WorldWideScience

Sample records for globalization economy financing

  1. The Financing of Innovative SMEs - a Solution for Increasing the Competitiveness of the Romanian Economy on Global Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA NICOLAESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike large enterprises, SMEs, especially innovative ones, face increaseddifficulties in the attempt to obtain financing due to the specificity of their activity.This situation calls for the involvement of the state by means of polices aiming atproviding support to this sector, and especially in order to encourage innovation,which can be a solution for increasing Romania’s competitiveness at the global level.Among the methods used to support these ideas, we will list several, from amongthose used in the article: the analysis of statistical data from several complementarysources (including evolution over time – indicators related to SMEs in general (theshare of enterprises, of the workforce, of the turnover, of the added value, in thenational economy etc. and to innovative ones in particular (means for innovation –using own funds or in cooperation; types of innovation – technological or nontechnological,etc.; a comparison on the one hand between the situation in Romaniaand the one in the EU, using indicators calculated as the average of values recorded inthe member states, and, on the other hand, between Romania and other EU membersstates with innovation performances superior or comparable to those of our country;emphasizing the difficulties faced by this sector, especially those concerning access tofinancing, in relation to innovation-related characteristics.

  2. The political economy of finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This survey reviews how recent political economy literature helps to explain variation in governance, competition, funding composition, and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits, is

  3. The Green Economy in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockington, Dan; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    As multiple visions for a Green Economy seek to become real, so are green economic initiatives in the global South multiplying. These can offer integration into wealth-generating markets – as well as displacement, alienation, conflict and opportunities for ‘green washing’. The articles included...... in this collection bring together a multidisciplinary team of scholars and a range of case studies, from forestry governance to tourism to carbon finance, to provide nuanced analyses of Green Economy experiences in the global South – examining the opportunities they provide, the redistributions they entail...

  4. IMPORTANCE OF FINANCING THE SOCIAL ECONOMY PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Victor NICOL‚ESCU; Corina CACE; Sorin CACE

    2012-01-01

    The re-emergence of the social economy sector as important agent for occupation, economic growth, social solidarity, associationism and social services, coincided with a higher importance of running program and project- based activities in all European countries, irrespective whether they are member states of candidate states. Within the context of the benefits specific to the social economy projects it is important to debate and analyse the subject of continuing the activities of this form o...

  5. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  6. Financing energy investments in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the part concerning Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) of the World Energy Council (WEC) Programme - a global study of the financing requirements of future energy developments. The investment needs are determined to reach the standards of developed energy market economies in terms of quality of service, efficiency, profitability, environmental protection and safety. Considering the macro-economic and general energy development scenarios done by IIASA and WEC the cumulative investment requirements 1990-2020 would be to range from $281bill. to $509 bill. in CEE; annual investment requirements would amount to $15-28 bill. depending on the scenarios; specific investment requirements per ton energy would range from 77 (ecologically driven scenario) to $101 (high growth, coal based scenario). In 1994 international finance for CEE/CIS energy sector was only $5 bill. (or 5% of the needs) due to the small size of the projects, low energy prices and the lack of incentives. CEE/CIS countries have not done enough to attract foreign loans. Western energy corporations acquired shares of Russian oil and gas companies. Reasons for the slow start include currency risk, legal uncertainty, uncertain demand prospects, low electricity tariffs, required rate of returns - above 18% in CEE, 25% in CIS, compared to 10% in US and UK. About 9% of total world foreign direct investments have been entered in energy sector. Multilateral organizations have invested yearly average $0.8-1 bill. grants and credits in CEE/CIS energy activities. From 1991 to 1995 135 mill. ECU have been spent for supporting national energy sector in CEE countries under PHARE activities. Difficulties are due to the lack of developed capital markets in these countries. In the future CEE capital markets could support a substantial proportion of the national investment requirements. By 2020 capital requirements for energy supply investments would be 3.4-4.7% of

  7. INTEGRATION AND GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrin Caraganciu; Andronic Roman

    2008-01-01

    This article emphasizes some aspects regarding integrationist processes in world economy, as well as the phenomenon of globalization. Also, there are mentioned stages of world economy globalization, as well as problems referring to this phenomenon.

  8. Miraculous financial engineering or toxic finance? The genesis of the U.S. subprime mortgage loans crisis and its consequences on the global financial markets and real economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Pezzuto

    2012-09-01

    around the world, transferring to these investors the rights to the mortgage payments and the related credit risk. With the collapse of the first banks and hedge funds in 2007 the rising number of foreclosures helped speed the fall of housing prices, and the number of prime mortgages in default began to increase. As many CDO products were held on a “mark to market” basis, the paralysis in the credit markets and the collapse of liquidity in these products let to the dramatic write-downs in 2007. When stock markets in the United States, Europe and Asia continued to plunge, leading central banks took the drastic step of a coordinated cut in interest rates and Governments coordinated actions that included taking equity stakes in major banks. This paper written by the Author (on October 7th, 2008 at the rise of these dramatic events, aims to demonstrate, through solid and fact-based assumptions, that this dramatic global financial crisis could have been addressed and managed earlier and better by many of the stakeholders involved in the subprime mortgage lending process such as, banks’ and investment funds management, rating agencies, banking and financial markets supervisory authorities. It also unfortunately demonstrates the corporate social responsibility failure and the moral hazard of many key players involved in this crisis, since a lot of them probably knew quite well what was happening but have preferred not to do anything or to do little and late in order to change the dramatic course of the events.

  9. Globalization, economy financing model crisis and the institutional re-structuration of the Brazilian electric power system; Globalizacao, crise do padrao de financiamento da economia e reestruturacao institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Claudio Schuller

    1995-12-31

    This thesis discusses the crisis in the Brazilian economical financing model and the consequent re-structuration of the Brazilian electric power system, giving special emphasis to: global historical factors; the new economic order; and, the consequences of the financial crisis in the Brazilian electric power system. In addition, it suggests new strategies for the institutional reformulation of the Brazilian electric power system 226 refs., 13 tabs.

  10. Public Goods in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    ILIESCU Elena Mihaela; CONSTANTINESCU Maria Florentina

    2010-01-01

    Given the path that on which the economic life has irreversibly entered and the fact that economic business results have a direct impact on the environment overall, both theorists and directly involved subjects in the global economy, puts more emphasis on the concept of global public good. The concept of a global public good is in fact the global economy, an extension of the concept of public good. In order for a public good to be considered a global public good has to fulfill the quasi-unive...

  11. Money and Finance as Global Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Montani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2008 financial crisis caused not only a dramatic fall in global output and employment but also a serious deterioration of public indebtedness for many governments, forced to rescue the banking system from failure. The crisis showed that national governments are not able to regulate the global market by means of the traditional instruments of political economy. The aim of this article is to identify new supranational instruments of economic policy. As a first step, to avoid a new financial crisis, it is necessary to understand the intimate connection between the international monetary system, founded on the dollar as key currency, and the international financial system. Only some economists were able to see the causes of the recent crisis as a by-product of an asymmetric monetary system. In this article, after having discussed the monetary roots of the financial crisis, the discussion is focused on monetary sovereignty, financial sovereignty, and fiscal sovereignty as the main economic responsibilities of a national government, to show that, today, a supranational economic government should have similar powers. An appendix (disposable on the website of the author on “Global imbalances: A false objective of economic policy” shows how the balance of payments imposes wrong goals to national economic policies. The discussion is focused on (a the neo-Ricardian theory of economic integration, (b financial capital flows, and (c the Keynesian equations of an open economy.

  12. Innovation Strategies for a Global Economy: Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... Keith Smith, Imperial College, London, UK. This book is about innovation strategies for a global economy, their development, implementation, measurement and management. Following the global economic crisis, people are asking: what went wrong? Here, Fred Gault illustrates that a part of the problem ...

  13. Institutional Competitiveness in the Global Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    that are very different institutionally. The analysis shows that there is no one best way to achieve success in today's global economy, except perhaps for reducing socioeconomic inequality; that the type of capitalism known as coordinated market economies are oversimplified in the literature; and that high......Despite high taxes, a large state budget and welfare state, much economic regulation, and a very open economy, Denmark continues to compete successfully against the other advanced capitalist economies. Hence, Denmark presents a paradox for neoliberalism, which predicts that these policies will hurt...... national competitiveness under conditions of economic globalization. Following the varieties of capitalism literature, this paper argues that Denmark's success has been based in large part on its institutional competitiveness-its capacity to achieve socioeconomic success as a result of the competitive...

  14. Globalization of the world economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, M.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Global trade has been growing for some 400 years. Comparing the present with 1914, there are several major changes: speed of communication and travel, the ease of moving financial assets, the growth in the Asian countries and the end of colonialism. The impact of this economic-political change in forces has a market effect on the energy industry and examples are explained. (UK)

  15. Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dieleman, Joseph; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Liu, Yingying; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Evans, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic de...

  16. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  17. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  18. Successful learning in the global economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    2012-01-01

    of knowledge upgrading in local firms. The article concludes that neither embeddedness in local networks nor linkages with transnational corporations are sufficient for Thai firms to upgrade their knowledge base to become successful actors in the global economy. Instead it points to the importance of focusing...

  19. Economy of education: National and global aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Ishchenko-Padukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the national economy of education. We assume that under the current conditions of the globalized world, the economy of education reveals its two-fold nature: on the one hand, it represents an element of the national economic system, and on the other, it is also a structural component of the global education system. Therefore, national economy of education is shaped up by both internal and external factors represented by national and international influences. We analyze here the functional composition and the methods of legal regulation of the economy of education under the conditions and provisions of the global geopolitical transformations. In addition, we use the empirical model of returns to education for showing the factors that impact the employability of young graduates at the labor market. Our results confirm the importance of education for achieving higher levels of income, both nationally and internationally. Finally, we come to the conclusion that its target function consists of the global promotion of national education and consolidation of national competitive position within the world education space.

  20. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY – PREMISES AND EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina\tBRAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is providing an overview of global economy, highlighting following aspects: premises of globalization process in economy, their effects and subsequent reactions which occur, for a proper management of adverse effects. Our approach facilitates understanding of globalization process that begins to be part of our life. We would like to describe globalization, as a phenomenon capable to determine pulse of national economic activities. Globalization is an important issue and the aim of our paper is to describe globalization as a whole, with its lights and its shadows. According to this dual description, in this way, becoming a known process, “survival” ways can be discovered. Globalization is irreversible and we have to “assimilate” it as a model of thinking and to manage it in our own interest, individually or nationally, and before considering it a good or bad intruder in our lives, we must know it. Issue of globalization is that we have limited resources at global level, and an increasing level of consumption, so we need to find a solution.

  1. Loan versus Bond Financing of Czech Companies and the influence of the Global Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačí Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available European economies are traditionally considered to be bank based regarding the debt financing. However, in times of crises in the bank sector, this feature may indicate a weakness of these economies when the credit squeeze phenomenon may occur and companies’ competitiveness might be negatively affected thanks to unstable financing possibilities. In such conditions, a shift from bank loans to bonds might be expected. That is why this paper focuses on mutual development of corporate bond and business loan markets in the developing Czech economy in the years 2006–2014 with regard to the impacts of the global financial crisis of 2008/2009. The main goal of this article is to identify whether, thanks to the impacts of the global recession in 2009, there was a shift in Czech economy in business financing from the loans to bonds in a similar fashion as in the case of East Asian economies after their financial crisis in the nineties. Since Czech companies practically do not use short-term bonds, a mutual relationship is examined between amounts of long-term corporate bonds and economic development captured by the GDP per capita, and between long-term business loans and development of long-term corporate bonds. The main findings of this study are that since the global financial crisis, bond financing of businesses has been growing faster than loan financing. Czech economy thus shifts and becomes more bond market-based. The development of bond financing is positively correlated with the GDP per capita. Time series of both loans and bonds develop along the same trend. However, residual components are correlated negatively, which confirms the standing of loans and bonds as substitutes. Two main practical implications may be derived from this study. First, a growing usage of bonds increases demands on the market regulator, especially in the field of monitoring. Second, the growing bond market leads to the increased effectiveness, which makes additional

  2. Finance is not the Economy : Reviving the Conceptual Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Hudson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Conflation of real capital with finance capital is at the heart of current misunderstandings of economic crisis and recession. We ground this distinction in the classical analysis of rent and the difference between productive and unproductive credit. We then apply it to current conditions, in which

  3. The Political Economy of Education Finance: The Case of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Thomas; Kenny, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Texas has one of the largest primary and secondary school systems in the United States. Funding equity has been a concern in the state courts, and significant legislative actions have been taken. We examine two votes taken in the Texas State Legislature in 1993 and 2006 that follow the directives from a series of education finance equity legal…

  4. The Design of Instruments For Government Finance in An Islamic Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem ul; Mirakhor, Abbas

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a viable approach for the design of an instrument of government finance (and monetary management) in an Islamic economy where conventional transactions based on an ex-ante promise of a risk-free rate of return are forbidden. Resources to finance government infrastructural and development projects can be mobilized through the issuance of a national participation paper (NPP) and this instrument can also serve as an instrument of monetary management. Various concep...

