination. Two healthy subjects experienced transient peripheral facial nerve palsies 44 and 60 days after passive nasal instillation of LTK63, possibly a result of retrograde axonal transport after neuronal ganglioside binding or an inflammatory immune response, but without exaggerated immune responses to LTK63. Conclusions/Significance While the unique anatomical predisposition of the facial nerve to compression suggests nasal delivery of neuronal-binding LT–derived adjuvants is inadvisable, their continued investigation as topical or mucosal adjuvants and antigens appears warranted on the basis of longstanding safety via oral, percutaneous, and other mucosal routes. PMID:19756141

  20. Preformulation studies with the Escherichia coli double mutant heat-labile toxin adjuvant for use in an oral vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jessica A; Haghighi, Candace; Brunner, Johanna; Estrada, Marcus; Lal, Manjari; Chen, Dexiang

    2017-12-01

    Double mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) is a promising adjuvant for oral vaccine administration. The aims of our study were to develop sensitive methods to detect low concentrations of dmLT and to use the assays in preformulation studies to determine whether dmLT remains stable under conditions encountered by an oral vaccine. We developed a sandwich ELISA specific for intact dmLT and a sensitive SDS-PAGE densitometry method, and tested stability of dmLT in glass and plastic containers, in saliva, at the pH of stomach fluid, and in high-osmolarity buffers. The developed ELISA has a quantification range of 62.5 to 0.9ng/mL and lower limit of detection of 0.3ng/mL; the limit of quantification of the SDS-PAGE is 10μg/mL. This work demonstrates the application of dmLT assays in preformulation studies to development of an oral vaccine containing dmLT. Assays reported here will facilitate the understanding and use of dmLT as an adjuvant. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomical network analysis shows decoupling of modular lability and complexity in the evolution of the primate skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon's general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates.

  2. Performance of sulphate- and selenium-reducing biochemical reactors using different ratios of labile to recalcitrant organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Parissa; Baldwin, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Successful operation of sulphate-reducing bioreactors using complex organic materials depends on providing a balance between more easily degrading material that achieves reasonable kinetics and low hydraulic retention times, and more slowly decomposing material that sustains performance in the long term. In this study, two organic mixtures containing the same ingredients typical of bioreactors used at mine sites (woodchips, hay and cow manure) but with different ratios of wood (recalcitrant) to hay (labile) were tested in six continuous flow bioreactors treating synthetic mine-affected water containing 600 mg/L of sulphate and 15 μg/L of selenium. The reactors were operated for short (5-6 months) and long (435-450 days) periods of time at the same hydraulic retention time of 15 days. There were no differences in the performance of the bioreactors in terms of sulphate-reduction over the short term, but the wood-rich bioreactors experienced variable and sometimes unreliable sulphate-reduction over the long term. Presence of more hay in the organic mixture was able to better sustain reliable performance. Production of dissolved organic compounds due to biodegradation within the bioreactors was detected for the first 175-230 days, after which their depletion coincided with a crash phase observed in the wood-rich bioreactors only.

  3. Localisation and quantification of alkali-labile sites in human spermatozoa by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Cerda-Flores, R M; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Aragón Tovar, A R; Gosálvez, J

    2015-03-01

    The localisation and quantification of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALSs) were investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection plus fluorescence in situ hybridisation (DBD-FISH) and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay), in spermatozoa of infertile and fertile men. Semen samples from 10 normozoospermic patients undergoing infertility treatment and 10 fertile men were included in this study. ALSs were localised and quantified by DBD-FISH. The region most sensitive to alkali treatment in human spermatozoa was located in the basal region of the head. ALSs were more frequent in spermatozoa of infertile men than in those of fertile men. These results were confirmed by SCGE comet assays. In conclusion, the most intense localisation of hybridisation signals in human spermatozoa, representing the highest density of constitutive ALSs, was not randomly distributed and was predominantly located in the base of the head. Moreover, infertile men presented with an increase in ALS frequency. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between ALS, sperm chromatin organisation and infertility. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  5. Algunos apuntes sobre comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pérez Cárdenas

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunidad es, entre los temas de estudio del curriculum de los residentes en Medicina General Integral, uno de aquellos en las que mayores dificultades encontramos para poderlo impartir, pues la bibliografía sobre el tema está un tanto dispersa. Es un aspecto que los propios residentes no evalúan con justeza; sin embargo es de sumo interés que como profesionales de la salud no obviemos que nuestro trabajo de promoción, prevención y tratamiento, debe darse a nivel de individuo, pero también en las familias y en la comunidad como un todo, y por lo tanto debamos incorporar, al menos, nociones de lo que es una comunidad y qué es participación comunitaria para tener idea de cómo fomentarla, única vía para que nuestras acciones de salud sean más efectivasCommunity is one of the most difficult subjects to be taught among those included in the curriculum of General Comprehensive Medicine residents, since bibliography on this topic is a bit dispersed. This aspect, which is not properly evaluated by residents, is very important for health professionals to do our work of promotion, prevention and treatment not only at the level of the individual, but also at the level of the family and of the community as a whole. Therefore, we need to have some notions about community and community participation to be able to promote them, as the only way to make our health actions more effective

  6. Comparison of hamstring and quadriceps femoris electromyographic activity between men and women during a single-limb squat on both a stable and labile surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Hitchcock, James R; Hoyme, Gregory J; Johnsen, Jeremiah J

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of a partial single-leg squat (SLS) on both a stable and labile ground surface against body weight resistance. Thirty healthy participants (15 men and 15 women) performed an SLS on both a stable surface and a 6.4-cm-thick vinyl pad. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles during the extension phase of the SLS. Statistical analysis revealed that women produced 14% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their quadriceps than the men during the SLS on a stable surface, whereas the men generated 18% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their hamstrings than the women during the SLS on a labile surface. Additionally, we found a statistically significant sex effect (p = 0.048) for the hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) EMG ratio, which was 2.25 and 0.62, respectively, for men and women on the stable surface and 2.52 and 0.71, respectively, on the labile surface. We concluded that women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of SLS against body weight resistance on either a stable or labile surface condition. During an SLS, men showed an H/Q ratio approximately 3.5 times larger than their female counterparts, suggesting that men activate their hamstrings more effectively than women during an SLS. According to our data, the SLS may not be an ideal exercise for activating the hamstring muscles in women without additional neuromuscular training techniques, because women are quadriceps dominant during the SLS.

  7. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils--comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2006-07-28

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.

  8. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils-comparison of two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matus, Peter [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynska dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: matus@fns.uniba.sk; Kubova, Jana [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynska dolina, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-07-28

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl.

  9. Complexation efficiency of differently fixed 8-hydroxyquinoline and salicylic acid ligand groups for labile aluminium species determination in soils-comparison of two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matus, Peter; Kubova, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Two methods utilizing the complexation of labile Al species by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN) and salicylic acid (SA) ligand groups were developed for aluminium operationally defined fractionation in acid soils. First, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure by a short-term ion-exchange batch reaction with chelating resins Iontosorb Oxin and Iontosorb Salicyl containing both ligand groups was used previously. Second, the 8-hydroxyquinoline, salicylic acid and ammonium salicylate agents with different concentrations by a single extraction protocol were applied in this paper. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were used for aluminium quantification. The comparison of results from both methods show the possibility to supersede the first laborious method for the second simpler one in Al environmental risk assessment. The use of 1% 8-hydroxyquinoline in 2% acetic acid and 0.2% salicylic acid by a single extraction protocol without a need of sample filtration can supersede the SPE procedure in the Al pollution soil monitoring. Finally, the new scheme usable in a laboratory and moreover, directly in a field was proposed for Al fractionation in solid and liquid environmental samples. The labile Al species in soils and sediments are separated after their single leaching by 8-hydroxyquinoline or salicylic acid without a need of sample filtration. The labile Al species in soil solutions and natural waters are separated after their ultrafiltration followed by the SPE procedure with Iontosorb Oxin or Iontosorb Salicyl

  10. Total and labile metals in surface sediments of the tropical river-estuary system of Marabasco (Pacific coast of Mexico): Influence of an iron mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Prego, Ricardo; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro; Shumilin, Evgueni; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marabasco is a tropical river-estuary system comprising the Marabasco river and the Barra de Navidad Lagoon. The river is impacted by the Peña Colorada iron mine, which produces 3.5 million tons of pellets per year. Thirteen surface sediment samples were collected in May 2005 (dry season) in order to establish background levels of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the system and to ascertain the potential mobility of metals in the sediments. Analyses were carried out in the fraction finer than 63 microm, and labile metals extracted according the BCR procedure. Certified reference materials were used for validation of methods. Total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were in the range of 0.05-0.34, 6-95, 0.7-31, 9-26, 2-18, and 53-179 mgkg(-1), respectively; Al and Fe ranges of 24-127, and 26-69 mgg(-1) correspondingly. Cadmium was found to be significantly labile in the sediments (20-100%), followed by Co (0-35%), Ni (3-16%) and Zn (0-25%), whereas the labile fraction for Cu, Fe and Pb was almost negligible (iron mine on the Marabasco system is lower than expected when compared with other similar World systems influenced by mining activities.

  11. Apuntes sobre encuestas electorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Benavente Gianella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las encuestas preelectorales suelen despertar gran interés por el valor predictivo que se les puede atribuir o que puedan tener, y por el efecto que puedan generar en los votantes. También se usan como herramienta efectiva para el manejo de las campañas de los candidatos. Existen tres tipos de encuestas electorales: preelectorales, boca de urna y postelectorales, en cada caso cumplen funciones diferentes en relación con los procesos electorales. Philippe Maarek (1 considera que la publicación de encuestas preelectorales influye en la decisión de voto mediante efectos directos e indirectos. Es en coyunturas preelectorales cuando las encuestas suelen concitar la mayor atención, especialmente por el valor predictivo que se les puede atribuir o que puedan tener, y por el efecto que puedan generar en los votantes, de manera especial en los indecisos, que constituyen un porcentaje usualmente muy alto durante casi toda la etapa preelectoral. Esto hace que las encuestas sean controvertidas y discutidas en el mundo. En los procesos electorales, las encuestas también son utilizadas como una herramienta efectiva para el manejo eficiente de las campañas de los candidatos, asumiendo de esta manera un papel protagónico y permanente en las campañas. Además de sus implicancias electorales, las encuestas tienen asimismo presencia en la vida política institucional en épocas no electorales. Actualmente son utilizadas para conocer la opinión de los ciudadanos acerca de diversos temas políticos, económicos y sociales. Las encuestadoras realizan sondeos periódicos sobre todos estos aspectos que son difundidos a través de los medios de comunicación, alimentando de este modo el debate político. En la actualidad, las encuestas de opinión son una práctica habitual en todos los países con regímenes democráticos, constituyéndose en un instrumento de medición de la opinión de los ciudadanos.

