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Sample records for globally consistent manner

  1. Metal stressors consistently modulate bacterial conjugal plasmid uptake potential in a phylogenetically conserved manner

    Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud; Riber, Leise

    2017-01-01

    The environmental stimulants and inhibitors of conjugal plasmid transfer in microbial communities are poorly understood. Specifically, it is not known whether exposure to stressors may cause a community to alter its plasmid uptake ability. We assessed whether metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn) and one metal...... that community permissiveness is sensitive to metal(loid) stress in a manner that is both partially consistent across stressors and phylogenetically conserved.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 2 August 2016; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.98....

  2. Globalized conflicts, globalized responses. Changing manners of contestation among indigenous communities

    Benyei, Petra; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized world, environmental conflicts affecting indigenous communities (including hunter-gatherer groups) have intensified and grown in their transnational character. These changes have affected the choice of manners of contestation of these groups, favouring in some cases the emergence...... activities and confront conflicts through a truly bottom-up approach. The chapter ends discussing how, despite the potential of such new manners of contestation, the power imbalances that currently underpin many indigenous conflicts are first to be addressed....

  3. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  4. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    Li, Yangyan; Wu, Xiaokun; Chrysathou, Yiorgos; Sharf, Andrei Sharf; Cohen-Or, Daniel; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  5. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    Li, Yangyan

    2011-07-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  6. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  7. Joint local and global consistency on interdocument and interword relationships for co-clustering.

    Bao, Bing-Kun; Min, Weiqing; Li, Teng; Xu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Co-clustering has recently received a lot of attention due to its effectiveness in simultaneously partitioning words and documents by exploiting the relationships between them. However, most of the existing co-clustering methods neglect or only partially reveal the interword and interdocument relationships. To fully utilize those relationships, the local and global consistencies on both word and document spaces need to be considered, respectively. Local consistency indicates that the label of a word/document can be predicted from its neighbors, while global consistency enforces a smoothness constraint on words/documents labels over the whole data manifold. In this paper, we propose a novel co-clustering method, called co-clustering via local and global consistency, to not only make use of the relationship between word and document, but also jointly explore the local and global consistency on both word and document spaces, respectively. The proposed method has the following characteristics: 1) the word-document relationships is modeled by following information-theoretic co-clustering (ITCC); 2) the local consistency on both interword and interdocument relationships is revealed by a local predictor; and 3) the global consistency on both interword and interdocument relationships is explored by a global smoothness regularization. All the fitting errors from these three-folds are finally integrated together to formulate an objective function, which is iteratively optimized by a convergence provable updating procedure. The extensive experiments on two benchmark document datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed co-clustering method.

  8. Global and local consistencies in distributed fault diagnosis for discrete-event systems

    Su, R.; Wonham, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework for distributed diagnosis. We first introduce the concepts of global and local consistency in terms of supremal global and local supports, then present two distributed diagnosis problems based on them. After that, we provide algorithms to achieve

  9. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner.

    Dimple Notani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, the conserved Wnt signalling cascade promotes the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which then associates with the lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs to activate target genes. Wnt/beta -catenin signalling is essential for T cell development and differentiation. Here we show that special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1, the T lineage-enriched chromatin organizer and global regulator, interacts with beta-catenin and recruits it to SATB1's genomic binding sites. Gene expression profiling revealed that the genes repressed by SATB1 are upregulated upon Wnt signalling. Competition between SATB1 and TCF affects the transcription of TCF-regulated genes upon beta-catenin signalling. GATA-3 is a T helper type 2 (T(H2 specific transcription factor that regulates production of T(H2 cytokines and functions as T(H2 lineage determinant. SATB1 positively regulated GATA-3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 downregulated GATA-3 expression in differentiating human CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that SATB1 influences T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. In the presence of Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1, an inhibitor of Wnt signalling, GATA-3 is downregulated and the expression of signature T(H2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 is reduced, indicating that Wnt signalling is essential for T(H2 differentiation. Knockdown of beta-catenin also produced similar results, confirming the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in T(H2 differentiation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and p300 acetyltransferase on GATA-3 promoter in differentiating T(H2 cells in a Wnt-dependent manner. SATB1 coordinates T(H2 lineage commitment by reprogramming gene expression. The SATB1:beta-catenin complex activates a number of SATB1 regulated genes, and hence this study has potential to find novel Wnt responsive genes. These results demonstrate that SATB1

  10. Strategies for ensuring global consistency/comparability of water-quality data

    Klein, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 20 years the water quality of the United States has improved remarkably-the waters are safer for drinking, swimming, and fishing. However, despite many accomplishments, it is still difficult to answer such basic questions as: 'How clean is the water?' and 'How is it changing over time?' These same questions exist on a global scale as well. In order to focus water-data issues in the United States, a national Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) was initiated for public and private organizations, whereby key elements involved in data collection, analysis, storage, and management could be made consistent and comparable. The ITFM recommended and its members are implementing a nationwide strategy to improve water-quality monitoring, assessment, and reporting activities. The intent of this paper is to suggest that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. Consistent, long-term data sets that are comparable are necessary in order to formulate ideas regarding regional and global trends in water quantity and quality. The author recommends that a voluntary effort similar to the ITFM effort be utilized. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations (e.g. World Health Organization) involved in drinking-water assessments and/or ambient water-quality monitoring. Voluntary partnerships such as this will improve curability to reduce health risks and achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resource management, and result in a collaborative process that will save millions of dollars.In this work it is suggested that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations involved in

  11. A consistent data set of Antarctic ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and global bathymetry

    R. Timmermann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates in ocean general circulation models depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry. Existing global or pan-Antarctic topography data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional surveys and maps into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-min bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography (ALBMAP bedrock topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. The position of the merging line is individually chosen in different sectors in order to capture the best of both data sets. High-resolution gridded data for ice shelf topography and cavity geometry of the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves, and for Pine Island Glacier are carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, British Antarctic Survey (BAS and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO, gridded, and blended into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-min Refined Topography data set (RTopo-1 contains self-consistent maps for upper and lower ice surface heights, bedrock topography, and surface type (open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, bare land surface. The data set is available in NetCDF format from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/pangaea.741917.

  12. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global change. Based on a coupled human-environment system (HES perspective, we carried out a formative scenario analysis to develop a set of scenarios for the future directions of the Visp region. In addition, we linked these regional scenarios to context scenarios developed at the global and Swiss levels via an external consistency analysis. This method allows the coupling of both the scenario building process and the scenarios as such. We used a functional-dynamic approach to theory-practice cooperation, i.e., the involvement of key stakeholders from, for example, tourism, forestry, and administration, differed in type and intensity during the steps of the research process. In our study, we experienced strong problem awareness among the stakeholders concerning the impacts of global change and local challenges. The guiding research question was commonly defined and problem ownership was more or less balanced. We arrived at six multiscale scenarios that open up future trajectories for the Visp region, and present generic strategies to cope with global and local challenges. The results show that local identity, spatial planning, community budget, and demographic development are important steering elements in the region's future development. We suggest that method-guided transdisciplinary processes result in a richer picture and a more systemic understanding, which enable a discussion of critical and surprising issues.

  13. Consistency of Estimated Global Water Cycle Variations Over the Satellite Era

    Robertson, F. R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Reichle, R. H.; Adler, R.; Ricciardulli, L.; Berg, W.; Huffman, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the question of whether recent indications of decadal climate variability and a possible "climate shift" may have affected the global water balance, we examine evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) variability integrated over the global oceans and global land from three points of view-remotely sensed retrievals / objective analyses over the oceans, reanalysis vertically-integrated moisture convergence (MFC) over land, and land surface models forced with observations-based precipitation, radiation and near-surface meteorology. Because monthly variations in area-averaged atmospheric moisture storage are small and the global integral of moisture convergence must approach zero, area-integrated E-P over ocean should essentially equal precipitation minus evapotranspiration (P-ET) over land (after adjusting for ocean and land areas). Our analysis reveals considerable uncertainty in the decadal variations of ocean evaporation when integrated to global scales. This is due to differences among datasets in 10m wind speed and near-surface atmospheric specific humidity (2m qa) used in bulk aerodynamic retrievals. Precipitation variations, all relying substantially on passive microwave retrievals over ocean, still have uncertainties in decadal variability, but not to the degree present with ocean evaporation estimates. Reanalysis MFC and P-ET over land from several observationally forced diagnostic and land surface models agree best on interannual variations. However, upward MFC (i.e. P-ET) reanalysis trends are likely related in part to observing system changes affecting atmospheric assimilation models. While some evidence for a low-frequency E-P maximum near 2000 is found, consistent with a recent apparent pause in sea-surface temperature (SST) rise, uncertainties in the datasets used here remain significant. Prospects for further reducing uncertainties are discussed. The results are interpreted in the context of recent climate variability (Pacific Decadal

  14. The EU as a global 'Rule of Law Promoter': the consistency and effectiveness challenges

    Pech, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the consistency and effectiveness of the EU as a global promoter of values by focusing on the rule of law, one of the key values on which the EU is based and which is also supposed to guide the EU’s external action. The paper first offers the diagnosis that the EU has failed to properly address a number of key issues: (i) what the EU seeks to promote under the heading ‘rule of law’; (ii) how it measures and monitors a country’s adherence to this principle and (iii) ...

  15. Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships.

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-05-21

    Knowledge of the number and distribution of species is fundamental to biodiversity conservation efforts, but this information is lacking for the majority of species on earth. Consequently, subsets of taxa are often used as proxies for biodiversity; but this assumes that different taxa display congruent distribution patterns. Here we use a global meta-analysis to show that studies of cross-taxon congruence rarely give consistent results. Instead, species richness congruence is highest at extreme spatial scales and close to the equator, while congruence in species composition is highest at large extents and grain sizes. Studies display highest variance in cross-taxon congruence when conducted in areas with dissimilar areal extents (for species richness) or latitudes (for species composition). These results undermine the assumption that a subset of taxa can be representative of biodiversity. Therefore, researchers whose goal is to prioritize locations or actions for conservation should use data from a range of taxa.

  16. Consistency of seven different GNSS global ionospheric mapping techniques during one solar cycle

    Roma-Dollase, David; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Krankowski, Andrzej; Kotulak, Kacper; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Zishen; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Wang, Cheng; Feltens, Joachim; Vergados, Panagiotis; Komjathy, Attila; Schaer, Stefan; García-Rigo, Alberto; Gómez-Cama, José M.

    2018-06-01

    In the context of the International GNSS Service (IGS), several IGS Ionosphere Associated Analysis Centers have developed different techniques to provide global ionospheric maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (VTEC) since 1998. In this paper we present a comparison of the performances of all the GIMs created in the frame of IGS. Indeed we compare the classical ones (for the ionospheric analysis centers CODE, ESA/ESOC, JPL and UPC) with the new ones (NRCAN, CAS, WHU). To assess the quality of them in fair and completely independent ways, two assessment methods are used: a direct comparison to altimeter data (VTEC-altimeter) and to the difference of slant total electron content (STEC) observed in independent ground reference stations (dSTEC-GPS). The main conclusion of this study, performed during one solar cycle, is the consistency of the results between so many different GIM techniques and implementations.

  17. Consistency of climate change projections from multiple global and regional model intercomparison projects

    Fernández, J.; Frías, M. D.; Cabos, W. D.; Cofiño, A. S.; Domínguez, M.; Fita, L.; Gaertner, M. A.; García-Díez, M.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Liguori, G.; Montávez, J. P.; Romera, R.; Sánchez, E.

    2018-03-01

    We present an unprecedented ensemble of 196 future climate projections arising from different global and regional model intercomparison projects (MIPs): CMIP3, CMIP5, ENSEMBLES, ESCENA, EURO- and Med-CORDEX. This multi-MIP ensemble includes all regional climate model (RCM) projections publicly available to date, along with their driving global climate models (GCMs). We illustrate consistent and conflicting messages using continental Spain and the Balearic Islands as target region. The study considers near future (2021-2050) changes and their dependence on several uncertainty sources sampled in the multi-MIP ensemble: GCM, future scenario, internal variability, RCM, and spatial resolution. This initial work focuses on mean seasonal precipitation and temperature changes. The results show that the potential GCM-RCM combinations have been explored very unevenly, with favoured GCMs and large ensembles of a few RCMs that do not respond to any ensemble design. Therefore, the grand-ensemble is weighted towards a few models. The selection of a balanced, credible sub-ensemble is challenged in this study by illustrating several conflicting responses between the RCM and its driving GCM and among different RCMs. Sub-ensembles from different initiatives are dominated by different uncertainty sources, being the driving GCM the main contributor to uncertainty in the grand-ensemble. For this analysis of the near future changes, the emission scenario does not lead to a strong uncertainty. Despite the extra computational effort, for mean seasonal changes, the increase in resolution does not lead to important changes.

  18. Consistency of two global MODIS aerosol products over ocean on Terra and Aqua CERES SSF datasets

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce; Loeb, Norman G.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Miller, Walter F.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika B.

    2004-12-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals over ocean from Terra and Aqua platforms are available from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets generated at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two aerosol products are reported side by side. The primary M product is generated by subsetting and remapping the multi-spectral (0.44 - 2.1 μm) MOD04 aerosols onto CERES footprints. MOD04 processing uses cloud screening and aerosol algorithms developed by the MODIS science team. The secondary (AVHRR-like) A product is generated in only two MODIS bands: 1 and 6 on Terra, and ` and 7 on Aqua. The A processing uses NASA/LaRC cloud-screening and NOAA/NESDIS single channel aerosol algorthm. The M and A products have been documented elsewhere and preliminarily compared using two weeks of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data in December 2000 and June 2001. In this study, the M and A aerosol optical depths (AOD) in MODIS band 1 and (0.64 μm), τ1M and τ1A, are further checked for cross-platform consistency using 9 days of global Terra CERES SSF (Edition 2A) and Aqua CERES SSF (Edition 1A) data from 13 - 21 October 2002.

  19. Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate

  20. Cumulative carbon emissions budgets consistent with 1.5 °C global warming

    Tokarska, Katarzyna B.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2018-04-01

    The Paris Agreement1 commits ratifying parties to pursue efforts to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 °C relative to pre-industrial levels. Carbon budgets2-5 consistent with remaining below 1.5 °C warming, reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)2,6,8, are directly based on Earth system model (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5)7 responses, which, on average, warm more than observations in response to historical CO2 emissions and other forcings8,9. These models indicate a median remaining budget of 55 PgC (ref. 10, base period: year 1870) left to emit from January 2016, the equivalent to approximately five years of emissions at the 2015 rate11,12. Here we calculate warming and carbon budgets relative to the decade 2006-2015, which eliminates model-observation differences in the climate-carbon response over the historical period9, and increases the median remaining carbon budget to 208 PgC (33-66% range of 130-255 PgC) from January 2016 (with mean warming of 0.89 °C for 2006-2015 relative to 1861-188013-18). There is little sensitivity to the observational data set used to infer warming that has occurred, and no significant dependence on the choice of emissions scenario. Thus, although limiting median projected global warming to below 1.5 °C is undoubtedly challenging19-21, our results indicate it is not impossible, as might be inferred from the IPCC AR5 carbon budgets2,8.

  1. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan S. Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform "shots," which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest...

  2. Constructing Consistent Multiscale Scenarios by Transdisciplinary Processes: the Case of Mountain Regions Facing Global Change

    Fridolin Simon. Brand; Roman Seidl; Quang Bao. Le; Julia Maria. Brändle; Roland Werner. Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Alpine regions in Europe, in particular, face demanding local challenges, e.g., the decline in the agriculture and timber industries, and are also prone to global changes, such as in climate, with potentially severe impacts on tourism. We focus on the Visp region in the Upper Valais, Switzerland, and ask how the process of stakeholder involvement in research practice can contribute to a better understanding of the specific challenges and future development of mountainous regions under global ...

  3. Coping with the Collapse: A Stock-Flow Consistent Monetary Macro-dynamics of Global Warming

    Giraud, Gael; Mc Isaac, Florent; Bovari, Emmanuel; Zatsepina, Ekaterina

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a macro-economic model of endogenous growth that enables to take into consideration both the economic impact of climate change and the pivotal role of private debt. Using a Goodwin-Keen approach, based on the Lotka-Volterra logic, we couple its nonlinear dynamics of underemployment and income distribution with abatement costs. Moreover, various damage functions a la Nordhaus and Dietz-Stern reflect the loss in final production due to the temperature increase caused by the rising levels of CO_2 emissions. An empirical estimation of the model at the world-scale enables us to simulate plausible trajectories for the planetary business-as-usual scenario. Our main finding is that, even though the short-run impact of climate change on economic fundamentals may seem prima facie rather minor, its long-run dynamic consequences may lead to an extreme downside. Under plausible circumstances, global warming forces the private sector to leverage in order to compensate for output losses; the private debt overhang may eventually induce a global financial collapse, even before climate change could cause serious damage to the production sector. Under more severe conditions, the interplay between global warming and debt may lead to a secular stagnation followed by a collapse in the second half of this century. We analyze the extent to which slower demographic growth or higher carbon pricing allow a global breakdown to be avoided. The paper concludes by examining the conditions under which the +1.5 C target, adopted by the Paris Agreement (2015), could be reached. (authors)

  4. Are sea-level-rise trends along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean consistent with global estimates?

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shankar, D.

    yielded sea-level-rise estimates between 1.06–1.75 mm/ yrear-1 , with a regional average of 1.29 mm yr-1, when corrected for global isostatic adjustment (GIA) using model data, with a regional average of 1.29 mm-1.. These estimates are consistent...

  5. Global Acceptance of Biosimilars: Importance of Regulatory Consistency, Education, and Trust.

    Cazap, Eduardo; Jacobs, Ira; McBride, Ali; Popovian, Robert; Sikora, Karol

    2018-05-16

    Globally, biosimilars are expected to have a key role in improving patient access to biological therapies and addressing concerns regarding the escalating cost of health care. Indeed, in Europe, increased use of biologics and reduced drug prices have been observed after the introduction of biosimilars. Recently, several monoclonal antibody biosimilars of anticancer therapies have been approved, and numerous others are in various stages of clinical development. Biosimilars are authorized via a regulatory pathway separate from that used for generic drugs; they are also regulated separately from novel biologics. Biosimilar approval pathways in many major regulatory regions worldwide are, to a broad degree, scientifically aligned. However, owing to regional differences in health care priorities, policies, and resources, some important regulatory inconsistencies are evident. Acceptance of biosimilars by health care systems, health care professionals, and patients will be a key factor in the uptake of these therapies, and such regulatory variations could contribute to confusion and diminished confidence regarding the quality, efficacy, and reliability of these agents. Furthermore, the need for manufacturers to account for regulatory inconsistencies introduces inefficiencies and delays into biosimilar development programs. These issues should be addressed if biosimilars are to attain their maximal global potential. This review summarizes the evolution of the global biosimilar landscape and provides examples of inconsistencies between regulatory requirements in different regions. In addition, we review ongoing efforts to improve regulatory alignment and highlight the importance of education as a crucial factor in generating trust in, and acceptance of, biosimilars on a worldwide scale. Biosimilars of monoclonal antibody anticancer therapies are beginning to emerge, and more are likely to become available for clinical use in the near future. The extent to which biosimilars

  6. Evaluating temporal consistency of long-term global NDVI datasets for trend analysis

    Tian, Feng; Fensholt, Rasmus; Verbesselt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    -sensor NDVI time series by analyzing the co-occurrence between breaks in the NDVI time series and sensor shifts from GIMMS3g (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies 3rd generation), VIP3 (Vegetation Index and Phenology version 3), LTDR4 (Long Term Data Record version 4) and SPOT-VGT (Système Pour l......, potentially introducing uncertainties in NDVI trend analysis. Platform/sensor change from VGT-1 to VGT-2 is found to cause a significant positive break in the SPOT-VGT NDVI time series. Potential artifacts exist in humid, dry-subhumid, semi-arid and hyper-arid regions of GIMMS3g NDVI, whereas no signs...

  7. TOWARDS CONSISTENT MAPPING OF URBAN STRUCTURES – GLOBAL HUMAN SETTLEMENT LAYER AND LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES

    B. Bechtel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although more than half of the Earth’s population live in urban areas, we know remarkably little about most cities and what we do know is incomplete (lack of coverage and inconsistent (varying definitions and scale. While there have been considerable advances in the derivation of a global urban mask using satellite information, the complexity of urban structures, the heterogeneity of materials, and the multiplicity of spectral properties have impeded the derivation of universal urban structural types (UST. Further, the variety of UST typologies severely limits the comparability of such studies and although a common and generic description of urban structures is an essential requirement for the universal mapping of urban structures, such a standard scheme is still lacking. More recently, there have been two developments in urban mapping that have the potential for providing a standard approach: the Local Climate Zone (LCZ scheme (used by the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools project and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL methodology by JRC. In this paper the LCZ scheme and the GHSL LABEL product were compared for selected cities. The comparison between both datasets revealed a good agreement at city and coarse scale, while the contingency at pixel scale was limited due to the mismatch in grid resolution and typology. At a 1 km scale, built-up as well as open and compact classes showed very good agreement in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute distance, spatial pattern, and radial distribution as a function of distance from town, which indicates that a decomposition relevant for modelling applications could be derived from both. On the other hand, specific problems were found for both datasets, which are discussed along with their general advantages and disadvantages as a standard for UST classification in urban remote sensing.

  8. The 2008 Global Financial Crisis: The Case of a Market with Consistent Losses Ever Since

    Hadeel Yaseen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2008 global financial crisis, and in common with many stock markets around the world, the Amman Securities Exchange (ASE experienced some heavy losses. However, what makes the Jordanian market probably different is its inability to recover. The weighted price index fell from 7519.3 points in 2007 to 5520.1 points in 2009, to 4593.9 points in 2012, and to 4336.7 points by the end of 2013 respectively. With a statutory minimum tick which is equal to one pence, this observation has some serious implications to the liquidity cost that prevails in the Jordanian capital market, and the cost of financing listed firms. The primary aim of this research paper is to examine the impact of the stock market crash in Jordan on liquidity cost. Based on a total number of 108 listed stocks and daily data during the years 2007 and 2009, the empirical results indicate that liquidity cost on the Jordanian capital market is high. In addition, the results show that the 2009 stock market crash has led to a substantial increase in liquidity cost. In other words, the market must consider a number of remedial measures to improve its’ operational efficiency.

  9. The global cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: consistent over decades and around the world.

    Schaefer, Jonathan; Giangrande, Evan; Weinberger, Daniel R; Dickinson, Dwight

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia results in cognitive impairments as well as positive, negative, and disorganized symptomatology. The present study examines the extent to which these cognitive deficits are generalized across domains, potential moderator variables, and whether the pattern of cognitive findings reported in schizophrenia has remained consistent over time and across cultural and geographic variation. Relevant publications from 2006 to 2011 were identified through keyword searches in PubMed and an examination of reference lists. Studies were included if they (1) compared the cognitive performance of adult schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, (2) based schizophrenia diagnoses on contemporary diagnostic criteria, (3) reported information sufficient to permit effect size calculation, (4) were reported in English, and (5) reported data for neuropsychological tests falling into at least 3 distinct cognitive domains. A set of 100 non-overlapping studies was identified, and effect sizes (Hedge's g) were calculated for each cognitive variable. Consistent with earlier analyses, patients with schizophrenia scored significantly lower than controls across all cognitive tests and domains (grand mean effect size, g=-1.03). Patients showed somewhat larger impairments in the domains of processing speed (g=-1.25) and episodic memory (g=-1.23). Our results also showed few inconsistencies when grouped by geographic region. The present study extends findings from 1980 to 2006 of a substantial, generalized cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, demonstrating that this finding has remained robust over time despite changes in assessment instruments and alterations in diagnostic criteria, and that it manifests similarly in different regions of the world despite linguistic and cultural differences. © 2013.

  10. Self-Consistent Approach to Global Charge Neutrality in Electrokinetics: A Surface Potential Trap Model

    Li Wan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we treat the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP equations as the basis for a consistent framework of the electrokinetic effects. The static limit of the PNP equations is shown to be the charge-conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB equation, with guaranteed charge neutrality within the computational domain. We propose a surface potential trap model that attributes an energy cost to the interfacial charge dissociation. In conjunction with the CCPB, the surface potential trap can cause a surface-specific adsorbed charge layer σ. By defining a chemical potential μ that arises from the charge neutrality constraint, a reformulated CCPB can be reduced to the form of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, whose prediction of the Debye screening layer profile is in excellent agreement with that of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when the channel width is much larger than the Debye length. However, important differences emerge when the channel width is small, so the Debye screening layers from the opposite sides of the channel overlap with each other. In particular, the theory automatically yields a variation of σ that is generally known as the “charge regulation” behavior, attendant with predictions of force variation as a function of nanoscale separation between two charged surfaces that are in good agreement with the experiments, with no adjustable or additional parameters. We give a generalized definition of the ζ potential that reflects the strength of the electrokinetic effect; its variations with the concentration of surface-specific and surface-nonspecific salt ions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. To delineate the behavior of the electro-osmotic (EO effect, the coupled PNP and Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically under an applied electric field tangential to the fluid-solid interface. The EO effect is shown to exhibit an intrinsic time dependence that is noninertial in its origin. Under a step-function applied

  11. How consistent are global long-term satellite LAI products in terms of interannual variability and trend?

    Jiang, C.; Ryu, Y.; Fang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Proper usage of global satellite LAI products requires comprehensive evaluation. To address this issue, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup proposed a four-stage validation hierarchy. During the past decade, great efforts have been made following this validation framework, mainly focused on absolute magnitude, seasonal trajectory, and spatial pattern of those global satellite LAI products. However, interannual variability and trends of global satellite LAI products have been investigated marginally. Targeting on this gap, we made an intercomparison between seven global satellite LAI datasets, including four short-term ones: MODIS C5, MODIS C6, GEOV1, MERIS, and three long-term products ones: LAI3g, GLASS, and GLOBMAP. We calculated global annual LAI time series for each dataset, among which we found substantial differences. During the overlapped period (2003 - 2011), MODIS C5, GLASS and GLOBMAP have positive correlation (r > 0.6) between each other, while MODIS C6, GEOV1, MERIS, and LAI3g are highly consistent (r > 0.7) in interannual variations. However, the previous three datasets show negative trends, all of which use MODIS C5 reflectance data, whereas the latter four show positive trends, using MODIS C6, SPOT/VGT, ENVISAT/MERIS, and NOAA/AVHRR, respectively. During the pre-MODIS era (1982 - 1999), the three AVHRR-based datasets (LAI3g, GLASS and GLOBMAP) agree well (r > 0.7), yet all of them show oscillation related with NOAA platform changes. In addition, both GLASS and GLOBMAP show clear cut-points around 2000 when they move from AVHRR to MODIS. Such inconsistency is also visible for GEOV1, which uses SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 before and after 2002. We further investigate the map-to-map deviations among these products. This study highlights that continuous sensor calibration and cross calibration are essential to obtain reliable global LAI time series.