  5. ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia PALIU-POPA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of contemporary world, the active participation in international division of labor is an essential component of the development process of each country. In this context the foreign trade, as a distinct branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. Starting from the belief that international business development tends to become a condition of existence of firms, regardless of size or scope of activity, in this paper I will address the theoretical issues on globalization and internationalization of the economy and business correspondence between the internationalization stages and the forms of international transactions.

  6. The International Trade in Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Botescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the globalization of the world economy is the result of the amplification and diversification without precedent of the material, financial and human flows between the world’s states. The international commerce has known in the last period o strong expansion, almost uninterrupted, surpassing the industrial production growth and PIB on a world scale. Among the PIB evolution and the evolution of the world commerce there is a strong relationship of correlation, fact shown by the linear correlation coefficient. The structure on exports of country categories confirms the fact that the process of globalization has been fully completed in the world. Romania, through its achieved economic opening, has boosted its participation to the international economic trades. In this way there is a chance for Romania’s economy in the future to become more competitive, even though in the present our country faces serious problems concerning the strong deficit of the foreign trade balance.

  7. Economy globalization and internationalization of business

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia PALIU-POPA

    2009-01-01

    In the conditions of contemporary world, the active participation in international division of labor is an essential component of the development process of each country. In this context the foreign trade, as a distinct branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. Starting from the belief that international business development tends to bec...

  8. Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Joseph; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Liu, Yingying; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Evans, Tim; Evans, David; Kurowski, Christoph; Tandon, Ajay; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Jager, De Pieter; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia E.; Faro, Andre; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Masiye, Felix; Meier, Toni; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Osman, Abdalla Sidahmed; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Salama, Joseph; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shrime, Mark G.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this

  9. Global environmental impacts of the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.; Simmonds, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A.; Collins, W.; Stevenson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen-based energy systems appear to be an attractive proposition in providing a future replacement for the current fossil-fuel based energy systems. Hydrogen is an important, though little studied, trace component of the atmosphere. It is present at the mixing ratio of about 510 ppb currently and has important man-made and natural sources. Because hydrogen reacts with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, emissions of hydrogen to the atmosphere perturb the distributions of methane and ozone, the second and third most important greenhouse gases after carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is therefore an indirect greenhouse gas with a global warming potential GWP of 5.8 over a 100-year time horizon. A future hydrogen economy would therefore have greenhouse consequences and would not be free from climate perturbations. If a global hydrogen economy replaced the current fossil fuel-based energy system and exhibited a leakage rate of 1%, then it would produce a climate impact of 0.6% of the current fossil fuel based system. Careful attention must be given to reduce to a minimum the leakage of hydrogen from the synthesis, storage and use of hydrogen in a future global hydrogen economy if the full climate benefits are to be realised. (author)

  10. LE LIEN ENTRE FINANCE ET ECONOMIE ISLAMIQUES VIA LE MODELE PRINCIPIEL "ZR"

    OpenAIRE

    BELABES, ABDERRAZAK

    2010-01-01

    A l'heure où certains évoquent l'intégration de la finance islamique à la finance globale, et d'autres rattachent la finance islamique à des thèmes en vogue telles que la finance éthique, la finance participative ou la finance socialement responsable, le présent papier explore le lien entre finance et économie islamiques à partir du modèle principiel "ZR", c’est-à-dire "Zakât" et "Ribâ". Ce modèle montre que les principes invariants de Zakât et Ribâ jouent un rôle central dans l’établissement...

  11. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  12. MANAGEMENT STYLES IN A GLOBAL MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchien Karsten

    2015-07-01

    social relations and transactions, which put distant localities and local activities at a level of worldwide range, consequence and significance. These activities cluster into new reality like a globally operating market system and a globally developing technoscience. The question is to what extent a global civil society will come about too. At the level of internationally operating firms management styles will have to be developed to enhance the understanding of cultural heterogeneity within this global civil society. Cultural complexity will increase due to the intensification of interactions and transactions. Within and between internationally operating firms. Communicative rationality in terms of dialogue and conversations should be reinforced to deal adequately with this complexity. Communicative rationality perceives language not only as a mere representation of an objective reality but also as a human practice in a social context. Firms operating as communities of practice will enhance through proper management styles the reciprocal understanding we need in a world economy.

  13. Progress in the International Financing of Sustainable Development Projects and Resolution of Global Ecological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlyarevskyy Yaroslav V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the current state and prospects for the development of financial and investment mechanisms in the planning and implementation of environmental global international projects and programs. In particular, the main provisions for the formation of the concept of sustainable development in the context of investigating green investment as a form of international financing for sustainable development projects are outlined, and relevant international experience are presented as well. A theoretical and methodological, and retrospective analysis of forming the conceptual and categorical apparatus of the green economy and green investments is carried out. The applied financial and economic aspects of the formation of mechanisms for international financing to fulfill the obligations under the Kyoto Protocol are studied, specifics of the institutionalization of the organizational and financial mechanisms of the Global Environment Facility (GEF are determined, as well as the prospects of their influence on the national economy are examined.

  14. Aid Financing of Global Public Goods: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Cepparulo, Alessandra; Giuriato, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The paper compares different aggregates of aid financed global public goods and detects the presence, for the period 1995-2006, of the substitution effect between these aggregates and traditional aid that was found by former studies for earlier periods. A second focus of the paper is on the differences in the importance that donors attach to the various types of global public goods, trying to detect regular patterns in their choices of financing. Statistical regularities, representative of c...

  15. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  16. Successful learning in the global economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to subject some of the hypotheses concerning the potential of knowledge upgrading for firms engaged in various vertical and horizontal networks to a critical examination. The theories are applied to a Thai context and use the case of the auto parts industry to evaluate the process...... of knowledge upgrading in local firms. The article concludes that neither embeddedness in local networks nor linkages with transnational corporations are sufficient for Thai firms to upgrade their knowledge base to become successful actors in the global economy. Instead it points to the importance of focusing...

  17. Interactivity Leadership in a Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Necsulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interaction of leadership more pronounced due to globalization, the business world, can no longer ignore the powerful cultural aspects of leadership. In other words, there are differences between leadership styles considered acceptable in a national culture or another. Looking at different models of leadership and differences between cultural norms, we find that in this increasingly globalized world, begin to crystallize several converging trends. Thus, "global leadership" that leaders who act in a multicultural environment would be useful following attributes and skills: charisma, aptitude for teamwork, openness to change, interest in political and socio-economic life of other countries; ability to retain good relations with people of other cultures, adaptability to new situations, ability to work in a multicultural team, etc. Foundation skills training exceptional global leadership is built from childhood through socialization experiences that influence cultural patterns, and also are influenced by them. Early managerial responsibilities and experience gained in international projects do not create skills for leadership in international environment, but they develop. Consequently, global leaders must create multicultural communities, creating a culture that goes over the differences between people and contains certain "guiding signals"-values and attitudes - which can be easily understood by employees from different cultural groups. Thus, global leadership development program does not focus exclusively on understanding and acceptance of cultural diversity, but goes further, making the people realize they need a common organizational culture. Globalization requires many changes in the economy, communication, political structures, in all areas of personal and organizational-among them such essential processes of cultural convergence and diversification.

  18. Development of Green Business as an Approach to Financing the Greening of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Nikolaevna Yashalova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of green economy development are in the focus of attention of Russian and foreign scientists. Its formation was influenced by environmental activities financing sources. The article presents the description of budgetary and extra-budgetary environmental protection financing. Special attention is paid to the need to strengthen private financial support of environmentally determined activities, which can be implemented as part of development of ecopreneurship. The purpose of this article is to identify the trends in budgetary and extra-budgetary environmental protection financing and resource conservation in the Russian Federation and to rationalize theoretically the necessity of business participation in financing of environment-related business ideas, which is aimed at supporting the greening of economic activity at the regional level. The methods of empirical and statistical research, systematization and generalization of information have been used. SWOT analysis has identified the strengths and weaknesses of green business, as well as the opportunities for and threats to its development. The study systematizes the information on the sources of financing of environment-related activities, identifies their strengths and weaknesses, and analyzes statistical data on financial aspects of environmental protection. It has been established that the financing of environmental activities in the regions is carried out according to the residual principle; most of the sources of environment financing are unavailable to economic entities; indirect assistance in the implementation of environment-related management finds absolutely no application. The material presented in this paper can be used by public authorities in the development of measures to facilitate the transition to green economy and may also be applicable in the educational process. The authors conclude that the successful transition of Russian regions to the path of sustainable

  19. Identification of creative investment in global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Lukianenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the creativization process of economic development under the conditions of the transformation of forms and methods of global competition. The essence of the creative industries has been revealed in the context of their methodological and practical identification. The features of the creative management have been found out, the contours of its development have been outlined the through targeted analysis and competency orientation of relevant specialized MBA programs of universities in the countries which are the innovative leaders. The model of the creative management of international companies has been proposed. Creative Management model formed international company. The methodological format of identification of creative investment has been formed, their author's interpretation has been provided. The necessity and activities have been rationalized with regard to the updates of signs of investment classification by sources, types, forms, target orientation and innovative nature of the conditions of formation for creative economy and management.

  20. Financing the construction of transport infrastructure as the basis for sustainable development of the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidziy, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Dependence of the regional economic development from efficiency of financing of the construction of transport infrastructure is analyzed and proved in this article. Effective mechanism for infrastructure projects financing, public and private partnership, is revealed and its concrete forms are formulated. Here is proposed an optimal scenario for financing for the transport infrastructure, which can lead to positive transformations in the economy. Paper considers the advantages and risks of public and private partnership for subjects of contractual relations. At that, components for the assessment of economic effect of the implementation of infrastructure projects were proposed simultaneously with formulation of conditions for minimization risks. Results of the research could be used for solution of persistent problems in the development of transport infrastructure, issues of financial assurance of construction of infrastructure projects at the regional level.

  1. The political economy of global finamcial meltdown (Depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It submitted that the global economy was indeed in depression. The implication of mono-economy based on crude oil, purchased only by the west whose economy is shrinking is very dire to the Nigeria it observed. It recommended the adaptation of the Keynesian principles of economic management which involved massive ...

  2. Financing Education: Opportunities for Global Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Liesbet; Smith, Katie

    2015-01-01

    It is hoped that this year will be marked in history as the year when the world agreed on an ambitious global plan to eradicate poverty and ensure that all children have access to a high-quality basic education. This report focuses on how a subset of the targets related to basic education--that is, that all children should complete high-quality…

  3. Attribution d'un financement de base au Global Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Attribution d'un financement de base au Global Development Network (GDN) - phase II. La Banque mondiale a lancé le Global Development Network (GDN) en 1999 en s'appuyant sur le principe que des recherches bien menées sur les politiques et appliquées comme il se doit peuvent accélérer le processus de ...

  4. Africa's Competitiveness In The Global Economy and The Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The business environment and infrastructure are not favorable to the tourists. Africa's Travel and Tourism competitiveness is presented for thirty-five African countries ... explored would enhance Africa's competitiveness in the global economy. Key Words: Africa, Competitiveness, Globalization, Economy, Travel and Tourism ...

  5. Global knowledge economy in the post-colony: public universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These trends from the global knowledge economy have noticeable reverberations in Nigeria in many dimensions like widening digital divide and increasing exclusion from the global knowledge economy, devaluation of indigenous knowledge systems, increased 'white slavery' and perpetuation of the culture of dependency ...

  6. Emerging Economies and Firms in the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    n exploration into the impact of the global crisis on emerging economies and firms and their responses to it. The ways in which the leading emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) are dealing with the challenges of the global crisis are complemented by the approaches applied...

  7. Changing global capitalism and the growth of the Indian economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Dige

    The paper argues that one of the reasons for India's continued growth is that India's economy increasingly fall in line with recent global economic changes.......The paper argues that one of the reasons for India's continued growth is that India's economy increasingly fall in line with recent global economic changes....

  8. The new architecture of economies' typology within the globalization context

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Catalin C.

    2009-01-01

    Over viewing the most recently evolutions throughout global economy, we can easily conceive that the collateral effects of economical globalization and market integration, represents the main issues debated in specialized professional or political circles. The first step toward regain the global markets functionality is to review as a sine-qua-non condition, the institutional and functional structure of financial system and global economy system as well. In such context, this paperwork is mea...