  12. Informe preliminar sobre paludrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Peñuela Rozo

    1948-05-01

    Full Text Available En el año de 1945, Curd Davey y Rose eligieron la pirimidina como substancia de experimentación debido a que esta substancia se encuentra en las nucleo-proteinas y por su presencia en algunas sulfadrogas especial mente la sulfadiazina, de conocidas propiedades anti-palúdicas. Ensayaron la pirimidina y derivados en infestaciones por plasmodium gallinaceum en gallinas; y comprobaron que estas substancias tenían realmente acción antipalúdica. Pero al trasladar sus experiencias al hombre, encontraron que la pirimidina y sus derivados eran demasiado tóxicos. Pensando, entonces, en la similitud química del grupo de la pirimida y de la guanidina, incluyeron este último grupo en los compuestos para ensayar, descubriendo que la inclusión de la guanidina aumentaba grandemente la acción de las substancias en experiencia. Se obtuvo de esta manera un producto denominado en el numero 4-888, o paludrina, cuya fórmula o nombre químico es N. P. clorofenil N5 isopropildiguanidina, droga que se encontró muy activa contra las formas sanguíneas del Plasmodium Gallinaceum y que también se hallo activa contra las formas exoeritrocíticas del parásito. Esta capacidad de obrar sobre la fase exoeritrocítica es prácticamente exclusiva de esta substancia. Hasta hace poco tiempo esta fase exoeritrocítica, había sido demostrada solamente en trabajos de experimentación en las  aves; pero en la actualidad ha quedado también demostrada en la enfermedad humana, por experiencias del Filipino Nolasco and África, quien logro demostrar el plasmodium Vivax en el tejido retículo endotelial del pulmón de enfermos de paludismo, aunque ya Brug, en el año de 1940 había hecho comunicaciones en el mismo sentido. Se comprende la grande importancia de la paludrina, en el tratamiento del paludismo; si se considera que las recidivas de la enfermedad son debidas a la existencia de esta fase xeoeritrocítica.

  13. LEVELS OF ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL METALS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    . Cr. Cd. Pb. Ref. Taraxacum officinale. Weber. Spain 27. -. -. -. 7. 27. Eucalyptus globulus. Labill. Spain 10. -. -. -. 6. 27. Plantago major L. Bulgaria 13. -. -. -. 6. 27. Mentha piperita L. Bulgaria 19. -. -. -. 8. 27. Matricaria chamomilla L. Egypt 20.

  14. How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-André Henden

    Full Text Available The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket areal extent, configuration and habitat structure affected bird abundance, occupancy rates and species richness so as to provide an empirical basis for predicting the outcome of environmental change for riparian tundra bird communities. Based on a 4-year count data series, obtained through a large-scale study design in low arctic tundra in northern Norway, statistical hierarchical community models were deployed to assess relations between habitat configuration and bird species occupancy and community richness. We found that species abundance, occupancy and richness were greatly affected by willow areal extent and configuration, habitat features likely to be affected by intense ungulate browsing as well as climate warming. In sum, total species richness was maximized in large and tall willow patches of small to intermediate degree of fragmentation. These community effects were mainly driven by responses in the occupancy rates of species depending on tall willows for foraging and breeding, while species favouring other vegetation states were not affected. In light of the predicted climate driven willow shrub encroachment in riparian tundra habitats, our study predicts that many bird species would increase in abundance, and that the bird community as a whole could become enriched. Conversely, in tundra regions where overabundance of large herbivores leads to decreased areal extent, reduced height and increased fragmentation

  15. Variable effects of labile carbon on the carbon use of different microbial groups in black slate degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dachung; Kothe, Erika; Gleixner, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    Weathering of ancient organic matter contributes significantly to biogeochemical carbon cycles over geological times. The principle role of microorganisms in this process is well recognized. However, information is lacking on the contribution of individual groups of microorganisms and on the effect of labile carbon sources to the degradation process. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the degradation process using a column experiment. Investigations were performed on low metamorphic black slates. All columns contained freshly crushed, sieved (0.63-2 mm), not autoclaved black slates. Two columns were inoculated with the lignite-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune and received a culture medium containing 13C labeled glucose, two columns received only this culture medium and two control columns received only water. The total mass balance was calculated from all carbon added to the slate and the CO 2 and DOC losses. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were extracted to investigate microbial communities. We used both the compound specific 14C and 13C signal of the PLFA to quantify carbon uptake from black slates and the glucose of the culture medium, respectively. The total carbon loss in these columns exceeded the amount of added carbon by approximately 60%, indicating that black slate carbon has been used. PLFA associated with Gram-positive bacteria dominated the indigenous community and took up 22% of carbon from black slate carbon, whereas PLFA of Gram-negative bacteria used only 8% of carbon from the slates. PLFA of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were both mostly activated by the glucose addition. The added Schizophyllum did not establish well in the columns and was overgrown by the indigenous microbial community. Our results suggest that especially Gram-positive bacteria are able to live on and degrade black slate material. They also benefit from easy degradable carbon from the nutrient broth. In

  16. A simple and inexpensive enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darren S; Parsons, Anne Michelle; Bresland, John; Herde, Paul; Pham, Duc Minh; Tan, Angel; Hsu, Hung-yao; Prestidge, Clive A; Kuchel, Tim; Begg, Rezaul; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Butler, Ross N

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the impact of the contents on the host mucosa is emerging as an important area for defining both wellness and susceptibility to disease. Targeted delivery of drugs to treat specific small intestinal disorders such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and targeting molecules to interrogate or to deliver vaccines to the remote regions of the small intestine has proven difficult. There is an unmet need for methodologies to release probes/drugs to remote regions of the gastrointestinal tract in furthering our understanding of gut health and pathogenesis. In order to address this concern, we need to know how the regional delivery of a surrogate labeled test compound is handled and in turn, if delivered locally as a liquid or powder, the dynamics of its subsequent handling and metabolism. In the studies we report on in this paper, we chose (13)C sodium acetate ((13)C-acetate), which is a stable isotope probe that once absorbed in the small intestine can be readily measured non-invasively by collection and analysis of (13)CO2 in the breath. This would provide information of gastric emptying rates and an indication of the site of release and absorptive capacity. In a series of in vitro and in vivo pig experiments, we assessed the enteric-protective properties of a commercially available polymer EUDRAGIT(®) L100-55 on gelatin capsules and also on DRcaps(®). Test results demonstrated that DRcaps(®) coated with EUDRAGIT(®) L100-55 possessed enhanced enteric-protective properties, particularly in vivo. These studies add to the body of knowledge regarding gastric emptying in pigs and also begin the process of gathering specifications for the design of a simple and cost-effective enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine.

  17. Allele Variants of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Are Globally Transmitted and Associated with Colonization Factors

    KAUST Repository

    Joffré, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. ETEC-mediated diarrhea is orchestrated by heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STp and STh), acting in concert with a repertoire of more than 25 colonization factors (CFs). LT, the major virulence factor, induces fluid secretion after delivery of a monomeric ADP-ribosylase (LTA) and its pentameric carrier B subunit (LTB). A study of ETEC isolates from humans in Brazil reported the existence of natural LT variants. In the present study, analysis of predicted amino acid sequences showed that the LT amino acid polymorphisms are associated with a geographically and temporally diverse set of 192 clinical ETEC strains and identified 12 novel LT variants. Twenty distinct LT amino acid variants were observed in the globally distributed strains, and phylogenetic analysis showed these to be associated with different CF profiles. Notably, the most prevalent LT1 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS1 + CS3 or CS2 + CS3, and the most prevalent LT2 allele variants were correlated with major ETEC lineages expressing CS5 + CS6 or CFA/I. LTB allele variants generally exhibited more-stringent amino acid sequence conservation (2 substitutions identified) than LTA allele variants (22 substitutions identified). The functional impact of LT1 and LT2 polymorphisms on virulence was investigated by measuring total-toxin production, secretion, and stability using GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (GM1-ELISA) and in silico protein modeling. Our data show that LT2 strains produce 5-fold more toxin than LT1 strains (P < 0.001), which may suggest greater virulence potential for this genetic variant. Our data suggest that functionally distinct LT-CF variants with increased fitness have persisted during the evolution of ETEC and have spread globally.

  18. Modelación y optimización del proceso de extracción de aceite esencial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeancarlos Moreno; Gabriel López; Raúl Siche

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudiaron el efecto de la humedad de la hoja de eucalipto y el tiempo de extracción sobre el rendimiento de aceite esencial y el costo de producción. Se tuvieron en cuenta parámetros como la temperatura de vapor, la presión de extracción, la porosidad de lecho, flujo de vapor y temperatura de condensación. Fue utilizado un Diseño Compuesto Central Rotacional para evaluar las zonas óptimas de extracción y el costo que ocasionaría, buscando en todo momento aumentar lo...

  19. Redox-active labile iron in fortified flours from the Brazilian market Ferro lábil redox-ativo em farinhas fortificadas do mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Pannia Espósito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the fraction of redox-active labile iron in iron-fortified flours acquired on the Brazilian market. METHODS: Samples of wheat flour, maize flour and breadcrumbs were extracted with buffers that mimic gastric juice, saliva and intestinal juice. Redox-active labile iron levels were assessed through the reaction of autoxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed by iron in the presence of a fluorescence probe. RESULTS: Redox-active labile iron represents 1% to 9% of the total iron in the flour and breadcrumb samples, with the lowest values found under gastric juice conditions and the highest in the more alkaline media. Redox-active labile iron possibly arises from the decomposition of an iron-phytic acid complex. A positive correlation between redox-active labile iron and total iron was found in saline biomimetic fluids. CONCLUSION: Redox-active labile iron may be a risk factor for people with impaired antioxidant defenses, such as those who are atransferrinemic or iron overloaded (e.g. thalassemic. Total iron can be used to predict redox-active labile iron absorption at each stage of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of iron-fortified flours.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a porcentagem de ferro lábil redox ativo em farinhas fortificadas adquiridas no comércio popular. MÉTODOS: Amostras de farinha de trigo, fubá e rosca foram extraídas com tampões miméticos de suco gástrico, saliva e suco intestinal. Os níveis de ferro lábil redox ativo foram determinados por meio da reação de auto-oxidação do ácido ascórbico catalisada pelo ferro, em presença de uma sonda fluorimétrica. RESULTADOS: A fração de ferro lábil redox ativo representa entre 1% e 9% do ferro total nas farinhas estudadas, sendo os menores valores encontrados em condições miméticas do suco gástrico e os maiores nos meios mais alcalinos. Há indícios de que o ferro lábil redox ativo origina-se da decomposição de um complexo entre ferro e ácido f

  20. Estudi sobre Bluetooth low energy

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi Asensio, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Amb l'estudi sobre Bluetooth Low Energy es pretén entendre el funcionament i el paper d'una de les tecnologies wireless més conegudes en el món actual, el Bluetooth LE. D'aquesta manera, aconseguint una visió històrica i tècnica es veurà d'on ve el seu èxit, així com quins són els seus principals punts forts i les seves principals debilitats, i les tecnologies que competeixen directament amb Bluetooth. Con el estudio sobre Bluetooth Low Energy se pretende entender el funcionamiento y el...