  12. The Rucio Consistency Service

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  13. Globally Consistent Indoor Mapping via a Decoupling Rotation and Translation Algorithm Applied to RGB-D Camera Output

    Yuan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel RGB-D 3D reconstruction algorithm for the indoor environment. The method can produce globally-consistent 3D maps for potential GIS applications. As the consumer RGB-D camera provides a noisy depth image, the proposed algorithm decouples the rotation and translation for a more robust camera pose estimation, which makes full use of the information, but also prevents inaccuracies caused by noisy depth measurements. The uncertainty in the image depth is not only related to the camera device, but also the environment; hence, a novel uncertainty model for depth measurements was developed using Gaussian mixture applied to multi-windows. The plane features in the indoor environment contain valuable information about the global structure, which can guide the convergence of camera pose solutions, and plane and feature point constraints are incorporated in the proposed optimization framework. The proposed method was validated using publicly-available RGB-D benchmarks and obtained good quality trajectory and 3D models, which are difficult for traditional 3D reconstruction algorithms.

  14. The self-consistent energy system with an enhanced non-proliferated core concept for global nuclear energy utilization

    Kawashima, Masatoshi; Arie, Kazuo; Araki, Yoshio; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Mori, Kenji; Nakayama, Yoshiyuki; Nakazono, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Yuji; Ishiguma, Kazuo; Fujii-e, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    A sustainable nuclear energy system was developed based on the concept of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES). Our study that trans-uranium (TRU) metallic fuel fast reactor cycle coupled with recycling of five long-lived fission products (LLFP) as well as actinides is the most promising system for the sustainable nuclear utilization. Efficient utilization of uranium-238 through the SCNES concept opens the doors to prolong the lifetime of nuclear energy systems towards several tens of thousand years. Recent evolution of the concept revealed compatibility of fuel sustainability, minor actinide (MA) minimization and non-proliferation aspects for peaceful use of nuclear energy systems through the discussion. As for those TRU compositions stabilized under fast neutron spectra, plutonium isotope fractions are remained in the range of reactor grade classification with high fraction of Pu240 isotope. Recent evolution of the SCNES concept has revealed that TRU recycling can cope with enhancing non-proliferation efforts in peaceful use with the 'no-blanket and multi-zoning core' concept. Therefore, the realization of SCNES is most important. In addition, along the process to the goals, a three-step approach is proposed to solve concurrent problems raised in the LWR systems. We discussed possible roles and contribution to the near future demand along worldwide expansion of LWR capacities by applying the 1st generation SCNES. MA fractions in TRU are more than 10% from LWR discharged fuels and even higher up to 20% in fuels from long interim storages. TRU recycling in the 1st generation SCNES system can reduce the MA fractions down to 4-5% in a few decades. This capability significantly releases 'MA' pressures in down-stream of LWR systems. Current efforts for enhancing capabilities for energy generation by LWR systems are efficient against the global warming crisis. In parallel to those movements, early realization of the SCNES concept can be the most viable decision

  15. Mind Your Manners

    Wiley, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a lot of talk in the media about the loss of courtesy in modern society. By many criteria, it seems that people in general have lost a degree of politeness. Reading some of the online comments after several recent articles in The Scientist would seem to indicate that biologists have also lost their manners. This lack of basic manners alarms me not only because of the obvious danger to our sense of community, but also because this type of behavior could damage society’s positive perception of scientists. Every time scientists (or anonymous bloggers posing as scientists) rant about the idiocy of someone who disagrees with them, our collective credibility erodes. Yes, there are a number of issues that we as scientists should be passionate about, but our objectives are best served by retaining an objective demeanor and respecting those to whom we happen to disagree.

  16. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    Donnellan, M Brent; Kenny, David A; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Lucas, Richard E; Conger, Rand D

    2012-12-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development.

  17. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development. PMID:23180899

  18. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Kenny, David A.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Lucas, Richard E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-est...

  19. Using nudging to improve global-regional dynamic consistency in limited-area climate modeling: What should we nudge?

    Omrani, Hiba; Drobinski, Philippe; Dubos, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Regional climate modelling sometimes requires that the regional model be nudged towards the large-scale driving data to avoid the development of inconsistencies between them. These inconsistencies are known to produce large surface temperature and rainfall artefacts. Therefore, it is essential to maintain the synoptic circulation within the simulation domain consistent with the synoptic circulation at the domain boundaries. Nudging techniques, initially developed for data assimilation purposes, are increasingly used in regional climate modeling and offer a workaround to this issue. In this context, several questions on the "optimal" use of nudging are still open. In this study we focus on a specific question which is: What variable should we nudge? in order to maintain the consistencies between the regional model and the driving fields as much as possible. For that, a "Big Brother Experiment", where a reference atmospheric state is known, is conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model over the Euro-Mediterranean region. A set of 22 3-month simulations is performed with different sets of nudged variables and nudging options (no nudging, indiscriminate nudging, spectral nudging) for summer and winter. The results show that nudging clearly improves the model capacity to reproduce the reference fields. However the skill scores depend on the set of variables used to nudge the regional climate simulations. Nudging the tropospheric horizontal wind is by far the key variable to nudge to simulate correctly surface temperature and wind, and rainfall. To a lesser extent, nudging tropospheric temperature also contributes to significantly improve the simulations. Indeed, nudging tropospheric wind or temperature directly impacts the simulation of the tropospheric geopotential height and thus the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation. Nudging moisture improves the precipitation but the impact on the other fields (wind and temperature) is not significant. As

  20. Speech Mannerisms: Games Clients Play

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1978-01-01

    This article focuses on speech mannerisms often employed by clients in a helping relationship. Eight mannerisms are presented and discussed, as well as possible interpretations. Suggestions are given to help counselors respond to them. (Author)

  1. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  2. Interface Consistency

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  3. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  4. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  5. Buried Messages, Hidden Meanings: Speech Mannerisms Revisited.

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1988-01-01

    Introduces counselors to 10 commonly used mannerisms of speech and the part that each mannerism plays in the communication process, especially in the counseling context. Offers suggestions on how to respond to these speech mannerisms in a straightforward and effective manner. (Author)

  6. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  7. Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

  8. The FIFA medical emergency bag and FIFA 11 steps to prevent sudden cardiac death: setting a global standard and promoting consistent football field emergency care.

    Dvorak, Jiri; Kramer, Efraim B; Schmied, Christian M; Drezner, Jonathan A; Zideman, David; Patricios, Jon; Correia, Luis; Pedrinelli, André; Mandelbaum, Bert

    2013-12-01

    Life-threatening medical emergencies are an infrequent but regular occurrence on the football field. Proper prevention strategies, emergency medical planning and timely access to emergency equipment are required to prevent catastrophic outcomes. In a continuing commitment to player safety during football, this paper presents the FIFA Medical Emergency Bag and FIFA 11 Steps to prevent sudden cardiac death. These recommendations are intended to create a global standard for emergency preparedness and the medical response to serious or catastrophic on-field injuries in football.

  9. Effects of Broken Symmetry in Tokamaks: Global Braking of Toroidal Rotation and Self-consistent Determination of Neoclassical Magnetic Islands Velocity

    Lazzaro, Enzo

    2009-01-01

    Established results of neoclassical kinetic theory are used in a fluid model to show that in low collisionality regimes (ν and 1/ν) the propagation velocity of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) magnetic islands of sufficient width is determined self-consistently by the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) appearing because of broken symmetry. The NTV effect on bulk plasma rotation, may also explain recent observations on momentum transport. At the same time this affects the role of the neoclassical ion polarization current on neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) stability.

  10. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  11. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  12. Availability, consistency and evidence-base of policies and guidelines on the use of mask and respirator to protect hospital health care workers: a global analysis.

    Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Seale, Holly; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina

    2013-05-31

    Currently there is an ongoing debate and limited evidence on the use of masks and respirators for the prevention of respiratory infections in health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to examine available policies and guidelines around the use of masks and respirators in HCWs and to describe areas of consistency between guidelines, as well as gaps in the recommendations, with reference to the WHO and the CDC guidelines. Policies and guidelines related to mask and respirator use for the prevention of influenza, SARS and TB were examined. Guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), three high-income countries and six low/middle-income countries were selected. Uniform recommendations are made by the WHO and the CDC in regards to protecting HCWs against seasonal influenza (a mask for low risk situations and a respirator for high risk situations) and TB (use of a respirator). However, for pandemic influenza and SARS, the WHO recommends mask use in low risk and respirators in high risk situations, whereas, the CDC recommends respirators in both low and high risk situations. Amongst the nine countries reviewed, there are variations in the recommendations for all three diseases. While, some countries align with the WHO recommendations, others align with those made by the CDC. The choice of respirator and the level of filtering ability vary amongst the guidelines and the different diseases. Lastly, none of the policies discuss reuse, extended use or the use of cloth masks. Currently, there are significant variations in the policies and recommendations around mask and respirator use for protection against influenza, SARS and TB. These differences may reflect the scarcity of level-one evidence available to inform policy development. The lack of any guidelines on the use of cloth masks, despite widespread use in many low and middle-income countries, remains a policy gap. Health organizations and countries should

  13. Intervendor consistency and reproducibility of left ventricular 2D global and regional strain with two different high-end ultrasound systems.

    Shiino, Kenji; Yamada, Akira; Ischenko, Matthew; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Hudaverdi, Mahala; Speranza, Vicki; Harten, Mary; Benjamin, Anthony; Hamilton-Craig, Christian R; Platts, David G; Burstow, Darryl J; Scalia, Gregory M; Chan, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess intervendor agreement of global (GLS) and regional longitudinal strain by vendor-specific software after EACVI/ASE Industry Task Force Standardization Initiatives for Deformation Imaging. Fifty-five patients underwent prospective dataset acquisitions on the same day by the same operator using two commercially available cardiac ultrasound systems (GE Vivid E9 and Philips iE33). GLS and regional peak longitudinal strain were analyzed offline using corresponding vendor-specific software (EchoPAC BT13 and QLAB version 10.3). Absolute mean GLS measurements were similar between the two vendors (GE -17.5 ± 5.2% vs. Philips -18.9 ± 5.1%, P = 0.15). There was excellent intervendor correlation of GLS by the same observer [r = 0.94, P limits of agreement (LOA) -4.8 to 2.2%). Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by coronary artery territories distribution were: LAD: r = 0.85, P < 0.0001; bias 0.5%, LOA -5.3 to 6.4%; RCA: r = 0.88, P < 0.0001; bias -2.4%, LOA -8.6 to 3.7%; LCX: r = 0.76, P < 0.0001; bias -5.3%, LOA -10.6 to 2.0%. Intervendor comparison for regional longitudinal strain by LV levels were: basal: r = 0.86, P < 0.0001; bias -3.6%, LOA -9.9 to 2.0%; mid: r = 0.90, P < 0.0001; bias -2.6%, LOA -7.8 to 2.6%; apical: r = 0.74; P < 0.0001; bias -1.3%, LOA -9.4 to 6.8%. Intervendor agreement in GLS and regional strain measurements have significantly improved after the EACVI/ASE Task Force Strain Standardization Initiatives. However, significant wide LOA still exist, especially for regional strain measurements, which remains relevant when considering vendor-specific software for serial measurements. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Kant, Xunzi and the Artificiality of Manners

    Anja BERNINGER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both Chinese and Western philosophers have argued for the ethical importance of manners. Their approaches are sometimes criticized on the grounds that manners are artificial. I compare Xunzi’s and Kant’s responses to this claim, and discuss the relevance of both positions for the development of a theory of manners. I show that there is no single artificiality claim, but rather four different claims: the claim that polite behavior lacks spontaneity, the claim that it is insincere, the claim that it goes against human nature, and the claim that it is arbitrary. While Kant is mainly concerned with the insincerity claim, Xunzi focusses on the claim that manners are arbitrary rules. Because of their different understandings of the function of manners both authors only provide a partial answer to the artificiality claim. To arrive at a full account of manners both perspectives must be combined.

  15. Coupling Detonation Shock Dynamics in a Consistent Manner to Equations of State

    Belfield, William

    2017-06-01

    In hydrocode simulations, detonating high explosives (HE) are often modelled using programmed burn. Each HE cell is assigned a ``burn time'' at which it should begin to behave as HE products in the subsequent simulation. Traditionally, these burn times were calculated using a Huygens construction to propagate the detonation wave at a constant speed corresponding to the planar Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) velocity. The Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) model improves upon this approach by treating the local detonation velocity as a function of wave curvature, reflecting that the detonation speed is not constant in reality. However, without alterations being made, this variable detonation velocity is inconsistent with the CJ velocity associated with the HE products equation of state (EOS). Previous work has shown that the inconsistency can be resolved by modifying the HE product EOS, but this treatment is empirical in nature and has only been applied to the JWL EOS. This work investigates different methods to resolve the inconsistency that are applicable both to JWL and to tabular HE product EOS, and their impact on hydrocode simulations.

  16. Tolbutamide affects food ingestion in a manner consistent with its glycemic effects in the rat.

    Vanderweele, D A; Haraczkiewicz, E; Vasselli, J R

    1988-01-01

    The sulphonylurea tolbutamide possesses the ability to stimulate insulin release, produce hypoglycemia and increase food intake; however, no study has investigated the effects of moderate doses which do not produce frank hypoglycemia. Forty male rats received injections of tolbutamide at 0, 5, 15, 25 or 50 mg/kg body weight. The injections terminated a 2-hr fast and occurred at light offset, insuring a meal. Food intakes were then recorded for two hr following injection. Tolbutamide at 5 and 15 mg doses decreased food intake during the first half-hour or hour, respectively. In parallel experiments, 10 rats were sampled for blood prior to injection of tolbutamide or saline at doses cited above, and again at 10 and 40 min following injection in the absence of food. Plasma was then analyzed for insulin and glucose. Both 5 and 15 mg tolbutamide produced a mild, reliable increase in insulin accompanied by a decrease of 5 to 15 mg/dl in plasma glucose. On the other hand, the 50 mg dose produced a marked increase in insulin and a decrease of approximately 25% in plasma glucose. Thus, the present studies suggest that when endogenous insulin levels are modestly raised by tolbutamide, such that only moderate reductions of circulating glucose were observed, decreases in food intake occur.

  17. Aplikasi Pembelajaran Table Manners Berbasis Multimedia

    Yosanny, Agustinna; Pradipta, Albert; Viles, Dody; Pensen, Pensen

    2011-01-01

    Table manners adalah aturan-aturan pokok yang berlaku di meja makan. Aturan ini biasanya diterapkan padajamuan makan resmi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang dan mengembangkan suatu aplikasipembelajaran tentang table manners untuk memudahkan dalam mempelajari aturan-aturan yang perlu diketahuidalam jamuan makan resmi, meliputi etika sebelum dan saat proses menyantap makanan, serta penggunaanalat-alat makan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode Interactive Multimedia System De...

  18. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  19. Homogenization of Periodic Masonry Using Self-Consistent Scheme and Finite Element Method

    Kumar, Nitin; Lambadi, Harish; Pandey, Manoj; Rajagopal, Amirtham

    2016-01-01

    Masonry is a heterogeneous anisotropic continuum, made up of the brick and mortar arranged in a periodic manner. Obtaining the effective elastic stiffness of the masonry structures has been a challenging task. In this study, the homogenization theory for periodic media is implemented in a very generic manner to derive the anisotropic global behavior of the masonry, through rigorous application of the homogenization theory in one step and through a full three-dimensional behavior. We have considered the periodic Eshelby self-consistent method and the finite element method. Two representative unit cells that represent the microstructure of the masonry wall exactly are considered for calibration and numerical application of the theory.

  20. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. SOEKARNO: HIS MANNERISM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION

    Justin Wejak

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss Soekarno's mannerism and method of communication. Certain aspects such as Soekarno's use of language in his speeches are highlighted here in order to provide some basic understanding of Soekarno - both as a person and a political leader of the nation. The article aims at stimulating further discussions concerning this very well known leader. This article also examines Soeharto's style of speech for a comparison.

  2. SOEKARNO: HIS MANNERISM AND METHOD OF COMMUNICATION

    Justin Wejak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss Soekarno's mannerism and method of communication. Certain aspects such as Soekarno's use of language in his speeches are highlighted here in order to provide some basic understanding of Soekarno - both as a person and a political leader of the nation. The article aims at stimulating further discussions concerning this very well known leader. This article also examines Soeharto's style of speech for a comparison.

  3. Going “old school”: From bedside manner to deskside manner

    David Fleischman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between tertiary educators and students, we contend, improves trust and betters student responses to emotional distress while at university. Therefore, we introduce the “Deskside Manner Framework” as an emerging practice in the tertiary teaching and learning context to aid student transition success. Based on concepts and practice that originated primarily in the medical profession and later in other high credence professional contexts, the deskside manner framework includes: show respect, critical listening, the four Bs and follow up. Deskside manner is transferrable and we aim to facilitate it through workshops and by developing a digital repository of educator-student interaction stories.  

  4. Dynamic phonon exchange requires consistent dressing

    Hahne, F.J.W.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Heiss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that states with undersirable properties (such as ghosts, states with complex eigenenergies and states with unrestricted normalization) emerge from two-body calculations using dynamic effective interactions if one is not careful in introducing single-particle self-energy insertions in a consistent manner

  5. Consistent model driven architecture

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  6. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  7. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  8. A new approach to hull consistency

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  9. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  10. Benford's Law for Quality Assurance of Manner of Death Counts in Small and Large Databases.

    Daniels, Jeremy; Caetano, Samantha-Jo; Huyer, Dirk; Stephen, Andrew; Fernandes, John; Lytwyn, Alice; Hoppe, Fred M

    2017-09-01

    To assess if Benford's law, a mathematical law used for quality assurance in accounting, can be applied as a quality assurance measure for the manner of death determination. We examined a regional forensic pathology service's monthly manner of death counts (N = 2352) from 2011 to 2013, and provincial monthly and weekly death counts from 2009 to 2013 (N = 81,831). We tested whether each dataset's leading digit followed Benford's law via the chi-square test. For each database, we assessed whether number 1 was the most common leading digit. The manner of death counts first digit followed Benford's law in all the three datasets. Two of the three datasets had 1 as the most frequent leading digit. The manner of death data in this study showed qualities consistent with Benford's law. The law has potential as a quality assurance metric in the manner of death determination for both small and large databases. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Consistency in PERT problems

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  12. Teaching physics in a physiologically meaningful manner

    Michael Plomer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The learning outcome of a physics laboratory course for medical students was examined in an interdisciplinary field study and discussed for the electrical physiology (“Propagation of Excitation and Nerve Cells”. At the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (LMU at a time about 300 medicine students were assessed in two successive years. Students from the control group worked with standard experiments, while students from the treatment group performed newly developed “addressee-specific” experiments, designed to guide students to transfer physics knowledge to physiological problems. The assessment took place within the laboratory course on physiology, after the students had finished their laboratory classes in physics, and consisted of the construction of a concept map with additional multiple choice questions. The results showed that standard physics experiments are not adequate for teaching students to transfer physical principles to physiology. Introducing new addressee-specific experiments enriched the physics laboratory course by improving student attitudes toward physics and demonstrating better ability of students to relate concepts of physics and medicine, and overall to improve their understanding of the physics taught in the course.

  13. Reporting consistently on CSR

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  14. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Is cosmology consistent?

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  16. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  17. Do children with obesity have worse table manners? Associations between child table manners, weight status and weight gain.

    Briones, Naomi F; Cesaro, Robert J; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Pesch, Megan H

    2018-06-01

    Children with obesity experience stigma stemming from stereotypes, one such stereotype is that people with obesity are "sloppy" or have poor manners. Teaching children "proper table manners" has been proposed as an obesity prevention strategy. Little is known about the association between children's weight status and table manners. To examine correlates of child table manners and to examine the association of child table manners with child obese weight status and prospective change in child body mass index z-score (BMIz). Mother-child dyads (N = 228) participated in a videotaped laboratory eating task with cupcakes. Coding schemes to capture child table manners (making crumbs, chewing with mouth open, getting food on face, shoving food in mouth, slouching, and getting out of seat), and maternal attentiveness to child table manners, were reliably applied. Anthropometrics were measured at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Regression analyses examined the association of participant characteristics with child table manners, as well as the associations of child table manners with child obese weight status, and prospective change in BMIz/year. Predictors of poorer child table manners were younger child age, greater cupcake consumption, and greater maternal attentiveness to child table manners. Poorer child table manners were not associated with child obese (vs. not) weight status, but were associated with a prospective decrease in BMIz/year in children with overweight/obesity. Obesity interventions to improve table manners may be perpetuating unfavorable stereotypes and stigma. Future work investigating these associations is warranted to inform childhood obesity guidelines around table manners. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 26 CFR 1.9005-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9005-4 Section 1.9005-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-4 Manner of exercising election. (a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9004-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9004-4 Section 1.9004-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9004-4 Manner of exercising election. (a...

  20. 26 CFR 1.9002-8 - Manner of exercising elections.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising elections. 1.9002-8 Section 1.9002-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-8 Manner of exercising elections...

  1. 26 CFR 1.9003-4 - Manner of exercising election.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.9003-4 Section 1.9003-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-4 Manner of exercising election. (a...

  2. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.853-4 Manner of...

  3. Mannerisms of the Elderly and Approaches to Rapport.

    French, Warren A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Many older adults react to old age with empirically identified distinguishable mannerisms. Using these mannerisms, or behavior patterns, as a basis for rapport, gerontologists can: (1) uncover causes of adjustment problems; (2) assess seriousness of problems; and (3) implement counseling suggestions. (Author/JAC)

  4. 29 CFR 1905.21 - Manner of service.

    2010-07-01

    ...-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Hearings § 1905.21 Manner of service. Service of any... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner of service. 1905.21 Section 1905.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  5. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  6. Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner ...

    Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner by optimizing the woolled sheep production systems within the communal farming area of the Eastern Cape. “A vision that is future directed”

  7. The Manners of Liberalism: A Question of Limits.

    Allen, William B.

    1982-01-01

    The argument that liberal education leads people to substitute intellectual tolerance or ambiguity for righteous indignation is criticized, with reference to Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrayal of Thomas Jefferson, his liberalism, and democratic manners. (MSE)

  8. 29 CFR 1614.703 - Manner and format of data.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1614.704(a) through (m). (3) When posting data pursuant to § 1614.704(d) and (j), bases of... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manner and format of data. 1614.703 Section 1614.703 Labor... Retaliation Act of 2002 (No FEAR Act) § 1614.703 Manner and format of data. (a) Agencies shall post their...

  9. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  10. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... revised, effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, therevised text is set forth as follows...

  11. Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid

    Auger, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

  12. Stereotypes: A Preliminary Report on Mannerisms and Blindisms.

    Leonhardt, M.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes current research on stereotypes in a group of blind children in Barcelona, Spain. Mannerisms and blindisms covering a range of verbal and motor behavior are defined and discussed, as are the variables of behavior related to them. (Author/DB)

  13. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    2010-04-01

    ... corporation, the statement shall be signed with the corporate name, followed by the signature and title of an officer of the corporation empowered to sign for the corporation, and the corporate seal must be affixed...) INCOME TAXES Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An election under the...

  14. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ..., or in the case of a female employee, pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth, an employee must file the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT...

  15. 18 CFR 344.2 - Manner of submitting quotations.

    2010-04-01

    ... quotations. 344.2 Section 344.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT FILING QUOTATIONS FOR U.S. GOVERNMENT SHIPMENTS AT REDUCED RATES § 344.2 Manner of submitting quotations. (a) The quotation or tender...

  16. Warm front against global warming. Energy saving in British manner; Warmfront gegen Klimaerwaermung. Energiesparen auf British

    Bedal, Anna [DGS-Franken e.V. (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Great Britain and in particular England played an important pioneering role during the industrialization. But little is generally heard according to the energy efficiency of the island. The contribution under consideration reports on energy political measures on the island.

  17. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  18. Guided color consistency optimization for image mosaicking

    Xie, Renping; Xia, Menghan; Yao, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of color consistency correction for sequential images with diverse color characteristics. Existing algorithms try to adjust all images to minimize color differences among images under a unified energy framework, however, the results are prone to presenting a consistent but unnatural appearance when the color difference between images is large and diverse. In our approach, this problem is addressed effectively by providing a guided initial solution for the global consistency optimization, which avoids converging to a meaningless integrated solution. First of all, to obtain the reliable intensity correspondences in overlapping regions between image pairs, we creatively propose the histogram extreme point matching algorithm which is robust to image geometrical misalignment to some extents. In the absence of the extra reference information, the guided initial solution is learned from the major tone of the original images by searching some image subset as the reference, whose color characteristics will be transferred to the others via the paths of graph analysis. Thus, the final results via global adjustment will take on a consistent color similar to the appearance of the reference image subset. Several groups of convincing experiments on both the synthetic dataset and the challenging real ones sufficiently demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve as good or even better results compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

  19. NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE MEDIATED BY MANNER OF MOTION VERBS

    Olesea BODEAN-VOZIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is typological variation in the way languages encode manner as an element of a motion event. Languages like English view it as relevant, and the lexicalization of the variety of ways to move results in a rich class of motion verbs, contrary to other types of languages, like Romanian, which leave the manner element to be encoded by verbids or adverbs (for these reasons some linguists refer to the first type as manner-rich and second type as manner-poor languages. Still, several studies contrasting typologically different languages showed that languages of the latter type are not so poor in manner-of-motion verbs. The question then might rather be: which manner components are more likely to be lexicalized?For research purposes, we distinguish manner in terms of objective elements (medium, speed or intensity and subjective elements (attitude, intention. The aim of the study is to focus on the manner-of-motion verbs that embed an evaluative or qualitative dimension of motion and to examine the way these verbs encode somebody’s perspective in a narrative. The first question in such a case is whose evaluation or point of view is being represented. The second one is how the subjective point of view (narrative perspective mediated through manner-of-motion verbs in an English narrative (The Lord of the Rings, by J.R.R. Tolkien is translated into Romanian, supposedly a manner-poor or low-manner language.PERSPECTIVA NARATIVĂ MEDIATĂ DE VERBELE DE MIŞCARE DE MODExistă o variaţie tipologică în felul în care limbile codifică modul ca element al unui eveniment de mişcare. Limbile precum engleza îl percep drept unul relevant, iar lexicalizarea gamei de mijloace de redare a mişcării a dat naştere unei clase bogate de verbe de mişcare, contrar altor tipuri de limbi, aşa ca româna, în care elementul ce redă modul este codificat de gerunziu sau adverbe. Din aceasta cauză, unii lingvişti numesc primul tip limbi bogate în verbe de mod (

  20. Practicing leadership-as-practice in content and manner

    Raelin, Joe; Kempster, Stephen John; Youngs, Howard; Caroll, Brigid; Jackson, Brad

    2018-01-01

    A collective and collaborative response to an article appearing in Leadership’s “Leading Questions” department is prepared by a team subscribing to the leadership-as-practice approach. The focus is to represent the manner in which leadership-as-practice operates as a leadership theory and in its communal practice orientation. Among the themes addressed are leadership-as-practice’s theory development, its contribution in comparison to critical leadership theory, its approach to power, and its ...

  1. MANNER OF STOCKS SORTING USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS METHODS

    Jana Halčinová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to show the possibility of using the methods of cluster analysis in classification of stocks of finished products. Cluster analysis creates groups (clusters of finished products according to similarity in demand i.e. customer requirements for each product. Manner stocks sorting of finished products by clusters is described a practical example. The resultants clusters are incorporated into the draft layout of the distribution warehouse.

  2. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  3. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  4. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  5. Self-consistent quark bags

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  6. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  7. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  8. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  9. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  10. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  11. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  12. Glass consistency and glass performance

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  13. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  14. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  15. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  16. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  17. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  18. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies.