  9. THE EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK ROLE IN FINANCING ROMANIA’S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Investment Bank contributes to EU objectives by providing long-term funding for specific projects in compliance with the prudential banking regulations. The EIB continuously adapts its activity to recent developments in EU policies. Within the EU, the EIB Group's ambition is to contribute effectively through a selective choice of projects, to the European Union objectives and to mobilize funds from other sources for such projects. The paper aims to present EIB forms of financing Romania’s economy as well as the role and the importance of EIB financing for achieving performance and for developing areas such as innovation and skills, SMEs, climate action and strategic infrastructure in Romania. For doing that we analyzed the Bank’s activity in Romania in the 2009-2013 period.

  10. The Political Economy of Global Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note McChesney’s contribution was first published as an introductory chapter in the edited volume entitled Capitalism and the Information Age. In this volume, authors (also those basing their research in areas other than critical communication studies provided, amongst other things, a critique of the celebratory ideas about the revolutionary potentials of the Internet, the new information and, communication technologies, and of the information society, which supposedly brought about a complete discontinuity with the past. The volume presented an original and sorely needed critical insight into these debates, which often hailed new technologies and social changes. It is worth pointing out that this volume also features two chapters by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman. In these they rethink the role of propaganda in society and their own “propaganda model”, which was aggressively (but often baselessly criticized. Herman’s chapter is dedicated in its entirety to providing a weighty answer to these critiques. McChesney’s contribution, on the other hand, gives an insight into the history of the approach of political economy of communication, embeds the approach in the context of global capitalism (when the full realization about its role in the world context only started to emerge, while also touching upon the key dilemmas of its time that remain relevant to this day (e.g., market liberalization and the corporate ownership of media industries, growth of monopolization, digitalization and the Internet. This is a timely contribution that also demonstrates McChesney’s activist approach and shows how difficult it is for social scientists to forecast what exactly the future will bring.

  11. 78 FR 2690 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part I; Institution of Investigation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Committee on Finance, (Committee) under section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1332(g)), the U... trade in the context of the broader economy; Examine U.S. and global digital trade, the relationship to...

  12. Financing energy investments world-wide and in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of mobilizing the finance under given circumstances is pointed out. The energy sector investments needs correspond to only 3-4% of world GDP or 6-7% of world capital formation. In most developing countries mobilizing financing is a issue, where the risk/return ratio of a given energy investment project does not compare favourably with competing projects and if their handicap is not compensating for by public financing or government guarantees. Compared to the other regions, the energy systems of the economies in transition absorb a high proportion of domestic capital. This is due to past and continuing supply-oriented energy policies and inefficiencies and the export orientation of the energy-rich countries, and to limited domestic capital markets. As a result only a estimated 9-13% of long-term investment 'needs' is presently financed. The root of the problem is slow progress in the reform of energy and capital markets at a time government withdraw from financing and guaranteeing energy investments. Recommendations include transition to sustainable energy strategies ; the liberalization of energy prices and tariffs; the phasing out of subsides and cross-subsides; the stabilization of tax and depreciation regimes; neutrality with regard of the various forms of ownership; reliable law enforcement; non-discrimination of foreign investors, shareholders, competitors; the ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty; and generally, institutional and regulatory frameworks that address market imperfections. Regarding domestic capital markets the goal is to increase traded volume, reduce volatility, and avoid discrimination and favour international integration

  13. The Economy Governing During Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available World and national economie governing is an essential premise of the political stability and democratic evolution. In this study are approached theoretical and practical aspects of the economie governing. Theoretical acquisitions in this field highlit multiple perspectives of approaching and difficulties to characterize this complex and multisized fenomenon. A possible theory of governing the economy needs to use some concepts and mechanisms particular to more scientific fields (political science, economy, cibernetics, the theory of systems and others. The dinamic character and the instability of the present system of governing imposed the analysis of the factors and conditions which have generated the crises of the national and world economic governing. In this context, there are indentified the forms of manifesting the instability (lack of legitimacy, transpa¬rence and democratic responsability, and also the direction of necessary action to implement an efficient and responsable economic governing.

  14. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...... to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  15. FINANCING MECHANISMS FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF UKRAINE'S ECONOMY INVOLVING ANGEL INVESTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nagachevska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges connected with attracting foreign investments into the agricultural sector of the Ukrainian economy as well as diversification of forms of international investments are actual due to the immediate needs of realization of innovative development, technological upgrading and strengthening of agricultural sector attractiveness on the world market. Current situation and problems connected with attracting foreign investments into the agricultural sector of the Ukrainian economy are revealed. It is detected that level of attracting foreign investments into the agricultural sector of Ukraine and into AIC together don't meet the needs of its innovative potential. The following factors of agricultural sector attractiveness have been considered: high soil fertility and favorable weather conditions for growing crops; export capacity; high yield of the Ukrainian farming companies; undervalued assets and low level of capitalization of agricultural companies; attractive tax regime for agricultural producers. It is recommended that agricultural producers should indicate these factors in investment proposals and projects that they present to potential international investors. State investment policy in the agricultural sector is viewed to consolidate the resource base and the sources of investment have been determined. Suggestions to expand the financing mechanisms for investment projects in the agricultural sector involving angel investors have been justified. Economic feasibility of attracting foreign investments for financing of innovation activity of farming companies has been revealed. The key requirements and main stages of investments of angel investment association have been described.

  16. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  17. Globalisation: local agency, the global economy, and Australia's industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Webber

    2000-01-01

    The term globalisation has been employed to denote the global integration of finance, the emergence of global corporations, the development of institutions of global governance, the global implications of environmental crises, and the commodification of previously nonmarketed arenas of social life. The author argues that globalisation needs, rather, to be conceived theoretically as the sectoral and spatial unification of systems of valuation. Using this definition, and a study of the developm...

  18. Global Innovation in Emerging Economies | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 déc. 2010 ... There are mainly two new trends: the location of globally strategic R&D by multinational corporations in developing countries and, more recently, the trend ... Global Innovation in Emerging Economies examines the dynamics of the globalization processes and the emergence of new locations for innovation ...

  19. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine changes in international trade associated with the integration of low- and middle-income countries into the global economy. Led by China and India, the share of developing economies in global exports more than doubled between 1994 and 2008. One feature of new trade patterns is greater South-South trade. China and India have booming demand for imported raw materials, which they use to build cities and factories. Industrialization throughout the South has deepened globa...

  20. Hotel Chains and the Sharing Economy in Global Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela, Salvioni

    2016-01-01

    The global tourism industry has experienced steady growth in recent years. In this context, the sharing economy has changed the rules of global tourism, developing multi-sided technology platforms for the provision of hospitality with a range comparable to that of major hotel groups. The sharing economy is an emergent economic-technological phenomenon fostered by developments in ICT, considered both a disruptive innovation and a competitive threat to hotel companies. Accommodation sharing mod...

  1. Innovation Strategies for a Global Economy: Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 oct. 2010 ... Canada-Africa Prevention Trials (CAPT) Network : renforcement des capacités en vue d'essais cliniques en matière de prévention du VIH/sida en Afrique. Le Canada-African Prevention Trials (CAPT) Network a été formé grâce au financement obtenu dans le cadre de la phase I des subventions de ...

  2. Your Institution in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, William

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his reflections on the American economy and its "slow, gradual, and tedious" recovery. What the American people are experiencing now is not one of the ordinary recessions that have been experienced since World War II. What they have seen is a bursting of a bubble in the credit markets and in financial…

  3. The International Trade in Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Botescu

    2007-05-01

    Romania, through its achieved economic opening, has boosted its participation to the international economic trades. In this way there is a chance for Romania’s economy in the future to become more competitive, even though in the present our country faces serious problems concerning the strong deficit of the foreign trade balance.

  4. ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION AND TRANSNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Maida Mušović; Azra Ćatović; Aferdita Crnišanin

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of globalization can be seen everywhere: at home, at work, in major department stores, newspapers and business journals, the monthly government statistics, and academic literature. These processes have led to a global understanding of the business and the concept of transnational development. This paper will put emphasis on the impact of globalization on business in the world and on markets in the region, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of globalization politics in terms ...

  5. Diversification of the Higher Mining Education Financing in Globalization Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Victoria; Dolina, Olga; Shpil'kina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    In the current conditions of global competition, the development of new mining technologies, the requirements to labor resources, their skills and creative potential are increasing. The tasks facing the mining industry cannot be solved without highly qualified personnel, especially managers, engineers and technicians, specialists who possess the knowledge and competences necessary for the development of science and technology of mining, and ensuring mining industrial safety. The authors analyze personnel problems and financing of mining higher education, conclude that there is a need to develop social partnership and diversify the sources of funding for training, advanced training and retraining of personnel for mining and processing of solid mineral deposits.

  6. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Anyone who believes that globalization can be stopped has to tell us how he would envisage stopping economic and technological progress. This is... globalization over the last several decades. One such source has been technological advances that have significantly lowered the costs of transportation and...third source of globalization has been changes in institutions, where organizations have a wider reach, due, in part, to technological changes and to

  7. Overcoming the Ulama: Globalizing Iran's Political Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brechbill, Alan M

    2008-01-01

    ... position to either move back toward the traditional ideologies that prompted such a radical transformation, away from the pressures, challenges and interdependencies created through globalization...

  8. The Effects of Globalization on Developing Economies: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines globalization and its effects on third World Economic development with emphasis on Nigerian economy. Globalization has become a whirl wind blowing across the world due to acceleration in information and communication technology thereby fostering more interactions as it shrinks the geographical ...

  9. Emerging Global Political Economy and Implications for the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world has been transformed into a global political economy as a result of the unprecedented level of interconnectedness of political, economic, social and technological forces that permeate the contemporary global system. This paper identifies trade regulations, technology and capitalism as core factors responsible for ...

  10. Ecological Modernization and the Global Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores what an ecological modernization perspective has to offer in an era marked by globalization. Globalization processes and dynamics are mostly seen as detrimental to the environment. The point that an ecological modernization perspective puts on the research agenda is that,

  11. National competitiveness and absolute advantage in a global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Distinguished trade theorists maintain that a national economy cannot be uncompetitive as a whole, contrary to the frequent statements of many politicians, because a country must possess a comparative advantage in some sector according to Ricardo’s principle. In this paper the author arguesthat such a criticism addressed to the notion of national competitiveness neglects a bottom line of a national economy engaged in a global market. In this context, characterized by free capital movements an...

  12. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Faizur

    2005-01-01

    ...), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in setting the rules under which globalization is played, has placed developing countries in a much disadvantageous position vis-a-vis the developed countries...

  13. US forest products in the global economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave N Wear; Jeff Prestemon; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ shares of global industrial roundwood production and derivative products have declined precipitously since the 1990s. We evaluate the extent of these declines compared with those of major producing countries from 1961 to 2013. We find that the US global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28% in 1999 but by 2013 was at 17%, with the decline...

  14. An oil-sick global economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Since early 2004, oil prices have increased by 50% as a combined result of a demand shock, tensions on production capacities and supply disruptions. The surplus of wealth from oil importing to exporting countries nears 100 bn dollars (0.3% of OECD GDP) in the whole year. Households' real income should decrease by 0.3 point in the Euro zone and by 0.5 point in the US. According to our oil price forecasts (33 dollars a barrel by the end of 2005), GDP growth should be reduced by 0.4 point in 2004-2005. Should prices remain at 50 dollars throughout 2005, growth in industrial countries will be further impaired (0.6 point with a monetary policy response), but developing economies will suffer more. Oil producing countries should increase their imports and the reintroduction of petro dollars on financial markets should hold international interest rates down

  15. Challenges, Contradictions and Risks of the Modern Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyneka Tetyana A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the nature of challenges, contradictions and risks of the global economy. The stages of the reproduction cycle of global contradictions are considered with singling out the “conflict” stage. There described the categorical apparatus of the research with determination of the following meaningful sequence: global challenge ? global problem ? global risk ? global crisis ? global catastrophe. The forecast of the WEF for 2017 on global trends and global risks is analyzed. The system nature of global risks is identified as a defining feature of their modern manifestation. The system approach to determining the source of origin of modern challenges, contradictions and risks of the global economy is used. It is proved that the nature of the system unproductiveness (crisis-induced character comes from the depths of capitalist relations and finds its modern manifestation through the self-denial of capitalism and the contradictions caused by the evolution of global capital. The idea of the inevitability of the global catastrophe that awaits humanity is refuted and the possibility and necessity of applying long-term safety management strategies on the part of the harmonized society is argued.