  1. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system increase the level of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin A3 and trans-zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúiga, Gustavo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-08-20

    Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z) as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB). In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  2. Characterization of the Interunit Bonds of Lignin Oligomers Released by Acid-Catalyzed Selective Solvolysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Eucalyptus globulus Woods via Thioacidolysis and 2D-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kaori; Kaiho, Atsushi; Sakai, Ryo; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-12-07

    Acid-catalyzed degradation of lignin in toluene containing methanol selectively yields C6-C2 lignin monomers and releases lignin oligomers, a potential raw feedstock for epoxy resins. We herein characterize the structures of the lignin oligomers by focusing on the changes in the interunit linkage types during solvolysis. The oligomeric lignin products were analyzed via thioacidolysis and 2D-HSQC-NMR. The results show that lignin oligomers ranging from monomers to tetramers are released through considerable cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages. The lignin oligomers from Cryptomeria japonica (softwood) mainly comprise β-5, β-1, and tetrahydrofuran β-β linkages, whereas Eucalyptus globulus (hardwood) yields oligomers rich in β-1 and syringaresinol β-β linkages. Both wood samples exhibit selective release of β-β dimers and a relative decrease in 5-5 and 4-O-5 bonds during solvolysis. The method presented for the separation of lignin oligomers without β-O-4 linkages and with linkages unique to each wood species will be useful for the production of lignin-based materials.

  3. Effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on emotional lability in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtarian, T R; Cooper, R E; Vassos, E; Moran, P; Asherson, P

    2017-07-01

    Emotional lability (EL) is an associated feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, contributing to functional impairment. Yet the effect of pharmacological treatments for ADHD on EL symptoms is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on symptoms of EL and compare these with the effects on core ADHD symptoms. A systematic search was conducted on the databases Embase, PsychInfo, and Ovid Medline ® and the clinicaltrials.gov website. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of stimulants and atomoxetine in adults aged 18-60 years, with any mental health diagnosis characterised by emotional or mood instability, with at least one outcome measure of EL. All identified trials were on adults with ADHD. A random-effects meta-analysis with standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals was used to investigate the effect size on EL and compare this to the effect on core ADHD symptoms. Of the 3,864 publications identified, nine trials met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Stimulants and atomoxetine led to large mean weighted effect-sizes for on ADHD symptoms (n=9, SMD=-0.8, 95% CI:-1.07 to -0.53). EL outcomes showed more moderate but definite effects (n=9, SMD=-0.41, 95% CI:-0.57 to -0.25). In this meta-analysis, stimulants and atomoxetine were moderately effective for EL symptoms, while effect size on core ADHD symptoms was twice as large. Methodological issues may partially explain the difference in effect size. Reduced average effect size could also reflect heterogeneity of EL with ADHD pharmacotherapy responsive and non-responsive sub-types. Our findings indicate that EL may be less responsive than ADHD symptoms overall, perhaps indicating the need for adjunctive psychotherapy in some cases. To clarify these questions, our findings need replication in studies selecting subjects for high EL and targeting EL as the primary

  4. Sobre Humanismo y Medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En esta disertación sobre “Humanismo y Medicina”, título del libro que tuve ocasión de publicar hace un par de años, destacaré algunas de las relaciones que existen entre la medicina y las bellas artes, concretamente la música y la pintura. La Medicina tiene como objeto de su acción al Hombre. Definida como la ciencia y el arte de prevenir, curar o aliviar la enfermedad, no tiene como meta la simple prolongación de la vida biológica.

    Su tarea consiste en postergar la muerte, prevenir o reducir los padecimientos y las deformidades, curar las enfermedades, ampliar las capacidades biológicas y psicológicas de los seres humanos y ocuparse de los sufrimientos de las personas. Para Tristam Engelhardt, es la Medicina de las personas.

    Se concibe a la persona humana como el individuo de conciencia reflexiva normal que es a la vez miembro pleno de la comunidad, con los deberes y derechos que presuponen su pertenencia a ella. A esta acepción de carácter moral de la persona humana, que corresponde a lo que se llama persona “en sentido estricto”, se agrega la acepción social, que hace relación con aquellas personas a las que se otorgan prácticamente los mismos derechos, como es el caso de los niños, de los individuos que perdieron el carácter de personas por padecer de lesiones cerebrales o demencia, y de aquellos que nunca llegarán a serlo como los retrasados mentales profundos.

    Al sostener que no todos los seres humanos son personas “en sentido estricto”, la Bioética que expone Engelhardt impone, sin embargo, como obligación moral, tratar a estos últimos con pleno respeto y comprensión. Lo que es importante acerca de nosotros mismos como seres humanos, es el hecho real de que seamos personas; no simplemente nuestra pertenencia al género Horno sapiens como tal.

    Para Víctor Frankl, la persona humana es de carácter espiritual y en tal virtud, es diferente del organismo psicofísico cuya

  5. Conversaciones sobre el litoral cordillerano

    OpenAIRE

    Browne,Enrique; Browne,Tomás

    2009-01-01

    Dos arquitectos dialogan sobre los Andes desde su propia vivencia. El territorio de Chile se entiende como límite natural entre mar y cordillera, donde suceden apretadamente una serie de eventos particulares: fallas geológicas, cerros que penetran en las ciudades y torrentes que bajan al mar caracterizan y diferencian sus paisajes.

  6. Marked lability in urinary cortisol levels in subgroups of combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder during an intensive exposure treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John W; Wang, Sheila; Yehuda, Rachel; Lubin, Hadar; Johnson, David; Bremner, J Douglas; Charney, Dennis; Southwick, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain longitudinal data on lability of cortisol levels in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because previous studies have largely been based on sampling at a single time point and have yielded varying results. This study measured urinary cortisol levels at admission, midcourse, and discharge during a 90-day hospitalization period in male Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (N = 51). Although there were no significant differences in the mean +/- SEM urinary cortisol levels between the admission (59.4 +/- 3.0 microg/d), midcourse (55.6 +/- 3.9 microg/d), and discharge (53.4 +/- 3.4 microg/d) values, marked lability of cortisol levels in individual patients was observed over time, with changes ranging from +93 to -58 microg/d from admission to midcourse. In addition, this hormonal lability defined discrete subgroups of patients on the basis of the longitudinal pattern of cortisol change during exposure treatment, and there were significant psychometric differences in the level of social functioning between these subgroups. The findings do not support the concept of either a static "hypocortisolism" or "hypercortisolism" in PTSD, but rather suggest a psychogenic basis for cortisol alterations in PTSD in relation to psychosocial stress and indicate a central regulatory dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis characterized by a dynamic tendency to overreact in both upward and downward directions. The longitudinal findings fit with recent observations that cortisol elevations occur when acutely superimposed stressful conditions emotionally engage patients and overwhelm the usually dominating disengaging coping mechanisms associated with suppression of cortisol levels in PTSD. The findings emphasize the importance of longitudinal data in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PTSD.

  7. High desolvation temperature facilitates the ESI-source H/D exchange at non-labile sites of hydroxybenzoic acids and aromatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebker, Alexander; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Roznyatovsky, Vitaliy A; Popov, Igor; Grishin, Yuri K; Perminova, Irina V; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2016-04-21

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry has become a powerful analytical approach for structural investigations of complex organic matrices. Here we report the feasibility of the site-specific H/D exchange of non-labile hydrogens directly in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source, which was facilitated by an increase in the desolvation temperature from 200 °C up to 400 °C. We have found that the exchanges at non-labile sites were observed only for the model compounds capable of keto-enol tautomeric transformations (e.g., 2,3-, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, gallic acid, DOPA), and only when water was used as a solvent. We hypothesized that the detected additional exchanges were induced by the presence of hydroxyls in the sprayed water droplets generated in the negative ESI mode. It was indicative of the exchange reactions taking place in the sprayed droplets rather than in the gas phase. To support this hypothesis, the H/D exchange experiments were run in deuterated water under base-catalyzed conditions for three model compounds, which showed the most intensive exchanges in the MS experiments: DOPA, 2,4-DHB, and 5-acetylsalicylic acid. (2)H NMR spectroscopy has confirmed keto-enolic transformations of the model compounds leading to the specific labeling of the corresponding non-labile sites. We believe that the proposed technique will be useful for structural investigations of natural complex mixtures (e.g. proteins, humic substances) using site-specific H/D exchange.

  8. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexin Shao

    Full Text Available Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC. The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1 and DOC (306 mg kg-1, while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1, and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1. Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1, and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1 and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1; however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1, β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1, and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1. Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  10. Modelación y optimización del proceso de extracción de aceite esencial de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron el efecto de la humedad de la hoja de eucalipto y el tiempo de extracción sobre el rendimiento de aceite esencial y el costo de producción. Se tuvieron en cuenta parámetros como la temperatura de vapor, la presión de extracción, la porosidad de lecho, flujo de vapor y temperatura de condensación. Fue utilizado un Diseño Compuesto Central Rotacional para evaluar las zonas óptimas de extracción y el costo que ocasionaría, buscando en todo momento aumentar los rendimientos y disminuir los gastos. Según este diseño, la extracción con menores costos de producción (0.57 Nuevos Soles por mL de aceite esencial se alcanza cuando las hojas tienen una humedad entre 25 y 30% y se extraen con tiempos entre 98 y 126 min.

  11. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Takai, Daiya, E-mail: dtakai-ind@umin.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  12. Genetic-based interactions among tree neighbors: identification of the most influential neighbors, and estimation of correlations among direct and indirect genetic effects for leaf disease and growth in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa E Silva, J; Potts, B M; Gilmour, A R; Kerr, R J

    2017-09-01

    An individual's genes may influence the phenotype of neighboring conspecifics. Such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are important as they can affect the apparent total heritable variance in a population, and thus the response to selection. We studied these effects in a large, pedigreed population of Eucalyptus globulus using variance component analyses of Mycosphearella leaf disease, diameter growth at age 2 years, and post-infection diameter growth at ages 4 and 8 years. In a novel approach, we initially modeled IGEs using a factor analytic (FA) structure to identify the most influential neighbor positions, with the FA loadings being position-specific regressions on the IGEs. This involved sequentially comparing FA models for the variance-covariance matrices of the direct and indirect effects of each neighbor. We then modeled IGEs as a distance-based, combined effect of the most influential neighbors. This often increased the magnitude and significance of indirect genetic variance estimates relative to using all neighbors. The extension of a univariate IGEs model to bivariate analyses also provided insights into the genetic architecture of this population, revealing that: (1) IGEs arising from increased probability of neighbor infection were not associated with reduced growth of neighbors, despite adverse fitness effects being evident at the direct genetic level; and (2) the strong, genetic-based competitive interactions for growth, established early in stand development, were highly positively correlated over time. Our results highlight the complexities of genetic-based interactions at the multi-trait level due to (co)variances associated with IGEs, and the marked discrepancy occurring between direct and total heritable variances.

  13. Un nuevo libro sobre Agualongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Payán Archer

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Tengo que confesar que no obstante mi condición de nariñense era muy poco lo que sabía del famoso Agualongo, el guerrillero pastuso que les dio tantos dolores de cabeza a las fuerzas patriotas, sobre todo, después de la batalla de Bomboná. Por eso, porque la oportunidad era calva para saciar mi curiosidad, me leí de un tirón el libro que con el título "Banderas solitarias -ida de Agualongo" y bajo el patrocinio del Banco de la República acaba de publicar Alberto Montezuma Hurtado.