  19. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  20. Self-consistent radial sheath

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  1. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  2. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  3. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  4. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body's past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  5. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  6. An eigenvalue approach to quantum plasmonics based on a self-consistent hydrodynamics method.

    Ding, Kun; Chan, C T

    2018-02-28

    Plasmonics has attracted much attention not only because it has useful properties such as strong field enhancement, but also because it reveals the quantum nature of matter. To handle quantum plasmonics effects, ab initio packages or empirical Feibelman d-parameters have been used to explore the quantum correction of plasmonic resonances. However, most of these methods are formulated within the quasi-static framework. The self-consistent hydrodynamics model offers a reliable approach to study quantum plasmonics because it can incorporate the quantum effect of the electron gas into classical electrodynamics in a consistent manner. Instead of the standard scattering method, we formulate the self-consistent hydrodynamics method as an eigenvalue problem to study quantum plasmonics with electrons and photons treated on the same footing. We find that the eigenvalue approach must involve a global operator, which originates from the energy functional of the electron gas. This manifests the intrinsic nonlocality of the response of quantum plasmonic resonances. Our model gives the analytical forms of quantum corrections to plasmonic modes, incorporating quantum electron spill-out effects and electrodynamical retardation. We apply our method to study the quantum surface plasmon polariton for a single flat interface.

  7. Influence of manner of heating on functioning of fireplace

    Kouki, J.

    1994-01-01

    In connection with a bioenergy research programme, there is an ongoing project for developing of wood-fired fireplaces. The overall target in the project is through research and development to improve the combustion and heating characteristics of fireplaces so that their harmful flue gas emissions are reduced and they become more appropriate sources of supplementary and reserve energy (e.g. when installed in electrically heated houses). In connection with this project, TTS Institute's Forestry Department conducted a study on the heating properties of a lightweight iron stove. Correct manner of heating is a means to reducing the amount of harmful flue gases produced by fireplaces and of raising their combustion efficiency. The content of environmentally harmful gases in the flue gases was at Its maximum when the stove was operated with little draught and with the combustion chamber full of fuel. By increasing the draught from 4 Pa to 32 Pa, the carbon monoxide content of the non-combusted gases was reduced almost by 75 percent. This was accompanied by nearly a doubling of the free heat loss of the flue gases. As well as being influenced by the draught in the flue, the functioning of the stove and completeness of combustion was influenced by the moisture content of the chopped firewood. A rise in the moisture level from 13 % to 40 % led to nearly a fivefold increase in the proportion of combustible gases in the flue gases

  8. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  9. [Perception manner of mother of obese persons in adolescence].

    Radoszewska, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    There are specific relation properties of mother to the obese child. The mother representation in child is understand as a experience manner of herself. Representation (mental image) include perceptions, knowledge about characteristics and behaviors of a person and evaluation and experiences that provoke in others. The aim of this article is a trial of an answer what is a mental representation of mother experienced by obese girls and boys in adolescence. 21 obese persons (12 girls and 9 boys) and 23 persons of normal body mass (15 girls and 8 boys) have been investigated. The mean age of the investigated obese persons were 14.53, and for a person of normal body mass was 15.31. All persons were investigated by a clinical interview with 6 questions concerning mental mother representation. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to mental mother representation contents: cognitive, emotional, social, sexual, certificate, behavioral and somatic. Obese persons more often than the person of the normal body mass identify to mental mother representation somatic contents, more rarely social, sexual and behavioral contents. Obese girls more rarely than girls of the normal body mass identify to social contents, more often to somatic. Obese girls more rarely than obese boys identify to mental mother representation emotional contents, more often to somatic contents. The specific relation properties of mother to obese person in adolescence could be manifested in difficulties in turn on contents of mental mother representation, in external, somatic point of concern for mental mother representation, difficulties in contact with mental contents of mother representation.

  10. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  11. Global information sampling in the honey bee

    Johnson, Brian R.

    2008-06-01

    Central to the question of task allocation in social insects is how workers acquire information. Patrolling is a curious behavior in which bees meander over the face of the comb inspecting cells. Several authors have suggested it allows bees to collect global information, but this has never been formally evaluated. This study explores this hypothesis by answering three questions. First, do bees gather information in a consistent manner as they patrol? Second, do they move far enough to get a sense of task demand in distant areas of the nest? And third, is patrolling a commonly performed task? Focal animal observations were used to address the first two predictions, while a scan sampling study was used to address the third. The results were affirmative for each question. While patrolling, workers collected information by performing periodic clusters of cell inspections. Patrolling bees not only traveled far enough to frequently change work zone; they often visited every part of the nest. Finally, the majority of the bees in the middle-age caste were shown to move throughout the nest over the course of a few hours in a manner suggestive of patrolling. Global information collection is contrary to much current theory, which assumes that workers respond to local information only. This study thus highlights the nonmutually exclusive nature of various information collection regimes in social insects.

  12. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  13. The Generating Mechanism of the Perlocutionary Effects of Train Manner Posters

    水田, 洋子

    2013-01-01

    Manner posters, which are used for the purpose of improving people’s manners in public spaces, attempt to be effective without being impositional. How do they meet the challenge? Manner posters can be considered to perform speech acts with written words and visual devices. The current work investigates the generating mechanism of their perlocutionary effects such as persuasion. It provides a case study of Japanese train manner posters by Tokyo Metro in 2008-2010. The analysis is conducted wit...

  14. Local, Regional or Global?

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  15. 48 CFR 1371.101 - Inspection and manner of doing work.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and manner of... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.101 Inspection and manner of doing work. Insert clause 1352.271-70, Inspection and Manner of...

  16. 45 CFR 1621.4 - Complaints by clients about manner or quality of legal assistance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complaints by clients about manner or quality of...) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION CLIENT GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1621.4 Complaints by clients about manner or... clients about the manner or quality of legal assistance that has been rendered by the recipient to the...

  17. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  18. Global challenges

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  19. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  20. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  1. Parton Distributions based on a Maximally Consistent Dataset

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The choice of data that enters a global QCD analysis can have a substantial impact on the resulting parton distributions and their predictions for collider observables. One of the main reasons for this has to do with the possible presence of inconsistencies, either internal within an experiment or external between different experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the global fit, different definitions of a conservative PDF set, that is, a PDF set based on a maximally consistent dataset, have been introduced. However, these approaches are typically affected by theory biases in the selection of the dataset. In this contribution, after a brief overview of recent NNPDF developments, we propose a new, fully objective, definition of a conservative PDF set, based on the Bayesian reweighting approach. Using the new NNPDF3.0 framework, we produce various conservative sets, which turn out to be mutually in agreement within the respective PDF uncertainties, as well as with the global fit. We explore some of their implications for LHC phenomenology, finding also good consistency with the global fit result. These results provide a non-trivial validation test of the new NNPDF3.0 fitting methodology, and indicate that possible inconsistencies in the fitted dataset do not affect substantially the global fit PDFs.

  2. Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph.

    Borio, Daniele; Cano, Eduardo; Baldini, Gianmarco

    2018-05-16

    In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour. In this respect, the ST regulation specifies a test procedure to detect motion conflicts originating from inconsistencies between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and odometry data. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of the speed verification procedure specified by the ST regulation. Several hours of data were collected using three vehicles and considering light urban and highway environments. The vehicles were equipped with an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) data reader and a GPS/Galileo receiver. The tests prescribed by the regulation were implemented with specific focus on synchronization aspects. The experimental analysis also considered aspects such as the impact of tunnels and the presence of data gaps. The analysis shows that the metrics selected for the tests are resilient to data gaps, latencies between GNSS and odometry data and simplistic manipulations such as data scaling. The new ST forces an attacker to falsify data from both sensors at the same time and in a coherent way. This makes more difficult the implementation of frauds in comparison to the current version of the DT.

  3. Global warning, global warming

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  4. Global Citizenship Education

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2016-01-01

    published after 2000 was written by researchers based in the US and if you add other English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand, the proportion is even higher. English in the field of education research often serves as the international lingua franca. Since there is also......Global citizenship as an idea has become an increasingly important issue on the educational agenda since the late 1970’s. The importance allotted to this issue is clear in the attention given to it by for example UNESCO where global citizenship education (GCED) is an area of strategic focus....... Increasingly schools all over the world are attempting to or expected to educate the global citizen, but how exactly do you educate the global citizen? What does this global citizenship consist of? While surely the type of training and education needed to train a global citizen will vary greatly depending...

  5. Hierarchical fault diagnosis for discrete-event systems under local consistency

    Su, Rong; Wonham, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    In previous work the authors proposed a distributed diagnosis approach consisting of two phases—preliminary diagnosis in each local diagnoser and inter-diagnoser communication. The objective of communication is to achieve either global or local consistency among local diagnoses, where global

  6. Against Globalization

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  7. Nuclear size is sensitive to NTF2 protein levels in a manner dependent on Ran binding

    Vuković, Lidija D.; Jevtić, Predrag; Zhang, Zhaojie; Stohr, Bradley A.; Levy, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Altered nuclear size is associated with many cancers, and determining whether cancer-associated changes in nuclear size contribute to carcinogenesis necessitates an understanding of mechanisms of nuclear size regulation. Although nuclear import rates generally positively correlate with nuclear size, NTF2 levels negatively affect nuclear size, despite the role of NTF2 (also known as NUTF2) in nuclear recycling of the import factor Ran. We show that binding of Ran to NTF2 is required for NTF2 to inhibit nuclear expansion and import of large cargo molecules in Xenopus laevis egg and embryo extracts, consistent with our observation that NTF2 reduces the diameter of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in a Ran-binding-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic NTF2 expression in Xenopus embryos and mammalian tissue culture cells alters nuclear size. Finally, we show that increases in nuclear size during melanoma progression correlate with reduced NTF2 expression, and increasing NTF2 levels in melanoma cells is sufficient to reduce nuclear size. These results show a conserved capacity for NTF2 to impact on nuclear size, and we propose that NTF2 might be a new cancer biomarker. PMID:26823604

  8. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, P.H.; Ellis, E.C.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here

  9. The consistent histories interpretation of quantum fields in curved spacetime

    Blencowe, M.

    1991-01-01

    As an initial attempt to address some of the foundation problems of quantum mechanics, the author formulates the consistent histories interpretation of quantum field theory on a globally hyperbolic curved space time. He then constructs quasiclassical histories for a free, massive scalar field. In the final part, he points out the shortcomings of the theory and conjecture that one must take into account the fact that gravity is quantized in order to overcome them

  10. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-2 - Manner of exercising election.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of exercising election. 1.669(b)-2 Section 1.669(b)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-2 Manner of exercising election. (a) By whom election...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6316-5 - Manner of paying tax by foreign currency.

    2010-04-01

    ... currency to be deposited shall be that amount which, when converted at the rate of exchange used on the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. 301....6316-5 Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. (a) Time and place to pay. The unpaid tax required to...

  12. Point of View: Manner of Realising The Matter in Adichie's Half of A ...

    manner' to create meaning or matter. The best form of art is the blending of form and content; means and end; manner and matter. Therefore, the uniqueness of any novelist's product is contingent upon how well or otherwise their peculiar ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.871-1 - Classification and manner of taxing alien individuals.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification and manner of taxing alien... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-1 Classification and manner of taxing alien individuals. (a) Classes of aliens. For purposes of the income tax...

  14. 26 CFR 1.522-2 - Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. 1.522-2 Section 1.522-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-2 Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. (a) In general. Farmers...

  15. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  16. Global Strategy

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  17. Globalization and Education

    Huma Imran Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization has been introduced due to technical advancements that has made the world a global village. The world as is now has never been before; it is now a world where multicultural societies have developed, trade and transactions are made between countries, technology reaches every part of the world, and internet has connected every possible idea, opinion, person, and commodity with the rest of the world. In this world of globalization, education has taken a central role, as without education globalization cannot be germinated. Education is a national issue and as such, each country has its own educational policies that are emblems of that country's cultural values, belief system and historical realities. Nevertheless, the globalized world demands for multiculturalism, and commonalities amongst communities to be promoted so as to bring the world closer to accepting cultural diversities and celebrating commonalities. For these aims, educational institutions become institutions for promoting globalization by introducing various cultural and traditional beliefs to the new generation. Recently, globalization has become a popular subject of debate in national and international circiles. Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world through economic forces, digital technologies, and communication. It is moreover subjected to higher living standards, international affiliations, and multiple types of freedom. However, a major part of the world consists of under developed countries where technological advancements, communication, trade and commerce along with other economic activities are not enough to support them to be a part of the global society.

  18. Global gravitational anomalies

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  19. Global Europa

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  20. Global media and violence in Africa : The case of Somalia

    Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that Africa has been sidelined in the global ICT revolution and that African societies appear to be cut off from global flows of information. Nevertheless, the manner in which war was waged in Somalia between 1991 and 1994 indicates that this global revolution has affected the

  1. Global usability

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  2. Overspecification of colour, pattern, and size: Salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    Sammie eTarenskeen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rates of overspecification of colour, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Colour and pattern are absolute attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency towards consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of colour and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of colour overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include colour than pattern (probably because colour is more salient, they may also treat pattern like colour due to a tendency towards consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced.

  3. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  4. Managing global responsibility

    Saur, K. [Five Winds International, Donzdorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electronics industry in particular is a global industry. Local and regional solutions require a globally applicable product design and use global value chains. Operating in increasingly integrated material and product loops offers a unique solution to not only providing markets with compatible solutions, but also offer a chance to significantly reduce the environmental footprint of the industry. Product lifespan extension in emerging economies, utilization of local market needs, utilize available and affordable labour forces and creating wealth and capacity in developing countries may serve as a way to make industry more sustainable and successful. Both the supply side and the product end of life management need to be considered in this global industry. Intelligent solution support the dematerialization and material throughput and help creating markets and build wealth. Critical success factors include knowledge management, capacity building, developing infrastructure. This paper presents a discussion on a solutions oriented approach towards product life cycle management and stewardship combined with sustainable production and consumption considerations, support the industries aspirations and the UNEP Life Cycle Initiative's mission in a perfect manner. The aim of this paper is to offer approaches and develop ideas how economic viable and sustainable solutions can be developed. (orig.)

  5. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  6. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  7. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  8. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  9. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  10. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  11. Assessment of Ethical Ideals and Ethical Manners in Care of Older People

    Frilund, Marianne; Fagerström, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Katie; Eklund, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish structured clusters and well-defined ontological entities (nodes) describing ethical values as both ideal and opportunity for ethical manner as perceived by the caregiver. In this study, we use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to analyse ethical values (ethos) and ethical manners in daily work with older people. Material is based on questionnaire data collected by the instrument for the self-assessment of individual ethos in the care of older people (ISAEC...

  12. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    significantly in the supernatant from cells stimulated by rIL-2 in a dose-dependent manner both in patients and volunteers. Total cell-bound histamine was 49.3 +/- 4.1 ng/ml in patients compared to 78.5 +/- 7.7 ng/ml in volunteers (p ... was significantly enhanced in cancer patients compared to volunteers (*p manner in both cancer patients and volunteers. This may in part explain the severe toxicity observed during high...

  13. Pragmatic awareness of Suggestions: From (Im)Polite Mannerism to Attitudinal Appropriateness

    Hamid Allami; Nasim Boustani

    2017-01-01

    The present research seeks to determine: (a) Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b) their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c), their (im)polite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d) the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (im)politeness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT) was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their langua...

  14. A Mission to Reform Manners: Religion, Secularization, and Empire in Early Modern England

    Taback, Naomi Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation looks at three voluntary societies formed in London shortly after the revolution of 1688. These societies, with overlapping membership, shared a broad vision for the improvement of manners and morals throughout the burgeoning British Empire. The Society for Reformation of Manners, founded in 1691, called for the enforcement of the civil laws against prostitution, swearing, drunkenness, gambling, and other moral crimes. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, founde...

  15. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability

    Mathis Wackernagel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs are the most significant global effort so far to advance global sustainable development. Bertelsmann Stiftung and the sustainable development solutions network released an SDG index to assess countries’ average performance on SDGs. Ranking high on the SDG index strongly correlates with high per person demand on nature (or “Footprints”, and low ranking with low Footprints, making evident that the SDGs as expressed today vastly underperform on sustainability. Such underperformance is anti-poor because lowest-income people exposed to resource insecurity will lack the financial means to shield themselves from the consequences. Given the significance of the SDGs for guiding development, rigorous accounting is essential for making them consistent with the goals of sustainable development: thriving within the means of planet Earth.

  16. Simulations of tokamak disruptions including self-consistent temperature evolution

    Bondeson, A.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of tokamaks have been carried out, including self-consistent temperature evolution with a highly anisotropic thermal conductivity. The simulations extend over the transport time-scale and address the question of how disruptive current profiles arise at low-q or high-density operation. Sharply defined disruptive events are triggered by the m/n=2/1 resistive tearing mode, which is mainly affected by local current gradients near the q=2 surface. If the global current gradient between q=2 and q=1 is sufficiently steep, the m=2 mode starts a shock which accelerates towards the q=1 surface, leaving stochastic fields, a flattened temperature profile and turbulent plasma behind it. For slightly weaker global current gradients, a shock may form, but it will dissipate before reaching q=1 and may lead to repetitive minidisruptions which flatten the temperature profile in a region inside the q=2 surface. (author)

  17. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability

    Wackernagel, Mathis, E-mail: mathis.wackernagel@footprintnetwork.org; Hanscom, Laurel; Lin, David [Global Footprint Network, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    The UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs) are the most significant global effort so far to advance global sustainable development. Bertelsmann Stiftung and the sustainable development solutions network released an SDG index to assess countries’ average performance on SDGs. Ranking high on the SDG index strongly correlates with high per person demand on nature (or “Footprints”), and low ranking with low Footprints, making evident that the SDGs as expressed today vastly underperform on sustainability. Such underperformance is anti-poor because lowest-income people exposed to resource insecurity will lack the financial means to shield themselves from the consequences. Given the significance of the SDGs for guiding development, rigorous accounting is essential for making them consistent with the goals of sustainable development: thriving within the means of planet Earth.

  18. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability

    Wackernagel, Mathis; Hanscom, Laurel; Lin, David

    2017-01-01

    The UN’s Sustainable development Goals (SDGs) are the most significant global effort so far to advance global sustainable development. Bertelsmann Stiftung and the sustainable development solutions network released an SDG index to assess countries’ average performance on SDGs. Ranking high on the SDG index strongly correlates with high per person demand on nature (or “Footprints”), and low ranking with low Footprints, making evident that the SDGs as expressed today vastly underperform on sustainability. Such underperformance is anti-poor because lowest-income people exposed to resource insecurity will lack the financial means to shield themselves from the consequences. Given the significance of the SDGs for guiding development, rigorous accounting is essential for making them consistent with the goals of sustainable development: thriving within the means of planet Earth.

  19. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  20. Global Mindset

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  1. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  2. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  3. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  4. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  5. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  6. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  7. Gendering Globalization

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  8. Developing Globalization

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  9. Global Uddannelse

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  10. Global Mindsets

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  11. Global warming

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  12. Pragmatic awareness of Suggestions: From (ImPolite Mannerism to Attitudinal Appropriateness

    Hamid Allami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to determine: (a Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c, their (impolite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (impoliteness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their language proficiency level and to satisfy the assumption of homogeneity among the learners. These participants along with 10 American native speakers then underwent a suggestion DCT. The questionnaire included questions addressing interlocutors’ with higher, lower or equal power status and intimate or strange social distance. The DCT also involved attitudinal appropriateness scale and (impoliteness mannerism likert scale to examine the learners’ degree of confidence and mannerism. Besides similarities and differences in the application of suggestion semantic formulae between the Iranian learners and American speakers, the results revealed variations in the two groups’ performances for appropriateness and (impoliteness. The results also indicated a positive relationship between the attitude and mannerism scales.

  13. The Reflection of Javanese Life Manner on the Dongkrek Art and Ritual Performance in Madiun Society

    Sharfina Nur Amalina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses in the analysis of Javanese life manner within Dongkrek art and ritual performance in Mejayan, Madiun, Indonesia. The purpose of research is to reflect a life manner of Javanese society within a Dongkrek show. The qualitative-descriptive was used as research approach. Data were collected by interview, literature review, and other relevant resources. The results of research show a five points of Javanese manner of life in Dongkrek, represent in the phrase Ambrasta Dur Hangkara, Memayu Hayuning Bawana, Sura Dira Jayaning Lebur Dening Pangastuti, Sadulur Papat Kalima Pancer, and Manunggaling Kawula Gusti. Those phrases contain many moral values that generally can be accepted by society. The phrase represents a human relationship, the manner of life, ways of life, world-view, willingness, and the transcendental relationship between humans and God. It means the purpose of the Javanese manner of life is to reach the perfection of life. The perfection of life is resting on the faith towards to the God through the maturity of spirituality.

  14. Towards thermodynamical consistency of quasiparticle picture

    Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru

  15. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  16. Toward a consistent RHA-RPA

    Shepard, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the RPA based on a relativistic Hartree approximation description for nuclear ground states. This model includes contributions from the negative energy sea at the 1-loop level. They emphasize consistency between the treatment of the ground state and the RPA. This consistency is important in the description of low-lying collective levels but less important for the longitudinal (e, e') quasi-elastic response. They also study the effect of imposing a 3-momentum cutoff on negative energy sea contributions. A cutoff of twice the nucleon mass improves agreement with observed spin orbit splittings in nuclei compared to the standard infinite cutoff results, an effect traceable to the fact that imposing the cutoff reduces m*/m. The cutoff is much less important than consistency in the description of low-lying collective levels. The cutoff model provides excellent agreement with quasi-elastic (e, e') data

  17. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  18. Thermodynamically consistent data-driven computational mechanics

    González, David; Chinesta, Francisco; Cueto, Elías

    2018-05-01

    In the paradigm of data-intensive science, automated, unsupervised discovering of governing equations for a given physical phenomenon has attracted a lot of attention in several branches of applied sciences. In this work, we propose a method able to avoid the identification of the constitutive equations of complex systems and rather work in a purely numerical manner by employing experimental data. In sharp contrast to most existing techniques, this method does not rely on the assumption on any particular form for the model (other than some fundamental restrictions placed by classical physics such as the second law of thermodynamics, for instance) nor forces the algorithm to find among a predefined set of operators those whose predictions fit best to the available data. Instead, the method is able to identify both the Hamiltonian (conservative) and dissipative parts of the dynamics while satisfying fundamental laws such as energy conservation or positive production of entropy, for instance. The proposed method is tested against some examples of discrete as well as continuum mechanics, whose accurate results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  19. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner.

    Bollinger, Justin L; Collins, Kaitlyn E; Patel, Rushi; Wellman, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  20. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Collins, Kaitlyn E.; Patel, Rushi

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  1. Financial model calibration using consistency hints.

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a technique for forcing the calibration of a financial model to produce valid parameters. The technique is based on learning from hints. It converts simple curve fitting into genuine calibration, where broad conclusions can be inferred from parameter values. The technique augments the error function of curve fitting with consistency hint error functions based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. We introduce an efficient EM-type optimization algorithm tailored to this technique. We also introduce other consistency hints, and balance their weights using canonical errors. We calibrate the correlated multifactor Vasicek model of interest rates, and apply it successfully to Japanese Yen swaps market and US dollar yield market.

  2. Poland and Global Threats

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  3. The Role of Perception in the Typology of Geminate Consonants: Effects of Manner of Articulation, Segmental Environment, Position, and Stress.

    Dmitrieva, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The present study seeks to answer the question of whether consonant duration is perceived differently across consonants of different manners of articulation and in different contextual environments and whether such differences may be related to the typology of geminates. The results of the cross-linguistic identification experiment suggest higher perceptual acuity in labeling short and long consonants in sonorants than in obstruents. Duration categories were also more consistently and clearly labeled in the intervocalic than in the preconsonantal environment, in the word-initial than in the word-final position, and after stressed vowels than between unstressed vowels. These perceptual asymmetries are in line with some typological tendencies, such as the cross-linguistic preference for intervocalic and post-stress geminates, but contradict other proposed cross-linguistic patterns, such as the preference for obstruent geminates and the abundance of word-final geminates.

  4. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  5. Shadow Globalization

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  6. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  7. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation lexicons often contain pronunciation variants. This can create two problems: It can be difficult to define these variants in an internally consistent way and it can also be difficult to extract generalised grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets...

  8. Image recognition and consistency of response

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image. Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize. Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  9. Consistent application of codes and standards

    Scott, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in the US Department of Energy, General Design Criteria (DOE 6430.1A), and the Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subject to Natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL-15910) provide a consistent and well defined approach to determine the natural phenomena hazards loads for US Department of Energy site facilities. The guidelines for the application of loads combinations and allowables criteria are not as well defined and are more flexible in interpretation. This flexibility in the interpretation of load combinations can lead to conflict between the designer and overseer. The establishment of an efficient set of acceptable design criteria, based on US Department of Energy guidelines, provides a consistent baseline for analysis, design, and review. Additionally, the proposed method should not limit the design and analytical innovation necessary to analyze or qualify the unique structure. This paper investigates the consistent application of load combinations, analytical methods, and load allowables and suggests a reference path consistent with the US Department of Energy guidelines

  10. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  11. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  12. Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent stochastic models of metocean design parameters and their directional dependencies are essential for reliability assessment of offshore structures. In this paper a stochastic model for the annual maximum values of the significant wave height, and the associated wind velocity, current...

  13. On the existence of consistent price systems

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  14. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  15. Consistency of the postulates of special relativity

    Gron, O.; Nicola, M.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated

  16. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  17. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  18. Global Rome

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  19. International cooperation for the development of consistent and stable transportation regulations to promote and enhance safety and security

    Strosnider, J.

    2004-01-01

    International commerce of radioactive materials crosses national boundaries, linking separate regulatory institutions with a common purpose and making it necessary for these institutions to work together in order to achieve common safety goals in a manner that does not place an undue burden on industry and commerce. Widespread and increasing use of radioactive materials across the world has led to increases in the transport of radioactive materials. The demand for consistency in the oversight of international transport has also increased to prevent unnecessary delays and costs associated with incongruent or redundant regulatory requirements by the various countries through which radioactive material is transported. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the authority for international regulation of transportation of radioactive materials responsible for promulgation of regulations and guidance for the establishment of acceptable methods of transportation for the international community. As such, the IAEA is seen as the focal point for consensus building between its Member States to develop consistency in transportation regulations and reviews and to ensure the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. International cooperation is also needed to ensure stability in our regulatory processes. Changes to transportation regulations should be based on an anticipated safety benefit supported by risk information and insights gained from continuing experience, evaluation, and research studies. If we keep safety as the principle basis for regulatory changes, regulatory stability will be enhanced. Finally, as we endeavour to maintain consistency and stability in our international regulations, we must be mindful of the new security challenges that lay before the international community as a result of a changing terrorist environment. Terrorism is a problem of global concern that also requires international cooperation and support, as we look for ways to

  20. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    Liang, Faming

    2013-07-26

    Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD), to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i) (Global association test) Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii) (Causal variant detection) Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI) Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  1. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    Faming Liang

    Full Text Available Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD, to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i (Global association test Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii (Causal variant detection Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  2. Bayesian detection of causal rare variants under posterior consistency.