  16. The Localized Global Economy in Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDAL DÍAZ DE RADA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the concept of globalism and the theory of the global system, the process of ?industrial relocation of the Tangiers-Tetouan región (Morocco? has been analyzed. Labor regulation and proximity to Europe have transformed this region into a favored destination for transnational companies. In order to understand the discourse among social agents which share space and interests, especially those who occupy a position of power in the social structure, a qualitativequantitative methodology has been used to understand the influence of the global on the local. The central category ?from expectations for improvement to personal frustration? emerges to explain the social processes which have transformed the región into a migration hub, aimed at achieving the ?successful product?.

  17. Jobless society – phenomenon of global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilobrova Tetiana Oleksandrivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics and causes of the jobless society formation based on the demographic indicators and trends in the global labour market observed have been identified in the article. The structural changes in youth employment and a number of new challenges for modern society have been investigated. The extent and nature of youth employment crisis according to the particular country and region have been analyzed. The process of young people into the virtual labour market integration as one of the possible solutions of global unemployment problem among young people has been described.

  18. Global Innovation in Emerging Economies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... In recent decades, there have been significant changes in the way corporate innovation is performed. They include changes in the innovation process, flexibility to outsource innovation activities, and most importantly, the location of innovation. There are mainly two new trends: the location of globally ...

  19. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  20. Jobless society – phenomenon of global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bilobrova Tetiana Oleksandrivna; Tul Svitlana Ivanivna

    2015-01-01

    The main characteristics and causes of the jobless society formation based on the demographic indicators and trends in the global labour market observed have been identified in the article. The structural changes in youth employment and a number of new challenges for modern society have been investigated. The extent and nature of youth employment crisis according to the particular country and region have been analyzed. The process of young people into the virtual labour market integration as ...

  1. Institutional Competitiveness in the Global Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    national competitiveness under conditions of economic globalization. Following the varieties of capitalism literature, this paper argues that Denmark's success has been based in large part on its institutional competitiveness-its capacity to achieve socioeconomic success as a result of the competitive...... advantages that firms derive from operating within a particular set of political and economic institutions. The institutional basis for successfully coordinating labor markets, vocational training and skill formation programs, and industrial policy are examined for Denmark and the United States—two countries...

  2. The New Development Bank in Global Finance and Economic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morozkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the question whether the New Development Bank (NDB will promote the role of the BRICS countriesin the global financial architecture and foster their development. It begins by comparing the key multilateral developmentbanks (World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank,European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and national development banks of the BRICS countries with thenewly established institution. The NDB’s purpose is to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable developmentprojects in the member countries. This purpose, as author concludes on the base of the analysis, partly duplicates the workof the existing institutions. However, the NDB could add to the functions of the existing institutions and become a significantdevelopment bank for its members. The best way to achieve this significance is to implement multilateral projects in the areasmentioned above. The article also examines the current role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture andthe potential for an increased role, brought by the establishment of the BRICS bank. The founding countries of the NDB willjointly determine the volume and directions of its financial aid. In addition, in contrast to the Bretton Woods institutions,the BRICS countries can change the rules of the development financial aid, particularly the conditions and system formonitoring results. The article concludes that the BRICS countries have created a possible way to change the current systemof development finance and therefore to increase the role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture.

  3. Nigeria's Development Challenges in a Digitalized Global Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... viable security measures and making information and communication facilities and services easily affordable and accessible to the common man. It is only through effective implementation of the recommendations that Nigeria can lead or at least secure a seat among the comity of nations in the digitalized global economy.

  4. Globalization and the Rise of the Entrepreneurial Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audretsch, D.; Sanders, M.

    This paper argues that recent trends in the global economy have led to a shift in developed countries’ comparative advantage from mature industrial to early stage entrepreneurial production. We develop a three stage product life cycle model in which we distinguish between life cycle stages

  5. The debt crisis, the global economy and the challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The debt crisis, the global economy and the challenges of development: sub Saharan Africa at the crossroads. ... democratization, striving towards gender parity, stemming conditions that precipitate incessant conflicts, reversing the region's crumbling environmental conditions, and fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Journal of ...

  6. Africa's Competitiveness In The Global Economy and The Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Global Economy and The Tourism Sector. Helen Yorowa Ollor. Department Of Hospitality Management & Tourism. Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Tel: 0803 762 3882. Email: Hyollor@Yahoo.Com. Abstract. Africa's achievements in tourism revenues and tourists ...

  7. Corporate social responsibility in the new global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfelt, Lise-Lotte

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the rights and responsibilities of global corporations. Multinational and transnational corporations of the new economy face a serious difficulty in being ethical today. The environment is subject to the enormous influence of material monism and ethics becomes at times a question of profits. This paper discusses a few aspects on ethical marketing strategies, the use of ethical codes and corporate survival under the pressures of increasing globalization. The purpo...

  8. The Impact of Global Economy upon Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Duret Gabriela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason of the more pronounced globalization of the business world, we can nolonger ignore the powerful cultural side of leadership. In other words, there are differences betweenleading styles considered as accepted by a national culture or another. For example, I come fromNetherlands – in Dutch, the word meaning leader is leader. But this word may be written in twoways: either using the short diphthong „ei”, or with the long one ”ij”, although the pronunciation isthe same. When written with „ij” it means „martyr”. This superposition of meanings is sending amessage: any Dutch leader who is trying to put him forward too much, is rapidly „cut”, In the Dutchworld, at work or in other cases, it is not accepted to put you forward – or this is consideredsomething of bad taste.

  9. Globalization Of The Indian Economy: The Main Trends And Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Galistcheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is the analysis of the globalization model of the Indian economy, its main trends and perspectives. The article highlights the ways of India’s integration in the world economy –its participation in the international capital movement and in the international trade as well as its positions in global value chains. The author examines the most representative definitions of globalization and draws attention that the theoretical basis of the study is the synthesis of the concept of global value chains and A.P. Thirlwall’s definition of globalization. The methodological basis of the study is such methods as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis. The systematic approach to the overall study of the Indian economy and the Indian external economic policy in particular has become the base of this research. The author underlines that according to the OECD data the Indian participation in global value chains is 42% of the Indian gross exports. At the same time India as a large economy has a less share of exports made of inputs taking part in vertical trade in comparison with other developing countries due to diversified national economy created during the importsubstitution period. The author notes Indian positions in international capital movement. The author stresses that the Indian contemporary investment policy is aimed at attracting foreign capital that doesn’t lead to the formation of external debt. The article highlights the Indian positions in international trade of goods and services. The author examines the composition of Indian exports and imports as well as direction of Indian trade. The author draws attention to increasing the Indian positions in trade in intermediate goods. It proves the active participation of India in global value chains. The article presents statistical data on the Grubel-Lloyd Index which measures India and the world economy intra-industry trade as well as RCA coefficient which

  10. Private finance initiative hospital architecture: towards a political economy of the Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Sociological analysis has done much to illuminate the architectural contexts in which social life takes place. Research on care environments suggests that the built environment should not be understood as a passive backdrop to healthcare, but rather that care is conditioned by the architecture in which it happens. This article argues for the importance of going beyond the hospital walls to include the politics that underwrite the design and construction of hospital buildings. The article assesses the case of the yet-to-be-realised Liverpool Royal University Hospital, and the private finance initiative (PFI) funding that underpins the scheme, which is suggested as a salient 'external' context for understanding architecture's role in the provision of healthcare of many kinds for many years to come. PFI has major implications for democratic accountability and local economy, as well as for the architecture of the hospital as a site of care. Critical studies can illuminate these paradoxically visible-but-opaque hospital spaces by going beyond that which is immediately empirically evident, so as to reveal the ways in which hospital architecture is conditioned by political and economic forces. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  11. THE EFFECT OF ILLICIT TRADE IN NARCOTICS ON GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-07-01

    Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit

  12. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPERATIVE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Кozlova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the factors influencing agricultural production towards global market. The study consists basic fundamental imperatives of globalization on the agricultural sector in international economic relations. The article analyzes the strategic priorities of the international agricultural sector, which includes financial and credit support, legal aspects, processes and integration of organizational structures. Technological imperatives require a large structural and institutional turn in the Ukrainian economy on the basis of current trends in the global economy, scientific and technical potential. There is a growing importance of organizing and conducting international level in the field of technological forecasting. This type of prediction is considered as backbone component in strategic forecasting and economic development programming.

  14. Global fund financing of tuberculosis services delivery in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donna; Lal, S S; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Zumla, Alimuddin; Atun, Rifat

    2012-05-15

    Despite concerted efforts to scale up tuberculosis control with large amounts of international financing in the last 2 decades, tuberculosis continues to be a social issue affecting the world's most marginalized and disadvantaged communities. This includes prisoners, estimated at about 10 million globally, for whom tuberculosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has emerged as the single largest international donor for tuberculosis control, including funding support in delivering tuberculosis treatment for the confined population. The Global Fund grants database, with an aggregate approved investment of $21.7 billion in 150 countries by the end of 2010, was reviewed to identify tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis grants and activities that monitored the delivery of tuberculosis treatment and support activities in penitentiary settings. The distribution and trend of number of countries with tuberculosis prison support was mapped by year, geographic region, tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis burden, and prison population rate. We examined the types of grant recipients managing program delivery, their performance, and the nature and range of services provided. Fifty-three of the 105 countries (50%) with Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programs delivered services within prison settings. Thirty-two percent (73 of 228) of tuberculosis grants, representing $558 million of all disbursements of Global Fund tuberculosis support by the end of 2010, included output indicators related to tuberculosis services delivered in prisons. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of these grants were implemented by governments, with the remaining by civil society and other partners. In terms of services, half (36 of 73) of grants provided diagnosis and treatment and an additional 27% provided screening and monitoring of tuberculosis for prisoners. The range of services tracked was limited in scope

  15. World Economy at the Confluence between Globalization and Regionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Marian DIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the enlargement and deepening of connections in various spheres of influence of the economic, political, social and cultural life, the problems occurring in the process of globalization are rather global than national, their solving being carried out globally instead of nationally. Thus, in economic and financial terms, globalization contributes to strengthening and enlarging the connections among national economies in the global market of goods, services and capital. In the paper first part, it is presented the current situation of globalization and the need for development at regional level. In the second part, taking into account that the regionalization process varies from country to country, depending on the economic, social, political, demographic and ethnic situation, we showed an analysis of the European Union’s policy of development and cohesion. In the last part, we brought forward the current situation of European development policy, conclusions and views concerning the theme approached.

  16. Testing Finance-Led, Export-Led and Import-Led Growth Hypotheses on Four Sub-Saharan African Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Olaniyi

    2013-01-01

    This study carries out an empirical examination of the finance-led, export-led and import-led growth hypothesis for four of the largest Sub-Saharan African economies namely South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. Within a multivariate Vector-Auto Regressive (VAR) framework, the concept of Granger causality is employed to determine the direction of causation between exports and output, duly taking into account the stationarity properties of the time series data. With further substantiation fro...

  17. Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye; Anthony, Pat

    One Supreme Court decision, seven federal appellate decisions, and two district court decisions were published in the area of school finance in 1990. The Supreme Court reviewed a case concerning allegations of school district segregation, along with an ensuing tax assessment issue. Federal appellate courts handed down decisions involving alleged…

  18. Global Citizenship and Marginalisation: Contributions towards a Political Economy of Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The development of a global form of citizenship stands in a rather tense relation with the realities of vast numbers of marginalised citizens across the globe, to the extent that marginality appears to be the hidden other of global citizenship. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the development of a political economy of global citizenship…

  19. Economie et enseignement a Madagascar. (Economy and Education in Madagascar.) Financement des systemes educatifs: etudes de cas Nationales 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon, Philippe

    The purpose of this volume is to analyze the problems of school finance in Madagascar, including those that have arisen in the past decade and those anticipated in the present decade (through 1980). More generally, this book examines past and future connections between the economic and educational systems in Madagascar. The author examines the…

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON ALGERIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyneb GUELLIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Economic Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s , The financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. It is a situation where macro indicator like economic growth rate fall in most countries across the world. “Although economists largely failed to predict this global economic seismic shock, they have since made up for their oversight by generating a large and growing literature explaining the crisis.” In this discussion paper explores what happened and what issues arise from the Global Financial Crisis on the global economy and the Algerian economic in particular.