  14. Lumbalgias en hockey sobre cesped

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 84 jugadoras de hockey sobre hierba amateurs, mayores de 18 años de la primera categoría de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar la incidencia del gesto deportivo en las lumbalgias de dichas jugadoras. El dolor lumbar tiene una alta prevalencia entre los deportistas, se ha relacionado con déficits en la fuerza extensora lumbar, y el hecho de padecerlo representa un obstáculo importante para la ...

  15. Modelos ambientales sobre la vejez

    OpenAIRE

    Izal, María; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    1990-01-01

    La perspectiva ambiental en el estudio de la vejez es probablemente un ámbito poco conocido. En este trabajo se expone una revisión crítica de los principales modelos de explicación de las relaciones ambiente-conducta en la vejez. Finalmente, se discute sobre la superación de algunas limitaciones presentes en estas formulaciones teóricas, presentándose posibles alternativas teóricas y metodológicas para el desarrollo de esta área.

  16. Post-transcriptional silencing of chalcone synthase is involved in phenotypic lability in petals and leaves of bicolor dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) 'Yuino'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hori, Wakako; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2018-02-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of a chalcone synthase ( DvCHS2 ) occurred in the white part of bicolor petals and flavonoid-poor leaves; however, it did not in red petals and flavonoid-rich leaves. Petal color lability is a prominent feature of bicolor dahlia cultivars, and causes plants to produce not only original bicolor petals with colored bases and pure white tips, but also frequently single-colored petals without white tips. In this study, we analysed the molecular mechanisms that are associated with petal color lability using the red-white bicolor cultivar 'Yuino'. Red single-colored petals lose their white tips as a result of recover of flavonoid biosynthesis. Among flavonoid biosynthetic genes including four chalcone synthase (CHS)-like genes (DvCHS1, DvCHS2, DvCHS3, and DvCHS4), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 had significantly lower expression levels in the white part of bicolor petals than in red petals, while DvCHS3, DvCHS4, and other flavonoid biosynthetic genes had almost the same expression levels. Small RNAs from the white part of a bicolor petal were mapped onto DvCHS1 and DvCHS2, while small RNAs from a red single-colored petal were not mapped onto any of the four CHS genes. A relationship between petal color and leaf flavonoid accumulation has previously been demonstrated, whereby red petal-producing plants accumulate flavonoids in their leaves, while bicolor petal-producing plants tend not to. The expression level of DvCHS2 was down-regulated in flavonoid-poor leaves and small RNAs from flavonoid-poor leaves were mapped onto DvCHS2, suggesting that the down-regulation of DvCHS2 in flavonoid-poor leaves occurs post-transcriptionally. Genomic analysis also suggested that DvCHS2 is the key gene involved in bicolor formation. Together, these results suggest that post-transcriptional gene silencing of DvCHS2 plays a key role in phenotypic lability in this bicolor dahlia.

  17. Contribution of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds to the loss of infectivity of γ-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA in E. coli cells mutant in various repair functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-one radiation sensitive mutants have been examined for their capacity to support gamma-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA. The survival of phiX174 RF-DNA was reduced in essentially all of the sensitive mutants. The irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA was then separated into populations containing either single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds to examine the capacity of the mutants to repair each of the classes of lesions. It was found that all E. coli strains are unable to repair 22 percent of the single-strand breaks and all sensitive mutants are unable to repair an additional 10 percent of the breaks. All the repair functions examined are involved in single-strand break repair and none are more or less necessary than any of the others. PhiX174 RF-DNA is also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds. In the normal strains the inactivation efficiency is 0.16 lethal events per lesion with a threshold dose of 15 to 20 krads. The mutants are divided into two classes by their sensitivity to alkali-labile bonds. Both classes of mutants are also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds with efficiencies of about 0.17 and 0.29 lethal events per lesion, respectively. It is proposed that the differences seen in survival curves of phiX174 measured in the sensitive mutants is due to this difference. Although in normal cells the efficiency of inactivation of phiX174 by single-strand breaks is 50 percent greater than by alkali-labile bonds, alkali-labile bonds are produced at approximately twice the rate of single-strand breaks so alkali-labile bonds account for about 61 percent of the overall inactivation. In the mutants of least sensitivity alkali-labile bonds account for about 54 percent of the inactivating events and in the most sensitive about 67 percent

  18. Sobre el concepto de juego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl GARCÍA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Existe una amplia bibliografía sobre el juego. La actividad ludrica ha sido estudiada desde todos los campos posibles: pedagógico, sociológico, histórico, etc. Multitud de autores han publicado teorías sobre los beneficios, valores, etc., del juego; pero casi todos lo han hecho con una óptica utilitarista, ¡nada más lejano de la esencia misma del juego! Este ensayo pretende ser una aproximación a las raíces de la actividad más connatural del ser humano, un acercamiento al concepto del juego.ABSTRACT: There is extensive bibliography on the subject of play. The ludic activity has been studied from all possible fields: pedagogical, sociological, historical, etc. Many authors have published theories on the advantages and value of play; almost all of them, however, have been elaborated from a utlitarian perspective; nothing could be more remote from the very essence of play. The aim of this essay is to approach the roots of the most innate activity of the human being, to approach the concept of play.

  19. Higher temperature sensitivity for stable than for labile soil organic carbon - Evidence from incubations of long-term bare fallow soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefèvre, Romain; Barré, Pierre; Moyano, Fernando E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC)remains a major source of uncertainty in predicting future changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. One unsettled issue is whether the mineralization response to temperature depends on SOC mineralization rate. Long-term (>25 years......) bare fallow experiments (LTBF) in which the soil is kept free of any vegetation and organic inputs, and their associated archives of soil samples represent a unique research platform to examine this issue as with increasing duration of fallow, the lability of remaining total SOC decreases. We retrieved...... soils from LTBF experiments situated at Askov (Denmark), Grignon (France), Ultuna (Sweden), and Versailles (France) and sampled at the start of the experiments and after 25, 50, 52, and 79 years of bare fallow, respectively. Soils were incubated at 4, 12, 20, and 35 °C and the evolved CO2 monitored...

  20. The ortho backbone amide linker (o-BAL) is an easily prepared and highly acid-labile handle for solid-phase synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Brask, Jesper; Christensen, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The tris(alkoxy)benzyl backbone amide linker (BAL) has found widespread application in solid-phase synthesis. The key intermediate for preparation of para BAL (p-BAL) is 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde; several reports on its synthesis have appeared. However, the ortho analogue of the handle (o-BAL......) has successfully been used by us for the synthesis of C-terminal-modified peptides, oligosaccharides, and substituted anilines. Here, we present a new and convenient synthesis of the key intermediate for o-BAL, 4,6-dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, by a highly regioselective demethylation with BBr3......, followed by purification through steam distillation, Cleavage studies of Leu-enkephalin anchored to either o-BAL or p-BAL handles revealed that both handles were surprisingly acid-labile and released the peptide with dilute TFA (5% and even 1% TFA in CH2Cl2). This useful property allowed the synthesis...

  1. Low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater reduced labile C and enhanced organic-inorganic N and enzymatic activities in a semiarid alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Mian, Ishaq A

    2017-02-01

    Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes. The 60-day incubation study used an alkaline clay loam aridisol that received 0 (distilled water), 25, 50, and 100% wastewater concentrations, and microcosms were incubated aerobically under room temperature at 70% water holding capacity. Results revealed that raw wastewater significantly (p wastewater concentrations, whereas WSC contents followed an opposite trend. The highest NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents were observed in soil treated with 100% wastewater. The extractable organic N (EON) contents always represented >50% of the soil total Kjeldahl N (TKN) contents and served as the major N pool. However, nitrification index (NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio) decreased at high wastewater concentrations. A significant negative correlation was observed between EON and WSC (p biological activity. Higher production and accumulation of soil NO 3 - -N and EON contents in concentrated wastewater-treated soil could pose an ecological concern for soil fertility, biological health, and water quality. However, the EON could lead to mineral N pool but only if sufficient labile C source was present. The effects of wastewater irrigation on soil N cycling need to be assessed before it is recommended for crop production.

  2. Violência sobre Idosos: Um Olhar sobre a Atualidade

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Ana; Lopes, M. J.; Marques, Maria do Céu; Pinheiro, Felícia Tavares; Gemito, Maria Laurência

    2012-01-01

    A violência sobre os idosos tem vindo, cada vez mais, a assumir uma enorme centralidade no debate público. As Nações Unidas definem violência como “o uso intencional da força física ou poder, ameaça ou real, contra si próprio, outra pessoa, ou contra um grupo ou comunidade, que resulte ou tenha uma alta probabilidade de resultar em lesão, morte, dano psicológico, mau desenvolvimento ou privação” (WHO, 1996). Por sua vez a Declaração de Toronto, subscrita pelos países membros da ONU em 2002, d...

  3. Puente sobre el rio Lay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-11-01

    Full Text Available El puente sobre el río Lay, salva el río formando un ángulo de 69° con la dirección de éste. Situado en el término municipal de la Reorthe (Francia, sus características principales se concentran en sus tres vigas pretensadas, de 30 m de longitud, prefabricadas, siguiendo los procedimientos Preyssinet, proyectadas por la Société Technique pour l'Utilisation de la Précontrainte, que también se encargó de la redacción del proyecto general de ejecución, cuya realización se encomendó a la empresa constructora Dodin, y de los métodos empleados para la colocación de las vigas en obra.