    Liang, Faming; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-01-01

    Identification of causal rare variants that are associated with complex traits poses a central challenge on genome-wide association studies. However, most current research focuses only on testing the global association whether the rare variants in a given genomic region are collectively associated with the trait. Although some recent work, e.g., the Bayesian risk index method, have tried to address this problem, it is unclear whether the causal rare variants can be consistently identified by them in the small-n-large-P situation. We develop a new Bayesian method, the so-called Bayesian Rare Variant Detector (BRVD), to tackle this problem. The new method simultaneously addresses two issues: (i) (Global association test) Are there any of the variants associated with the disease, and (ii) (Causal variant detection) Which variants, if any, are driving the association. The BRVD ensures the causal rare variants to be consistently identified in the small-n-large-P situation by imposing some appropriate prior distributions on the model and model specific parameters. The numerical results indicate that the BRVD is more powerful for testing the global association than the existing methods, such as the combined multivariate and collapsing test, weighted sum statistic test, RARECOVER, sequence kernel association test, and Bayesian risk index, and also more powerful for identification of causal rare variants than the Bayesian risk index method. The BRVD has also been successfully applied to the Early-Onset Myocardial Infarction (EOMI) Exome Sequence Data. It identified a few causal rare variants that have been verified in the literature.

  3. Global Man-made Impervious Surface (GMIS) Dataset From Landsat

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Man-made Impervious Surface (GMIS) Dataset From Landsat consists of global estimates of fractional impervious cover derived from the Global Land Survey...

  4. Global Managers

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  5. A global change data base using thematic mapper data: Earth monitoring educational system (EMES)

    D'Antoni, H.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System integrated with the research interests of NASA Ames Research Center and one or more university schools is proposed. This would be a first step in a new educational system at an international scale. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, the EMES will promote AS, BS, MS and PhDs in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extra-curricular courses for multilevel audiences. These would range as appropriate from ministers to resource managers to students. Both programs will be conducted under a systemic approach, through active learning, coordination and correlation practices. They will be aimed to: (1) train specialists, (2) establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool, and (3) transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. The main goal of the extra-curricular courses would be to provide readily usable knowledge to the decision-making levels of all the participant countries and institutions. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project. This work is consistent with the educational goals of the International Space year in 1992

  6. Globalization & technology

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  7. Another globalization

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  8. Gendered globalization

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  9. Global warming

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  10. Global VDET pattern recognition for ALEPH

    Bazarko, Andrew; Pusztaszeri, Jean-Francois; Rensing, Paul E.; Brown, David; Gay, Pascal

    1996-01-01

    With the current reliance on high-precision vertex detectors to provide very accurate information about the primary and secondary vertices in an event, the accuracy and efficiency of the assignment of vertex detectors hits to tracks has become crucial. This paper discusses new software written for ALEPH which attempts to make this assignment in a global manner using interger programming techniques. (author)

  11. A consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Omnes, Roland

    1990-01-01

    Some mostly recent theoretical and mathematical advances can be linked together to yield a new consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics. It relies upon a unique and universal interpretative rule of a logical character which is based upon Griffiths consistent history. Some new results in semi-classical physics allow classical physics to be derived from this rule, including its logical aspects, and to prove accordingly the existence of determinism within the quantum framework. Together with decoherence, this can be used to retrieve the existence of facts, despite the probabilistic character of the theory. Measurement theory can then be made entirely deductive. It is accordingly found that wave packet reduction is a logical property, whereas one can always choose to avoid using it. The practical consequences of this interpretation are most often in agreement with the Copenhagen formulation but they can be proved never to give rise to any logical inconsistency or paradox. (author)

  12. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  13. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  14. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve......Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  15. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  16. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  17. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain......Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non...

  18. Self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions

    Kubo, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hideo; Kammuri, Tetsuo; Kishimoto, Teruo.

    1993-09-01

    The field coupling method is extended to a system with a velocity dependent mean potential. By means of this method, we can derive the effective interactions which are consistent with the mean potential. The self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions are applied to the microscopic analysis of the structures of giant dipole resonances (GDR) of 148,154 Sm, of the first excited 2 + states of Sn isotopes and of the first excited 3 - states of Mo isotopes. It is clarified that the interactions play crucial roles in describing the splitting of the resonant structure of GDR peaks, in restoring the energy weighted sum rule values, and in reducing B (Eλ) values. (author)

  19. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    Piacenza, Susan E.; Thurman, Lindsey L.; Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monito...

  20. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  1. Consistency Analysis of Nearest Subspace Classifier

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Nearest subspace classifier (NSS) finds an estimation of the underlying subspace within each class and assigns data points to the class that corresponds to its nearest subspace. This paper mainly studies how well NSS can be generalized to new samples. It is proved that NSS is strongly consistent under certain assumptions. For completeness, NSS is evaluated through experiments on various simulated and real data sets, in comparison with some other linear model based classifiers. It is also ...

  2. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  3. Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology

    Craig, David A; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler–DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent-histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce versus a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite ‘past’ or ‘future’ scalar ‘time’, in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models. (paper)

  4. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency.

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

  5. Massively parallel self-consistent-field calculations

    Tilson, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The advent of supercomputers with many computational nodes each with its own independent memory makes possible extremely fast computations. The author's work, as part of the US High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP), is focused on the development of electronic structure techniques for the solution of Grand Challenge-size molecules containing hundreds of atoms. Their efforts have resulted in a fully scalable Direct-SCF program that is portable and efficient. This code, named NWCHEM, is built around a distributed-data model. This distributed data is managed by a software package called Global Arrays developed within the HPCCP. They present performance results for Direct-SCF calculations of interest to the consortium

  6. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  7. 26 CFR 1.881-1 - Manner of taxing foreign corporations.

    2010-04-01

    ... tax avoidance purposes, whether or not such corporation is engaged in trade or business in the United... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.881-1 Manner of taxing foreign corporations. (a) Classes of foreign corporations. For purposes of the income tax, foreign corporations are divided into two...

  8. 17 CFR 17.02 - Form, manner and time of filing reports.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form, manner and time of filing reports. 17.02 Section 17.02 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... markets located in that time zone, and central time for information concerning all other markets. (b...

  9. Organizing artistic activities in a recurrent manner : (on the nature of) entrepreneurship in the performing arts

    Bergamini, Michela; Van de Velde, Ward; Van Looy, Bart; Visscher, Klaasjan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of performing arts organizations active in classical music, theatre, and contemporary dance rely on funding from "third parties" in order to organize productions in a recurrent manner. We adopt an entrepreneurial perspective to inform the debate on the economic sustainability of

  10. Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like domain-dependent manner

    Kny, Melanie; Standera, Sybille; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and interacts directly with the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, which is found in high molecular mass complexes of the ER membrane. Here we present the first evidence that Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-dependent manner. We...

  11. Impact of Video Feedback on Teachers' Eye-Contact Mannerisms in Microteaching.

    Karasar, Niyazi

    To test the impact of video feedback on teachers' eye-contact mannerisms in microteaching in inservice vocational teacher education, the study utilized video recordings from the data bank generated by previous studies conducted at the Ohio State University's Center for Vocational and Technical Education. The tapes were assigned through a…

  12. Nucleoside analogues are activated by bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases in a species-specific manner

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, Anders; On, Stephen L. W.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal activity of antiviral and anticancer nucleoside analogues against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and characterize the activating enzymes, deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). Several FDA-approved nucleoside analogue drugs were screened for their potential bacteric......-specific manner. Therefore, nucleoside analogues have a potential to be employed as antibiotics in the fight against emerging multiresistant bacteria....

  13. Rheological properties of a nematic cell oriented in a planar manner

    Barbero, G.; Meyer, C.; Lelidis, I.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple model to investigate the rheological properties of a nematic cell oriented in a planar manner. The storage and loss modulus are evaluated in the case of strong and weak anchoring conditions. The contribution of the surface viscosity to the rheological parameters is also considered.

  14. Astrocytic connexin hemichannels are regulated by PKC phosphorylation in an isoform-specific manner

    MacAulay, N.; Alstrom, J. S.; Hansen, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    /activation of PKC and by mutational disruption of the proposed PKC-phosphorylation sites. Cx30 hemichannel activity, in contrast, was down-regulated by PKC activation, in a manner suggesting PKC-mediated channel closure. No single PKC consensus site could be assigned to this regulatory property by mutational...

  15. Weighting of Acoustic Cues to a Manner Distinction by Children with and without Hearing Loss

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…

  16. Silence and table manners : When environments activate norms (Retracted article. See vol. 38, pg. 1378, 2012)

    Joly, Janneke F.; Stapel, Diederik A.; Lindenberg, Siegwart M.

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e. g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e. g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there

  17. 40 CFR 141.203 - Tier 2 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier 2 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice. 141.203 Section 141.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc...

  18. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice. 141.204 Section 141.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc...

  19. VERIFYING ASTEROSEISMICALLY DETERMINED PARAMETERS OF KEPLER STARS USING HIPPARCOS PARALLAXES: SELF-CONSISTENT STELLAR PROPERTIES AND DISTANCES

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Chaplin, W. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Casagrande, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Campante, T. L.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Huber, D. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Miglio, A.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Serenelli, A. M.; Garcia, R. A.; Mathur, S. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ballot, J. [CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Creevey, O. L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Gilliland, R. L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Metcalfe, T. S. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2012-09-20

    Accurately determining the properties of stars is of prime importance for characterizing stellar populations in our Galaxy. The field of asteroseismology has been thought to be particularly successful in such an endeavor for stars in different evolutionary stages. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification of the results is mandatory. With this purpose, we present a new technique to obtain stellar properties by coupling asteroseismic analysis with the InfraRed Flux Method. By using two global seismic observables and multi-band photometry, the technique allows us to obtain masses, radii, effective temperatures, bolometric fluxes, and hence distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. We apply our method to 22 solar-like oscillators in the Kepler short-cadence sample, that have accurate Hipparcos parallaxes. Our distance determinations agree to better than 5%, while measurements of spectroscopic effective temperatures and interferometric radii also validate our results. We briefly discuss the potential of our technique for stellar population analysis and models of Galactic Chemical Evolution.

  20. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  1. Do Health Systems Have Consistent Performance Across Locations and Is Consistency Associated With Higher Performance?

    Crespin, Daniel J; Christianson, Jon B; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Finch, Michael D

    This study addresses whether health systems have consistent diabetes care performance across their ambulatory clinics and whether increasing consistency is associated with improvements in clinic performance. Study data included 2007 to 2013 diabetes care intermediate outcome measures for 661 ambulatory clinics in Minnesota and bordering states. Health systems provided more consistent performance, as measured by the standard deviation of performance for clinics in a system, relative to propensity score-matched proxy systems created for comparison purposes. No evidence was found that improvements in consistency were associated with higher clinic performance. The combination of high performance and consistent care is likely to enhance a health system's brand reputation, allowing it to better mitigate the financial risks of consumers seeking care outside the organization. These results suggest that larger health systems are most likely to deliver the combination of consistent and high-performance care. Future research should explore the mechanisms that drive consistent care within health systems.

  2. Non-natural manners of death among users of illicit drugs: Substance findings.

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn M; Teige, Brita; Rogde, Sidsel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore differences and similarities between the various non-natural manners of death (accident, suicide, homicide) regarding toxicological findings in illicit drug users. Medicolegal autopsy reports from the Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Oslo concerning deaths from 2000 to 2009 were investigated. Those aged 20-59 whose manner of death was non-natural and who tested positive for any narcotic drug (morphine/heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD, PCP, and high levels of GHB in addition to methadone and buprenorphine) were selected. All substance findings were registered and categorized (narcotics, ethanol, and medicinal products). Of the 1603 autopsies that met the selection criteria, 1204 were accidental intoxications, 122 accidents other than intoxication, 114 suicides by intoxication, 119 non-intoxication suicides, and 44 victims of homicide. Poly drug use was found in all manners of death. The drug profile as well as the mean number of substances (illicit drugs and medicinal products) varied from 2.9 to 4.6 substances per case, depending on the manner of death. Intoxication suicides had the highest number of substances and a total drug profile similar to accidental intoxications. Non-intoxication suicides had a total drug profile similar to homicide and accidents other than intoxication. The number of substances found per case increased during the decade, mainly due to increased findings of methadone, cannabis, amphetamines, and benzodiazepines. Methadone findings increased much more than buprenorphine. Methadone was found 20 times more often than buprenorphine in accidental intoxication cases. In summary, poly drug findings are common in adults who suffer a non-natural death while using illicit drugs. The different manners of death have some specific characteristics and significant differences regarding drug profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Stress Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Mu Oscillations in an Age-Dependent Manner

    Samir Takillah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP on extracellular field potentials (EFP in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts of adult (8 months and aged (18 months Wistar rats. A potential source of confusion in the experimental studies in rodents comes from locomotion-related theta (6–12 Hz oscillations, which may overshadow the direct effects of anxiety on low-frequency and especially on the high-amplitude oscillations in the Mu range (7–12 Hz, related to arousal. Animals were restrained to avoid any confound and isolate the direct effects of stress from theta oscillations related to stress-induced locomotion. We identified transient, high-amplitude oscillations in the 7–12 Hz range (“Mu-bursts” in the PFC, parietal cortex and only in the dorsal part of hippocampus. At rest, aged rats displayed more Mu-bursts than adults. Stress acted differently on Mu-bursts depending on age: it increases vs. decreases burst, in adult and aged animals, respectively. In contrast DZP (1 mg/kg acted the same way in stressed adult and age animal: it decreased the occurrence of Mu-bursts, as well as their co-occurrence. This is consistent with DZP acting as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, which globally potentiates inhibition and has anxiolytic effects. Overall, the effect of benzodiazepines on stressed animals was to restore Mu burst activity in adults but to strongly diminish them in aged rats. This work suggests Mu-bursts as a neural marker to study the impact of stress and DZP on age.

  4. Acute Stress Affects the Expression of Hippocampal Mu Oscillations in an Age-Dependent Manner.

    Takillah, Samir; Naudé, Jérémie; Didienne, Steve; Sebban, Claude; Decros, Brigitte; Schenker, Esther; Spedding, Michael; Mourot, Alexandre; Mariani, Jean; Faure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP) and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP) on extracellular field potentials (EFP) in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts) of adult (8 months) and aged (18 months) Wistar rats. A potential source of confusion in the experimental studies in rodents comes from locomotion-related theta (6-12 Hz) oscillations, which may overshadow the direct effects of anxiety on low-frequency and especially on the high-amplitude oscillations in the Mu range (7-12 Hz), related to arousal. Animals were restrained to avoid any confound and isolate the direct effects of stress from theta oscillations related to stress-induced locomotion. We identified transient, high-amplitude oscillations in the 7-12 Hz range ("Mu-bursts") in the PFC, parietal cortex and only in the dorsal part of hippocampus. At rest, aged rats displayed more Mu-bursts than adults. Stress acted differently on Mu-bursts depending on age: it increases vs. decreases burst, in adult and aged animals, respectively. In contrast DZP (1 mg/kg) acted the same way in stressed adult and age animal: it decreased the occurrence of Mu-bursts, as well as their co-occurrence. This is consistent with DZP acting as a positive allosteric modulator of GABA A receptors, which globally potentiates inhibition and has anxiolytic effects. Overall, the effect of benzodiazepines on stressed animals was to restore Mu burst activity in adults but to strongly diminish them in aged rats. This work suggests Mu-bursts as a neural marker to study the impact of stress and DZP on age.

  5. Hunger enhances consistent economic choices in non-human primates.

    Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-24

    Hunger and thirst are fundamental biological processes that drive consumption behavior in humans and non-human animals. While the existing literature in neuroscience suggests that these satiety states change how consumable rewards are represented in the brain, it remains unclear as to how they change animal choice behavior and the underlying economic preferences. Here, I used combined techniques from experimental economics, psychology, and neuroscience to measure food preferences of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), a recently developed primate model for neuroscience. Hunger states of animals were manipulated by scheduling feeding intervals, resulting in three different conditions: sated, non-sated, and hungry. During these hunger states, animals performed pairwise choices of food items, which included all possible pairwise combinations of five different food items except for same-food pairs. Results showed that hunger enhanced economic rationality, evident as a decrease of transitivity violations (item A was preferred to item B, and B to C, but C was preferred to A). Further analysis demonstrated that hungry monkeys chose more-preferred items over less-preferred items in a more deterministic manner, while the individual food preferences appeared to remain stable across hunger states. These results suggest that hunger enhances consistent choice behavior and shifts animals towards efficient outcome maximization.

  6. A review of 20 Ne structure in a full microscopic self-consistent shell ...

    A set of single-particle energies together with a set of two-body matrix- elements derived in a self –consistent manner from the Reid soft–core potential are used to calculate the energy levels of 20Ne. We used a harmonic oscillator wave function folded with two-body correlation functions in our calculation. It is found that the ...

  7. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  8. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  9. A method for consistent precision radiation therapy

    Leong, J.

    1985-01-01

    Using a meticulous setup procedure in which repeated portal films were taken before each treatment until satisfactory portal verifications were obtained, a high degree of precision in patient positioning was achieved. A fluctuation from treatment to treatment, over 11 treatments, of less than +-0.10 cm (S.D.) for anatomical points inside the treatment field was obtained. This, however, only applies to specific anatomical points selected for this positioning procedure and does not apply to all points within the portal. We have generalized this procedure and have suggested a means by which any target volume can be consistently positioned which may approach this degree of precision. (orig.)

  10. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  11. Two consistent calculations of the Weinberg angle

    Fairlie, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory is reformulated as a pure Yang-Mills theory in a six-dimensional space, the Higgs field being interpreted as gauge potentials in the additional dimensions. Viewed in this way, the condition that the Higgs field transforms as a U(1) representation of charge one is equivalent to requiring a value of 30 0 C for the Weinberg angle. A second consistent determination comes from the idea borrowed from monopole theory that the electromagnetic field is in the direction of the Higgs field. (Author)

  12. Global Operations Networks

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless......, international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...

  13. A dynamical mechanism for large volumes with consistent couplings

    Abel, Steven [IPPP, Durham University,Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-14

    A mechanism for addressing the “decompactification problem” is proposed, which consists of balancing the vacuum energy in Scherk-Schwarzed theories against contributions coming from non-perturbative physics. Universality of threshold corrections ensures that, in such situations, the stable minimum will have consistent gauge couplings for any gauge group that shares the same N=2 beta function for the bulk excitations as the gauge group that takes part in the minimisation. Scherk-Schwarz compactification from 6D to 4D in heterotic strings is discussed explicitly, together with two alternative possibilities for the non-perturbative physics, namely metastable SQCD vacua and a single gaugino condensate. In the former case, it is shown that modular symmetries gives various consistency checks, and allow one to follow soft-terms, playing a similar role to R-symmetry in global SQCD. The latter case is particularly attractive when there is nett Bose-Fermi degeneracy in the massless sector. In such cases, because the original Casimir energy is generated entirely by excited and/or non-physical string modes, it is completely immune to the non-perturbative IR physics. Such a separation between UV and IR contributions to the potential greatly simplifies the analysis of stabilisation, and is a general possibility that has not been considered before.

  14. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics

  15. Self-consistent model of confinement

    Swift, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the large-spatial-distance, zero--three-momentum, limit of QCD is developed from the hypothesis that there is an infrared singularity. Single quarks and gluons do not propagate because they have infinite energy after renormalization. The Hamiltonian formulation of the path integral is used to quantize QCD with physical, nonpropagating fields. Perturbation theory in the infrared limit is simplified by the absence of self-energy insertions and by the suppression of large classes of diagrams due to vanishing propagators. Remaining terms in the perturbation series are resummed to produce a set of nonlinear, renormalizable integral equations which fix both the confining interaction and the physical propagators. Solutions demonstrate the self-consistency of the concepts of an infrared singularity and nonpropagating fields. The Wilson loop is calculated to provide a general proof of confinement. Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark pairs and for two gluons have finite-energy solutions in the color-singlet channel. The choice of gauge is addressed in detail. Large classes of corrections to the model are discussed and shown to support self-consistency

  16. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  17. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  18. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  19. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  20. Global Issues

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  1. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  2. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  3. Global Programs

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  4. Global rotation

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  5. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

    Olivia Geisseler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  6. Another globalization

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  7. Measuring Globalization

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  8. Going global

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  9. Strategic Global Climate Command?

    Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have been exploring geoengineering because Anthropogenic GHG emissions could drive the globe towards unihabitability for people, wildlife and vegetation. Potential global deployment of these technologies is inherently strategic. For example, solar radiation management to reflect more sunlight might be strategically useful during a period of time where the population completes an effort to cease emissions and carbon removal technologies might then be strategically deployed to move the atmospheric concentrations back to a safer level. Consequently, deployment of these global technologies requires the ability to think and act strategically on the part of the planet's governments. Such capacity most definitely does not exist today but it behooves scientists and engineers to be involved in thinking through how global command might develop because the way they do the research could support the development of a capacity to deploy intervention rationally -- or irrationally. Internationalizing research would get countries used to working together. Organizing the research in a step-wise manner where at each step scientists become skilled at explaining what they have learned, the quality of the information they have, what they don't know and what more they can do to reduce or handle uncertainty, etc. Such a process can increase societal confidence in being able to make wise decisions about deployment. Global capacity will also be enhanced if the sceintific establishment reinvents misssion driven research so that the programs will identify the systemic issues invovled in any proposed technology and systematically address them with research while still encouraging individual creativity. Geoengineering will diverge from climate science in that geoengineering research needs to design interventions for some publically desirable goal and investigates whether a proposed intervention will acheive desired outcomes. The effort must be a systems-engineering design problem

  10. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in non-global oceans

    Dickman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is determined by solving Laplace tide equations which take into account the presence of continents in oceans, oceanic self-gravitation and loading, and mantle elasticity. Dynamical effects are found to be only mild. It is shown that the dynamical pole tide contributes about one day more to the Chandler period than a static pole tide would, and dissipates wobble energy at a very weak rate. It is noted that, depending on the wobble period predicted for an oceanless elastic earth, mantle anelasticity at low frequencies may nevertheless contribute negligibly to the Chandler period.

  11. Are changes in the digital divide consistent with global equality or inequality?

    James, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    To answer the question in the title, the author divides a sample of developing countries according to whether they have experienced a rise or fall of the (absolute) digital divide in the Internet. He suggests that in countries where the divide is falling, incomes will tend to be relatively high, and

  12. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Soo, Chopin

    2011-01-01

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  13. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  14. A consistent thermodynamic database for cement minerals

    Blanc, P.; Claret, F.; Burnol, A.; Marty, N.; Gaboreau, S.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Giffault, E.; Bourbon, X.

    2010-01-01

    work - the formation enthalpy and the Cp(T) function are taken from the literature or estimated - finally, the Log K(T) function is calculated, based on the selected dataset and it is compared to experimental data gathered at different temperatures. Each experimental point is extracted from solution compositions by using PHREEQC with a selection of aqueous complexes, consistent with the Thermochimie database. The selection was tested namely by drawing activity diagrams, allowing to assess phases relations. An example of such a diagram, drawn in the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -H 2 O system is displayed. It can be seen that low pH concrete alteration proceeds essentially in decreasing the C/S ratio in C-S-H phases to the point where C-S-H are no longer stable and replaced by zeolite, then clay minerals. This evolution corresponds to a decrease in silica activity, which is consistent with the pH decrease, as silica concentration depends essentially on pH. Some rather consistent phase relations have been obtained for the SO 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CaO-CO 2 -H 2 O system. Addition of iron III enlarges the AFm-SO 4 stability field to the low temperature domain, whereas it decreases the pH domain where ettringite is stable. On the other hand, the stability field of katoite remains largely ambiguous, namely with respect to a hydro-garnet/grossular solid solution. With respect to other databases this work was made in consistency with a larger mineral selection, so that it can be used for modelling works in the cement clay interaction context

  15. Self-consistent modelling of ICRH

    Hellsten, T.; Hedin, J.; Johnson, T.; Laxaaback, M.; Tennfors, E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of ICRH is often sensitive to the shape of the high energy part of the distribution functions of the resonating species. This requires self-consistent calculations of the distribution functions and the wave-field. In addition to the wave-particle interactions and Coulomb collisions the effects of the finite orbit width and the RF-induced spatial transport are found to be important. The inward drift dominates in general even for a symmetric toroidal wave spectrum in the centre of the plasma. An inward drift does not necessarily produce a more peaked heating profile. On the contrary, for low concentrations of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas it can even give rise to broader profiles. (author)

  16. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  17. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  18. Molecular Stress-inducing Compounds Increase Osteoclast Formation in a Heat Shock Factor 1 Protein-dependent Manner*

    Chai, Ryan C.; Kouspou, Michelle M.; Lang, Benjamin J.; Nguyen, Chau H.; van der Kraan, A. Gabrielle J.; Vieusseux, Jessica L.; Lim, Reece C.; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Price, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss. PMID:24692538

  19. Molecular stress-inducing compounds increase osteoclast formation in a heat shock factor 1 protein-dependent manner.

    Chai, Ryan C; Kouspou, Michelle M; Lang, Benjamin J; Nguyen, Chau H; van der Kraan, A Gabrielle J; Vieusseux, Jessica L; Lim, Reece C; Gillespie, Matthew T; Benjamin, Ivor J; Quinn, Julian M W; Price, John T

    2014-05-09

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss.

  20. Thermodynamically consistent model calibration in chemical kinetics

    Goutsias John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of biochemical reaction systems are constrained by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, which impose well-defined relationships among the reaction rate constants characterizing these systems. Constructing biochemical reaction systems from experimental observations often leads to parameter values that do not satisfy the necessary thermodynamic constraints. This can result in models that are not physically realizable and may lead to inaccurate, or even erroneous, descriptions of cellular function. Results We introduce a thermodynamically consistent model calibration (TCMC method that can be effectively used to provide thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of an open biochemical reaction system. The proposed method formulates the model calibration problem as a constrained optimization problem that takes thermodynamic constraints (and, if desired, additional non-thermodynamic constraints into account. By calculating thermodynamically feasible values for the kinetic parameters of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling cascade, we demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative significance of imposing thermodynamic constraints on these parameters and the effectiveness of our method for accomplishing this important task. MATLAB software, using the Systems Biology Toolbox 2.1, can be accessed from http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS lab/software.html. An SBML file containing the thermodynamically feasible EGF/ERK signaling cascade model can be found in the BioModels database. Conclusions TCMC is a simple and flexible method for obtaining physically plausible values for the kinetic parameters of open biochemical reaction systems. It can be effectively used to recalculate a thermodynamically consistent set of parameter values for existing thermodynamically infeasible biochemical reaction models of cellular function as well as to estimate thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of new

  1. Global OpenSearch

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  2. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  3. Considerations on the manner to account for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    Pellisier-Tanon, A.; Grandemange, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    The way followed in France for analyzing fast fracture resistance of PWR primary components is the one of a deterministic analysis with safety coefficients imposed in the fracture criteria. The study of margins towards fast fracture of the 900 MWe program vessels undertaken in 1982 includes parametric evaluations of the influence of essential variables. It has stimulated further thoughts on the level of safety to fix in the analysis methodology, on the orientations for the choice of safety factors and on the manner to introduce them in the analysis. A first chapter tries to characterize the French approach in comparison to those of other countries. A second chapter examines the manner according to which safety factors can be introduced in the deterministic analysis. It presents the principle for a logical approach accounting for the interdependency of all factors and variables. It establishes criteria for the selection of defect kind and size for the computation

  4. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Consistent constraints on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Berthier, Laure; Trott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We develop the global constraint picture in the (linear) effective field theory generalisation of the Standard Model, incorporating data from detectors that operated at PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SpS, Tevatron, SLAC, LEPI and LEP II, as well as low energy precision data. We fit one hundred and three observables. We develop a theory error metric for this effective field theory, which is required when constraints on parameters at leading order in the power counting are to be pushed to the percent level, or beyond, unless the cut off scale is assumed to be large, Λ≳ 3 TeV. We more consistently incorporate theoretical errors in this work, avoiding this assumption, and as a direct consequence bounds on some leading parameters are relaxed. We show how an S,T analysis is modified by the theory errors we include as an illustrative example.