  1. Global cosmopolitan economics, the euro and the Portuguese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Farto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite favourable external circumstances, in the last decade the Portuguese economy developed a model of imbalance and dependence based on the disparity between production and consumption, which was financed from the outside and led to anaemic growth, severe deficits and explosive debt, much similar to the Latin American populist models of the past. The restrictions related to the adoption of the euro and inadequate economic policies are the determinants of this process, and, simultaneously, the barriers that need to be overcome. The internal devaluation/recessionary policy, wrongly presented as a close replacement for external devaluation/expansionary policy, underestimates the recessive effects on demand and the way it gets aggravated amidst strong indebtedness, fostering a deflationary spiral that tends to undermine the policy of austerity that is essential to reduce the imbalances. Doubts about the benefits of the abatement of all obstacles (including those of a monetary nature to free trade among countries of very unequal development, long expressed by Friedrich List, are intensifying. In the absence of own currency, sovereignty and discretionary budgetary policy will be reduced in favour of prescribed rules, limiting economic policies to microeconomic and mesoeconomic frameworks. Due to the lack of an independent exchange rate mechanism, the exports sector sets the pace for the growth of the economy and of wages in the long term, while the impossibility to devaluate tends to lead to cumulative imbalances that are only offset by the occurrence of crises. Avoiding the latter requires paced wage and social policies, and increasing the rate of growth of the product and wages requires the development of an exports sector with high added value. This is the policy and strategy narrow path that Portuguese economy needs to tread.

  2. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care: Designing Equitable Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.

  3. Finance and growth in a bank-based economy : Is it quantity or quality that matters?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, Michael; Wedow, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most finance-growth studies approximate the size of financial systems rather than the quality of intermediation to explain economic growth differentials. Furthermore, the neglect of systematic differences in cross-country studies could drive the result that finance matters. We suggest a measure of

  4. GLOBALIZATION PRECONDITIONS FOR TRANSNATIONALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyshnevska O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a process that embodies the transformation of the spatial organization of the world and its regions, social relations and interactions measured by such indicators as: duration, intensity, speed and influence that give rise to intercontinental or interregional flows and structures of activity, interactions and manifestations at the socio-economic and ecological levels. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the priorities in ensuring the national security of the state in view of the impact of globalization factors, the introduction of approaches to the adaptation of the country’s economy to the processes of transnationalization of the world economy. Modern globalization of the world economy is reflected in the deepening of internationalization of production. Globalization is characterized by a positive and negative impact on different systems, an increase in the influence of the process of transnationalization. It is revealed that transnationalization is often understood by new phenomena, qualitative changes taking place in the world economy. Transnationalization is seen as a process of expanding the international activities of industrial firms, banks, service companies, and their exit from the national boundaries of individual countries, which leads to the growth of national companies in transnational. The main factors of the negative impact of TNCs on the economy of the recipient country are: the danger of introducing environmentally hazardous technologies; development of innovations in strategic enterprises of the defense industry; outflow of foreign investment due to negative macroeconomic trends; insufficient rates of development of branches of TNCs, due to the tendency to exaggerate the reaction to a possible change in market conditions. For the transnationalization of the economic sphere, the emergence and strengthening of the positions of international monopolies, transnational corporations, international financial

  5. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  6. The place of foreign direct investment in the global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gutowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and growing role in global business. It can provide a firm with new markets and marketing channels, cheaper production facilities, access to new technology, products, skills and financing. For a host country or the foreign firm which receives the investment, it can provide a source of new technologies, capital, processes, products, organizational technologies and management skills and as such can provide a strong impetus to economic development. The sea change in trade and investment policies and the regulatory environment globally in the past decade, including trade policy and tariff liberalization, easing of restrictions on foreign investment and acquisition in many nations, and the deregulation and privitazation of many industries, has probably been been the most significant catalyst for FDI’s expanded role.

  7. GLOBALIZATION AND SMALL BUSINESSES AND ECONOMIES – CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINKO KOSTOVSKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the effect of globalization in general and from the viewpoint of the small and medium sized companies in the Republic of Macedonia, as a typical developing economy. Our survey of 100 managers and business owners from small and medium sized enterprises indicates that they tend to perceive the globalization with more conservative glasses as negative, or at the best, as a neutral phenomenon to their overall business prospects. However, to harvest the apparent opportunities of the globalization and to achieve the desired internationalization of their businesses, they call for intensive regional cooperation seeing it as a gateway to much harsher realms of the globalized market. The literature review and the examples from some other countries support these conservative standing of our managers and offer practical explanations why the approach towards the globalization is conservative and often even negative. Small business is important provider of new jobs, ideas and business concepts. However, with the opening of the global market it is a constant pursue for customers all around the world, having to meet their diverse and rapidly changing needs and facing extremely shortened delivery terms and product lifecycles. Many small companies, particularly from the developing countries are not adequately prepared to face the reality of this challenge. On the other hand, the big multinational companies receive more than hefty incentives to invest into the developing countries and that creates additional negative sentiments towards the globalization among the local companies.

  8. Global Finance nimetas U-Neti Eesti parimaks internetipangaks / Ragnar Toomla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomla, Ragnar

    2007-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline finantsajakiri Global Finance selgitas kaheksandat aastat maailma parimad internetipangad ning nimetas SEB Eesti Ühispanga internetipanga parimaks Eestis. Lisaks Eestile tunnistati SEB internetipanga lahendused parimaks ka Leedus

  9. Mobilizing climate finance - A road-map to finance a low-carbon economy. Report of the Canfin-Grandjean Commission June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Grandjean, Alain; Cochran, Ian; Martini, Mireille

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions of the Canfin-Grandjean Commission and proposes to the President of the French Republic paths of action to mobilize increased public and private funding in the fight against climate change. It also forwards proposals on how the French government could advance the 'innovative climate finance agenda' in the various international forums in which it participates (G7, G20, IMF, OECD, etc.). The present report covers the financial instruments identified more than a decade ago as 'innovative' (financial transaction tax, carbon market auctions revenues, etc.). It, however, goes further to also look at the means of finding 'innovative' ways of using existing tools in the 'toolboxes' of both private and public actors to scale-up financial flows for the low-carbon economy. (authors)

  10. 75 FR 10317 - DHL Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,857; TA-W-70,857A; TA-W-70,857B; TA-W-70,857C; TA-W-70,857D] DHL Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting... Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Including Workers Whose...

  11. Resilience of emerging market economies to global financial conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turalay Kenç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With lessons learned from previous episodes as well as substantial improvements in economic policies and fundamentals over the years emerging market economies (EMEs on average are better positioned to withstand financial turbulences, both now and in the near future, than in the past. Since their respective last financial crises most EMEs have been implementing more prudent policies, made stronger their governance frameworks and created financial safety nets as a buffer against adverse shocks. As a result, they were able to strengthen their stock and flow balances and policy frameworks, deepen local capital markets, and diversify their production and exports together with stronger global trade and financial linkages.

  12. Neoliberalism, Urbanism and the Education Economy: Producing Hyderabad as a "Global City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of Hyderabad as a hub of the global information technology economy, and in particular, the role of higher education in Hyderabad's transformation as the labor market for the new economy. The extensive network of professional education institutions that service the global economy illustrates the ways in which…

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  14. French Global Environment Facility - Financing action combating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    From 2003 to 2009, the FFEM provided 65 Meuros in co-financing for 51 projects. The FFEM encourages mitigation projects that reduce or limit non-renewable fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions. Since 2005, the FFEM has also supported projects designed to strengthen adaptation capacities in developing countries in the areas of monitoring, knowledge acquisition and resilience

  15. TRENDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MARKET IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, SIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing. Also, global digitalization requires a new approach on the role of information in the development of economy and increase of competitiveness.

  16. LINK BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBALIZATION OF CONTEMPORARY ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires a fundamental change in lifestyle. A fully break detachment by the past requires a major reorientation of public and private behavior and mentality. The challenge lies in linking economic growth with social issues and positioning the environmental degradation. The process of globalization is connected also with environmental degradation, which is now extended as a concept of threat and security, considered individually and in connection. It has already started recognizing new global threats as well as from non -state groups and individuals. The security is being defined to include, among others, the wars between and within states, international organizations of organized crime, nuclear weapons development, poverty, viral diseases, climatic events and environmental degradation. The concerns about the global market and the global environment protection will become more related, through their mutual dependency. The relationship of global economy and environment, from a market perspective, means stimulating economic growth, a process that generates higher revenues, funds and wealth, on one hand and political will to improve environmental conservation and protection, on the other hand. But it could be seen that the developed countries have made the greatest progress in environmental protection, and even so the poor quality of the environment continues to deteriorate. In this context it is important to consider the opinion of experts on the interaction between globalization and sustainable development. The paper aims to present the views of experts from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (South Muntenia. The study is an empirical research based on a questionnaire applied to a sample of over 300 subjects. The research aims to set out the existence of the link between sustainable development and globalization, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of globalization and to prioritize the main

  17. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006; Intervention de Thierry Breton ministre de l'Economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Intervention devant l'Ajef sur les questions energetiques nationales et internationales, le 22 mai 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  18. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

  19. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John G

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group. PMID:29177101

  20. Cutting Costs, Keeping Quality: Financing Strategies for Youth-Serving Organizations in a Difficult Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This research brief highlights three effective financing strategies that successful youth-serving organizations are using to maintain quality services despite difficult economic times. The brief provides examples of how organizations have implemented these strategies and offers tips to help leaders consider how best to adapt these strategies to…

  1. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  2. The Economic Crisis and Several Effects on Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina BRAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main mechanism of profit making is not production according to the outcomes of several analyses of the current economic crisis. This mechanism is circulation and exchange. Starting with this observation the paper goes through a number of aspects regarding the relation between crisis and economy at global level. These aspects consist in the recent financial turmoil; who pays for the crisis; stabilizing the financial sector; recession and the financial crisis; the internationalization of the crisis; commodities and the ecological crisis; an end to neo-liberalism; what should socialists demand. We notice and comment on how important current development in the wake of the banking crisis is for the transmission of that crisis to the rest of the economy and its interaction with the more general economic crisis now emerging. It was concluded that there are good chances that the current economic order to be broken. The future shape of the order will depend more on vision of managers than on the influence of the so called objective factors.

  3. The impact of economic globalization on the shadow economy in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Hassan, Mai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the economic globalization and the shadow economy nexus in Egypt. Using time series data from 1976 to 2013, the impulse response analysis shows that the response of the shadow economy in Egypt to positive shocks in economic globalization is negative and statistically significant for the first three years following the shock. This finding is obtained by controlling for several intermediary channels in globalization-shadow economy nexus such as education, government spending...

  4. Features of competition and development of markets in an age of globalized economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Kërçuku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of communism in Eastern Europe in the beginning of the 90-ies of the 20th century marked the beginning of a historical process of triumph of market economy in a wide geographical area and a large population, which had to have an influence on global developments. This age is characterized not only by a comprehensive ruling of capitalist market economy, but also by a series of important structural changes in economies of various countries, national and international mechanisms of market functioning, and relevant institutions thereto. Distinct authors have various opinions on characteristics and positive and negative outcomes of a globalized economy era. Some consider the globalization of world economy as a quantitative and qualitative expansion of market economy throughout the world, similar to the situation before the World War I. Other more serious authors consider the globalization of world economy as a new qualitative era, with important consequences on many areas.

  5. Towards a coherent global framework for health financing: recommendations and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottersen, Trygve; Elovainio, Riku; Evans, David B; McCoy, David; Mcintyre, Di; Meheus, Filip; Moon, Suerie; Ooms, Gorik; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-04-01

    The articles in this special issue have demonstrated how unprecedented transitions have come with both challenges and opportunities for health financing. Against the background of these challenges and opportunities, the Working Group on Health Financing at the Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security laid out, in 2014, a set of policy responses encapsulated in 20 recommendations for how to make progress towards a coherent global framework for health financing. These recommendations pertain to domestic financing of national health systems, global public goods for health, external financing for national health systems and the cross-cutting issues of accountability and agreement on a new global framework. Since the Working Group concluded its work, multiple events have reinforced the group's recommendations. Among these are the agreement on the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa and the release of the Panama Papers. These events also represent new stepping stones towards a new global framework.

  6. The Financing Behaviour of Firms in a Developing Economy: The Nigerian scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Okoyeuzu Chinwe R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to ascertain the validity of the asymmetry of information idea in explaining the financing choice of firms in Nigeria. The sample covers 60 firms quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The Nigerian nation does not have a well developed capital market and so remain heavily on internal funding. Using a regression analysis, this study reveals that leverage is a decreasing function of profitability. This supports the pecking order theory. The current economic problems in...