  4. Substâncias húmicas, atividade microbiana e carbono orgânico lábil em agregados de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico sob duas coberturas vegetais Humic substances, microbial activity and labile organic carbon in aggregates of a Dystrophic Red Latosol under two vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Passos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A matéria orgânica (MO constitui um atributo indicativo da qualidade do solo. O conhecimento de seus distintos componentes, explicando a influência que as práticas de manejo exercem sobre a MO e a agregação dos solos, é de grande importância para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se as substâncias húmicas, a atividade microbiana e o C orgânico lábil em agregados de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico de Minas Gerais sob vegetação natural de Cerradão e sob cultivo convencional com milho durante 30 anos. Para isso, foram retiradas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 5-10 e 15-20 cm em quatro pontos diferentes. Após coletado, o material foi seco ao ar e fracionado, por via seca, nas classes de agregados de: 4,75-2,0; 2,0-1,0; 1,0-0,5; 0,5-0,25; 0,25-0,105; e Organic matter is an indicator of the soil quality. Knowledge about its different components, explaining the influence of management practices on organic matter and soil aggregation, is essential for the sustainability of agricultural systems. In the present work, we evaluated humic substances, microbial activity and labile organic carbon in a Dystrophic Red Latosol from Minas Gerais state, Brazil, under natural vegetation (Cerradão or under 30-years of conventional corn cultivation. Soil samples were collected from depths of 5-10 and 15-20 cm at four different sites. Then the samples were dried and fractioned in aggregate classes (diameter 4.75-2.0; 2.0-1.0; 1.0-0.5; 0.5-0.25; 0.25-0.105; and less than 0.105 mm. Furthermore, organic carbon of fulvic acid (AF, humic acids (AH and humins (HUM fractions, and labile organic carbon (COL using KMnO4 15.6 and 33.0 mmol L-1 of the samples were determined. The material was further subjected to a respirometry test, in which CO2 production values were adjusted to logistic equations [Y = a/1 + e-(b + cx] to estimate the time needed to achieve half of the maximum CO2 (t1/2, production. Results showed

  5. Puente sobre el rio Medway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman, Fox, Ingenieros

    1963-02-01

    have been prestressed both longitudinally and transversally. Between the two circulation roadways an elastic barrier has been placed, supported on metal posts.El puente sobre el río Medway tiene la misión de salvar dicho río en el nuevo trazado de carretera necesario para aliviar el denso tráfico estival entre Dower y Londres. Está situado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Rochester. La estructura se ha construido utilizando las vías de concurso. De todos los tipos presentados se eligió una estructura de hormigón armado. La longitud total de la obra es de 1.000 m. Los tres tramos principales de la obra salvan el río. El central es de 152 m de luz, y los dos adyacentes son de 103 m cada uno. Los accesos tienen un total de 18 tramos, que arrojan una longitud de 654 m. La anchura del puente es de 34 m, y la calzada se ha subdividido en dos direcciones de tráfico de 7,30 m cada una y, además, se han dejado dos espaldones laterales de 2,40 m de anchura. En planta se puede admitir que el puente tiene una alineación recta con una ligerísima curva, y que en el plano vertical presenta una pendiente de desagüe entre las pilas 9 y 10. Los estribos son de hormigón armado: tipo celular el del este y de hormigón en masa el del oeste. Los estribos se apoyan sobre pilotes hexagonales de hormigón armado cuya circunferencia circunscrita tiene 55 cm de radio y de 12 a 20 m de longitud. Cuando el firme se hallaba a profundidades inferiores a 6 m, los estribos se cimentaban directamente sobre el firme. Las pilas constituyen pórtico y tienen una altura variable de 9 a 30 m sobre el nivel del suelo. Los tramos de acceso forman una estructura continua simplemente apoyada. Cada tramo se compone de ocho vigas longitudinales de 30 a 41 m de longitud y de 190 toneladas cada una. Estas vigas son del tipo pretensado y prefabricado. El tramo central es del tipo cantilever, constituido por dos brazos, de 30 m de longitud, formados por vigas cajón. Cada una de estas vigas consta

  6. Puente sobre el Oosterschelde, Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoving, H. T.

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available This new bridge, forming part of the Delta project, is made of concrete, and was built by successive overhangs. Precast units were mainly used. The bridge is 5,000 m long, and is 11.85 m wide. The main spans are 95 m in length, except one, which can be opened up to sea traffic, which is 40 m long. The free height of the bridge over the sea is 15 m, which is insufficient for large ships. This required that one of the spans, in deep water, should open up, on hinges, and provide free passage to large ships. The intermediate bridge supports are of special interest. They rest on piles which go down to 38 m. They are hollow, cylindrical, of 4.35 m external diameter, and are driven into the ground in several stages, as they penetrate through the sands at the bottom of the Oosterschelde. To drive them in, an excavating device, inside the pile, was utilised, and also a dredging and suction mechanism, to clean out the bottom, and allow the piles to sink by gravity. But when external friction did not allow this to happen, the piles were weighed down with up to 500 tons of ballast. A series of three of these piles, in a row, makes up each bridge support. A cross member over the pile heads supports, in turn, the bridge deck. The bridge was built in successive sections, overhanging from each support, and then finally connected with a central portion. Use of precast units has been very extensive, so that the bridge can be justiaflably regarded as being prefabricated.Este nuevo puente, que forma parte del Plan de obras denominadas del Delta, es de hormigón y se ha construido por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, utilizando, en su mayor parte, elementos prefabricados. Tiene una longitud total de 5.000 m; una anchura de 11,85 m; tramos principales de 95 m de luz, salvo uno, levadizo, que tiene 40 m. La altura libre sobre las ag^uas del mar es de 15 m, que es insuficiente para las naves de gran tonelaje; esto exigió que uno de sus tramos, en aguas

  7. Analysis of pushing exercises: muscle activity and spine load while contrasting techniques on stable surfaces with a labile suspension strap training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-01-01

    Labile surfaces in the form of suspension straps are increasingly being used as a tool in resistance training programs. Pushing is a common functional activity of daily living and inherently part of a well-rounded training program. This study examined pushing exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps, specifically muscle activation levels and spine loads were quantified together with the influence of employing technique coaching. There were several main questions that this study sought to answer: Which exercises challenged particular muscles? What was the magnitude of the resulting spine load? How did stable and unstable surfaces differ? Did coaching influence the results? Fourteen men were recruited as part of a convenience sample (mean age, 21.1 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 74.6 ± 7.8 kg). Data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force-in this way, the model was sensitive to the individuals choice of motor control for each task; muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. Exercises were performed using stable surfaces for hand/feet contact and repeated where possible with labile suspension straps. Speed of movement was standardized across participants with the use of a metronome for each exercise. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. In general, the instability associated with the labile exercises required greater torso muscle activity than when performed on stable surfaces. Throughout the duration of an exercise, there was a range of compression; the TRX push-up ranged from 1,653 to 2,128.14 N, whereas the standard push-up had a range from 1,233.75 to 1,530.06 N. There was no significant effect of exercise on spine compression (F(4,60) = 0.86, p = 0.495). Interestingly, a standard push-up showed significantly

  8. Type II heat-labile enterotoxins from 50 diverse Escherichia coli isolates belong almost exclusively to the LT-IIc family and may be prophage encoded.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Jobling

    Full Text Available Some enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC produce a type II heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-II that activates adenylate cyclase in susceptible cells but is not neutralized by antisera against cholera toxin or type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-I. LT-I variants encoded by plasmids in ETEC from humans and pigs have amino acid sequences that are ≥ 95% identical. In contrast, LT-II toxins are chromosomally encoded and are much more diverse. Early studies characterized LT-IIa and LT-IIb variants, but a novel LT-IIc was reported recently. Here we characterized the LT-II encoding loci from 48 additional ETEC isolates. Two encoded LT-IIa, none encoded LT-IIb, and 46 encoded highly related variants of LT-IIc. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predicted LT-IIc toxins encoded by these loci could be assigned to 6 subgroups. The loci corresponding to individual toxins within each subgroup had DNA sequences that were more than 99% identical. The LT-IIc subgroups appear to have arisen by multiple recombinational events between progenitor loci encoding LT-IIc1- and LT-IIc3-like variants. All loci from representative isolates encoding the LT-IIa, LT-IIb, and each subgroup of LT-IIc enterotoxins are preceded by highly-related genes that are between 80 and 93% identical to predicted phage lysozyme genes. DNA sequences immediately following the B genes differ considerably between toxin subgroups, but all are most closely related to genomic sequences found in predicted prophages. Together these data suggest that the LT-II loci are inserted into lambdoid type prophages that may or may not be infectious. These findings raise the possibility that production of LT-II enterotoxins by ETEC may be determined by phage conversion and may be activated by induction of prophage, in a manner similar to control of production of Shiga-like toxins by converting phages in isolates of enterohemmorhagic E. coli.

  9. Lability of R- and T-wave peaks in three-dimensional electrocardiograms in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia during follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lichy; Tereshchenko, Larisa G

    2010-01-01

    From experiments, we know that the heterogeneity of action potential duration and morphology is an important mechanism of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of repolarization lability are known; however, lability of depolarization has not been systematically studied. We propose a novel method for the assessment of variability of both depolarization and repolarization phases of the cardiac cycle. Baseline orthogonal ECGs of 81 patients (mean ± SD age, 56 ± 13 years; 61 male [75%]) with structural heart disease and implanted single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) were analyzed. Clean 30-beat intervals with absence of premature beats were then selected. Baseline wandering was corrected before analysis. Peaks of R wave and peaks of T wave were detected for each beat, and the axis magnitude was calculated. The peaks were plotted to show clouds of peaks and then used to construct a convex hull, and the volumes of the R peaks cloud and T peaks cloud and ratio of volumes were calculated. During a mean (SD) follow-up period of 13 (10) months, 9 of the 81 patients had sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) and received appropriate ICD therapies. All ICD events were adjudicated by three independent electrophysiologists. There was no statistically significant difference in the volume of T-wave peaks or R-wave peaks between patients with and without VT or VF during follow-up; however, R/T peaks cloud volume ratio was significantly lower in patients with subsequent VT/VF (22.4 ± 25.4 versus 13.1 ± 7.9, P = .024). Larger volume of T peaks cloud, measured during 30 beats of three-dimensional ECG, is associated with higher risk of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies. New method to assess temporal variability of repolarization in three-dimensional ECGs by measuring volume of peak clouds shows potential for further exploration for VT/VF risk stratification. Copyright

  10. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  11. Notas sobre publicaciones medievales portuguesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis MARTÍN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Contra lo que debiera suceder, la proximidad con Portugal no incita al conocimiento de su historia y son muy raros los manuales de Historia de España en los que se concede a la Edad Media Portuguesa la importancia que realmente tiene, y en los tratados de Historia Medieval Europea el espacio dedicado a Portugal es mínimo, al menos hasta la época de los Descubrimientos; por otra parte, son contados los medievalistas españoles que se interesan por la historia de Portugal. Ante estos silencios y ante la escasa presencia en las bibliotecas españolas de obras portuguesas el estudiante de historia puede pensar que el país vecino carece de medievalistas de relieve, que su historia medieval está por hacer... y nada más lejos de la realidad como intentaré probar en este breve comentario, sin ánimo exhaustivo, sobre algunas de las últimas publicaciones aparecidas en Portugal.

  12. Los derechos de autor sobre obtenciones vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Silva Gilli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Las creaciones en la agricultura. Los derechos de autor sobre obtenciones vegetales. El Convenio Internacional para la protección de las obtenciones vegetales (París 1961 y sus revisiones de Ginebra 1972, 1978,1991 Objeto de la protección legal. Condiciones del cultivar. Alcance de la protección. La protección de obtenciones vegetales en el Mercosur. Los Derechos de autor en el Mercosur. El Protocolo de Armonización de normas sobre Propiedad Intelectual en el Mercosur. El Acuerdo de Cooperación y facilitación sobre la protección de las obtenciones vegetales en los Estados Partes del Mercosur.  Alcance de la normativa Mercosur. Los Derechos sobre cultivares en Uruguay. Los Derechos de autor como derechos humanos. ¿Derechos de autor vs. derecho de propiedad intelectual? Reflexión final

  13. modelos mentales generados sobre las disoluciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Nappa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se exponen las principales características que poseen la construcción y el rodaje de los modelos mentales generados por los estudiantes sobre la disolución. Se piensa que puede constituir una base para profundizar en el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos que se ponen juego en la generación de los modelos mentales.