  6. p21-activated Kinase1(PAK1) can promote ERK activation in a kinase independent manner

    Wang, Zhipeng; Fu, Meng; Wang, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    204) although phosphorylation of b-Raf (Ser445) and c-Raf (Ser 338) remained unchanged. Furthermore, increased activation of the PAK1 activator Rac1 induced the formation of a triple complex of Rac1, PAK1 and Mek1, independent of the kinase activity of PAK1. These data suggest that PAK1 can stimulate...... MEK activity in a kinase independent manner, probably by serving as a scaffold to facilitate interaction of c-Raf....

  7. Global Games

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  8. Going global?

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Rasmussen, Christel

    2016-01-01

    occurred at a more micro level. This article explores this issue by studying the international activities of Danish foundations. It finds that grant-making on global issues is increasing, and that several foundations have undergone transformations in their approach to grantmaking, making them surprisingly...

  9. Justice Globalism

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  10. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  11. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  12. [Consistent Declarative Memory with Depressive Symptomatology].

    Botelho de Oliveira, Silvia; Flórez, Ruth Natalia Suárez; Caballero, Diego Andrés Vásquez

    2012-12-01

    Some studies have suggested that potentiated remembrance of negative events on people with depressive disorders seems to be an important factor in the etiology, course and maintenance of depression. Evaluate the emotional memory in people with and without depressive symptomatology by means of an audio-visual test. 73 university students were evaluated, male and female, between 18 and 40 years old, distributed in two groups: with depressive symptomatology (32) and without depressive symptomatology (40), using the Scale from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D, English Abbreviation) and a cutting point of 20. There were not meaningful differences between free and voluntary recalls, with and without depressive symptomatology, in spite of the fact that both groups had granted a higher emotional value to the audio-visual test and that they had associated it with emotional sadness. People with depressive symptomatology did not exhibit the effect of mnemonic potentiation generally associated to the content of the emotional version of the test; therefore, the hypothesis of emotional consistency was not validated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Self consistent field theory of virus assembly

    Li, Siyu; Orland, Henri; Zandi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    The ground state dominance approximation (GSDA) has been extensively used to study the assembly of viral shells. In this work we employ the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) to investigate the adsorption of RNA onto positively charged spherical viral shells and examine the conditions when GSDA does not apply and SCFT has to be used to obtain a reliable solution. We find that there are two regimes in which GSDA does work. First, when the genomic RNA length is long enough compared to the capsid radius, and second, when the interaction between the genome and capsid is so strong that the genome is basically localized next to the wall. We find that for the case in which RNA is more or less distributed uniformly in the shell, regardless of the length of RNA, GSDA is not a good approximation. We observe that as the polymer-shell interaction becomes stronger, the energy gap between the ground state and first excited state increases and thus GSDA becomes a better approximation. We also present our results corresponding to the genome persistence length obtained through the tangent-tangent correlation length and show that it is zero in case of GSDA but is equal to the inverse of the energy gap when using SCFT.

  14. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Consistency between GRUAN sondes, LBLRTM and IASI

    X. Calbet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiosonde soundings from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN data record are shown to be consistent with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI-measured radiances via LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model in the part of the spectrum that is mostly affected by water vapour absorption in the upper troposphere (from 700 hPa up. This result is key for climate data records, since GRUAN, IASI and LBLRTM constitute reference measurements or a reference radiative transfer model in each of their fields. This is specially the case for night-time radiosonde measurements. Although the sample size is small (16 cases, daytime GRUAN radiosonde measurements seem to have a small dry bias of 2.5 % in absolute terms of relative humidity, located mainly in the upper troposphere, with respect to LBLRTM and IASI. Full metrological closure is not yet possible and will not be until collocation uncertainties are better characterized and a full uncertainty covariance matrix is clarified for GRUAN.

  16. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  17. Infrared and visible images registration with adaptable local-global feature integration for rail inspection

    Tang, Chaoqing; Tian, Gui Yun; Chen, Xiaotian; Wu, Jianbo; Li, Kongjing; Meng, Hongying

    2017-12-01

    Active thermography provides infrared images that contain sub-surface defect information, while visible images only reveal surface information. Mapping infrared information to visible images offers more comprehensive visualization for decision-making in rail inspection. However, the common information for registration is limited due to different modalities in both local and global level. For example, rail track which has low temperature contrast reveals rich details in visible images, but turns blurry in the infrared counterparts. This paper proposes a registration algorithm called Edge-Guided Speeded-Up-Robust-Features (EG-SURF) to address this issue. Rather than sequentially integrating local and global information in matching stage which suffered from buckets effect, this algorithm adaptively integrates local and global information into a descriptor to gather more common information before matching. This adaptability consists of two facets, an adaptable weighting factor between local and global information, and an adaptable main direction accuracy. The local information is extracted using SURF while the global information is represented by shape context from edges. Meanwhile, in shape context generation process, edges are weighted according to local scale and decomposed into bins using a vector decomposition manner to provide more accurate descriptor. The proposed algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively validated using eddy current pulsed thermography scene in the experiments. In comparison with other algorithms, better performance has been achieved.

  18. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  19. US demilitarization and global warming

    Heyes, A.G.; Liston-Heyes, C.; Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, London

    1993-01-01

    In the paper input-output methods are used to generate ballpark empirical estimates of the implications for global warming of the projected demilitarization of the US federal budget. The impact is found to be qualitatively ambiguous, and highly sensitive to the manner in which the funds saved are distributed. The effect is adverse where the budgetary savings are used to fund economy-wide cuts in personal taxation and/or deficit reduction. In other cases the effect may be neutral or beneficial. (author)

  20. Global swindle of global warming

    Zeiler, W.

    2007-01-01

    Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van ‘Global Warming’, de opwarming van de aarde door voornamelijk de broeikasgassen die vrijkomen bij de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord

  1. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion

  2. The Consistency Between Clinical and Electrophysiological Diagnoses

    Esra E. Okuyucu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the impact of electrophysiological tests in the clinical management and diagnosis of patients, and to evaluate the consistency between referring clinical diagnoses and electrophysiological diagnoses. METHODS: The study included 957 patients referred to the electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory from different clinics with different clinical diagnoses in 2008. Demographic data, referring clinical diagnoses, the clinics where the requests wanted, and diagnoses after ENMG testing were recorded and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: In all, 957 patients [644 (67.3% female and 313 (32.7% male] were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 45.40 ± 14.54 years. ENMG requests were made by different specialists; 578 (60.4% patients were referred by neurologists, 122 (12.8% by orthopedics, 140 (14.6% by neurosurgeons, and 117 (12.2% by physical treatment and rehabilitation departments. According to the results of ENMG testing, 513 (53.6% patients’ referrals were related to their referral diagnosis, whereas 397 (41.5% patients had normal ENMG test results, and 47 (4.9% patients had a diagnosis that differed from the referring diagnosis. Among the relation between the referral diagnosis and electrophysiological diagnosis according to the clinics where the requests were made, there was no statistical difference (p= 0.794, but there were statistically significant differences between the support of different clinical diagnoses, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy-plexopathy, entrapment neuropathy, and myopathy based on ENMG test results (p< 0.001. CONCLUSION: ENMG is a frequently used neurological examination. As such, referrals for ENMG can be made to either support the referring diagnosis or to exclude other diagnoses. This may explain the inconsistency between clinical referring diagnoses and diagnoses following ENMG

  3. Self-consistent meson mass spectrum

    Balazs, L.A.P.

    1982-01-01

    A dual-topological-unitarization (or dual-fragmentation) approach to the calculation of hadron masses is presented, in which the effect of planar ''sea''-quark loops is taken into account from the beginning. Using techniques based on analyticity and generalized ladder-graph dynamics, we first derive the approximate ''generic'' Regge-trajectory formula α(t) = max (S 1 +S 2 , S 3 +S 4 )-(1/2) +2alpha-circumflex'[s/sub a/ +(1/2)(t-summationm/sub i/ 2 )] for any given hadronic process 1+2→3+4, where S/sub i/ and m/sub i/ are the spins and masses of i = 1,2,3,4, and √s/sub a/ is the effective mass of the lowest nonvanishing contribution (a) exchanged in the crossed channel. By requiring a minimization of secondary (background, etc.) contributions to a, and demanding simultaneous consistency for entire sets of such processes, we are then able to calculate the masses of all the lowest pseudoscalar and vector qq-bar states with q = u,d,s and the Regge trajectories on which they lie. By making certain additional assumptions we are also able to do this with q = u,d,c and q = u,d,b. Our only arbitrary parameters are m/sub rho/, m/sub K/*, m/sub psi/, and m/sub Upsilon/, one of which merely serves to fix the energy scale. In contrast to many other approaches, a small m/sub π/ 2 /m/sub rho/ 2 ratio arises quite naturally in the present scheme

  4. Conceived globals

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    and culture which have separate effects. Being man, young, educated and having entrepreneurial competencies promote transnational networking extensively. Networking is embedded in culture, in the way that transnational networking is more extensive in secular-rational culture than in traditional culture.......A firm may be conceived global, in the sense that, before its birth, the founding entrepreneur has a transnational network of advisors which provides an embedding for organising the upstart that may include assembling resources and marketing abroad. The purpose is to account for the entrepreneurs...... the intending, starting and operating phases, fairly constantly with only small fluctuations. The firm is conceived global in terms of the entrepreneur's transnational networking already in the pre-birth phase, when the entrepreneur is intending to start the firm. These phase effects hardly depend on attributes...

  5. Global Derivatives

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  6. Calculating beta decay in the deformed self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation

    Engel, Jonathan, E-mail: engelj@physics.unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Mustonen, M. T., E-mail: mika.mustonen@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06052 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    We discuss a recent global calculation of beta-decay rates in the self-consistent Skyrme quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), with axially symmetric nuclear deformation treated explicitly. The calculation makes makes use of the finite-amplitude method, first proposed by Nakatsukasa and collaborators, to reduce computation time. The results are comparable in quality to those of several other global QRPA calculations. The QRPA may have reached the limit of its accuracy.

  7. Energy globalization

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  8. Global overeksponering

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  9. Efficient self-consistency for magnetic tight binding

    Soin, Preetma; Horsfield, A. P.; Nguyen-Manh, D.

    2011-06-01

    Tight binding can be extended to magnetic systems by including an exchange interaction on an atomic site that favours net spin polarisation. We have used a published model, extended to include long-ranged Coulomb interactions, to study defects in iron. We have found that achieving self-consistency using conventional techniques was either unstable or very slow. By formulating the problem of achieving charge and spin self-consistency as a search for stationary points of a Harris-Foulkes functional, extended to include spin, we have derived a much more efficient scheme based on a Newton-Raphson procedure. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method by looking at vacancies and self-interstitials in iron. Self-consistency can indeed be achieved in a more efficient and stable manner, but care needs to be taken to manage this. The algorithm is implemented in the code PLATO. Program summaryProgram title:PLATO Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 228 747 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 880 369 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, Windows XP Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes. Up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2616 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Achieving charge and spin self-consistency in magnetic tight binding can be very

  10. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development.

  11. Consistent structures and interactions by density functional theory with small atomic orbital basis sets.

    Grimme, Stefan; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas

    2015-08-07

    A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT methods

  12. Consistent structures and interactions by density functional theory with small atomic orbital basis sets

    Grimme, Stefan; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of “low-cost” electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT

  13. From conceptual pluralism to practical agreement on policy: global responsibility for global health.

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Hammonds, Rachel; Ooms, Gorik; Barry, Donna; Chapman, Audrey; Van Damme, Wim

    2015-10-28

    conceptual level into policies and practice that advance global health. The issues of shared responsibility and mutual accountability feature widely in the post-2015 discussions and need to be addressed in a coherent manner. Our article argues why and how a Global Fund for Health effectuates this, thus advancing global responsibility for global health.

  14. The description of morality and manners in Vsevolod Solovyov’s short prose

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2013-01-01

    This article contains a genre specificity of short prose by Vsevolod Solovyov, whose work is devoted to the Russian history between the 18th and 19th centuries. According to professor N.L. Vershinina, the author distinguishes the difference between the description of morality and manners. The main difference is in the presence of author’s point of view on the describing occurrences. In this case, such works are considered to be a kind of morality, which characterizes Solovyov’s works. Showing...

  15. The description of morality and manners in Vsevolod Solovyov’s short prose

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a genre specificity of short prose by Vsevolod Solovyov, whose work is devoted to the Russian history between the 18th and 19th centuries. According to professor N.L. Vershinina, the author distinguishes the difference between the description of morality and manners. The main difference is in the presence of author’s point of view on the describing occurrences. In this case, such works are considered to be a kind of morality, which characterizes Solovyov’s works. Showing every-day life, he examined the process of turning barbarism into a civilizing society.

  16. Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2013-12-24

    It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

  17. Tissue transglutaminase inhibits the TRPV5-dependent calcium transport in an N-glycosylation-dependent manner

    Boros, Sandor; Xi, Qi; Dimke, Henrik Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme, catalyzing protein crosslinking. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family of cation channels was recently shown to contribute to the regulation of TG activities in keratinocytes and hence skin barrier form......, these observations imply that tTG is a novel extracellular enzyme inhibiting the activity of TRPV5. The inhibition of TRPV5 occurs in an N-glycosylation-dependent manner, signifying a common final pathway by which distinct extracellular factors regulate channel activity....

  18. A Brief Analysis on The Mannerism of Strange Stories of A Chinese Studio by Pu Songling

    Andyni Khosasih

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Strange Stories of a Chinese Studio, commonly known as 聊斋 (Liaozhai is a short novel written in classical Chinese from Qing dynasty. This novel was written in 1680, year 19 of Emperor Kangxi’s reign. The novel has 491 chapters. Article explored Pu Songling’s mannerism, such as the contents, material collection, innovation of artistic literary elements and images of women. It can be concluded that  the novel reflects the broadness of humanistic world and thoroughly describes images of women. It broke through the restriction of thoughts in feudalism society.  

  19. Health promotion in globalization

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  20. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  1. Global safety

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  2. PICK1 regulates the trafficking of ASIC1a and acidotoxicity in a BAR domain lipid binding-dependent manner

    Jin Wenying

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a is the major ASIC subunit determining acid-activated currents in brain neurons. Recent studies show that ASIC1a play critical roles in acid-induced cell toxicity. While these studies raise the importance of ASIC1a in diseases, mechanisms for ASIC1a trafficking are not well understood. Interestingly, ASIC1a interacts with PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1, an intracellular protein that regulates trafficking of several membrane proteins. However, whether PICK1 regulates ASIC1a surface expression remains unknown. Results Here, we show that PICK1 overexpression increases ASIC1a surface level. A BAR domain mutant of PICK1, which impairs its lipid binding capability, blocks this increase. Lipid binding of PICK1 is also required for PICK1-induced clustering of ASIC1a. Consistent with the effect on ASIC1a surface levels, PICK1 increases ASIC1a-mediated acidotoxicity and this effect requires both the PDZ and BAR domains of PICK1. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that PICK1 regulates trafficking and function of ASIC1a in a lipid binding-dependent manner.

  3. Category-selective attention interacts with partial awareness processes in a continuous manner: An fMRI study

    Shen Tu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our team found that category-selective attention could modulate tool processing at the partial awareness level and unconscious face processing in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG. However, the modulation effects in MOG were in opposite directions across the masked tool and masked face conditions in that study: MOG activation decreased in the masked faces condition but increased in the masked tools condition under the consistent compared with the inconsistent cue-selective-attentional modulation. In the present study, in order to confirm that the opposite effects were due to the changed contours of the tools, using the same tool pictures and fMRI technique, we devised another two conditions: variant mirror tool picture condition and invariant tool picture condition. The results showed that, during the variant mirror tool picture condition, activation in the MOG decreased under tool-selective attention compared with face-selective attention. Interestingly, however, during the invariant tool picture condition, activation in the MOG revealed neither positive nor negative changes. Combined with the result of increased MOG activity in the changed different tool condition, the three different effects demonstrated not only that the unconscious component of partial awareness processing (no knowledge of the identity of the tool could be modulated by the category-selective attention in the earlier visual cortex but also that the modulation effect could further interact with the conscious component of partial awareness processing (consciousness of the changing contour of the tool in a continuous manner.

  4. Indoor visible mold and mold odor are associated with new-onset childhood wheeze in a dose-dependent manner.

    Shorter, Caroline; Crane, Julian; Pierse, Nevil; Barnes, Phillipa; Kang, Janice; Wickens, Kristin; Douwes, Jeroen; Stanley, Thorsten; Täubel, Martin; Hyvärinen, Anne; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2018-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that indoor dampness and mold are associated with the development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. New Zealand has high rates of both asthma and indoor mold and is ideally placed to investigate this. We conducted an incident case-control study involving 150 children with new-onset wheeze, aged between 1 and 7 years, each matched to two control children with no history of wheezing. Each participant's home was assessed for moisture damage, condensation, and mold growth by researchers, an independent building assessor and parents. Repeated measures of temperature and humidity were made, and electrostatic dust cloths were used to collect airborne microbes. Cloths were analyzed using qPCR. Children were skin prick tested for aeroallergens to establish atopy. Strong positive associations were found between observations of visible mold and new-onset wheezing in children (adjusted odds ratios ranged between 1.30 and 3.56; P ≤ .05). Visible mold and mold odor were consistently associated with new-onset wheezing in a dose-dependent manner. Measurements of qPCR microbial levels, temperature, and humidity were not associated with new-onset wheezing. The association between mold and new-onset wheeze was not modified by atopic status, suggesting a non-allergic association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Global ambitions

    Scruton, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses global ambitions concerning the Norwegian petroleum industry. With the advent of the NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) cost reduction programme and a specific focus on key sectors of the market, the Norwegian oil industry is beginning to market its considerable technological achievements internationally. Obviously, the good fortune of having tested this technology in a very demanding domestic arena means that Norwegian offshore support companies, having succeeded at home, are perfectly poised to export their expertise to the international sector. Drawing on the traditional strengths of the country's maritime heritage, with mobile rig and specialized vessel business featuring strongly, other key technologies have been developed. 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. TALE activators regulate gene expression in a position- and strand-dependent manner in mammalian cells.

    Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Cheung, Edna; Lu, Biao

    2014-01-24

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of transcription factors that are readily programmable to regulate gene expression. Despite their growing popularity, little is known about binding site parameters that influence TALE-mediated gene activation in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that TALE activators modulate gene expression in mammalian cells in a position- and strand-dependent manner. To study the effects of binding site location, we engineered TALEs customized to recognize specific DNA sequences located in either the promoter or the transcribed region of reporter genes. We found that TALE activators robustly activated reporter genes when their binding sites were located within the promoter region. In contrast, TALE activators inhibited the expression of reporter genes when their binding sites were located on the sense strand of the transcribed region. Notably, this repression was independent of the effector domain utilized, suggesting a simple blockage mechanism. We conclude that TALE activators in mammalian cells regulate genes in a position- and strand-dependent manner that is substantially different from gene activation by native TALEs in plants. These findings have implications for optimizing the design of custom TALEs for genetic manipulation in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochanin a and Daidzein Influence Meiotic Maturation of Pig Oocytes in a Different Manner

    Hošková K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of phytoestrogens biochanin A (BIO A; 20, 40, 50μg ml-1 and daidzein (DAI; 10, 20, 40, 50μg ml-1 on the course of meiotic maturation of pig oocytes. After a 24-hour cultivation, a stage of nuclear maturation was achieved and the areas of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, as an indicator of cumulus expansion, were evaluated. The effects of both contaminants on oocytes were mani - fested from the lowest concentration used. Nuclear maturation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the case of BIO A. Effects of DAI reached a plateau at a concentration of 20μg ml-1.Possible relationship to limited solubility of DAI was excluded because limits of DAI solubility in culture medium were confirmed at 50 μg ml-1.The cumulus expansion was also influenced in a different manner - reduction of the COC’s area by BIO A was dose-dependent, whereas DAI had the strongest effect on CCs in the lowest and highest concentrations used. Both phytoestrogens negatively influence the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes but there are significant differences in their concrete effects which could relate to the diverse mechanisms of their acting on target cells.

  8. A top-down manner-based DCNN architecture for semantic image segmentation.

    Kai Qiao

    Full Text Available Given their powerful feature representation for recognition, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs have been driving rapid advances in high-level computer vision tasks. However, their performance in semantic image segmentation is still not satisfactory. Based on the analysis of visual mechanism, we conclude that DCNNs in a bottom-up manner are not enough, because semantic image segmentation task requires not only recognition but also visual attention capability. In the study, superpixels containing visual attention information are introduced in a top-down manner, and an extensible architecture is proposed to improve the segmentation results of current DCNN-based methods. We employ the current state-of-the-art fully convolutional network (FCN and FCN with conditional random field (DeepLab-CRF as baselines to validate our architecture. Experimental results of the PASCAL VOC segmentation task qualitatively show that coarse edges and error segmentation results are well improved. We also quantitatively obtain about 2%-3% intersection over union (IOU accuracy improvement on the PASCAL VOC 2011 and 2012 test sets.

  9. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  10. The Open Global Glacier Model

    Marzeion, B.; Maussion, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain glaciers are one of the few remaining sub-systems of the global climate system for which no globally applicable, open source, community-driven model exists. Notable examples from the ice sheet community include the Parallel Ice Sheet Model or Elmer/Ice. While the atmospheric modeling community has a long tradition of sharing models (e.g. the Weather Research and Forecasting model) or comparing them (e.g. the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project or CMIP), recent initiatives originating from the glaciological community show a new willingness to better coordinate global research efforts following the CMIP example (e.g. the Glacier Model Intercomparison Project or the Glacier Ice Thickness Estimation Working Group). In the recent past, great advances have been made in the global availability of data and methods relevant for glacier modeling, spanning glacier outlines, automatized glacier centerline identification, bed rock inversion methods, and global topographic data sets. Taken together, these advances now allow the ice dynamics of glaciers to be modeled on a global scale, provided that adequate modeling platforms are available. Here, we present the Open Global Glacier Model (OGGM), developed to provide a global scale, modular, and open source numerical model framework for consistently simulating past and future global scale glacier change. Global not only in the sense of leading to meaningful results for all glaciers combined, but also for any small ensemble of glaciers, e.g. at the headwater catchment scale. Modular to allow combinations of different approaches to the representation of ice flow and surface mass balance, enabling a new kind of model intercomparison. Open source so that the code can be read and used by anyone and so that new modules can be added and discussed by the community, following the principles of open governance. Consistent in order to provide uncertainty measures at all realizable scales.

  11. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  12. Global health and global health ethics

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  13. Global teaching of global seismology

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  14. Global biogeography since Pangaea.

    McIntyre, Sarah R N; Lineweaver, Charles H; Groves, Colin P; Chopra, Aditya

    2017-06-14

    The break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea around 180 Ma has left its imprint on the global distribution of species and resulted in vicariance-driven speciation. Here, we test the idea that the molecular clock dates, for the divergences of species whose geographical ranges were divided, should agree with the palaeomagnetic dates for the continental separations. Our analysis of recently available phylogenetic divergence dates of 42 pairs of vertebrate taxa, selected for their reduced ability to disperse, demonstrates that the divergence dates in phylogenetic trees of continent-bound terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates are consistent with the palaeomagnetic dates of continental separation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Globalizing Denmark

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  16. Global Geomorphology

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  17. Global engineering

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  18. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  19. Global warming

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  20. Global gamesmanship.

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  1. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua; Xiong, Linjie; Zhao, Huijiang

    2013-01-01

    We present a L 2 -stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L 2 -distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L 2 -stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L 2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L 2 -stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L 2 -stability estimate. This is the first result on the L 2 -stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

  2. Combining Boosted Global

    Szidónia Lefkovits

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The domain of object detection presents a wide range of interest due to its numerous application possibilities especially real time applications. All of them require high detection rate correlated with short processing time. One of the most efficient systems, working with visual information, were presented in the publication of Viola et al. [1], [2].This detection system uses classifiers based on Haar-like separating features combined with the AdaBoost learning algorithm. The most important bottleneck of the system is the big number of false detections at high hit rate. In this paper we propose to overcome this disadvantage by using specialized parts classifiers. This aim comes from the observation that the target object does not resemble the false detections at all.The reason of this fact is the coding manner of Haar-like features which attend to handle image patches and neglect the edges and contours. In order to obtain a more robust classifier, a global aspect method is combined with a part-based method, having the goal to improve the performance of the detector without significant increase of the detection time.

  3. Potentiation Effects of Half-Squats Performed in a Ballistic or Nonballistic Manner.

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Sato, Kimitake; DeWeese, Brad H; Ebben, William P; Stone, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    This study examined and compared the acute effects of ballistic and nonballistic concentric-only half-squats (COHSs) on squat jump performance. Fifteen resistance-trained men performed a squat jump 2 minutes after a control protocol or 2 COHSs at 90% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) COHS performed in a ballistic or nonballistic manner. Jump height (JH), peak power (PP), and allometrically scaled peak power (PPa) were compared using three 3 × 2 repeated-measures analyses of variance. Statistically significant condition × time interaction effects existed for JH (p = 0.037), PP (p = 0.041), and PPa (p = 0.031). Post hoc analysis revealed that the ballistic condition produced statistically greater JH (p = 0.017 and p = 0.036), PP (p = 0.031 and p = 0.026), and PPa (p = 0.024 and p = 0.023) than the control and nonballistic conditions, respectively. Small effect sizes for JH, PP, and PPa existed during the ballistic condition (d = 0.28-0.44), whereas trivial effect sizes existed during the control (d = 0.0-0.18) and nonballistic (d = 0.0-0.17) conditions. Large statistically significant relationships existed between the JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat 1RM (r = 0.520; p = 0.047) and relative COHS 1RM (r = 0.569; p = 0.027) during the ballistic condition. In addition, large statistically significant relationship existed between JH potentiation response and the subject's relative back squat strength (r = 0.633; p = 0.011), whereas the moderate relationship with the subject's relative COHS strength trended toward significance (r = 0.483; p = 0.068). Ballistic COHS produced superior potentiation effects compared with COHS performed in a nonballistic manner. Relative strength may contribute to the elicited potentiation response after ballistic and nonballistic COHS.

  4. Intermittent Hypoxia Disrupts Glucose Homeostasis in Liver Cells in an Insulin-Dependent and Independent Manner

    Chen Juan Gu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine the molecular effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH on hepatic insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis, and whether c-Jun NH2-terminal-kinase (JNK contributed to metabolic responses to IH in liver cells. Methods: The human HepG2 cells and rat FAO cells were exposed to 10, 30, 120, 240 or 360 cycles of IH (1% O2 for 60 s followed by 21% O2 for 60s, 7.5 cycles per hour or normoxia as a control. In a subgroup, we exposed cells to 360 cycles of IH with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. After IH exposure, cell glycogen content and glucose output were measured using colorimetric assay kits. Canonical insulin signaling and gluconeogenic genes were measured by western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: IH decreased insulin-stimulated protein kinase B (AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner, while inhibiting forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 expression and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK transcription independent of insulin signaling. JNK inhibitor SP600125 partially restored AKT/ GSK-3β phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis, but did not affect other IH-induced glucose metabolic changes. Conclusion: IH in vitro impaired insulin signal transduction in liver cells as assessed by inhibited AKT/GSK-3β phosphorylation via JNK activation. IH inhibited FOXO1 and gluconeogenesis in an insulin-independent manner.