  7. Exploitation of Free Markets and Globalization to Finance Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    globalization is widely associated with increased economic integration, international exchange growth, and interdependence.7 In this study, when...303-308 in the ABI/INFORM Global database (Document ID: 1091265341) (accessed October 1, 2007). 12 Ted Robert Gurr, The Roots of Terrorism: Economic ... economic crime,” Journal of Financial Crime, 13(3) (2006): 369 in the ABI/INFORM Global database (Document ID: 1073500451) (accessed October 1, 2007). 26

  8. Open Education and the Creative Economy: Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is to deal the issues of open education, creative economies, higher education. It also compares the performances in these aspects among different countries. The conception of the "creative economy" develops within the context of "global neoliberalism" and "knowledge economy." These three notions are…

  9. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts to high...... starkly illuminates the condition of Britain’s political economy and the character of its relations with the rest of the world.......The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts...

  10. Relevance of Global Health Security to the US Export Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Cynthia H.; Bambery, Zoe; Roy, Kakoli; Meltzer, Martin I.; Ahmed, Zara; Payne, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the health security risk and impact of outbreaks around the world, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are building capabilities to prevent, detect, and contain outbreaks in 49 global health security priority countries. We examine the extent of economic vulnerability to the US export economy posed by trade disruptions in these 49 countries. Using 2015 US Department of Commerce data, we assessed the value of US exports and the number of US jobs supported by those exports. US exports to the 49 countries exceeded $308 billion and supported more than 1.6 million jobs across all US states in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, services, and other sectors. These exports represented 13.7% of all US export revenue worldwide and 14.3% of all US jobs supported by all US exports. The economic linkages between the United States and these global health security priority countries illustrate the importance of ensuring that countries have the public health capacities needed to control outbreaks at their source before they become pandemics. PMID:29199867

  11. An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.M.; Chen, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input-output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world's biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54 toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005-2035, China is to replace the United States as the world's leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States. - Highlights: → We present an overview of global energy profile in terms of embodied energy. → The US and China are top embodied energy consumers as well as traders in 2004. → Equality issue is studied by analyzing per capita embodied energy consumption. → The US remains to be the leading energy consumer until replaced by China in 2027.

  12. Relevance of Global Health Security to the US Export Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Cynthia H; Bambery, Zoe; Roy, Kakoli; Meltzer, Martin I; Ahmed, Zara; Payne, Rebecca L; Bunnell, Rebecca E

    To reduce the health security risk and impact of outbreaks around the world, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are building capabilities to prevent, detect, and contain outbreaks in 49 global health security priority countries. We examine the extent of economic vulnerability to the US export economy posed by trade disruptions in these 49 countries. Using 2015 US Department of Commerce data, we assessed the value of US exports and the number of US jobs supported by those exports. US exports to the 49 countries exceeded $308 billion and supported more than 1.6 million jobs across all US states in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, oil and gas, services, and other sectors. These exports represented 13.7% of all US export revenue worldwide and 14.3% of all US jobs supported by all US exports. The economic linkages between the United States and these global health security priority countries illustrate the importance of ensuring that countries have the public health capacities needed to control outbreaks at their source before they become pandemics.

  13. Rethinking Value in the Bio-economy: Finance, Assetization, and the Management of Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-05-01

    Current debates in science and technology studies emphasize that the bio-economy-or, the articulation of capitalism and biotechnology-is built on notions of commodity production, commodification, and materiality, emphasizing that it is possible to derive value from body parts, molecular and cellular tissues, biological processes, and so on. What is missing from these perspectives, however, is consideration of the political-economic actors, knowledges, and practices involved in the creation and management of value. As part of a rethinking of value in the bio-economy, this article analyzes three key political-economic processes: financialization, capitalization, and assetization. In doing so, it argues that value is managed as part of a series of valuation practices, it is not inherent in biological materialities.

  14. Law, Contestation, and Power in the Global Political Economy: An Introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers included in this collection are part of concerted project to develop a political economy of law in the contemporary global system. Over the past two decades, scholars have noted the expanding role of law, legal institutions, and legal agents that have been part of the process of “globalization,” and have employed a number of frameworks to make sense of this process of legalization. A central theme of our project is that none of these frameworks has provided an adequate political economic analysis of the creation, diffusion, and use of law, and we present an alternative approach to advance the understanding of the turn to law across the many dimensions and sectors of the global system. The papers advance the analysis behind this approach and explore the various ways in which law matters in a variety of areas, including global finance, corporate governance, copyright, diplomacy, and the provision of security. Their goal is to advance our understanding of how law intersects with the mobilization of power in the construction of the contemporary political economy. Los trabajos incluidos en esta colección son parte de un proyecto conjunto para desarrollar una economía política de la ley en el sistema mundial contemporáneo. En las últimas dos décadas, los expertos han señalado el creciente papel de la ley, las instituciones legales, y los agentes judiciales que han sido parte del proceso de "globalización", y han empleado una serie de marcos para dar sentido a este proceso de legalización. Un tema central de nuestro proyecto es que ninguno de estos marcos ha proporcionado un adecuado análisis económico político de la creación, difusión y uso de la ley, y se presenta un enfoque alternativo para avanzar en la comprensión de la vuelta a la ley a través de las muchas dimensiones y sectores del sistema global. Los trabajos avanzan el análisis de este enfoque y exploran las diversas formas en que la ley importa en una variedad

  15. Towards Establishing Fiscal Legitimacy Through Settled Fiscal Principles in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Attiya; Latif, Laila Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Scholarship on international health law is currently pushing the boundaries while taking stock of achievements made over the past few decades. However despite the forward thinking approach of scholars working in the field of global health one area remains a stumbling block in the path to achieving the right to health universally: the financing of heath. This paper uses the book Global Health Law by Larry Gostin to reflect and take stock of the fiscal support provided to the right to health from both a global and an African perspective. It then sets out the key fiscal challenges facing global and African health and proposes an innovative solution for consideration: use of the domestic principles of tax to design the global health financing system.

  16. Teaching Children about the Global Economy: Integrating Inquiry with Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Ava L.

    2017-01-01

    Although children are already part of the global economy, they often have little understanding of its influence without explicit instruction. The article focuses on recommendations for teaching elementary students in grades three through five about the global economy utilizing the pedagogical recommendations from the National Council for the…

  17. The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A

    1996-10-01

    This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective.

  18. The Complexity of the Implications of Globalization in the Context of the Current Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ionela CREŢOIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization represents a controversial phenomenon both because of its complexity and because of the various implications it has on the global economy. Globalization will act simultaneously on many levels, its effects being correlated with the diversity of the angles from which this phenomenon can be approached from – economic, social, politic, cultural, philosophic etc. The article represents an incursion into the issue regarding the implications and effects of globalization grouped in several areas of analysis such as the disappearance of borders, the effects on culture, the effects on the education, the impact on labour market impact and the phenomenon of immigration, the effects of globalization in the context of the food crisis underdevelopment and poverty. To complete the analysis that points out enough elements considered to be negative, at the end of the article, there are also approached the development opportunities that globalization can offer in terms of boosting the economic exchanges, the exchange of genuine cultural values and ensuring a transfer of information at a global scale, so necessary for the scientific and technological progress.  The conclusions of the article weighs the many aspects highlighted, both negative and positive, and suggests a series of useful research directions in order to fathom the complex features of this concept so controversial – globalization.

  19. Planning and financing of the petroleum business in a lean economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsueli, U.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Niger delta is a rich oil and gas province with great development potential and the present Memorandum Of Understanding(MOU)/Joint Ownership Agreement (JOA) framework has resulted until 1992 in more investments, increased production and reserves. The National aspirations of i. 25 billion barrels reserves, ii. 2.5 million bopd production and iii. reduction of gas flaring are achievable but funding problems, margin erosion and lean economy are jeopardizing the industry's confidence and ability to proceed. If oil investment is not restored, oil production and Government revenues will decline significantly. The solution is potentially simple and is already embedded in the existing MOU/JOA structure. A coherent National Energy Policy is required to exploit Nigeria's gas potential to the fullest

  20. Global economic meltdown and the Nigerian economy | Lawrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to counteract the impacts as well as protect the economy from the measures taken by the developed countries to cushion their economies against the meltdown. Among its recommendations include the need to rely less on the advice of Bretton Woods Institutions and on the international currency exchange reserve system.

  1. Weberian versus Pluralistic Legal Forces in the Global Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmar Gessner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This picture supports a view that modernization processes lead naturally to legal structures similar to what can be observed in Western societies and that also global structures will emerge on the same model. Together with modernization theory another prominent theory often alluded to as justification for legalization is Institutional Economics where rules and institutions are considered mechanisms for effective transaction costs avoidance. My earlier publications compare these and other approaches for explaining the role of law in the economy. A third theory is Max Weber’s legal rationalization, an evolutionary process running from traditional irrational forms to formal, bureaucratic forms of legal domination. Weber’s view that legal rationalization is our “fate” and informal rules and institutions are necessarily outdated will be reconsidered from a historical perspective and confronted with empirical data gathered in the area of the governance of global business transactions. This article will attempt to show that although Weber’s influential approach still helps to explain much of what occurs in domestic models of capitalism it doesn’t seem to grasp the growing complexities of globalized capitalism. Este análisis apoya la opinión de que los procesos de modernización conducen naturalmente a las estructuras jurídicas similares a lo que se observa en las sociedades occidentales y que también las estructuras globales surgirán en el mismo modelo. Junto con la teoría de la modernización, otra teoría prominente a menudo aludida como justificación para la legalización es la Economía Institucional, donde las reglas y las instituciones se consideran mecanismos para evitar los costos de transacción de efectivo. Las publicaciones anteriores del autor comparan estos y otros enfoques para explicar el papel de la ley en la economía. Una tercera teoría es la racionalización jurídica de Max Weber, un proceso evolutivo que va

  2. Infectious Diseases in a Global Economy - Consequences for Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, McDonald AM

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war the world economy has become dominated by Western [largely US] interests. In this period there have developed several pandemics or epidemics of infectious diseases that have affected most nations. HIV, SARS, Avian Influenza, Hepatitis-C, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, drug-resistant TB, viral zoonoses, are specific examples that will be discussed in terms of their genesis, economic impact and consequences for ways of life in the range of economies – developed,...

  3. Frontier economy: the global perspectives of cryptocurrencies development

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDYRIKIN ALEXANDER A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author analyzes the perspectives of cryptocurrencies development in modern life and economy as a symbol of frontier economy and extremely new financial matter. A brief overview of electronic payments and virtual currency structure is given alongside with technical background. The emergence of electronic money and cryptocurrencies was an inevitable step in the evolution of Internet and electronic commerce. The author investigates the question how far cryptocurrencies might ...

  4. The effects of global shocks on small commodity-exporting economies: New evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Charnavoki, Valery; Dolado, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structural dynamic factor model of a small commodity-exporting economy using Canada as a representative case study. Combining large panel data sets of the global and Canadian economies, we first identify those demand and supply shocks that explain most of the volatility in real commodity prices. Next we quantify their dynamic effects on a wide variety of variables for this economy. We are able to reproduce all the main stylized facts documented in the literature about bu...

  5. Financing the low-carbon transition in a fragile world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    An unfavorable economic situation will hinder the launching of the 'low-carbon transition' in compliance with an increase of approximately 2 deg. C - the official goal set by the international community for global warming. Reversing the perspective, this transition is seen, herein, as the grounds for a 'sustainable' growth based on a monetary policy that ties the emission of liquidities to investments in low-carbon facilities. 'Climate remediation [sic] assets' with a social value set by an agreement in the framework of the Convention on the Climate are discussed

  6. Measuring Africa's E-Readiness in the Global Networked Economy: A Nine-Country Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifinedo, Princely

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the integration of Africa into the global economy by computing the e-readiness for nine African countries. The measuring tool used is simple and incorporates a variety of indicators used by comparable tools. Overall, the mean e-readiness of Africa is poor in comparison to other economies. Particularly, Sub-Saharan Africa…

  7. Social Justice and the Global Economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The globalization of the economy creates new challenges for social work in the arenas of social and economic justice. This article outlines social justice issues related to the debt crisis of the Global South and sweatshops. A presentation of colonial precursors is followed by a detailed examination of these global institutions with an emphasis on…

  8. Can Knowledge Management Become Global? - Consulting Engineering Companies in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents different strategies for consulting engineering companies in the emergent global economy. It is a common assumption that players can obtain market gain through cross border mergers, acquisitions, or strategic alliances in synchronisation with internal organisation. Many big...

  9. Fixed Income Instruments to Mobilize Institutional Investors for SME Financing in EMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Ana Fiorella; Loladze, Tamuna; Hammersley, James Walter; Anderson, Jeffrey David; Walley, Simon Christopher; Kemmish, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Emerging market economies (EMEs) face significant funding gaps in strategic sectors, such as infrastructure and small and medium enterprise (SME) financing, that if not addressed can stifle growth. In this context, in 2015 the finance and markets (F and M) global practice led the production of a joint World Bank Group (WBG) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Organization for Economi...