  14. I Jornada sobre Prueba Pericial y Peritaje

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán de Heredia Ruiz, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    La Jornada sobre Prueba Pericial y Peritaje, organizada por los Estudios de Derecho y Ciencia Política de la UOC y la Asociación Catalana de Peritos Judiciales y Forenses, desea ser un foro de reflexión sobre la figura del perito judicial y forense y su intervención profesional y cualificada dentro del proceso.

  15. Different Assay Conditions for Detecting the Production and Release of Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia B. Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC produce heat-labile (LT and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST. Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work.

  16. The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M Francesca; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Boot, Claudia M; Denef, Karolien; Paul, Eldor

    2013-04-01

    The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Stress biomarkers and alkali-labile phosphate level in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the urban area of Venice (Venice Lagoon, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampanin, Daniela M.; Marangon, Ilenia; Volpato, Elisa; Campesan, Giancarlo; Nasci, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a spatial and temporal survey at three sites located in the 'canals' of the Venice historic centre (Italy) and at a reference site was undertaken to evaluate stress effects on mussels sampled in the Venice urban area, where raw sewage is discharged without treatment directly into the water. A battery of biomarkers (metallothionein, micronuclei, condition index and survival in air) was used to evaluate the stress condition of the animals. At the same time the alkali-labile phosphate assay (ALP) was performed in mussel' hemolymph with the aim to find an estrogenic effect biomarker in this mussel species. Biomarker results showed an impairment of the general health condition in the mussels coming from the urban area, in agreement with the chemical analysis. Significantly higher level of the ALP was found in male mussels sampled in April in the urban area, in comparison with the ones from the reference site (P0.001). Finally, the PCA proved an easy and useful tool to summarize the obtained results, also able to classify the data to indicate a pollution gradient in the Venice urban area. - The overall biological and chemical data show a higher stress condition in the mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the urban area of Venice

  18. Genetic variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit gene associated with growth traits in beef cattle (Bos taurus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Guo, Jiazhong; Wang, Hongliang; Li, Zhixiong; Yang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit (IGFALS) gene encodes a serum protein that binds to IGFs and regulates growth, development, and other physiological processes. We have found that sequencing of the IGFALS gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (n=300) revealed four SNP loci in exon two of the gene (g1219: T>C, g1893: T>C, g2612: G>A, and g2696: A>G). The SNP g2696: A>G resulted in a change from asparagine to aspartic acid (p. N574D) in the leucine-rich repeat region in the carboxyl-terminal domain of IGFALS. Four SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium, and 12 different haplotypes were identified in the population. Association analysis suggested that SNP g1219: T>C had a significant association with hip width (PG displayed a significant association with stature (Pgrowth traits of bovine, and may serve as a genetic marker for selection of beef cattle for growth traits, including stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of the labile organic fraction in food waste and the substrate/inoculum ratio on anaerobic digestion for a reliable methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Minako; Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuaki; Niwa, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2014-04-01

    Influence of the labile organic fraction (LOF) on anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in different S/I ratio of 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0g-VSsubstrate/g-VSinoculum. Two types of substrate, standard food waste (Substrate 1) and standard food waste with the supernatant (containing LOF) removed (Substrate 2) were used. Highest methane yield of 435ml-CH4g-VS(-1) in Substrate 1 was observed in the lowest S/I ratio, while the methane yield of the other S/I ratios were 38-73% lower than the highest yield due to acidification. The methane yields in Substrate 2 were relatively stable in all S/I conditions, although the maximum methane yield was low compared with Substrate 1. These results showed that LOF in food waste causes acidification, but also contributes to high methane yields, suggesting that low S/I ratio (food waste compared to other organic substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a PAMAM-OH derivative containing an acid-labile β-thiopropionate bond for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Chen, Qing; Wang, Kuanglei; Zhu, Jia; Li, Weinan; Li, Wenpan; Qiu, Lipeng; Guan, Guannan; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhao, Xiuli; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Dawei

    2016-07-25

    The present report describes the synthesis of a hydroxyl terminal PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM-OH) derivative (PAMSPF). The hydroxyls of PAMAM-OH were attached to S-Methyl-l-cysteine (SMLC) via an acid-labile ester bond, named as β-thiopropionate bond, followed by modification with folic acid (FA) through a polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker. The degrees of attachment of SMLC and FA to the PAMAM-OH backbone were 83.9% and 12.8%, respectively. PAMSPF could condense DNA to form spherical nanoparticles with particle sizes of ∼200nm and remain stable in the presence of heparin and nuclease. The β-thiopropionate bond in PAMSPF was hydrolyzed completely and the DNA release rate was 95.8±3.3% after incubation under mildly acidic conditions at 37°C for 3h. PAMSPF/DNA was less cytotoxic to KB and HepG2 cells and exhibited a higher gene transfection efficiency than native PAMAM/DNA. The uptake assays showed that PAMSPF/DNA entered KB cells within 0.5h through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis and escaped from endosomes within 2h. In addition, PAMSPF/DNA displayed long circulation time along with excellent targeting of tumor sites in vivo. These findings demonstrate that PAMSPF is an excellent carrier for safe and effective gene delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction in labile plasma iron during treatment with deferasirox, a once-daily oral iron chelator, in heavily iron-overloaded patients with β-thalassaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Shahina; Pathare, Anil; Nick, Hanspeter; Kriemler-Krahn, Ulrike; Hmissi, Abdel; Habr, Dany; Taher, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This subgroup analysis evaluated the effect of once-daily oral deferasirox on labile plasma iron (LPI) levels in patients from the prospective, 1-yr, multicentre ESCALATOR study. Mean baseline liver iron concentration and median serum ferritin levels were 28.6 ± 10.3 mg Fe/g dry weight and 6334 ng/mL respectively, indicating high iron burden despite prior chelation therapy. Baseline LPI levels (0.98 ± 0.82 μmol/L) decreased significantly to 0.12 ± 0.16 μmol/L, 2 h after first deferasirox dose (P=0.0006). Reductions from pre- to post-deferasirox administration were also observed at all other time points. Compared to baseline, there was a significant reduction in preadministration LPI that reached the normal range at week 4 and throughout the remainder of the study (P≤0.02). Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated an inverse relationship between preadministration LPI levels and trough deferasirox plasma concentrations. Once-daily dosing with deferasirox ≥20 mg/kg/d provided sustained reduction in LPI levels in these heavily iron-overloaded patients, suggesting 24-h protection from LPI. Deferasirox may therefore reduce unregulated tissue iron loading and prevent further end-organ damage. PMID:19191863

  2. Response of iron overload to deferasirox in rare transfusion-dependent anaemias: equivalent effects on serum ferritin and labile plasma iron for haemolytic or production anaemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John B; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Beris, Photis; Forni, Gian Luca; Taher, Ali; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Thein, Swee Lay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives It is widely assumed that, at matched transfusional iron-loading rates, responses to chelation therapy are similar, irrespective of the underlying condition. However, data are limited for rare transfusion-dependent anaemias, and it remains to be elucidated if response differs, depending on whether the anaemia has a primary haemolytic or production mechanism. Methods The efficacy and safety of deferasirox (Exjade®) in rare transfusion-dependent anaemias were evaluated over 1 yr, with change in serum ferritin as the primary efficacy endpoint. Initial deferasirox doses were 10–30 mg/kg/d, depending on transfusion requirements; 34 patients had production anaemias, and 23 had haemolytic anaemias. Results Patients with production anaemias or haemolytic anaemias had comparable transfusional iron-loading rates (0.31 vs. 0.30 mL red blood cells/kg/d), mean deferasirox dosing (19.3 vs. 19.0 mg/kg/d) and baseline median serum ferritin (2926 vs. 2682 ng/mL). Baseline labile plasma iron (LPI) levels correlated significantly with the transfusional iron-loading rates and with serum ferritin levels in both cohorts. Reductions in median serum ferritin levels were initially faster in the production than the haemolytic anaemias, but at 1 yr, similar significant reductions of 940 and 617 ng/mL were attained, respectively (−26.0% overall). Mean LPI decreased significantly in patients with production (P deferasirox are similar at 1 yr, irrespective of the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:21649735

  3. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David W; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J; Concepcion, Javier J

    2017-11-01

    A critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s -1 , faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2 ] (bpH 2 cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediates O-O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.

  4. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, David W.; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J.; Concepcion, Javier J.

    2017-01-01

    Here, a critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s –1 , faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2 ] (bpH 2 cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediates O–O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.

  5. The transfer and fate of Pb from sewage sludge amended soil in a multi-trophic food chain: a comparison with the labile elements Cd and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mudasir Irfan; Khan, Fareed Ahmad; Green, Iain D; Naikoo, Mohd Irfan

    2015-10-01

    The contamination of agroecosystems due to the presence of trace elements in commonly used agricultural materials is a serious issue. The most contaminated material is usually sewage sludge, and the sustainable use of this material within agriculture is a major concern. This study addresses a key issue in this respect, the fate of trace metals applied to soil in food chains. The work particularly addresses the transfer of Pb, which is an understudied element in this respect, and compares the transfer of Pb with two of the most labile metals, Cd and Zn. The transfer of these elements was determined from sludge-amended soils in a food chain consisting of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), the mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) and a predatory beetle (Coccinella septempunctata). The soil was amended with sludge at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 % (w/w). Results showed that Cd was readily transferred through the food chain until the predator trophic level. Zn was the most readily transferred element in the lower trophic levels, but transfer to aphids was effectively restricted by the plant regulating shoot concentration. Pb had the lowest level of transfer from soil to shoot and exhibited particular retention in the roots. Nevertheless, Pb concentrations were significantly increased by sludge amendment in aphids, and Pb was increasingly transferred to ladybirds as levels increased. The potential for Pb to cause secondary toxicity to organisms in higher trophic levels may have therefore been underestimated.

  6. The Response of Heterotrophic Prokaryote and Viral Communities to Labile Organic Carbon Inputs Is Controlled by the Predator Food Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Pree, Bernadette; Larsen, Aud; Våge, Selina; Töpper, Birte; Töpper, Joachim P; Thyrhaug, Runar; Thingstad, Tron Frede

    2017-08-23

    Factors controlling the community composition of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes include organic-C, mineral nutrients, predation, and viral lysis. Two mesocosm experiments, performed at an Arctic location and bottom-up manipulated with organic-C, had very different results in community composition for both prokaryotes and viruses. Previously, we showed how a simple mathematical model could reproduce food web level dynamics observed in these mesocosms, demonstrating strong top-down control through the predator chain from copepods via ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Here, we use a steady-state analysis to connect ciliate biomass to bacterial carbon demand. This gives a coupling of top-down and bottom-up factors whereby low initial densities of ciliates are associated with mineral nutrient-limited heterotrophic prokaryotes that do not respond to external supply of labile organic-C. In contrast, high initial densities of ciliates give carbon-limited growth and high responsiveness to organic-C. The differences observed in ciliate abundance, and in prokaryote abundance and community composition in the two experiments were in accordance with these predictions. Responsiveness in the viral community followed a pattern similar to that of prokaryotes. Our study provides a unique link between the structure of the predator chain in the microbial food web and viral abundance and diversity.