  5. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    Stephanie P Cartwright

    Full Text Available The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose, 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol, L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types.

  6. The lure of global branding.

    Aaker, D A; Joachimsthaler, E

    1999-01-01

    As more and more companies begin to see the world as their market, brand builders look with envy upon those businesses that appear to have created global brands--brands whose positioning, advertising strategy, personality, look, and feel are in most respects the same from one country to another. Attracted by such high-profile examples of success, these companies want to globalize their own brands. But that's a risky path to follow, according to David Aaker and Erich Joachimsthaler. Why? Because creating strong global brands takes global brand leadership. It can't be done simply by edict from on high. Specifically, companies must use organizational structures, processes, and cultures to allocate brand-building resources globally, to create global synergies, and to develop a global brand strategy that coordinates and leverages country brand strategies. Aaker and Joachimsthaler offer four prescriptions for companies seeking to achieve global brand leadership. First, companies must stimulate the sharing of insights and best practices across countries--a system in which "it won't work here" attitudes can be overcome. Second, companies should support a common global brand-planning process, one that is consistent across markets and products. Third, they should assign global managerial responsibility for brands in order to create cross-country synergies and to fight local bias. And fourth, they need to execute brilliant brand-building strategies. Before stampeding blindly toward global branding, companies need to think through the systems they have in place. Otherwise, any success they achieve is likely to be random--and that's a fail-safe recipe for mediocrity.

  7. The accuracy of the time-dependent self-consistent-field approximation for inelastic collisions

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Billing, Gert D.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1992-01-01

    We study the accuracy of the time-dependent self-consistent-field approximation for collinear inelastic collisions between an atom and a diatomic molecule. Individual state-to-state transition probabilities, total energy transfer. and the global description of the wavefunction is considered...

  8. The Use of Assessment Criteria to Ensure Consistency of Marking: Some Implications for Good Practice.

    Saunders, Mark N. K.; Davis, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Lecturers at a British university participated in two workshops to examine the consistency of assessments of undergraduates' work. Use of both analytical and global quality measures, when clearly understood by the raters, improved assessment practices. Ongoing discussion of evaluation criteria was recommended. (SK)

  9. Consistent treatment of ground deposition together with species growth and decay during atmospheric transport

    Murphy, B.D.; Nelson, C.B.; Ohr, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the adaptation of a trajectory model to an initial pollutant species and a series of successor species at mesoscale distances. The effect of source height is discussed since it is important in determining close-in ground level concentration, which influences plume depletion due to dry deposition. A scheme is outlined which handles deposition and species decay in a consistent manner and which does so for an arbitrary number of successor pollutant species. This scheme is discussed in terms of a Lagrangian trajectory model which accounts for initial source height and which calculates ground-level concentrations out to mesoscale distances

  10. Self consistent and covariant propagation of pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in cold nuclear matter

    Korpa, C.L.; Lutz, M.F.M.; Technische Univ. Darmstadt

    2003-06-01

    We evaluate the in-medium spectral functions for pions, nucleon and isobar resonances in a self consistent and covariant manner. The calculations are based on a recently developed formulation which leads to predictions in terms of the pion-nucleon scattering phase shifts and a set of Migdal parameters describing important short range correlation effects. We do not observe any significant softening of pion modes if we insist on reasonable isobar resonance properties but predict a considerable broadening of the N(1440) and N(1520) resonances in nuclear matter. (orig.)

  11. Self-consistent treatment of spin and magnetization dynamic effect in spin transfer switching

    Guo Jie; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Koh, Dax Enshan; Han, Guchang; Meng, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The effect of itinerant spin moment (m) dynamic in spin transfer switching has been ignored in most previous theoretical studies of the magnetization (M) dynamics. Thus in this paper, we proposed a more refined micromagnetic model of spin transfer switching that takes into account in a self-consistent manner of the coupled m and M dynamics. The numerical results obtained from this model further shed insight on the switching profiles of m and M, both of which show particular sensitivity to parameters such as the anisotropy field, the spin torque field, and the initial deviation between m and M.

  12. Consistent Parameter and Transfer Function Estimation using Context Free Grammars

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents a method for the inference of transfer functions for rainfall-runoff models. Here, transfer functions are defined as parametrized (functional) relationships between a set of spatial predictors (e.g. elevation, slope or soil texture) and model parameters. They are ultimately used for estimation of consistent, spatially distributed model parameters from a limited amount of lumped global parameters. Additionally, they provide a straightforward method for parameter extrapolation from one set of basins to another and can even be used to derive parameterizations for multi-scale models [see: Samaniego et al., 2010]. Yet, currently an actual knowledge of the transfer functions is often implicitly assumed. As a matter of fact, for most cases these hypothesized transfer functions can rarely be measured and often remain unknown. Therefore, this contribution presents a general method for the concurrent estimation of the structure of transfer functions and their respective (global) parameters. Note, that by consequence an estimation of the distributed parameters of the rainfall-runoff model is also undertaken. The method combines two steps to achieve this. The first generates different possible transfer functions. The second then estimates the respective global transfer function parameters. The structural estimation of the transfer functions is based on the context free grammar concept. Chomsky first introduced context free grammars in linguistics [Chomsky, 1956]. Since then, they have been widely applied in computer science. But, to the knowledge of the authors, they have so far not been used in hydrology. Therefore, the contribution gives an introduction to context free grammars and shows how they can be constructed and used for the structural inference of transfer functions. This is enabled by new methods from evolutionary computation, such as grammatical evolution [O'Neill, 2001], which make it possible to exploit the constructed grammar as a

  13. Definition of global dispersion coefficients

    Naff, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    For estimation of a global longitudinal dispersivity at the Gorleben site, data available primarily consist of suites of geophysical logs from wells penetrating the Quaternary aquifer. A length scale for the principle aquifer at Gorleben is to be found. Samples are to be taken separately to estimate the variance in hydraulic conductivity (Taylor Analysis, Fickian dispersion process). (DG)

  14. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  15. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    Greenberg, James A; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body weight did not apply to participants without

  16. Habitual chocolate consumption may increase body weight in a dose-response manner.

    James A Greenberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. METHODS: We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987-98, and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (~28 g serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. RESULTS: Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2 of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44 and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55, respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with

  17. Immobilization of immunoglobulin G in a highly oriented manner on a protein-A terminated multilayer system

    Zengin, Adem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Gazi University, 06500 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Caykara, Tuncer, E-mail: caykara@gazi.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Gazi University, 06500 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated a multilayer system consisting of 3-glycidoxypropyldimethylmethoxysilane (GPDS), poly(dimethylsiloxane) bis 3-aminopropyl terminated (PDMS) and protein-A on a silicon wafer surface for oriented immobilization of immunoglobilin G (IgG). The multilayer system with a different component in each layer was characterized by ellipsometry, contact-angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy. The epoxy-terminated monolayer was formed by the chemisorption of GPDS molecules on the hydroxylated silicon surface. The PDMS film about 4.5 nm thick was produced on the GPDS-monolayer by the chemical reaction between the amine groups at the end of PDMS chain and the epoxy groups of GPDS molecules. By introducing the PDMS chains, the hydrophilic character of GPDS-monolayer decreased. Study of the time dependence of polymer grafting showed that the chemisorption of GPDS is fast, whereas at least 16 h is needed to generate the homogeneous PDMS layer. For immobilization of IgG molecules in a highly oriented manner, protein-A molecules were first chemically bound to an ultrathin ({approx}4.5 nm) PDMS reactive polymer layer and later used to capture IgG. It was shown that the existence of protein-A in the multilayer system has a strong influence on the binding properties of IgG not only in the efficiency of binding, but also in its specificity. In conclusion, the multilayer system with protein-A has the potential to be further developed into an efficient immunoassay protein chip.

  18. Platelets Drive Thrombus Propagation in a Hematocrit and Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Manner in an In Vitro Venous Thrombosis Model.

    Lehmann, Marcus; Schoeman, Rogier M; Krohl, Patrick J; Wallbank, Alison M; Samaniuk, Joseph R; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Neeves, Keith B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the role of platelets and red blood cells on thrombus propagation in an in vitro model of venous valvular stasis. A microfluidic model with dimensional similarity to human venous valves consists of a sinus distal to a sudden expansion, where for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, 2 countercurrent vortices arise because of flow separation. The primary vortex is defined by the points of flow separation and reattachment. A secondary vortex forms in the deepest recess of the valve pocket characterized by low shear rates. An initial fibrin gel formed within the secondary vortex of a tissue factor-coated valve sinus. Platelets accumulated at the interface of the fibrin gel and the primary vortex. Red blood cells at physiological hematocrits were necessary to provide an adequate flux of platelets to support thrombus growth out of the valve sinus. A subpopulation of platelets that adhered to fibrin expose phosphatidylserine. Platelet-dependent thrombus growth was attenuated by inhibition of glycoprotein VI with a blocking Fab fragment or D-dimer. A 3-step process regulated by hemodynamics was necessary for robust thrombus propagation: First, immobilized tissue factor initiates coagulation and fibrin deposition within a low flow niche defined by a secondary vortex in the pocket of a model venous valve. Second, a primary vortex delivers platelets to the fibrin interface in a red blood cell-dependent manner. Third, platelets adhere to fibrin, activate through glycoprotein VI, express phosphatidylserine, and subsequently promote thrombus growth beyond the valve sinus and into the bulk flow. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. UV-induced nuclear import of XPA is mediated by importin-α4 in an ATR-dependent manner.

    Zhengke Li

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum Group A (XPA is a crucial factor in mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER and nuclear import of XPA from the cytoplasm for NER is regulated in cellular DNA damage responses in S-phase. In this study, experiments were carried out to determine the transport mechanisms that are responsible for the UV (ultraviolet-induced nuclear import of XPA. We found that, in addition to the nuclear localization signal (NLS of XPA, importin-α4 or/and importin-α7 are required for the XPA nuclear import. Further investigation indicated that, importin-α4 and importin-α7 directly interacted with XPA in cells. Interestingly, the binding of importin-α4 to XPA was dependent on UV-irradiation, while the binding of importin-α7 was not, suggesting a role for importin-α7 in nuclear translocation of XPA in the absence of DNA damage, perhaps with specificity to certain non-S-phases of the cell-cycle. Consistent with the previous report of a dependence of UV-induced XPA nuclear import on ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR in S-phase, knockdown of ATR reduced the amount of XPA interacting with importin-α4. In contrast, the GTPase XPA binding protein 1 (XAB1, previously proposed to be required for XPA nuclear import, showed no effect on the nuclear import of XPA in our siRNA knockdown analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that upon DNA damage transport adaptor importin-α4 imports XPA into the nucleus in an ATR-dependent manner, while XAB1 has no role in this process. In addition, these findings reveal a potential new therapeutic target for the sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapy.

  20. Observability of global rivers with future SWOT observations

    Fisher, Colby; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric

    2017-04-01

    availability of SWOT observations in this manner, hydrologic data assimilation approaches like ISR can be optimized to provide useful discharge estimates in sparsely gauged regions where spatially and temporally consistent discharge records are most valuable. Pan, M; Wood, E F 2013 Inverse streamflow routing, HESS 17(11):4577-4588

  1. European strategy/global strategy

    Testore, R. [FIAT Auto S.p.A., Turin (Italy)

    1998-08-01

    In order to be `global`, a carmaker has to satisfy three main criteria: a global customer service, a global market presence, a global respect for the environment. Just in a word, the automotive industry needs to develop - and has indeed already launched - a process of global re-engineering of its: product, processes, and market. The product is not simply a `car`, but a global mobility service. This is what an increasingly diversified clientele is demanding in order to meet its particular mobility needs in terms of comfort and safety, in a way that does not damage the environment and at welldefined, competitive costs. The process is not just a matter of the way we design, manufacture and distribute our product. We have to re-design our entire corporate profile, redefine the parameters of our specific strategic mission, identifying the levels of control and our core business in a way that is consistent with our particular history, market positioning and growth targets. The market is no longer hard set, but is globally diversified, ready to expand into important niches and to meet the personalized needs of specific users: from VIPs to the elderly or the disables, and so on. (orig.)

  2. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

    Yano, Fumiko; Kugimiya, Fumitaka; Ohba, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ogasawara, Toru; Ogata, Naoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Chung, Ung-il

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in cartilage development, we adenovirally expressed a constitutively active (Canada) or a dominant negative (dn) form of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), the main nuclear effector of the pathway, in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, chondrogenic cells, and primary chondrocytes, and examined the expression of markers for chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy. caLEF-1 and LiCl, an activator of the canonical pathway, promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy, whereas dnLEF-1 and the gene silencing of β-catenin suppressed LiCl-promoted effects. To investigate whether these effects were dependent on Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage development, we stimulated Sox9-deficient ES cells with the pathway. caLEF-1 and LiCl promoted both chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy in wild-type, but not in Sox9-deficient, cells. The response of Sox9-deficient cells was restored by the adenoviral expression of Sox9. Thus, the canonical Wnt signaling pathway promotes chondrocyte differentiation in a Sox9-dependent manner

  3. Stat3 signaling regulates embryonic stem cell fate in a dose-dependent manner

    Chih-I Tai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stat3 is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC self-renewal mediated by LIF/gp130 receptor signaling. Current understanding of Stat3-mediated ESC self-renewal mechanisms is very limited, and has heretofore been dominated by the view that Stat3 signaling functions in a binary “on/off” manner. Here, in contrast to this binary viewpoint, we demonstrate a contextual, rheostat-like mechanism for Stat3's function in mESCs. Activation and expression levels determine whether Stat3 functions in a self-renewal or a differentiation role in mESCs. We also show that Stat3 induces rapid differentiation of mESCs toward the trophectoderm (TE lineage when its activation level exceeds certain thresholds. Stat3 induces this differentiation phenotype via induction of Tfap2c and its downstream target Cdx2. Our findings provide a novel concept in the realm of Stat3, self-renewal signaling, and pluripotent stem cell biology. Ultimately, this finding may facilitate the development of conditions for the establishment of authentic non-rodent ESCs.

  4. The H3K27 demethylase, Utx, regulates adipogenesis in a differentiation stage-dependent manner.

    Kazushige Ota

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx, in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes. Utx-deficient mESCs showed diminished potential to differentiate to adipocytes compared to that of controls. In contrast, Utx-deficient preadipocytes showed enhanced differentiation to adipocytes. Microarray analyses indicated that the β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway was differentially regulated in Utx-deficient cells during adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, our data suggest that Utx governs adipogenesis by regulating c-Myc in a differentiation stage-specific manner and that targeting the Utx signaling pathway could be beneficial for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and congenital utx-deficiency disorders.

  5. The Probiotic Lactobacillus Prevents Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Murine Colitis in a TLR2-Dependent Manner.

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Choi, Soo-Young; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Park, Jin-Il; Kim, Jun-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-07-28

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ameliorated the effects of Citrobactor rodentium infection in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) knockout (KO) and TLR4 KO mice, as well as in wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice. TLR2 KO, TLR4 KO, and B6 mice were divided into three groups per each strain. Each group had an uninfected control group (n = 5), C. rodentium-infected group (n = 8), and LGG-pretreated C. rodentium-infected group (n = 8). The survival rate of B6 mice infected with C. rodentium was higher when pretreated with LGG. Pretreatment with LGG ameliorated C. rodentium-induced mucosal hyperplasia in B6 and TLR4 KO mice. However, in C-rodentium-infected TLR2 KO mice, mucosal hyperplasia persisted, regardless of pretreatment with LGG. In addition, LGG-pretreated B6 and TLR4 KO mice showed a decrease in spleen weight and downregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 mRNA expression compared with the non-pretreated group. In contrast, such changes were not observed in TLR2 KO mice, regardless of pretreatment with LGG. From the above results, we conclude that pretreatment with LGG ameliorates C. rodentium-induced colitis in B6 and TLR4 KO mice, but not in TLR2 KO mice. Therefore, LGG protects mice from C. rodentium-induced colitis in a TLR2-dependent manner.

  6. The aPKC-CBP Pathway Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in an Age-Dependent Manner

    Ayden Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age. Importantly, elevation of CREB activity rescues these deficits, and CREB activity is reduced whereas aPKC activity is increased in the murine hippocampus as they age from 3 to 6 months regardless of genotype. Thus, the aPKC-CBP pathway is a homeostatic compensatory mechanism that modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in an age-dependent manner in response to reduced CREB activity.

  7. Fesselin is a target protein for calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner

    KoIakowski, Janusz; Wrzosek, Antoni; Dabrowska, Renata

    2004-01-01

    Fesselin is a basic protein isolated from smooth muscle which binds G-actin and accelerates its polymerization as well as cross-links assembled filaments [J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 20 (1999) 539; Biochemistry 40 (2001) 14252]. In this report experimental evidence is provided for the first time proving that fesselin can interact with calmodulin in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner in vitro. Using ion exchange, followed by calmodulin-affinity chromatography, enabled us to simplify and shorten the fesselin preparation procedure and increase its yield by about three times in comparison to the procedure described by Leinweber et al. [J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 20 (1999) 539]. Fesselin interaction with dansyl-labelled calmodulin causes a 2-fold increase in maximum fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore and a 21 nm blue shift of the spectrum. The transition of complex formation between fesselin and calmodulin occurs at submicromolar concentration of calcium ions. The dissociation constant of fesselin Ca 2+ /calmodulin complexes amounted to 10 -8 M. The results suggest the existence of a direct link between Ca 2+ /calmodulin and fesselin at the level of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in smooth muscle

  8. TGF-β's delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-β on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-β increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-β promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner

  9. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing.

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers.

  10. Bilirubin Modulates Acetylcholine Receptors In Rat Superior Cervical Ganglionic Neurons In a Bidirectional Manner

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Dong, Jing; Pan, Ruirui; Qiu, Haibo; Zhang, Jinmin; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction as a partial contributing factor to cardiovascular instability in jaundiced patients is often associated with increased serum bilirubin levels. Whether increased serum bilirubin levels could directly inhibit sympathetic ganglion transmission by blocking neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) remains to be elucidated. Conventional patch-clamp recordings were used to study the effect of bilirubin on nAChRs currents from enzymatically dissociated rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons. The results showed that low concnetrations (0.5 and 2 μM) of bilirubin enhanced the peak ACh-evoked currents, while high concentrations (3 to 5.5 µM) of bilirubin suppressed the currents with an IC50 of 4 ± 0.5 μM. In addition, bilirubin decreased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect of bilirubin on nAChRs channel currents was non-competitive and voltage independent. Bilirubin partly improved the inhibitory effect of forskolin on ACh-induced currents without affecting the action of H-89. These data suggest that the dual effects of enhancement and suppression of bilirubin on nAChR function may be ascribed to the action mechanism of positive allosteric modulation and direct blockade. Thus, suppression of sympathetic ganglionic transmission through postganglionic nAChRs inhibition may partially contribute to the adverse cardiovascular effects in jaundiced patients. PMID:25503810

  11. MCP-1 expressed by osteoclasts stimulates osteoclastogenesis in an autocrine/paracrine manner

    Miyamoto, Kana; Ninomiya, Ken; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Miyamoto, Hiroya

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Here, we describe that multinuclear osteoclast formation was significantly inhibited in cells derived from MCP-1-deficient mice. MCP-1 has been implicated in the regulation of osteoclast cell-cell fusion; however defects of multinuclear osteoclast formation in the cells from mice deficient in DC-STAMP, a seven transmembrane receptor essential for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, was not rescued by recombinant MCP-1. The lack of MCP-1 in osteoclasts resulted in a down-regulation of DC-STAMP, NFATc1, and cathepsin K, all of which were highly expressed in normal osteoclasts, suggesting that osteoclast differentiation was inhibited in MCP-1-deficient cells. MCP-1 alone did not induce osteoclastogenesis, however, the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in MCP-1-deficient cells was restored by addition of recombinant MCP-1, indicating that osteoclastogenesis was regulated in an autocrine/paracrine manner by MCP-1 under the stimulation of RANKL in osteoclasts.

  12. Paternal engagement during childbirth depending on the manner of their preparation.

    Sioma-Markowska, Urszula; Poręba, Ryszard; Machura, Mariola; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the forms of paternal activity depending on the manner of their preparation, including stages of labor. A prospective survey-based study involved 250 fathers who participated in their child's birth. The fathers included in the study were present during all stages of family-assisted natural labor. The study was conducted one day after childbirth with the use of a survey prepared by the authors. Statistical calculations were conducted using the Statistica PL software. The frequency of individual qualitative features (non-measurable) was assessed by means of a non-parametric χ² (chi-squared) test. The statistical significance level was p fathers included in the study (52.4%) participated in childbirth with no prior preparation. The dominant form of preparation involved self-education from books, magazines and the Internet (24%). 23.6% of fathers participated in ante-natal classes. The study demonstrated that fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engaged in the supportive role, provided nursing care and carried out instrumental monitoring during each stage of childbirth. The fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engage in the supportive role, provide nursing care and carry out instrumental control during each stage of childbirth. Ante-natal classes should be promoted as an optimal form of preparation for active participation in childbirth. Moreover, other forms of paternal ante-natal education as well as continued education in a delivery room should be developed.

  13. Unacknowledged threats proffered "in a manner of speaking": recognizing workplace bullying as shaming.

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Albataineh, Raya

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine workplace bullying victims' perceptions of what they heard their bully counterparts say through their use of prosody. From a sampling frame of 89 manuscripts referenced in the authors' previous studies, we identified a subset (n = 10) that included quotes regarding bullying victims' perceptions of communication experiences with their bully perpetrators. We used hermeneutics and a recursive metasynthesis to interpret quotes embedded in the manuscripts chosen for this study. Two-thirds of language is expressed nonverbally through prosody or "manner of speaking"-rhythm, stress, intonation, and vocabulary choice. We found that as bullies communicated with their intended victims over time, they used prosody across subtle, linked communications, or boldly and openly in public venues, to establish a context-embedded, one-way communication process of "doublespeak." Bullies' confusing prosodic communication processes served to recontexualize victims' situations and, through mechanisms largely unacknowledged by the victims, to subtly demean their personhood, and to shame them and render them voiceless. This study directs formal attention to the language of workplace bullying. Further study might strengthen opportunities to effectively address and curtail the long-term personal, professional, and organizational injuries deriving from workplace bullying. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Report: EPA Needs Policies and Procedures to Manage Public Pesticide Petitions in a Transparent and Efficient Manner

    Report #16-P-0019, October 27, 2015. OPP’s lack of policies and procedures to manage public pesticide petitions in a transparent and efficient manner can result in unreasonable delay lawsuits costing the agency time and resources.

  15. Targeted social mobilization in a global manhunt.

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad; Dsouza, Sohan; McInerney, James; Naroditskiy, Victor; Venanzi, Matteo; Jennings, Nicholas R; deLara, J R; Wahlstedt, Eero; Miller, Steven U

    2013-01-01

    Social mobilization, the ability to mobilize large numbers of people via social networks to achieve highly distributed tasks, has received significant attention in recent times. This growing capability, facilitated by modern communication technology, is highly relevant to endeavors which require the search for individuals that possess rare information or skills, such as finding medical doctors during disasters, or searching for missing people. An open question remains, as to whether in time-critical situations, people are able to recruit in a targeted manner, or whether they resort to so-called blind search, recruiting as many acquaintances as possible via broadcast communication. To explore this question, we examine data from our recent success in the U.S. State Department's Tag Challenge, which required locating and photographing 5 target persons in 5 different cities in the United States and Europe - in under 12 hours - based only on a single mug-shot. We find that people are able to consistently route information in a targeted fashion even under increasing time pressure. We derive an analytical model for social-media fueled global mobilization and use it to quantify the extent to which people were targeting their peers during recruitment. Our model estimates that approximately 1 in 3 messages were of targeted fashion during the most time-sensitive period of the challenge. This is a novel observation at such short temporal scales, and calls for opportunities for devising viral incentive schemes that provide distance or time-sensitive rewards to approach the target geography more rapidly. This observation of '12 hours of separation' between individuals has applications in multiple areas from emergency preparedness, to political mobilization.

  16. Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) Version 2 consists of quality-controlled radiosonde observations of temperature, humidity, and wind at stations across...

  17. Global Innovation in Emerging Economies | IDRC - International ...

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... Book cover Global Innovation in Emerging Economies ... These trends are occurring in a dynamic business environment that consists of ... They have both managerial and policy implications for the companies and the ...

  18. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  19. The Global Challenge for Accounting Education

    Helliar, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Accounting and education are both global phenomena, and there is thus an argument that accounting education should be consistent and comparable across the globe. However, accounting, and accounting education are all socially constructed and globally they have been influenced by their historical, social, economic, political and cultural contexts.…

  20. Consistent realization of Celestial and Terrestrial Reference Frames

    Kwak, Younghee; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Schmid, Ralf; Angermann, Detlef; Gerstl, Michael; Seitz, Manuela

    2018-03-01

    The Celestial Reference System (CRS) is currently realized only by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) because it is the space geodetic technique that enables observations in that frame. In contrast, the Terrestrial Reference System (TRS) is realized by means of the combination of four space geodetic techniques: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), VLBI, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite. The Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are the link between the two types of systems, CRS and TRS. The EOP series of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service were combined of specifically selected series from various analysis centers. Other EOP series were generated by a simultaneous estimation together with the TRF while the CRF was fixed. Those computation approaches entail inherent inconsistencies between TRF, EOP, and CRF, also because the input data sets are different. A combined normal equation (NEQ) system, which consists of all the parameters, i.e., TRF, EOP, and CRF, would overcome such an inconsistency. In this paper, we simultaneously estimate TRF, EOP, and CRF from an inter-technique combined NEQ using the latest GNSS, VLBI, and SLR data (2005-2015). The results show that the selection of local ties is most critical to the TRF. The combination of pole coordinates is beneficial for the CRF, whereas the combination of Δ UT1 results in clear rotations of the estimated CRF. However, the standard deviations of the EOP and the CRF improve by the inter-technique combination which indicates the benefits of a common estimation of all parameters. It became evident that the common determination of TRF, EOP, and CRF systematically influences future ICRF computations at the level of several μas. Moreover, the CRF is influenced by up to 50 μas if the station coordinates and EOP are dominated by the satellite techniques.