  10. Colleges Are Wary of Global Economy's Effect on Foreign Enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…

  11. The Innovative Economy: Synergistic Partnerships, Workforce Demands, and Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Dennis F.

    2007-01-01

    This article depicts the dual triumphs achieved by York Technical College and business/industry in creating a win-win solution to address workforce needs and shortages. The unique approach to partnership described is called "The Innovative Economy." It allows local companies and the college to maximize assets by providing exemplary showrooms with…

  12. China's food economy in the early 21st Century; Development of China's food economy and its impact on global trade and on the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, van F.W.; Huang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese food economy and Chinese agricultural policies. Simulations of future developments in China and in global trade with a model for the Chinese food economy and a model for global trade analysis. Simulation of developments in a 'business as usual' scenario. Assesment of impacts

  13. On Heidi Gottfried, Gender, work and economy: Unpacking the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Oborni, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Gottfried, as the title indicates, challenges the central conceptions of economic sociology on work since she claims it is too narrow for use in understanding the more hidden consequences of the current economic crisis. Instead, the author clearly suggests using a feminist perspective. She argues that feminist theory and economic policy must go together if we want to understand that productive work does not occur accidentally somewhere in random time and space, out of the vacuum of economy. S...

  14. The global political economy of REDD+: Engaging social dimensions in the emerging green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraldo, Rocío; Tanner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Green economy has generally focused on the energy sector, but interest in the role of forests in emissions reduction and in forest carbon markets is growing. This has led to the emergence of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, enhancement of carbon stock and sustainable management of forests in developing countries initiative (known collectively as REDD+) as a means through which individuals, projects and communities in developing countries can be financially rew...

  15. Making sense of the global economy: 10 resources for health promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S; Labonté, Ronald

    2010-09-01

    Population health is shaped by more than local or national influences-the global matters. Health promotion practitioners and researchers increasingly are challenged to engage with upstream factors related to the global economy, such as global prescriptions for national macroeconomic policies, debt relief and international trade. This paper identifies 10 books (A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism, The World is Not Flat: Inequality and Injustice in Our Global Economy, Globalization and its Discontents, The Debt Threat: How Debt is Destroying the Developing World, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy, A Race Against Time, Globalization and Health: An Introduction, Global Public Goods for Health: Health Economics and Public Health Perspectives, Trade and Health: Seeking Common Ground) and several key reports that we found to be particularly useful for understanding the global economy's effects on people's health. We draw attention to issues helpful in understanding the present global financial crisis.

  16. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More resea...

  17. China in the Global Economy. Failure and Success

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Christer; Ljungberg, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    China’s present economic performance is frequently attributed to market reforms that have opened up the economy to foreign trade and investments. In this article we suggest that a historical comparative approach may cast new light on China’s present success. In imperial China the power of the mandarinate put limits on equality of opportunity and development of human capital, factors crucial for modern economic growth. Reforms and structural change in agriculture and expansion of primary and s...

  18. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  19. Democratising the global economy by ecologicalising economics. The example of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.N.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that continued reliance on an unreconstructed neo-classical economic model for human progress is largely responsible for an economic development path which is both unsustainable and undemocratic. Using the topical issue of global warming as an illustration, it is argued that the ecologicalisation of the economics discipline challenges the foundations of this strategy and promises, among other benefits, a more democratic global economic organisation. The data analysed in this paper suggest that the damage of global warming is directly attributable to economic activity, the benefits of economic growth go to the economically articulate, and the disbenefits in terms of environmental damage are borne by the economically inarticulate. Mainstream economics gives no answer to, and becomes a method for evading, this moral problem. The data also show that huge increases in energy efficiency are required if a basically unchanged world economic system is to be sustainable. Nevertheless, the predominant goal of development policy is to ignore the problem of scale and to promote an economic model of urbanised development in the 'developing' countries which carries the implication (and the promise) that the rates of resource consumption typical in 'developed' countries can be achieved globally. An alternative development model is presented which includes the recognition that, in ecological terms, 'developed' countries are in debt to 'developing' countries, largely because of the way in which economic growth is measured gross of externalised social and environmental costs. A method is suggested for calculating part of this ecological debt for individual countries, thus going some way towards quantifying the extent of the distortions in the current global political economy and the unsustainability of the present economic order

  20. Report on the behalf of the finance, general economy and budget control commission on the finance bill for 2012: Appendix 14: ecology, sustainable development and planning. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrez, G.

    2011-01-01

    The author first addresses aspect of the finance bill concerning past decisions and the past energy production context and policy: the after-mining management, measure in favour of Lorraine, an electricity cost which misses out the plant dismantling financing. Then, he addresses the policy in favour of renewable energies: renewal of hydroelectric concessions, tax support for energy sobriety. He comments the on-going audit of AREVA and EDF, and notably addresses the EPR construction issue (in Finland) and the purchase of UraMin by AREVA

  1. GLOBALIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVENESS: FROM INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Marginean

    2009-01-01

    The world is experiencing a new revolution – the knowledge revolution – fuelled by the technological change. In the same time, globalization and competitiveness are two concepts used to explain modern trends in economic development. This paper analyzes the relationship between globalization, technology and competitiveness. Globalization and technology are linked and they have generated great shifts in the national competitiveness of countries. In a broad sense, industrial revolution can be se...

  2. Some thoughts on a Fair Allocation of Corporate Tax in a Globalizing Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday we live in a globalizing economy: national open markets are steadily developing towards a global market. Within the European Union (EU), the internal market without internal frontiers has been established. However, the fiscal sovereignty of nation states (hereinafter: ‘states’)

  3. Immigrants as Refugees of the Global Economy: Learning to Teach (about) Today's Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of migration as it is known today must be understood in the larger context of the globalized economy and the "race to the bottom" that characterizes the multinational corporate relationship with the global South. A deeper understanding of the ways in which migration today is rooted in the machinations of the globalized…

  4. The Global MRIO Lab–charting the world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzen, M.; Geschke, A.; Abd Rahman, M.D.; Xiao, Y.; Fry, J.; Reyes, R.; Dietzenbacher, E.; Inomata, S.; Kanemoto, K.; Los, B.; Moran, D.; Schulte in den Bäumen, H.; Tukker, A.; Walmsley, T.; Wiedmann, T.; Wood, R.; Yamano, N.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the creation of the Global Multi-Region Input–Output (MRIO) Lab, which is a cloud-computing platform offering a collaborative research environment through which participants can use each other’s resources to assemble their own individual MRIO versions. The Global MRIO Lab’s main purpose

  5. The Global MRIO Lab - charting the world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Geschke, Arne; Rahman, Muhammad Daaniyall Abd; Xiao, Yanyan; Fry, Jacob; Reyes, Rachel; Dietzenbacher, Hendrikus; Inomata, Satoshi; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Los, Bart; Moran, Daniel; Schulte in den Bäumen, Hagen; Tukker, Arnold; Walmsley, Terrie; Wiedmann, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Yamano, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    We describe the creation of the Global Multi-Region Input-Output (MRIO) Lab, which is a cloud-computing platform offering a collaborative research environment through which participants can use each other's resources to assemble their own individual MRIO versions. The Global MRIO Lab's main purpose

  6. China’s Rise and Its Implications for the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitaru Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, the world has been witnessing China’s formidable growth at an average growthyearly rate of about 10%. Even when the world economy was affected by the global economicfinancialcrisis, China’s economy grew 9-10% per year. The objective of this study is to provide acomplex view of the Chinese economic growth and to identify the effects of this growth on theworld economy. To that effect, this paper is structured in two parts. In the first part, we analysedthe evolution of the Chinese economic growth and the drivers of this spectacular growth. In thesecond part, we identified and analysed the implications of this growth for the global economy. Toachieve our objective, we used the method of documentary research.

  7. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More research is needed on what is happening to all these young people who do not do well in competitive education systems and uncertain job markets. This article is taken from a study which set out to discuss with school and college principals, local administrators, teachers and others, who they regard as lower attainers, what sort of education and training programmes are offered to the students, and what policies they think are in place to help young people into work or independent living. Discussions were held with respondents in England, Germany, the USA, Finland and Malta. The article takes Rawls' view that social injustice is mainly due to the inequitable distribution of economic and social resources and the State has a responsibility to ensure that all young people can participate in the economy and the society.

  8. Agricultural biotechnology and its contribution to the global knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The theory of neoclassical welfare economics largely shaped international and national agricultural policies during the Cold War period. It treated technology as an exogenous factor that could boost agricultural productivity but not necessarily sustainable agriculture. New growth theory, the economic theory of the new knowledge economy, treats technological change as endogenous and argues that intangible assets such as human capital and knowledge are the drivers of sustainable economic development. In this context, the combined use of agricultural biotechnology and information technology has a great potential, not just to boost economic growth but also to empower people in developing countries and improve the sustainable management of natural resources. This article outlines the major ideas behind new growth theory and explains why agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers still tend to stick to old welfare economics. Finally, the article uses the case of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN) to illustrate an example of how new growth theory can be applied in the fight against poverty. CBN is a successful interdisciplinary crop research network that makes use of the new knowledge economy to produce new goods that empower the poor and improve the productivity and nutritional quality of cassava. It shows that the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology go far beyond the already known productivity increases and pesticide use reductions of existing GM crops.

  9. The Global Compact. Corporate Leadership in the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Annan, Kofi

    2002-01-01

    United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan first proposed the Global Compact in an address to The World Economic Forum on the 31st January 1999. The Global Compact’s operational phase was launched at UN Headquarters in New York on the 26th July 2000. The Secretary-General challenged business leaders to join an international initiative – the Global Compact – that would bring companies together with UN agencies, labour and civil society to support nine principles in the areas of human rights, ...

  10. The impact of the global financial crisis on business cycles in Asian emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Iikka; Fidrmuc , Jarko

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the transmission of global financial crisis to business cycles in China and India. The pattern of business cycles in emerging Asian economies generally displays a low degree of synchronization with the OECD countries, which is consistent with the decoupling hypothesis. By contrast, however, the current financial crisis has had a significant effect on economic developments in emerging Asian economies. Applying dynamic correlations, we find wide differences for different frequencies ...

  11. The UN global compact and firms from emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Çetindamar, Dilek; Cetindamar, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus on the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the environmental behavior of firms. The empirical study was conducted in 2004 among Turkish firms that included members of United Nations Global Compact network.

  12. Intervention of Mr Nicolas Sarkozy, Government minister, minister of economy, finances and industry. Energy debate - Thursday April 15, 2004 - French house of commons; Intervention de M. Nicolas Sarkozy, ministre d'Etat, ministre de l'economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Debat sur l'energie - jeudi 15 avril 2004 - assemblee nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkozy, N.

    2004-04-01

    In this talk, the French minister of economy, finances and industry recalls, first, some important key dates of the French energy history (creation of the French electric and gas utilities (EdF and GdF) in 1946, first petroleum shock in 1973 and the start-up of the French nuclear program) and then, presents the present day energy policy and the constraints that control the French energy choices: the lack of oil and gas resources in the French territory, and the problem of the global warming. According to these constraints, the French government has defined 4 main axes: energy mastery (thermal insulation of buildings, abatement of road speed limits, development of railway and river transport, financial incentives), development of renewable energy sources, renewal of the nuclear park with the launching of the European Pressurized reactor (EPR), and development of research programs in the domain of energy. The last part presents the new European framework of the French energy policy with the change of EdF and GdF juridical statuses and the progressive convergence of the different European energy policies towards a common model. (J.S.)

  13. Global warning policy, energy, and the Chinese economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Benavides, J.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.

    1996-01-01

    China is the world's largest user of coal and a major generator of greenhouse gases. This paper addresses whether the country can reconfigure its energy structure without hindering its future economic development. The authors construct a dynamic linear programming model of the Chinese economy and use it to simulate five alternative strategies to stabilize CO 2 emissions at 20% of projected year 2000 baseline levels. The results, under more optimistic assumptions, indicate this goal can be achieved with no growth penalty. However, if major technological changes relating to energy conservation and coal displacement, as well as vastly increasing availabilities of clean fuels, are not forthcoming, China could suffer a significant decline in its rate of economic growth. 38 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  15. Globalization – Miracle or Mirage for the Economy and Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra GĂLBEAZĂ; Cristian FLOREA; Cristina CIOVICĂ

    2011-01-01

    The present article aims to bring into discussion the process of globalization - as central phenomenon of the 21st century. The areas of intervention where globalization is being noticed are various, from early history to the present day, in economics, marketing, IT, the educational system, politics, business, etc. The main idea that we want to set forth is the way globalization occurs in the economy, in general, and in some countries of the world (such as Bulgaria) and in Romania, especially...