  7. Effect of the Addition of a Labile Gelatin Component on the Degradation and Solute Release Kinetics of a Stable PEG Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, H.; Kao, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the degradation mechanisms and resulting products of biodegradable materials is critical in understanding the behavior of the material including solute transport and biological response. Previous mathematical analyses of a semi-interpenetrating network (sIPN) containing both labile gelatin and a stable cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) network found that diffusion-based models alone were unable to explain the release kinetics of solutes from the system. In this study, degradation of the sIPN and its effect on solute release and swelling kinetics were investigated. The kinetics of the primary mode of degradation, gelatin dissolution, was dependent on temperature, preparation methods, PEGdA and gelatin concentration, and the weight ratio between the gelatin and PEG. The gelatin dissolution rate positively correlated with both matrix swelling and the release kinetics of high-molecular-weight model compound, FITC-dextran. Coupled with previous in vitro studies, the kinetics of sIPN degradation provided insights into the time-dependent changes in cellular response including adhesion and protein expression. These results provide a facile guide in material formulation to control the delivery of high-molecular-weight compounds with concomitant modulation of cellular behavior. PMID:21801489

  8. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Y Ozaki

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains.Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin (ST, from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains.The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis.

  9. Can primary production contribute non-labile organic matter in the sea: Amino acid enantiomers along the coast south of the Changjiang Estuary in May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuo-Yi; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Dittmar, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Shao, Liang; Ji, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid enantiomers (AAEs) in suspended particulate organic matter (OM) were measured along the coast south of the Changjiang Estuary in May to determine the origin and nature of estuarine particulate OM. The degradation index (DI) for amino acid yields revealed that fresh OM corresponded to depletion of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, whereas degraded OM corresponded to excess nutrients. This indicates coupling between OM degradation and nutrient regeneration in surface waters. Two clearly different trends were found for the amino acid content of total particulate nitrogen. Offshore samples were characterized by amino acid enrichment (91%), whereas inshore samples were depleted in amino acids (14%), probably because of terrestrial impacts during the previous winter. Compared to samples previously taken from the lower Changjiang reaches (Shao et al., 2011), samples of surface coastal waters can be clearly identified by the D/L ratio of selected AAE, indicating the potential of AAEs for identifying OM sources. Peptidoglycan estimated on the basis of D-AAEs, ranged from 3 to 275 nM. For fresh particulate OM (DI > 0.5), the peptidoglycan concentration was positively correlated with OM freshness and particulate-nitrogen-normalized peptidoglycan was comparable to or even higher than that in terrestrial OM. This suggests that estuarine and coastal zones make a significant contribution to non-labile OM production. Further analysis suggests that heterotrophic bacteria and Synechococcus are notable contributors.

  10. PERSPECTIVAS INFANTILES SOBRE LA TERRITORIALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOELIA ENRIZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a different approach to children's ideas about the geographical area in the particular context of the Mbyá Guarani population, from Misiones (Argentine. The territorial fragility, that is exposed to the indigenous people in Argentina aremanifested daily in several areas. Mbyá population, has been crossed by the boundaries of national states of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. The sedentary and enclosures land processes in different states, have prompted changes in the logic of subsistence, housing and community organization. In Misiones province case, bureaucratic accreditation of land titles is postponed, the state is not committed to the realization of this right.RESUMEN: En este trabajo nos proponemos un acercamiento a las diversas ideas infantiles sobre el territorio habitado, en el contexto particular de la población mbyá guaraní de Misiones. La fragilidad territorialidad a la que es expuesta la población indígena en Argentina se manifiestan cotidianamente en diversas áreas. La población mbyá, ha sido surcada por los límites de los estados nacionales de Paraguay, Brasil y Argentina. La sedentarización y los cercamientos de tierras en los diferentes estados, han impulsado transformaciones de las lógicas de subsistencia, de habitación y organización comunitaria. En el caso de la provincia de Misiones la acreditación burocrática de los títulos de tierras se encuentra aplazada, el estado no se compromete con la concreción de este derecho.

  11. Consideraciones preliminares sobre la credibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Verdugo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A modo de introducción al Seminario Interno de Profesores de la Facultad de Teología de la PUC, el autor recuerda, en primer lugar, lo que suele entenderse por "credibilidad" y, también, algunos de los criterios generales por los cuales algo o alguien adquiere la calidad de creíble (el que sea razonable, relevante o significativo, capaz de producir gozo estético, etc.. Luego, en la parte más extensa, el autor vuelve a llamar la atención sobre la necesidad de atender a los condicionamientos culturales de la fe cristiana. La fe, al igual que toda experiencia humana, está culturalmente mediada. Tomar conciencia de ese hecho y asumir las consecuencias metodológicas es indispensable para una teología que quiere poner atención a los desafíos actuales y contribuir así a la credibilidad del cristianismoThis article reprints the introductory session to the internal seminar of lecturers from the Faculty of Theology of the UC. In the first place, the author sums up what is usually understood by `credibility' and the general criteria through which something or someone gains credibility (being reasonable, relevant or significant, capable of producing aesthetic pleasure. Then the author deals at length with the need to take notice of the cultural conditionings of the Christian faith. The faith, the same as any other human experience, is culturally mediated. It is crucial for theology to become aware of this fact and come to terms with its methodological consequences, if it wants to face current challenges and so contribute to the credibility of Christianity

  12. Conocimientos sobre incontinencia urinaria en pacientes hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Guillen Lopez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre incontinencia urinaria (IU en pacientes hospitalizados. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo; se entrevistó una muestra por saturación de 325 pacientes hospitalizados de 30 años a más del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH, Lima - Perú, utilizando un cuestionario de conocimientos sobre incontinencia, considerándose como adecuado conocimiento cuando había más de 50% de aciertos en él. Resultados: Solamente 35.7% tuvieron conocimiento adecuado sobre IU. Hasta 90% conocía acerca del éxito del tratamiento y posibilidad de curación de los pacientes incontinentes. Sin embargo, 75% consideraron erróneamente que la IU era consecuencia inevitable del envejecimiento, mientras menos de 50% de pacientes conocía el papel de ciertos medicamentos y ejercicios en la IU. Conclusiones: Se demostró un pobre conocimiento general sobre la IU, siendo necesaria una intervención de los profesionales de la salud en la educación de la población, sobre todo hospitalizada y con factores predisponentes para desarrollar IU, para así poder modificar las ideas erróneas que existen sobre el tema. (Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 186-194.

  13. Consenso mexicano sobre la dispepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carmona-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde la publicación de las guías de dispepsia 2007 de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología ha habido avances significativos en el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en PubMed (01/2007 a 06/2016 con el fin de revisar y actualizar las guías 2007 y proporcionar nuevas recomendaciones basadas en evidencia. Se incluyeron todas las publicaciones en español e inglés, de alta calidad. Se redactaron enunciados que fueron votados utilizando el método Delphi. Se estableció la calidad de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones según el sistema GRADE para cada enunciado. Treinta y un enunciados fueron redactados, votados y calificados. Se informan nuevos datos sobre definición, clasificación, epidemiología y fisiopatología. La endoscopia debe realizarse en dispepsia no investigada cuando hay datos de alarma o falla al tratamiento. Las biopsias gástricas y duodenales permiten confirmar infección por Helicobacter pylori y excluir enfermedad celiaca, respectivamente. Establecer una fuerte relación médico-paciente, cambios en la dieta y en el estilo de vida son útiles como medidas iniciales. Los bloqueadores H2, inhibidores de la bomba de protones, procinéticos y fármacos antidepresivos son efectivos. La erradicación de H. pylori puede ser eficaz en algunos pacientes. Con excepción de Iberogast y rikkunshito, las terapias complementarias y alternativas carecen de beneficio. No existe evidencia con respecto a la utilidad de prebióticos, probióticos o terapias psicológicas. Los nuevos enunciados proporcionan directrices basadas en la evidencia actualizada. Se presenta la discusión, el grado y la fuerza de la recomendación de cada uno de ellos.

  14. A universal fluorogenic switch for Fe(ii) ion based on N-oxide chemistry permits the visualization of intracellular redox equilibrium shift towards labile iron in hypoxic tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tasuku; Tsuboi, Hitomi; Niwa, Masato; Miki, Ayaji; Kadota, Satoki; Ikeshita, Yukie; Okuda, Kensuke; Nagasawa, Hideko

    2017-07-01

    Iron (Fe) species play a number of biologically and pathologically important roles. In particular, iron is a key element in oxygen sensing in living tissue where its metabolism is intimately linked with oxygen metabolism. Regulation of redox balance of labile iron species to prevent the generation of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical to survival. However, studies on the redox homeostasis of iron species are challenging because of a lack of a redox-state-specific detection method for iron, in particular, labile Fe 2+ . In this study, a universal fluorogenic switching system is established, which is responsive to Fe 2+ ion based on a unique N-oxide chemistry in which dialkylarylamine N-oxide is selectively deoxygenized by Fe 2+ to generate various fluorescent probes of Fe 2+ -CoNox-1 (blue), FluNox-1 (green), and SiRhoNox-1 (red). All the probes exhibited fluorescence enhancement against Fe 2+ with high selectivity both in cuvette and in living cells. Among the probes, SiRhoNox-1 showed an excellent fluorescence response with respect to both reaction rate and off/on signal contrast. Imaging studies were performed showing the intracellular redox equilibrium shift towards labile iron in response to reduced oxygen tension in living cells and 3D tumor spheroids using SiRhoNox-1, and it was found that the hypoxia induction of labile Fe 2+ is independent of iron uptake, hypoxia-induced signaling, and hypoxia-activated enzymes. The present studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing sensitive and specific fluorescent probes for Fe 2+ with refined photophysical characteristics that enable their broad application in the study of iron in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Efectos de plantaciones abandonadas de especies exóticas y nativas sobre la regeneración natural de un bosque montano en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Cavelier; Carolina Santos

    1999-01-01

    Se realizaron censos de vegetación durante 1994 en una parcela de 0.1 ha. en cada una de las plantaciones abandonadas de Pinus radiata, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, Alnus acuminata y en un bosque secundario montano alto en los Andes centrales de Colombia. También fueron recolectados datos de las propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos superficiales. El bosque de regeneración natural tiene el mayor número de especies (33) seguido por las plantaciones de E. globulus (26) y A. acu...

  16. ACTIVIDAD INSECTICIDA DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE DOS ESPECIES DE Eucalyptus SOBRE Rhyzopertha dominica Y SU EFECTO EN ENZIMAS DIGESTIVAS DE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Reyes-Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    proteolítica de las progenies; sin embargo, solamente E. globulus ocasionó la muerte de éstas (P < 0.05. Al incrementar el volumen de aceite de E. camadulensis, la actividad proteolítica del insecto aumentó, incluso al mayor tiempo de exposición. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que la fracción volátil de los aceites esenciales de eucalipto, especialmente la de E. globulus, es un agente insecticida efectivo para el control de R. dominica en trigo almacenado.