  1. Accuracy and Consistency of Respiratory Gating in Abdominal Cancer Patients

    Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Yang, Deshan; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate respiratory gating accuracy and intrafractional consistency for abdominal cancer patients treated with respiratory gated treatment on a regular linear accelerator system. Methods and Materials: Twelve abdominal patients implanted with fiducials were treated with amplitude-based respiratory-gated radiation therapy. On the basis of daily orthogonal fluoroscopy, the operator readjusted the couch position and gating window such that the fiducial was within a setup margin (fiducial-planning target volume [f-PTV]) when RPM indicated “beam-ON.” Fifty-five pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic movie pairs with synchronized respiratory gating signal were recorded. Fiducial motion traces were extracted from the fluoroscopic movies using a template matching algorithm and correlated with f-PTV by registering the digitally reconstructed radiographs with the fluoroscopic movies. Treatment was determined to be “accurate” if 50% of the fiducial area stayed within f-PTV while beam-ON. For movie pairs that lost gating accuracy, a MATLAB program was used to assess whether the gating window was optimized, the external-internal correlation (EIC) changed, or the patient moved between movies. A series of safety margins from 0.5 mm to 3 mm was added to f-PTV for reassessing gating accuracy. Results: A decrease in gating accuracy was observed in 44% of movie pairs from daily fluoroscopic movies of 12 abdominal patients. Three main causes for inaccurate gating were identified as change of global EIC over time (∼43%), suboptimal gating setup (∼37%), and imperfect EIC within movie (∼13%). Conclusions: Inconsistent respiratory gating accuracy may occur within 1 treatment session even with a daily adjusted gating window. To improve or maintain gating accuracy during treatment, we suggest using at least a 2.5-mm safety margin to account for gating and setup uncertainties

  2. Development of the Global Earthquake Model’s neotectonic fault database

    Christophersen, Annemarie; Litchfield, Nicola; Berryman, Kelvin; Thomas, Richard; Basili, Roberto; Wallace, Laura; Ries, William; Hayes, Gavin P.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Yoshioka, Toshikazu; Koehler, Richard D.; Clark, Dan; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Boettcher, Margaret S.; Villamor, Pilar; Horspool, Nick; Ornthammarath, Teraphan; Zuñiga, Ramon; Langridge, Robert M.; Stirling, Mark W.; Goded, Tatiana; Costa, Carlos; Yeats, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) aims to develop uniform, openly available, standards, datasets and tools for worldwide seismic risk assessment through global collaboration, transparent communication and adapting state-of-the-art science. GEM Faulted Earth (GFE) is one of GEM’s global hazard module projects. This paper describes GFE’s development of a modern neotectonic fault database and a unique graphical interface for the compilation of new fault data. A key design principle is that of an electronic field notebook for capturing observations a geologist would make about a fault. The database is designed to accommodate abundant as well as sparse fault observations. It features two layers, one for capturing neotectonic faults and fold observations, and the other to calculate potential earthquake fault sources from the observations. In order to test the flexibility of the database structure and to start a global compilation, five preexisting databases have been uploaded to the first layer and two to the second. In addition, the GFE project has characterised the world’s approximately 55,000 km of subduction interfaces in a globally consistent manner as a basis for generating earthquake event sets for inclusion in earthquake hazard and risk modelling. Following the subduction interface fault schema and including the trace attributes of the GFE database schema, the 2500-km-long frontal thrust fault system of the Himalaya has also been characterised. We propose the database structure to be used widely, so that neotectonic fault data can make a more complete and beneficial contribution to seismic hazard and risk characterisation globally.

  3. Challenges of Teaching Science to Address Global Sustainability

    Halim, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    For a liveable condition in this post- industrial era, it would depend on our ability to understand and use the science and technology advancement in a responsible manner. Water pollution and global warming phenomena are outcomes of scientific and technological advancement that has been mismanaged. One way to achieve global sustainability is through science education and the development of a scientific literate citizen. This paper, based on the literature and research work in science educatio...

  4. Proliferation marker pKi-67 affects the cell cycle in a self-regulated manner.

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Duchrow, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation marker pKi-67 is commonly used in research and pathology to detect proliferating cells. In a previous work, we found the protein to be associated with regulators of the cell cycle, controlling S-phase progression, as well as entry into and exit from mitosis. Here we investigate whether pKi-67 has a regulative effect on the cell cycle itself. For that purpose we cloned four fragments of pKi-67, together representing nearly the whole protein, and an N-terminal pKi-67 antisense oligonucleotide into a tetracycline inducible gene expression system. The sense fragments were C-terminally modified by addition of either a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or a STOP codon to address the impact of their intracellular distribution. FACS based cell cycle analysis revealed that expression of nearly all pKi-67 domains and the antisense oligonucleotide led to a decreased amount of cells in S-phase and an increased number of cells in G(2)/M- and G(1)-phase. Subsequent analysis of the endogenous pKi-67 mRNA and protein levels revealed that the constructs with the most significant impact on the cell cycle were able to silence pKi-67 transcription as well. We conclude from the data that pKi-67 influences progression of S-phase and mitosis in a self-regulated manner and, therefore, effects the cell cycle checkpoints within both phases. Furthermore, we found pKi-67 mediates an anti-apoptotic effect on the cell and we verified that this marker, although it is a potential ribosomal catalyst, is not expressed in differentiated tissues with a high transcriptional activity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Isoproterenol Increases RANKL Expression in a ATF4/NFATc1-Dependent Manner in Mouse Osteoblastic Cells

    Kyunghwa Baek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nervous system stimulation-induced β-adrenergic signal transduction is known to induce bone loss and increase of osteoclast activity. Although isoproterenol, a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been shown to increase receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, the details of the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT in isoproterenol-induced RANKL expression in C2C12 and in primary cultured mouse calvarial cells. Isoproterenol increased nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and RANKL expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and increased NFAT reporter activity. NFATc1 knockdown blocked isoproterenol-mediated RANKL expression. Isoproterenol also promoted cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1 and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 phosphorylation. Isoproterenol-mediated transcriptional activation of NFAT was blocked by protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H89. Isoproterenol-induced CREB1, ATF4, NFATc1, and RANKL expressions were suppressed by H89. Mutations in cAMP response element-like or NFAT-binding element suppressed isoproterenol-induced RANKL promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that isoproterenol increased NFAT-binding and ATF4-binding activities on the mouse RANKL promoter, but did not increase CREB1-binding activity. Association of NFATc1 and ATF4 was not observed in a co-immunoprecipitation study. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced NFAT binding to the RANKL promoter, whereas NFATc1 knockdown did not suppress isoproterenol-induced ATF4 binding to the RANKL promoter. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced expressions of NFATc1 and RANKL. These results suggest that isoproterenol increases RANKL expression in an ATF4/NFATc1-dependent manner.

  6. Relationship between the Manner of Mobile Phone Use and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students.

    Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Mijatović, Kristijan; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera

    2018-04-08

    Objectives : There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.96), in those who send more text messages SMSs (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12-1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population.

  7. Adiponectin influences progesterone production from MA-10 Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner.

    Landry, David; Paré, Aurélie; Jean, Stéphanie; Martin, Luc J

    2015-04-01

    Obesity in men is associated with lower testosterone levels, related to reduced sperm concentration and the development of various diseases with aging. Hormones produced by the adipose tissue may have influences on both metabolism and reproductive function. Among them, the production and secretion of adiponectin is inversely correlated to total body fat. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) have been found to be expressed in testicular Leydig cells (producing testosterone). Since StAR and Cyp11a1 are essential for testosterone synthesis and adiponectin has been shown to regulate StAR mRNA in swine granulosa cells, we hypothesized that adiponectin might also regulate these genes in Leydig cells. Our objective was to determine whether adiponectin regulates StAR and Cyp11a1 genes in Leydig cells and to better define its mechanisms of action. Methods used in the current study are qPCR for the mRNA levels, transfections for promoter activities, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the progesterone concentration. We have found that adiponectin cooperates with cAMP-dependent stimulation to activate StAR and Cyp11a1 mRNA expressions in a dose-dependent manner in MA-10 Leydig cells as demonstrated by transfection of a luciferase reporter plasmid. These results led to a significant increase in progesterone production from MA-10 cells. Thus, our data suggest that high doses of adiponectin typical of normal body weight may promote testosterone production from Leydig cells.

  8. IGFBP-4 regulates adult skeletal growth in a sex-specific manner.

    Maridas, David E; DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Mohan, Subburaman; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins are critical mediators of skeletal growth. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is highly expressed in osteoblasts and inhibits IGF-1 actions in vitro Yet, in vivo studies suggest that it could potentiate IGF-1 and IGF-2 actions. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP-4 might potentiate the actions of IGF-1 on the skeleton. To test this, we comprehensively studied 8- and 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- mice. Both male and female adult Igfbp4 -/- mice had marked growth retardation with reductions in body weight, body and femur lengths, fat proportion and lean mass at 8 and 16 weeks. Marked reductions in aBMD and aBMC were observed in 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- females, but not in males. Femoral trabecular BV/TV and thickness, cortical fraction and thickness in 16-week-old Igfbp4 -/- females were significantly reduced. However, surprisingly, males had significantly more trabeculae with higher connectivity density than controls. Concordantly, histomorphometry revealed higher bone resorption and lower bone formation in Igfbp4 -/- females. In contrast, Igfbp4 -/- males had lower mineralized surface/bone surface. Femoral expression of Sost and circulating levels of sclerostin were reduced but only in Igfbp4 -/- males. Bone marrow stromal cultures from mutants showed increased osteogenesis, whereas osteoclastogenesis was markedly increased in cells from Igfbp4 -/- females but decreased in males. In sum, our results indicate that loss of Igfbp4 affects mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation, regulates osteoclastogenesis and influences both skeletal development and adult bone maintenance. Thus, IGFBP-4 modulates the skeleton in a gender-specific manner, acting as both a cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous factor. © 2017 The authors.

  9. A time-dependent degeneration manner of condyle in rat CFA-induced inflamed TMJ.

    Xu, Liqin; Guo, Huilin; Li, Cheng; Xu, Jie; Fang, Wei; Long, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation is a potential risk factor of osteoarthritis (OA) but the detailed degenerative changes in the inflamed TMJ remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the changes of condylar cartilage and subchondral bone in rat inflamed TMJ induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA). Articular cavity was injected with CFA and the TMJ samples were collected 1, 2, 3, and 4-week post-injection. Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining, toluidine blue (TB) staining, Safranin O (S.O) staining, Masson trichrome staining and micro-CT were used to assess TMJ degeneration during inflammation. Osteoclast and osteoblast activities were analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and osteocalcin (OCN) immunohistochemistry staining respectively. The expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone was also evaluated through immunohistochemistry and RANKL/OPG ratio was evaluated. Reduced cartilage thickness, decreased number of chondrocytes, and down-regulated proteoglycan expression were observed in the condylar cartilage in the inflamed TMJ. Enhanced osteoclast activity, and expanded bone marrow cavity were reached the peak in the 2-week after CFA-injection. Meanwhile the RANKL/OPG ratio in the cartilage and subchondral bone also increased in the 2-week CFA-injection. Immature, unmineralized new bones with irregular trabecular bone structure, atypical condylar shape, up-regulated OCN expression, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) were found in the inflamed TMJ. The time-dependent degeneration manner of TMJ cartilage and subchondral bone was found in CFA-induced arthritis rat model. The degeneration in the TMJ with inflammation might be a risk factor and should be concerned.

  10. Apolipoprotein A-IV constrains HPA and behavioral stress responsivity in a strain-dependent manner.

    Packard, Amy E B; Zhang, Jintao; Myers, Brent; Ko, Chih-Wei; Wang, Fei; Tso, Patrick; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2017-12-01

    There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus. Given that both peripheral and central metabolic processes are important modulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, the present work tests the hypothesis that apoA-IV activity affects stress responses. As emerging data suggests that apoA-IV actions can vary with background strain, we also explore the strain-dependence of apoA-IV stress regulation. These studies assess HPA axis, metabolic (hyperglycemia), and anxiety-related behavioral responses to psychogenic stress in control (wildtype) and apoA-IV-deficient (KO) mice on either the C57Bl/6J (C57) or 129×1/SvJ (129) background strain. The results indicate that apoA-IV KO increases post-stress corticosterone and anxiety-related behavior specifically in the 129 strain, and increases stress-induced hyperglycemia exclusively in the C57 strain. These data support the hypothesis that apoA-IV is a novel factor that limits stress reactivity in a manner that depends on genetic background. An improved understanding of the complex relationship among lipid homeostasis, stress sensitivity, and genetics is needed to optimize the development of personalized treatments for stress- and metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between the Manner of Mobile Phone Use and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students

    Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.96), in those who send more text messages (SMSs) (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11–1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12–1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12–2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population. PMID:29642471

  12. Metformin decreases lung cancer risk in diabetic patients in a dose-dependent manner.

    Tsai, Ming-Ju; Yang, Chih-Jen; Kung, Ya-Ting; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Shen, Yu-Ting; Chang, Pi-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2014-11-01

    Higher risk of lung cancer has been noted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Some observational studies have shown a reduced risk of lung cancer in DM patients taking metformin, but a dose-response relationship has never been reported. The aim of this study is to exam the association between the dose of metformin and the incidence of lung cancer in a Chinese population. The dataset used for this nationwide population-based study is a cohort of 1 million subjects randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance system. We enrolled all subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 DM between 1997 and 2007. Subjects with a diagnosis of neoplasm before DM diagnosis, those using metformin before DM diagnosis, those with polycystic ovary syndrome, and those with a DM diagnosis before their 15 years of age were excluded. The demographic data and duration, cumulative dose and intensity of metformin use were compared between patients developing lung cancer and those without lung cancer. Totally, 47,356 subjects were identified. After adjusting for age, gender, and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index score, the utilization of metformin was an independent protecting factor, and the risk of developing lung cancer decreased progressively with either the higher cumulative dose or the higher intensity of metformin use. This study revealed that the use of metformin decreased the risk of lung cancer in a dose-dependent manner in patients with type 2 DM. The chemo-preventive effect of metformin deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner.

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Glover, Vivette; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Tibu, Florin; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Listeria monocytogenes alters mast cell phenotype, mediator and osteopontin secretion in a listeriolysin-dependent manner.

    Catherine E Jobbings

    Full Text Available Whilst mast cells participate in the immune defence against the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, there is conflicting evidence regarding the ability of L. monocytogenes to infect mast cells. It is known that the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin (LLO is important for mast cell activation, degranulation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mast cells, however, are a potential source of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators including osteopontin, which contributes to the clearing of L. monocytogenes infections in vivo, although its source is unknown. We therefore aimed to resolve the controversy of mast cell infection by L. monocytogenes and investigated the extent of mediator release in response to the bacterium. In this paper we show that the infection of bone marrow-derived mast cells by L. monocytogenes is inefficient and LLO-independent. LLO, however, is required for calcium-independent mast cell degranulation as well as for the transient and selective downregulation of cell surface CD117 (c-kit on mast cells. We demonstrate that in addition to the key pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, mast cells release a wide range of other mediators in response to L. monocytogenes. Osteopontin, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 are released in a MyD88-dependent manner. The wide range of mediators released by mast cells in response to L. monocytogenes may play an important role in the recruitment and activation of a variety of immune cells in vivo. The cocktail of mediators, however, is unlikely to skew the immune response to a particular effector response. We propose that mast cells provide a hitherto unreported source of osteopontin, and may provide an important role in co-ordinating the immune response during Listeria infection.

  16. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.

    Przemysław eKaczor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal cultures: nominally astrocyte-free neuronal culture (NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC and miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of respective enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of neuronal culture with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (with MSO strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (BAYU6751 or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle,fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle.

  17. Global Albedo

    2002-01-01

    Once home to the powerful Inca Empire, the spectacular vistas and canyons of the South American Andes are now a favorite to mountain bikers, climbers and other tourists looking for an adventure. This true color image of the Central Andes and surrounding landscape was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The dark green area to the right of the brown mountains are the Gran Chaco planes, which consist mostly of alluvial fans and wetlands. To the west is the Pacific Ocean. In the upper half of this image, the Andes are formed by two distinct mountain ranges that appear as darker reddish-brown bands running northwest to southeast. Between the two ranges, shown in a lighter brown, sits the Altiplano plateau, which spans southern Peru and northern Bolivia. The plateau sits at 3660 meters (12,000 feet) and is covered in mazelike canyons, marshlands and lakes. The largest of the lakes-Lake Titticaca-can be seen as the dark blue patch in southern Peru. The two mountain ranges supporting the plateau eventually come together along the border of Argentina and Chile to form one continuous range. The Andes have been forming over the past 170 million years as the Nazca Plate lying under the Pacific Ocean has forced its way under the South American Plate and pushed up its western edge. The subduction of one plate under the other has given rise to a number of volcanoes that dot the western edge of the mountain range. Earthquakes are also very common in this region. Image by NASA GSFC, based on data from the MODIS science team.

  18. Doubly self-consistent field theory of grafted polymers under simple shear in steady state

    Suo, Tongchuan; Whitmore, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generalization of the numerical self-consistent mean-field theory of polymers to the case of grafted polymers under simple shear. The general theoretical framework is presented, and then applied to three different chain models: rods, Gaussian chains, and finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) chains. The approach is self-consistent at two levels. First, for any flow field, the polymer density profile and effective potential are calculated self-consistently in a manner similar to the usual self-consistent field theory of polymers, except that the calculation is inherently two-dimensional even for a laterally homogeneous system. Second, through the use of a modified Brinkman equation, the flow field and the polymer profile are made self-consistent with respect to each other. For all chain models, we find that reasonable levels of shear cause the chains to tilt, but it has very little effect on the overall thickness of the polymer layer, causing a small decrease for rods, and an increase of no more than a few percent for the Gaussian and FENE chains. Using the FENE model, we also probe the individual bond lengths, bond correlations, and bond angles along the chains, the effects of the shear on them, and the solvent and bonded stress profiles. We find that the approximations needed within the theory for the Brinkman equation affect the bonded stress, but none of the other quantities

  19. Bilingualism increases neural response consistency and attentional control: evidence for sensory and cognitive coupling.

    Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Marian, Viorica; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing is presumed to be influenced by cognitive processes - including attentional control - in a top-down manner. In bilinguals, activation of both languages during daily communication hones inhibitory skills, which subsequently bolster attentional control. We hypothesize that the heightened attentional demands of bilingual communication strengthens connections between cognitive (i.e., attentional control) and auditory processing, leading to greater across-trial consistency in the auditory evoked response (i.e., neural consistency) in bilinguals. To assess this, we collected passively-elicited auditory evoked responses to the syllable [da] in adolescent Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and separately obtained measures of attentional control and language ability. Bilinguals demonstrated enhanced attentional control and more consistent brainstem and cortical responses. In bilinguals, but not monolinguals, brainstem consistency tracked with language proficiency and attentional control. We interpret these enhancements in neural consistency as the outcome of strengthened attentional control that emerged from experience communicating in two languages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PFS/Mars Express first results: water vapour and carbon monoxide global distribution

    Ignatiev, N. I.; Titov, D. V.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V. I.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Fouchet, T.; Grassi, D.; Giuranna, M.; Atreya, S.; Pfs Team

    Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express, with its wide spectral range (1.2--45 um) and high spectral resolution (1.4 cm-1), makes it possible to study in a self-consistent manner the Martian atmosphere by means of simultaneous analysis of spectral features in several spectral regions. As concerned small species, we observe 30--50, 6.3, 2.56, 1.87 and 1.38 μ m H2O bands, and 4.7 and 2.35 μ m CO bands. The most favourable, with respect to the instrument performance, 2.56 μ m H2O and 4.7 μ m CO bands, are used to study the variations of column abundance of water vapour and carbon monoxide on a global scale from pole to pole. All necessary atmospheric parameters, namely temperature profiles, surface pressure, and dust density are obtained from the same spectra, whenever possible.

  1. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  2. Multiplicative Consistency for Interval Valued Reciprocal Preference Relations

    Wu, Jian; Chiclana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The multiplicative consistency (MC) property of interval additive reciprocal preference relations (IARPRs) is explored, and then the consistency index is quantified by the multiplicative consistency estimated IARPR. The MC property is used to measure the level of consistency of the information provided by the experts and also to propose the consistency index induced ordered weighted averaging (CI-IOWA) operator. The novelty of this operator is that it aggregates individual IARPRs in such ...

  3. Global carbon budget 2013

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  4. Biodiversity Meets the Atmosphere: A Global View of Forest Canopies

    C. M. P. Ozanne; D. Anhuf; S. L. Boulter; M. Keller; R. L. Kitching; C. Korner; F. C. Meinzer; A. W. Mitchell; T. Nakashizuka; P. L. Silva Dias; N. E. Stork; S. J. Wright; M Yoshimura

    2003-01-01

    The forest canopy is the functional interface between 90% of Earth’s terrestrial biomass and the atmosphere. Multidisciplinary research in the canopy has expanded concepts of global species richness, physiological processes, and the provision of ecosystem services. Trees respond in a species-specific manner to elevated carbon dioxide levels, while climate change...

  5. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates fetal membrane inflammation in a time-dependent manner.

    Cross, Sarah N; Nelson, Rachel A; Potter, Julie A; Norwitz, Errol R; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2018-04-30

    Chorioamnionitis and infection-associated inflammation are major causes of preterm birth. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) is widely used in obstetrics as a tocolytic; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. This study sought to investigate how MgSO 4 modulates infection-associated inflammation in fetal membranes (FMs), and whether the response was time dependent. Human FM explants were treated with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS); with or without MgSO 4 added either: 1 hour before LPS; at the same time as LPS; 1 hour post-LPS; or 2 hours post-LPS. Explants were also treated with or without viral dsRNA and LPS, alone or in combination; and MgSO 4 added 1 hour post-LPS After 24 hours, supernatants were measured for cytokines/chemokines; and tissue lysates measured for caspase-1 activity. Lipopolysaccharide-induced FM inflammation by upregulating the secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Magnesium sulfate administered 1-hour post-LPS inhibited FM secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, RANTES, and TNFα. Magnesium sulfate administered 2 hours post-LPS augmented FM secretion of these factors as well as IL-8, IFNγ, VEGF, GROα and IP-10. Magnesium sulfate delivered 1- hour post-LPS inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activity, and inhibited the augmented IL-1β response triggered by combination viral dsRNA and LPS. Magnesium sulfate differentially modulates LPS-induced FM inflammation in a time-dependent manner, in part through its modulation of caspase-1 activity. Thus, the timing of MgSO 4 administration may be critical in optimizing its anti-inflammatory effects in the clinical setting. MgSO 4 might also be useful at preventing FM inflammation triggered by a polymicrobial viral-bacterial infection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DISRUPTING SHOCKS IN POSTWAR GLOBAL ECONOMIC EXPANSION

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coherence of the global economic system, created by its upswing in the first postwar decades, started to crumble in the ’70s. The destabilizing shocks affected the entire world, but in an uneven manner, in different geographical areas and at different times, being felt most acutely, with devastating economic and social effects, in Third World countries. Although the developed countries were affected as well, they always had means to combat or to diminish the adverse effects of the crises, leading to "gentler" consequences. This paper focuses on four main aspects in postwar global economic expansion, namely: the ’70s – the international monetary crisis and the oil shocks; the foreign debt crisis; the Latin American debt crisis, the Asian financial crises and the current global crisis.

  7. Globalization and inequality

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  8. Exploring Late Globalization

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  9. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  10. GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database: stimuli for research on manners of human locomotion and iconic gestures.

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kwok, Natasha; Kita, Sotaro

    2018-06-01

    Human locomotion is a fundamental class of events, and manners of locomotion (e.g., how the limbs are used to achieve a change of location) are commonly encoded in language and gesture. To our knowledge, there is no openly accessible database containing normed human locomotion stimuli. Therefore, we introduce the GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database, which contains 676 videos of actors performing novel manners of human locomotion (i.e., moving from one location to another in an unusual manner) and videos of a female actor producing iconic gestures that represent these actions. The usefulness of the database was demonstrated across four norming experiments. First, our database contains clear matches and mismatches between iconic gesture videos and action videos. Second, the male actors and female actors whose action videos matched the gestures in the best possible way, perform the same actions in very similar manners and different actions in highly distinct manners. Third, all the actions in the database are distinct from each other. Fourth, adult native English speakers were unable to describe the 26 different actions concisely, indicating that the actions are unusual. This normed stimuli set is useful for experimental psychologists working in the language, gesture, visual perception, categorization, memory, and other related domains.

  11. Nuclear stockpiles globalization

    Jouffray, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    For technological reasons, but more importantly political ones, the spread of nuclear weapons is foreseen as inevitable especially with the multiplication of so-called 'threshold states'. On the one hand, technological barriers will gradually disappear with globalization and information sharing in our societies. Furthermore, becoming a threshold power appears today as key to get freedom of action, a tool of counter-deterrence or blackmail according to the camp you belong to, like in the Iranian and north Korean cases. For proliferant countries, it will now consist in an enforcement of an embryonic, even though rather deterrent or even threatening, nuclear program thanks to new technologies, reducing completion times and even allowing to skip the final nuclear test

  12. Implementing a Systematic Process for Consistent Nursing Care in a NICU: A Quality Improvement Project.

    McCarley, Renay Marie; Dowling, Donna A; Dolansky, Mary A; Bieda, Amy

    2018-03-01

    The global aim of this quality improvement project was to develop and implement a systematic process to assign and maintain consistent bedside nurses for infants and families. A systematic process based on a primary care nursing model was implemented to assign consistent care for a 48-bed, single-family room NICU. Four PDSA cycles were necessary to obtain agreement from the nursing staff as to the best process for assigning primary nurses. Post-intervention data revealed a 9.5 percent decrease of consistent caregivers for infants in the NICU ≤ 28 days and a 2.3 percent increase of consistent caregivers for infants in the NICU ≥ 29 days. Although these findings did not meet the goal of the specific aim, a systematic process was created to assign bedside nurses to infants. Further PDSAs will be needed to refine the process to reach the aim.

  13. Studies of global warming and global energy

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  14. Globalization and State Soverignty

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  15. New geometric design consistency model based on operating speed profiles for road safety evaluation.

    Camacho-Torregrosa, Francisco J; Pérez-Zuriaga, Ana M; Campoy-Ungría, J Manuel; García-García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    To assist in the on-going effort to reduce road fatalities as much as possible, this paper presents a new methodology to evaluate road safety in both the design and redesign stages of two-lane rural highways. This methodology is based on the analysis of road geometric design consistency, a value which will be a surrogate measure of the safety level of the two-lane rural road segment. The consistency model presented in this paper is based on the consideration of continuous operating speed profiles. The models used for their construction were obtained by using an innovative GPS-data collection method that is based on continuous operating speed profiles recorded from individual drivers. This new methodology allowed the researchers to observe the actual behavior of drivers and to develop more accurate operating speed models than was previously possible with spot-speed data collection, thereby enabling a more accurate approximation to the real phenomenon and thus a better consistency measurement. Operating speed profiles were built for 33 Spanish two-lane rural road segments, and several consistency measurements based on the global and local operating speed were checked. The final consistency model takes into account not only the global dispersion of the operating speed, but also some indexes that consider both local speed decelerations and speeds over posted speeds as well. For the development of the consistency model, the crash frequency for each study site was considered, which allowed estimating the number of crashes on a road segment by means of the calculation of its geometric design consistency. Consequently, the presented consistency evaluation method is a promising innovative tool that can be used as a surrogate measure to estimate the safety of a road segment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.0 % (range of 0.8 to 3.0 %) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP) corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017).

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    C. Le Quéré

    2018-03-01

    higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007–2016, reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND consistent with El Niño conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6–9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.0 % (range of 0.8 to 3.0 % based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013. All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017.

  18. The availability and consistency of dengue surveillance data provided online by the World Health Organization.

    Ruberto, Irene; Marques, Ernesto; Burke, Donald S; Van Panhuis, Willem G

    2015-04-01

    The use of high quality disease surveillance data has become increasingly important for public health action against new threats. In response, countries have developed a wide range of disease surveillance systems enabled by technological advancements. The heterogeneity and complexity of country data systems have caused a growing need for international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) to coordinate the standardization, integration, and dissemination of country disease data at the global level for research and policy. The availability and consistency of currently available disease surveillance data at the global level are unclear. We investigated this for dengue surveillance data provided online by the WHO. We extracted all dengue surveillance data provided online by WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices (RO's). We assessed the availability and consistency of these data by comparing indicators within and between sources. We also assessed the consistency of dengue data provided online by two example countries (Brazil and Indonesia). Data were available from WHO for 100 countries since 1955 representing a total of 23 million dengue cases and 82 thousand deaths ever reported to WHO. The availability of data on DengueNet and some RO's declined dramatically after 2005. Consistency was lacking between sources (84% across all indicators representing a discrepancy of almost half a million cases). Within sources, data at high spatial resolution were often incomplete. The decline of publicly available, integrated dengue surveillance data at the global level will limit opportunities for research, policy, and advocacy. A new financial and operational framework will be necessary for innovation and for the continued availability of integrated country disease data at the global level.

  19. Profile consistency, anomalous electron thermal conduction, and confinement analysis of tokamak devices

    Qu Wenxiao

    1992-01-01

    Assuming that there exists a position in the tokamak plasma where the energy transport is dominated by local anomalous electron thermal conduction and taking advantage of the basic experimental result usually referred to as profile consistency, the authors obtain a more convincing approach to the description of the confinement property of tokamak devices without touching upon the physical mechanism of global plasma energy transport. 8 refs

  20. A Timoshenko Piezoelectric Beam Finite Element with Consistent Performance Irrespective of Geometric and Material Configurations

    Litesh N. Sulbhewar

    Full Text Available Abstract The conventional Timoshenko piezoelectric beam finite elements based on First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT do not maintain the accuracy and convergence consistently over the applicable range of material and geometric properties. In these elements, the inaccuracy arises due to the induced potential effects in the transverse direction and inefficiency arises due to the use of independently assumed linear polynomial interpolation of the field variables in the longitudinal direction. In this work, a novel FSDT-based piezoelectric beam finite element is proposed which is devoid of these deficiencies. A variational formulation with consistent through-thickness potential is developed. The governing equilibrium equations are used to derive the coupled field relations. These relations are used to develop a polynomial interpolation scheme which properly accommodates the bending-extension, bending-shear and induced potential couplings to produce accurate results in an efficient manner. It is noteworthy that this consistently accurate and efficient beam finite element uses the same nodal variables as of conventional FSDT formulations available in the literature. Comparison of numerical results proves the consistent accuracy and efficiency of the proposed formulation irrespective of geometric and material configurations, unlike the conventional formulations.

  1. Approximate self-consistent potentials for density-functional-theory exchange-correlation functionals

    Cafiero, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We show that potentials for exchange-correlation functionals within the Kohn-Sham density-functional-theory framework may be written as potentials for simpler functionals multiplied by a factor close to unity, and in a self-consistent field calculation, these effective potentials find the correct self-consistent solutions. This simple theory is demonstrated with self-consistent exchange-only calculations of the atomization energies of some small molecules using the Perdew-Kurth-Zupan-Blaha (PKZB) meta-generalized-gradient-approximation (meta-GGA) exchange functional. The atomization energies obtained with our method agree with or surpass previous meta-GGA calculations performed in a non-self-consistent manner. The results of this work suggest the utility of this simple theory to approximate exchange-correlation potentials corresponding to energy functionals too complicated to generate closed forms for their potentials. We hope that this method will encourage the development of complex functionals which have correct boundary conditions and are free of self-interaction errors without the worry that the functionals are too complex to differentiate to obtain potentials

  2. The Multipoint Global Shape Optimization of Flying Configuration with Movable Leading Edges Flaps

    Adriana NASTASE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamical global optimized (GO shape of flying configuration (FC, at two cruising Mach numbers, can be realized by morphing. Movable leading edge flaps are used for this purpose. The equations of the surfaces of the wing, of the fuselage and of the flaps in stretched position are approximated in form of superpositions of homogeneous polynomes in two variables with free coefficients. These coefficients together with the similarity parameters of the planform of the FC are the free parameters of the global optimization. Two enlarged variational problems with free boundaries occur. The first one consists in the determination of the GO shape of the wing-fuselageFC, with the flaps in retracted position, which must be of minimum drag, at higher cruising Mach number. The second enlarged variational problem consists in the determination of the GO shape of the flaps in stretched position in such a manner that the entire FC shall be of minimum drag at the second lower Mach number. The iterative optimum-optimorum (OO theory of the author is used for the solving of these both enlarged variational problems. The inviscid GO shape of the FC is used only in the first step of iteration and the own developed hybrid solutions for the compressible Navier-Stokes partial-differential equations (PDEs are used for the determination of the friction drag coefficient and up the second step of iteration of OO theory.

  3. Privacy, Time Consistent Optimal Labour Income Taxation and Education Policy

    Konrad, Kai A.

    1999-01-01

    Incomplete information is a commitment device for time consistency problems. In the context of time consistent labour income taxation privacy reduces welfare losses and increases the effectiveness of public education as a second best policy.

  4. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times

  5. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    Vainik, Uku; Dub?, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studi...

  6. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  7. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  8. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This probl...

  9. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    2010-04-01

    ... that are controlled foreign corporations. (6) Stock consistency. This section limits the application of... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a) Introduction—(1...

  10. Reflections on the Process of Bilingual Education in Latin America: A Perspective from Globalization

    Joya, Magdalena; Cerón, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to explain how education can be understood as a process that involves the transmission of culture, knowledge, manners and values; meanwhile, globalization implies an evolving process of constructing a global system of languages. In this way, the relationship between the educational and economic systems can become stronger…

  11. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Broadcast Ephemeris Data (hourly files)...

  12. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  13. Cosmic global strings

    Sikivie, P.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  14. Globalization and business ethics

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  15. Globalization as Continuing Colonialism: Critical Global Citizenship Education in an Unequal World

    Mikander, Pia

    2016-01-01

    In an unequal world, education about global inequality can be seen as a controversial but necessary topic for social science to deal with. Even though the world no longer consists of colonies and colonial powers, many aspects of the global economy follow the same patterns as during colonial times, with widening gaps between the world's richest and…

  16. Global Mindset in Context

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  17. PAI-1 modulates cell migration in a LRP1-dependent manner via β-catenin and ERK1/2

    Kozlova, Nina; Jensen, Jan Kristian; Chi, Tabughang Franklin

    2015-01-01

    was proposed to modulate the β-catenin pathway. Therefore, we used wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and MEFs deficient of LRP1 to study PAI-1 as modulator of the β-catenin pathway. We found that PAI-1 influences MEF proliferation and motility in a LRP1-dependent manner and that β...

  18. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    2010-04-01

    ... general. A partnership having an election in effect under this section may revoke such election with the... required to be filed. A partnership which wishes to revoke such an election shall file with the district... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and manner of making election to adjust...

  19. The Global Tsunami Model (GTM)

    Lorito, S.; Basili, R.; Harbitz, C. B.; Løvholt, F.; Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.

    2017-12-01

    The tsunamis occurred worldwide in the last two decades have highlighted the need for a thorough understanding of the risk posed by relatively infrequent but often disastrous tsunamis and the importance of a comprehensive and consistent methodology for quantifying the hazard. In the last few years, several methods for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis have been developed and applied to different parts of the world. In an effort to coordinate and streamline these activities and make progress towards implementing the Sendai Framework of Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) we have initiated a Global Tsunami Model (GTM) working group with the aim of i) enhancing our understanding of tsunami hazard and risk on a global scale and developing standards and guidelines for it, ii) providing a portfolio of validated tools for probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk assessment at a range of scales, and iii) developing a global tsunami hazard reference model. This GTM initiative has grown out of the tsunami component of the Global Assessment of Risk (GAR15), which has resulted in an initial global model of probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk. Started as an informal gathering of scientists interested in advancing tsunami hazard analysis, the GTM is currently in the process of being formalized through letters of interest from participating institutions. The initiative has now been endorsed by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). We will provide an update on the state of the project and the overall technical framework, and discuss the technical issues that are currently being addressed, including earthquake source recurrence models, the use of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty, and preliminary results for a probabilistic global hazard assessment, which is an update of the model included in UNISDR GAR15.

  20. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    Er Kirtesh Jailia; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  1. Cln6 mutants associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis are degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner.

    Oresic, Kristina; Mueller, Britta; Tortorella, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    NCLs (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses), a group of inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that predominantly affect children, are the result of autosomal recessive mutations within one of the nine cln genes. The wild-type cln gene products are composed of membrane and soluble proteins that localize to the lysosome or the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). However, the destiny of the Cln variants has not been fully characterized. To explore a possible link between ER quality control and processing of Cln mutants, we investigated the fate of two NCL-related Cln6 mutants found in patient samples (Cln6(G123D) and Cln6(M241T)) in neuronal-derived human cells. The point mutations are predicted to be in the putative transmembrane domains and most probably generate misfolded membrane proteins that are subjected to ER quality control. Consistent with this paradigm, both mutants underwent rapid proteasome-mediated degradation and complexed with components of the ER extraction apparatus, Derlin-1 and p97. In addition, knockdown of SEL1L [sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (Caenorhabditis elegans)], a member of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex involved in ER protein extraction, rescued significant amounts of Cln6(G123D) and Cln6(M241T) polypeptides. The results implicate ER quality control in the instability of the Cln variants that probably contributes to the development of NCL.

  2. Considerations of the manner of accounting for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    Pellissier-Tanon, A.; Grandemange, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The French approach to the prevention of fast fracture in PWR vessels is to consider it as a whole and to choose the most convenient way to meet this general goal from an economic and technical point of view. According to this approach, there are no specific limits imposed on such factors as end of life RTsub(NDT) or neutron fluence, which are taken as criteria in other countries. The RCCM design and construction code specifications on chemical content and RTsub(NDT) for beltline and non-irradiated parts establish a sound basis for safety. However, for the most critical parts, the existence of large margins with respect to fast fracture is demonstrated by analysis for all second, third and fourth category design transients. To this aim, the RCCM code needs to demonstrate specified safety margins, depending on the transient category, for reference defects defined in kind and size, in order to bound realistically any defects which have a chance of occurring in the part during manufacture. This approach, which enables the disclosure of the influence of all significant design factors on fracture risk, ensures the most consistent way to improve design safety. (author)

  3. Considerations of the manner of accounting for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    1986-01-01

    The French approach to the prevention of fast fracture in PWR vessels is to consider it as a whole and to choose the most convenient way to meet this general goal from an economic and technical point of view. According to this approach, there are no specific limits imposed on such factors as end of life RTsub(NDT) or neutron fluence, which are taken as criteria in other countries. The RCCM design and construction code specifications on chemical content and RTsub(NDT) for beltline and non-irradiated parts establish a sound basis for safety. However, for the most critical parts, the existence of large margins with respect to fast fracture is demonstrated by analysis for all second, third and fourth category design transients. To this aim, the RCCM code needs to demonstrate specified safety margins, depending on the transient category, for reference defects defined in kind and size, in order to bound realistically any defects which have a chance of occurring in the part during manufacture. This approach, which enables the disclosure of the influence of all significant design factors on fracture risk, ensures the most consistent way to improve design safety.

  4. [Emissions trading potential : achieving emission reductions in a cost-effective manner

    Fay, K.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of emissions trading as a viable tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by developed countries was discussed. The essence of this author's argument was that emissions trading alone will not solve the climate change problem and that the details of the program are hazy at best. In order to have any hope of meeting the emission reductions, it is essential to begin working out the details now, and to coordinate them with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) plan since all three of these flexibility mechanisms will be working in and among themselves, therefore they need to be consistent. Work on a general set of draft principles by the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP), a coalition headquartered in Washington, DC, was summarized. Essentially, ICCP favors voluntary programs, incentives for participation, no quantitative limits on trading, no limits on sources and sinks. ICCP believes that trading should be allowed at the company level, and liability should not devolve on the buyer alone, rather, it should be negotiated between buyers and sellers. Credits for early action should also be tradable and most of all, the trading program should be simple to allow active participation by industry, and be free of bureaucratic impediments

  5. Multifractality and quantum diffusion from self-consistent theory of localization

    Suslov, I. M., E-mail: suslov@kapitza.ras.ru [Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Multifractal properties of wave functions in a disordered system can be derived from self-consistent theory of localization by Vollhardt and Wölfle. A diagrammatic interpretation of results allows to obtain all scaling relations used in numerical experiments. The arguments are given that the one-loop Wegner result for a space dimension d = 2 + ϵ is exact, so the multifractal spectrum is strictly parabolical. The σ-models are shown to be deficient at the four-loop level and the possible reasons of that are discussed. The extremely slow convergence to the thermodynamic limit is demonstrated. The open question on the relation between multifractality and a spatial dispersion of the diffusion coefficient D(ω, q) is resolved in the compromise manner due to ambiguity of the D(ω, q) definition. Comparison is made with the extensive numerical material.

  6. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  7. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  8. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  9. Nonbinding Legal Instruments in Governance for Global Health: Lessons from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism.

    Taylor, Allyn; Alfvén, Tobias; Hougendobler, Daniel; Buse, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Recent debate over World Health Organization reform has included unprecedented attention to international lawmaking as a future priority function of the Organization. However, the debate is largely focused on the codification of new binding legal instruments. Drawing upon lessons from the success of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, we argue that effective global health governance requires consideration of a broad range of instruments, both binding and nonbinding. A detailed examination of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism reveals that the choice of the nonbinding format makes an important contribution to its effectiveness. For instance, the flexibility and adaptability of the nonbinding format have allowed the global community to: (1) undertake commitments in a timely manner; (2) adapt and experiment in the face of a dynamic pandemic; and (3) grant civil society an unparalleled role in monitoring and reporting on state implementation of global commitments. UNAIDS' institutional support has also played a vital role in ensuring the continuing effectiveness of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism. Overall, the experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism evidences that, at times, nimbler nonbinding instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance, but depend critically, like all instruments, on the perceived legitimacy thereof. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung, E-mail: keejung@skku.edu

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics.

  11. Legionella Effector AnkX Disrupts Host Cell Endocytic Recycling in a Phosphocholination-Dependent Manner

    Samual C. Allgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35. However, a detailed understanding of the biological consequence of Rab GTPase phosphocholination remains elusive. Here, we broaden the understanding of AnkX function by presenting three lines of evidence that it interferes with host endocytic recycling. First, using immunogold transmission electron microscopy, we determined that GFP-tagged AnkX ectopically produced in mammalian cells localizes at the plasma membrane and tubular membrane compartments, sites consistent with targeting the endocytic recycling pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AnkX was responsible for association with the plasma membrane, and we determined that this region was also able to bind the phosphoinositide lipids PI(3P and PI(4P in vitro. Second, we observed that mCherry-AnkX co-localized with Rab35, a regulator of recycling endocytosis and with major histocompatibility class I protein (MHC-I, a key immunoregulatory protein whose recycling from and back to the plasma membrane is Rab35-dependent. Third, we report that during infection of macrophages, AnkX is responsible for the disruption of endocytic recycling of transferrin, and AnkX's phosphocholination activity is critical for this function. These results support the hypothesis that AnkX targets endocytic recycling during host cell infection. Finally, we have demonstrated that the phosphocholination activity of AnkX is also critical for inhibiting fusion of the Legionella

  12. Oxytocin gene polymorphisms influence human dopaminergic function in a sex-dependent manner.

    Love, Tiffany M; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Peciña, Marta; Mickey, Brian; Koeppe, Robert A; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-08-01

    Oxytocin, classically involved in social and reproductive activities, is increasingly recognized as an antinociceptive and anxiolytic agent, effects which may be mediated via oxytocin's interactions with the dopamine system. Thus, genetic variation within the oxytocin gene (OXT) is likely to explain variability in dopamine-related stress responses. As such, we examined how OXT variation is associated with stress-induced dopaminergic neurotransmission in a healthy human sample. Fifty-five young healthy volunteers were scanned using [¹¹C]raclopride positron emission tomography while they underwent a standardized physical and emotional stressor that consisted of moderate levels of experimental sustained deep muscle pain, and a baseline, control state. Four haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms located in regions near OXT were genotyped. Measures of pain, affect, anxiety, well-being and interpersonal attachment were also assessed. Female rs4813625 C allele carriers demonstrated greater stress-induced dopamine release, measured as reductions in receptor availability from baseline to the pain-stress condition relative to female GG homozygotes. No significant differences were detected among males. We also observed that female rs4813625 C allele carriers exhibited higher attachment anxiety, higher trait anxiety and lower emotional well-being scores. In addition, greater stress-induced dopamine release was associated with lower emotional well-being scores in female rs4813625 C allele carriers. Our results suggest that variability within the oxytocin gene appear to explain interindividual differences in dopaminergic responses to stress, which are shown to be associated with anxiety traits, including those linked to attachment style, as well as emotional well-being in women. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Device to take facial photographs in frankfort horizontal plane in a standardized manner at repeated intervals

    Gorantla Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very little attention has been given in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning regarding appropriate facial orientation during photographic recordings. Analysis of facial profile using standardized photographs is a valuable tool for orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We have worked on a new way to position the patient's head with Frankfort horizontal parallel to the floor by use of a a specially fabricated device. It consists of a vertically adjustable scale attached to metal framework. The shadow of the scale is projected as a horizontal line onto the face by means of a light source. The patient's head is positioned such that the Frankfort horizontal lies along the projected line. Twenty-five (13 males and 12 females people aged between 15 and 25 years were photographed using the above method with a digital single-lens reflex camera. The photographs were taken again after a 15-day interval using the same protocol and checked for reliability. Results: Statistical analysis was done using paired student t-test and Kappa test. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean angles at the initial (76.92 ± 4.77 and 15-day interval (76.72 ± 4.67 in profile view and between the mean angles at the initial (90.88 ± 2.06 and 15-day interval (90.96 ± 1.96 in the frontal view. Conclusion: This method allows us to take facial photographs by positioning the patient's head such that the FH plane is parallel to the floor. This method also helped us in standardization of facial photographs when photographs are taken in successive visits.

  14. YAP/TAZ enhance mammalian embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a Tead-dependent manner

    Han, Dasol; Byun, Sung-Hyun; Park, Soojeong; Kim, Juwan; Kim, Inhee; Ha, Soobong; Kwon, Mookwang; Yoon, Keejung

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian brain development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we show that YAP/TAZ enhance embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in a cell autonomous fashion using diverse experimental approaches. Introduction of retroviral vectors expressing YAP or TAZ into the mouse embryonic brain induced cell localization in the ventricular zone (VZ), which is the embryonic neural stem cell niche. This change in cell distribution in the cortical layer is due to the increased stemness of infected cells; YAP-expressing cells were colabeled with Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and YAP/TAZ increased the frequency and size of neurospheres, indicating enhanced self-renewal- and proliferative ability of neural stem cells. These effects appear to be TEA domain family transcription factor (Tead)–dependent; a Tead binding-defective YAP mutant lost the ability to promote neural stem cell characteristics. Consistently, in utero gene transfer of a constitutively active form of Tead2 (Tead2-VP16) recapitulated all the features of YAP/TAZ overexpression, and dominant negative Tead2-EnR resulted in marked cell exit from the VZ toward outer cortical layers. Taken together, these results indicate that the Tead-dependent YAP/TAZ signaling pathway plays important roles in neural stem cell maintenance by enhancing stemness of neural stem cells during mammalian brain development. - Highlights: • Roles of YAP and Tead in vivo during mammalian brain development are clarified. • Expression of YAP promotes embryonic neural stem cell characteristics in vivo in a cell autonomous fashion. • Enhancement of neural stem cell characteristics by YAP depends on Tead. • Transcriptionally active form of Tead alone can recapitulate the effects of YAP. • Transcriptionally repressive form of Tead severely reduces stem cell characteristics

  15. Consistent Regulation of Infrastructure Businesses: Some Economic Issues

    Flavio M. Menezes

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some important economic aspects associated with the notion that consistency in the regulation of infrastructure businesses is a desirable feature. It makes two important points. First, it is not easy to measure consistency. In particular, one cannot simply point to different regulatory parameters as evidence of inconsistent regulatory policy. Second, even if one does observe consistency emerging from decisions made by different regulators, it does not necessarily mean that...

  16. Global health research needs global networking

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  17. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  18. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  20. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  2. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  3. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  4. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  5. Effect of hydrogel elasticity and ephrinB2-immobilized manner on Runx2 expression of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya; Uyama, Hiroshi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to design the manner of ephrinB2 immobilized onto polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels with varied elasticity and evaluate the effect of hydrogels elasticity and the immobilized manner of ephrinB2 on the Runx2 expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). The PAAm hydrogels were prepared by the radical polymerization of acrylamide (AAm), and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). By changing the BIS concentration, the elasticity of PAAm hydrogels changed from 1 to 70kPa. For the bio-specific immobilization of ephrinB2, a chimeric protein of ephrinB2 and Fc domain was immobilized onto protein A-conjugated PAAm hydrogels by making use of the bio-specific interaction between the Fc domain and protein A. When hMSC were cultured on the ephrinB2-immobilized PAAm hydrogels with varied elasticity, the morphology of hMSC was of cuboidal shape on the PAAm hydrogels immobilized with ephrinB2 compared with non-conjugated ones, irrespective of the hydrogels elasticity. The bio-specific immobilization of ephrinB2 enhanced the level of Runx2 expression. The expression level was significantly high for the hydrogels of 3.6 and 5.9kPa elasticity with bio-specific immobilization of ephrinB2 compared with other hydrogels with the same elasticity. The hydrogels showed a significantly down-regulated RhoA activity. It is concluded that the Runx2 expression of hMSC is synergistically influenced by the hydrogels elasticity and their immobilized manner of ephrinB2 immobilized. Differentiation fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is modified by biochemical and biophysical factors, such as elasticity and signal proteins. However, there are few experiments about combinations of them. In this study, to evaluate the synergistic effect of them on cell properties of MSC, we established to design the manner of Eph signal ligand, ephrinB2, immobilized onto polyacrylamide hydrogels with varied elasticity. The gene expression level of an osteogenic maker, Runx2, was enhanced

  6. Optimal consistency in microRNA expression analysis using reference-gene-based normalization.

    Wang, Xi; Gardiner, Erin J; Cairns, Murray J

    2015-05-01

    Normalization of high-throughput molecular expression profiles secures differential expression analysis between samples of different phenotypes or biological conditions, and facilitates comparison between experimental batches. While the same general principles apply to microRNA (miRNA) normalization, there is mounting evidence that global shifts in their expression patterns occur in specific circumstances, which pose a challenge for normalizing miRNA expression data. As an alternative to global normalization, which has the propensity to flatten large trends, normalization against constitutively expressed reference genes presents an advantage through their relative independence. Here we investigated the performance of reference-gene-based (RGB) normalization for differential miRNA expression analysis of microarray expression data, and compared the results with other normalization methods, including: quantile, variance stabilization, robust spline, simple scaling, rank invariant, and Loess regression. The comparative analyses were executed using miRNA expression in tissue samples derived from subjects with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We proposed a consistency criterion for evaluating methods by examining the overlapping of differentially expressed miRNAs detected using different partitions of the whole data. Based on this criterion, we found that RGB normalization generally outperformed global normalization methods. Thus we recommend the application of RGB normalization for miRNA expression data sets, and believe that this will yield a more consistent and useful readout of differentially expressed miRNAs, particularly in biological conditions characterized by large shifts in miRNA expression.

  7. Globalization and democracy

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  8. Global from the Start

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...... technology firms. After discussing various definitions for the term "born global" and identifying the main characteristics of born-global firms, this article lists a few salient characteristics of firms that are born global in the technology sector. The article concludes by identifying opportunities...

  9. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes,…

  10. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  11. Self-consistent calculation of atomic structure for mixture

    Meng Xujun; Bai Yun; Sun Yongsheng; Zhang Jinglin; Zong Xiaoping

    2000-01-01

    Based on relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent average atomic model, atomic structure for mixture is studied by summing up component volumes in mixture. Algorithmic procedure for solving both the group of Thomas-Fermi equations and the self-consistent atomic structure is presented in detail, and, some numerical results are discussed

  12. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  13. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  14. Risk aversion vs. the Omega ratio : Consistency results

    Balder, Sven; Schweizer, Nikolaus

    This paper clarifies when the Omega ratio and related performance measures are consistent with second order stochastic dominance and when they are not. To avoid consistency problems, the threshold parameter in the ratio should be chosen as the expected return of some benchmark – as is commonly done

  15. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  16. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  17. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  18. Consistency of a system of equations: What does that mean?

    Still, Georg J.; Kern, Walter; Koelewijn, Jaap; Bomhoff, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of (structural) consistency also called structural solvability is an important basic tool for analyzing the structure of systems of equations. Our aim is to provide a sound and practically relevant meaning to this concept. The implications of consistency are expressed in terms of

  19. Global Water Governance in the Context of Global and Multilevel Governance: Its Need, Form, and Challenges

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To complement this Special Feature on global water governance, we focused on a generic challenge at the global level, namely, the degree to which water issues need to be dealt with in a centralized, concentrated, and hierarchical manner. We examined water ecosystem services and their impact on human well-being, the role of policies, indirect and direct drivers in influencing these services, and the administrative level(s at which the provision of services and potential trade-offs can be dealt with. We applied a politics of scale perspective to understand motivations for defining a problem at the global or local level and show that the multilevel approach to water governance is evolving and inevitable. We argue that a centralized overarching governance system for water is unlikely and possibly undesirable; however, there is a need for a high-level think tank and leadership to develop a cosmopolitan perspective to promote sustainable water development.

  20. A novel consistent and well-balanced algorithm for simulations of multiphase flows on unstructured grids

    Patel, Jitendra Kumar; Natarajan, Ganesh

    2017-12-01

    We discuss the development and assessment of a robust numerical algorithm for simulating multiphase flows with complex interfaces and high density ratios on arbitrary polygonal meshes. The algorithm combines the volume-of-fluid method with an incremental projection approach for incompressible multiphase flows in a novel hybrid staggered/non-staggered framework. The key principles that characterise the algorithm are the consistent treatment of discrete mass and momentum transport and the similar discretisation of force terms appearing in the momentum equation. The former is achieved by invoking identical schemes for convective transport of volume fraction and momentum in the respective discrete equations while the latter is realised by representing the gravity and surface tension terms as gradients of suitable scalars which are then discretised in identical fashion resulting in a balanced formulation. The hybrid staggered/non-staggered framework employed herein solves for the scalar normal momentum at the cell faces, while the volume fraction is computed at the cell centroids. This is shown to naturally lead to similar terms for pressure and its correction in the momentum and pressure correction equations respectively, which are again treated discretely in a similar manner. We show that spurious currents that corrupt the solution may arise both from an unbalanced formulation where forces (gravity and surface tension) are discretised in dissimilar manner and from an inconsistent approach where different schemes are used to convect the mass and momentum, with the latter prominent in flows which are convection-dominant with high density ratios. Interestingly, the inconsistent approach is shown to perform as well as the consistent approach even for high density ratio flows in some cases while it exhibits anomalous behaviour for other scenarios, even at low density ratios. Using a plethora of test problems of increasing complexity, we conclusively demonstrate that the