  17. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins, serum acid-labile subunit and growth hormone binding protein in nephrotic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Tönshoff, B; Blum, W F; Vickers, M; Siebler, T; Cronin, M J; Baxter, R C; Mehls, O

    1997-09-01

    We hypothesized that the increased glomerular permeability to serum proteins in the nephrotic syndrome might lead to alterations of the somatotropic hormone axis, thereby contributing to growth failure and catabolism in the nephrotic state. The insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP)-1, -2 and -3 were analyzed in serum and urine of 21 children with the nephrotic syndrome and normal glomerular filtration rate. Mean age-related serum IGF-I levels by RIA (-0.53 +/- 0.34 SD) were slightly, but significantly (P excretion rate of both peptides was enhanced fivefold. By RIA, mean age-related serum IGFBP-1 (2.05 +/- 0.19 SD) and, even more pronounced, IGFBP-2 (5.97 +/- 0.65 SD) were clearly elevated despite a 12-fold and 2-fold increase of the respective urinary excretion rate. There was a tight and specific correlation between age-related serum IGFBP-2 levels and the degree of the nephrotic syndrome, as estimated by serum albumin levels (r = -0.78, P 150 kDa IGFBP ternary complex in nephrotic serum, which in the presence of normal concentrations of the acid-labile subunit by RIA appears to be due to a reduction of intact IGFBP-3. Serum levels of the high-affinity GH binding protein that presumably reflects GH receptor status in tissues were normal. In summary, total serum IGFs in children with the nephrotic syndrome are normal, but the binding of IGFs to IGFBPs in the circulation is altered with a shift from the 150 kDa IGFBP complex to an excess of low molecular weight IGFBPs. Because increased unsaturated high-affinity IGFBPs in nephrotic serum have the ability to inhibit IGF action on target tissues by competing with the type 1 IGF receptor for IGF binding, this alteration is likely to contribute to growth failure and tissue catabolism in the nephrotic state.

  18. Application of nanoparticles for oral delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer: in vitro and in vivo evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alai M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Milind Alai,1 Wen Jen Lin1,2 1Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 2Drug Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoparticles for oral delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ, for gastric ulcer therapy. LPZ-loaded positively charged Eudragit® RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs-LPZ and negatively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGANPs-LPZ were prepared. The effect of charge on nanoparticle deposition in ulcerated and non-ulcerated regions of the stomach was investigated. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles in the intestine was evaluated in a Caco-2 cell model. The pharmacokinetic performance and ulcer healing response of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated in Wistar rats with induced ulcers. The prepared drug-loaded ERSNPs-LPZ and PLGANPs-LPZ possessed opposite surface charge (+38.5±0.3 mV versus -27.3±0.3 mV, respectively and the particle size was around 200 nm with a narrow size distribution. The negatively charged PLGANPs adhered more readily to the ulcerated region (7.22%±1.21% per cm2, whereas the positively charged ERSNPs preferentially distributed in the non-ulcerated region (8.29%±0.35% per cm2. Both ERSNPs and PLGANPs were prominent uptake in Caco-2 cells, too. The nanoparticles sustained and prolonged LPZ concentrations up to 24 hours, and the half-life and mean residence time of LPZ were prolonged by 3.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, as compared with LPZ solution. Oral administration of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles healed 92.6%–95.7% of gastric ulcers in Wistar rats within 7 days. Keywords: nanoparticles, lansoprazole, Eudragit® RS100, PLGA

  19. The mechanism of stereospecific C-H oxidation by Fe(Pytacn) complexes: bioinspired non-heme iron catalysts containing cis-labile exchangeable sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Irene; Company, Anna; Postils, Verònica; Ribas, Xavi; Que, Lawrence; Luis, Josep M; Costas, Miquel

    2013-05-17

    A detailed mechanistic study of the hydroxylation of alkane C-H bonds using H2O2 by a family of mononuclear non heme iron catalysts with the formula [Fe(II)(CF3SO3)2(L)] is described, in which L is a tetradentate ligand containing a triazacyclononane tripod and a pyridine ring bearing different substituents at the α and γ positions, which tune the electronic or steric properties of the corresponding iron complexes. Two inequivalent cis-labile exchangeable sites, occupied by triflate ions, complete the octahedral iron coordination sphere. The C-H hydroxylation mediated by this family of complexes takes place with retention of configuration. Oxygen atoms from water are incorporated into hydroxylated products and the extent of this incorporation depends in a systematic manner on the nature of the catalyst, and the substrate. Mechanistic probes and isotopic analyses, in combination with detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations, provide strong evidence that C-H hydroxylation is performed by highly electrophilic [Fe(V)(O)(OH)L] species through a concerted asynchronous mechanism, involving homolytic breakage of the C-H bond, followed by rebound of the hydroxyl ligand. The [Fe(V)(O)(OH)L] species can exist in two tautomeric forms, differing in the position of oxo and hydroxide ligands. Isotopic-labeling analysis shows that the relative reactivities of the two tautomeric forms are sensitively affected by the α substituent of the pyridine, and this reactivity behavior is rationalized by computational methods. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Application of nanoparticles for oral delivery of acid-labile lansoprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoparticles for oral delivery of an acid-labile drug, lansoprazole (LPZ), for gastric ulcer therapy. LPZ-loaded positively charged Eudragit(®) RS100 nanoparticles (ERSNPs-LPZ) and negatively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGANPs-LPZ) were prepared. The effect of charge on nanoparticle deposition in ulcerated and non-ulcerated regions of the stomach was investigated. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles in the intestine was evaluated in a Caco-2 cell model. The pharmacokinetic performance and ulcer healing response of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles following oral administration were evaluated in Wistar rats with induced ulcers. The prepared drug-loaded ERSNPs-LPZ and PLGANPs-LPZ possessed opposite surface charge (+38.5±0.3 mV versus -27.3±0.3 mV, respectively) and the particle size was around 200 nm with a narrow size distribution. The negatively charged PLGANPs adhered more readily to the ulcerated region (7.22%±1.21% per cm(2)), whereas the positively charged ERSNPs preferentially distributed in the non-ulcerated region (8.29%±0.35% per cm(2)). Both ERSNPs and PLGANPs were prominent uptake in Caco-2 cells, too. The nanoparticles sustained and prolonged LPZ concentrations up to 24 hours, and the half-life and mean residence time of LPZ were prolonged by 3.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, as compared with LPZ solution. Oral administration of LPZ-loaded nanoparticles healed 92.6%-95.7% of gastric ulcers in Wistar rats within 7 days.

  1. The immunogenicity of fusion protein linking the carboxyl terminus of the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 to the B subunit of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Xue Qin; Wang, Hong Zhen; Liu, Jin Juan; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jia Fu

    2008-02-05

    To augment the immunogenicity of the subunit B of Shiga toxin (Stx2e B) produced by Escherichia coli and protect piglets from edema disease in china, a fusion gene was constructed consisting of Stx2e B genetically linked at the N-terminus of the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) in a translational fusion. After being induced with IPTG, the expressed fusion protein of Stx2e B-LTB was about 8.8% of total proteins, approximately 13 microg/ml of the bacteria culture. The Stx2e B-LTB fusion protein was found to be nontoxic to Vero cells at the dose higher than 1 microg/ml and to mice less than 100 microg/ml. Antibody titer against the fusion protein Stx2e B-LTB was 1:76,800, much higher than that of the recombinant Stx2e B protein (1:12,800) alone. All of the mice immunized with the Stx2e B-LTB fusion protein survived when challenged with a lethal dose (LD) of Stx2e toxin. The results showed that the poor immunogenicity of Stx2e B was overcome by conjugating the stx2e B to ltB. The immunogenicity of the constructed fusion protein Stx2e B-LTB in the present study was highly qualified to protect animals against Shiga toxin produced from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The fusion protein of Stx2e B-LTB could be a candidate for a vaccine against edema disease and post-weaning diarrhea simultaneously in piglets.

  2. Assay of labile estrogen o-quinones, potent carcinogenic molecular species, by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with phenazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kouwa; Masuda, Akina; Hoshino, Yuka; Komatsu, Sachiko; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2010-04-01

    A sensitive and selective assay method for labile estrogen o-quinones, estrone (E(1))-2,3-quinone (Q), E(1)-3,4-Q, estradiol (E(2))-2,3-Q and E(2)-3,4-Q, based on the use of phenazine (Phz) derivatization with o-phenylenediamine and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was described. The Phz derivatives of four estrogen o-quinones were purified by solid phase extraction and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The protonated molecule was observed as a base peak for all Phz derivatives in their ESI-mass spectra (positive mode). In multiple reaction monitoring, the transition from [M+H]+ to m/z 231 was chosen for quantification. Calibration curves for the o-quinones were obtained using standard catechol estrogens after sodium metaperiodate treatment and Phz derivatization. Using this method, these four estrogen o-quinones were analyzed with the limit of quantification of 5 ng/ml in acetonitrile (MeCN)-blank matrix (1:4, v/v), respectively, on a basis of the weight of catechol estrogens. Assay accuracy and precision for four estrogen o-quinones were 89.6-113.0% and 3.1-12.6% (5, 125 and 2000 ng/ml in MeCN-blank matrix). Applications of this method enabled to determine the catalytic activities on hydroxylation and subsequent oxidation of E(1) and E(2) of Mushroom tyrosinase and rat liver microsomal fraction. It was confirmed by this method that tyrosinase exhibited 2- and 4-hydroxylation and further oxidation activities for catechols in the ring-A of estrogens. Whereas rat liver microsomal fraction possessed only 2- and 4-hydroxylation activities, and further oxidation activity for catechol estrogens was low. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-Time Fluorescence PCR Assays for Detection and Characterization of Heat-Labile I and Heat-Stable I Enterotoxin Genes from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Udo; Youssef, Mohammad T.; Wolf, Hans; Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Strockbine, Nancy A.

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections in humans, we developed and evaluated real-time fluorescence PCR assays for the Roche LightCycler (LC) against the enterotoxin genes commonly present in strains associated with human illness. Separate LC-PCR assays with identical cycling conditions were designed for the type I heat-labile enterotoxin (LT I) and the type I heat-stable enterotoxin (ST I) genes, using the LC hybridization probe format. A duplex assay for ST I with two sets of amplification primers and three hybridization probes was required to detect the major nucleotide sequence variants of ST I, ST Ia and ST Ib. LC-PCR findings from the testing of 161 E. coli isolates of human origin (138 ETEC and 23 non-ETEC) were compared with those obtained by block cycler PCR analysis. The sensitivities and specificities of the LC-PCR assays were each 100% for the LT I and ST I genes. The LC-PCR and block cycler PCR assays were also compared for their abilities to detect LT I and ST I genes in spiked stool specimens with different methods of sample preparation. Findings from these experiments revealed that the limits of detection for the LC-PCR assays were the same or substantially lower than those observed for the block cycler PCR assay. Melting curve analysis of the amplified LT I and ST I genes revealed sequence variation within each gene, which for the ST I genes correlated with the presence of ST Ia and ST Ib. The rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the LC-PCR assays make them attractive alternatives to block cycler PCR assays for the detection and characterization of ETEC. PMID:15364995

  4. Utility of labile plasma iron and transferrin saturation in addition to serum ferritin as iron overload markers in different und