  16. Women workers and the politics of claims-making in a globalizing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kabeer, Naila

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolving politics of claims-making by women workers in the Global South in the context of a globalized economy. It addresses the following questions. What kinds of claims are prioritized in relation to women workers? Who is making these claims? To whom are they addressed? What strategies are pursued to advance these claims? Which claims are heard and acted on - and which go unheard? The paper considers three categories of women workers: those working in global value cha...

  17. Prerequisites for Forming the Institutional Concept of the National Economy Competitiveness under Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremenko Oleh L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to prove that under conditions of globalization there have developed objective and subjective prerequisites for forming the institutional concept of the national economy. The objective prerequisites are the newest information and communication technologies, post-industrial trends and market transformation of civilization intensified by globalization. Under such conditions instability and volatility of the institutional environment both within national economies and at the international level are observed. The aggravation of the global competition between national economies actualizes the role of such institutional factors as political system, property, public administration, economic organization, culture, etc. The subjective prerequisites are related to the fact that the institutional economic theory is currently one of the leading trends in the modern world and Ukrainian economic thought. Interest in it is explained not only by the fact that it overcomes the limitations of a number of prerequisites for the mainstream, but also because it allows considering the modern economic processes in complex

  18. Post-2020 climate agreements in the major economies assessed in the light of global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Massimo; Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Aboumahboub, Tino; Bowen, Alex; Calvin, Katherine; Campiglio, Emanuele; Kober, Tom; Jewell, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David; van Sluisveld, Mariësse; Zimmer, Anne; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models can help in quantifying the implications of international climate agreements and regional climate action. This paper reviews scenario results from model intercomparison projects to explore different possible outcomes of post-2020 climate negotiations, recently announced pledges and their relation to the 2 °C target. We provide key information for all the major economies, such as the year of emission peaking, regional carbon budgets and emissions allowances. We highlight the distributional consequences of climate policies, and discuss the role of carbon markets for financing clean energy investments, and achieving efficiency and equity.

  19. REDD+ and the global economy; Competing forces and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, P.; Putzel, L.; Obidzinski, K.; Schoneveld, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while feeding a growing population and meeting global demand for fibre and energy, are attracting increasing attention (Kissinger 2011; Wollenberg et al. 2011). This chapter presents an overview of current trade and investment-related

  20. ECONOMIC CONCENTRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WORLD ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as main objective to emphasize the importance of a permanent control activity on the economic concentration operations. In order to assure an appropriate choice as concern the economic concentration to be submitted at the assessment procedure each country has its competence to establish its turnover ceilings opening the procedure in accordance with the priorities of its own economic policy. As a final conclusion, we stress that economic concentration assessment and competition policy as a whole are very dynamic activities asking permanent legal and procedural adjustments in order to take appropriately into account economic interests of the country as well as the evolutions registered on regional and global level. This approach is the most valid in the case of Romania taking into account its recent accession to the European Union and its more and more important involvement in the regional and global cooperation.

  1. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-12-10

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools. Copyright © 2015 Davis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  2. Value chain restructuring in Europe in a global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Huws, Ursula; Dahlmann, Simone; Flecker, Jörg; Holtgrewe, Ursula; Schönauer, Annika; Ramioul, Monique; Geurts, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of globalisation in Europe it is necessary to understand the place occupied by European workplaces in global value chains, how the structure and governance of these value chains is changing, and what the impact is on work organisation and on workers. As well as making an important theoretical contribution to the conceptualisation of value chains, this report draws on the quantitative and qualitative research of the WORKS project to examine the impacts of ...

  3. Democratic Capitalism and Philanthropy in a Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan J. Acs; Sameeksha Desai

    2007-01-01

    Democratic capitalism has become the popular paradigm in the modern world, and it is spreading further through globalization. It is a model based on growth, expansion and constant innovation. However, it is accompanied by social problems which may worsen despite overall gains in wealth. In this paper, we suggest that democratic capitalist societies may benefit from the application of what has been a primarily American institution: Philanthropy. We present the Entrepreneurship-Philanthropy Cyc...

  4. Increasing Global Competitiveness: A Case for the Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyla Chaudry

    2007-01-01

    The issue of global competitiveness is critical for developing countries. This paper looks at the drivers that influence industrial competitiveness and provides a comparison of these drivers for Pakistan, India and China. The analysis shows that Pakistan lags behind China and India in most of the main components of the industrial competitiveness index. The analysis also presents a series of micro and macro level policy recommendations aimed at increasing Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness.

  5. The solar energy based global economy. A policy leading to the ecological era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1999-01-01

    Bound in its fossil energy and raw materials supply chains, the global economy is heading for a global ecological crisis and dramatically aggravating conflicts. Moreover, this exclusive dependence on fossil energy and materials resources forces a global concentration process increasingly undermining democratic and free market systems. But the will to survive is not the only reason to consider a new industrial revolution to be imperative. Such a sweeping change, from a fossil energy based regime to a system relying exclusively on renewable energy sources and raw materials, would open up unique opportunities for the evolution of a peaceful and democratic global economy fostering the development of superior technologies and sustainable regional economic systems. The author of the book elaborates the scenario permitting such a radical change, and explains the necessary basic approaches and appropriate policies relating to technology, the economy, ecology, and the social system. The ultimate goal is that the evolution of the solar energy based global economy will be accompanied by an intrinsic economic driving force eventually leading to an ecological era. (orig./CB) [de

  6. The nature of oil shocks and the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaïa, Elizaveta; Creel, Jérôme; Hubert, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the main driving force behind oil price shocks in 1970–2006 by applying a simple identification strategy of supply-driven and demand-driven price shocks. The identification hypothesis states that supply-driven oil price shocks have a negative impact on the macroeconomic activity of countries, which are net consumers of oil while demand-driven oil price shocks do not have negative effects. In order to identify global demand-driven shocks, a weighted aggregate GDP series of countries, which are net consumers of oil, is constructed over 1970–2006. The key result is that the main driving force behind oil price shocks has changed from supply-driven shocks in 1970–1992 to demand-driven shocks in 1992–2006. - Highlights: ► We characterize the oil–macroeconomy relationship at the global level. ► We identify oil supply and oil demand shocks drawing on a AS/AS model. ► We construct an indicator of global activity for countries net consumers of oil. ► We use Qu-Perron break tests, TVP, Cyclical correlations and VARs. ► We show that the main driving force behind oil price shocks has changed around 1992.

  7. Universities in the global knowledge economy: the eclectic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Ilnytskyy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As institutions of knowledge generation and diffusion, in the course of their activities universities should take into account not only the level of an organization or a country but also that of individual knowledge transformation, whereby creating favorable conditions for developing creativity of both graduates and academic staff who form the basis of the intellectual capital of the university and the country. While functioning in the global competitive climate, the national intellectual capital is a factor of socio-economic development and international competitive status of individual countries. During decades the concept of university has been evolving toward determining the operation mode of a university as that of an institution providing mass education, carrying out fundamental and applied researches as well as largely participating in local, national and global development. However, the university operation paradigm remains eclectic. Equal relationships between universities, government and industry in a knowledge-based society are well-defined by the concept of triple helix innovation systems engaging NGOs. World-class universities tend ever more to incorporate the feature of an entrepreneurial university actively competing in the global academic domain.

  8. 78 FR 47004 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Proposed Information Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Proposed Information Collection; Comment... the U.S. economy; (3) presents case studies that examine the importance of digital trade to selected U... barriers and impediments to digital trade on selected industries and the broader U.S. economy. The...

  9. How much donor financing for health is channelled to global versus country-specific aid functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäferhoff, Marco; Fewer, Sara; Kraus, Jessica; Richter, Emil; Summers, Lawrence H; Sundewall, Jesper; Yamey, Gavin; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-12-12

    The slow global response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa suggests that important gaps exist in donor financing for key global functions, such as support for health research and development for diseases of poverty and strengthening of outbreak preparedness. In this Health Policy, we use the International Development Statistics databases to quantify donor support for such functions. We classify donor funding for health into aid for global functions (provision of global public goods, management of cross-border externalities, and fostering of leadership and stewardship) versus country-specific aid. We use a new measure of donor funding that combines official development assistance (ODA) for health with additional donor spending on research and development (R&D) for diseases of poverty. Much R&D spending falls outside ODA--ie, the assistance that is conventionally reported through ODA databases of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This expanded definition, which we term health ODA plus, provides a more comprehensive picture of donor support for health that could reshape how policy makers will approach their support for global health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Urban Financial Centers within the Economy of Global Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no doubt that state economy refers to city economy. In other words, the most part of a state‘s GDP is given by the urban environment, especially by capitals, which are often the economic engine of this environment. There are also cities having great economic importance abroad, beyond the state and even continental borders. These are the so-called global cities where the financial activities play an important role. There are a few cities (New York, London, Hong Kong etc. centering financial activities which are influential for large geographic areas. This research highlights the importance of the financial sector within urban economy and, subsequently, how it consolidates the status of global city. These cities are the engine of the international financial system as they host the headquarters of the most important and famous international stock exchange markets, financial supervision institutions, law firms and consulting companies.

  11. 2. Industrial countries: Promoting sustainable growth in a global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, A.; MacKenzie, J.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following topics: dimensions of sustainable development; energy resources (energy transitions, energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, economic and regulatory policies); agricultural and forest resources (effects of present policies, unsustainable practices, needed policy reform); waste, pollution, and sustainable technologies (cleanup strategies, more efficient manufacturing, emerging technologies); and a global context. It is concluded that the US could markedly improve its efficiency in using energy and other natural resources and, at the same time, reduce local and regional pollution, avoid waste, and lower its contribution to the threat of global warming. With appropriate, market-based policies, these steps need not carry heavy economic penalties and could indeed improve the country's economic competitiveness. To a large degree, similar steps could be taken, with equal benefit, in other OECD countries. Many promising new technologies exist that are both more efficient and more sustainable. The US and other OECD countries will need to move toward such technologies, and toward policies that encourage their development and use, to improve not only their own destinies but also those of other countries

  12. Without Economic Rebalancing, There Will Be No Healthy Recovery in EU Countries or in Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia –Irina Olaru

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global economic recovery is advancing. However, the recovery remains uneven, withdownside risks in advanced economies remaining elevated, while overheating risks are growing inemerging economies. Rebalancing, internal and external, continues to be crucial. Without thiseconomic rebalancing, there will be no healthy recovery. The argument is very simple: before thecrisis, growth in many countries came from excessive domestic demand, be it consumption, orhousing investment. This could not go on. Those countries must rely on other sources of demand.Until now, they have used fiscal policy to prop up domestic demand. This was needed, but it is notsustainable. Rebalancing is a complex process. No single measure, no one country holds the solutionon its own. In other words, despite the overall global growth rebound, substantial shifts will beneeded in order to secure the intended goals of strong, sustainable, and balanced global growth.Moreover, the critical role for enhanced global economic and financial policy cooperation is selfevident.

  13. The consequences of product markets globalization for Ukraine’s national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Maryna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of global commodity markets have been considered in the article. The purpose of the article is to identify the sources and consequences of commodity markets globalization observable in the world economy and to develop the recommendations as for the state and corporate governance in the context of global competition. The author’s attention is paid to transnational corporations that make up the most significant competition in the global commodity markets. The influence of transnational business on product markets has been investigated. The last is defined as a product of globalization on the one hand, and becomes a catalyst of globalization processes on the other hand. Also the place of Ukraine in global ratings has been traced. It has been proved that the most effective way of behavior of Ukrainian enterprises on the global commodity markets among all the possible variants is the way of innovation development. Despite the reduction of the government regulatory role in the global economy it has been recommended the adoption of effective management decisions to support of the domestic producers but not at the expense of a healthy global competition.

  14. Desovereignization of national state, economy and security in terms of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mile M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In current modern age of worldwide processes of globalization and globalism a process of desovereigntization of national state and economy has become a general process. Therefore national state has been faced with numerous challenges and it has been in a permanent state of crisis. Within the process of globalization most often rich enclaves of national states make attempts to integrate themselves into neoliberal capitalist system, while poor and backward enclaves become abandoned and so national states become disintegrated. First of all it is necessary to search for causes of ethno-religious conflicts and a national separatism in the field of economy. Within the globalization environment it happened that old entities, national state, national economy and national security gained totally new meanings. By using a method of comparative analysis of document contents and consitutional and political practice alike it is possible to reach conclusion that a great number of modern national states, including the Republic of Serbia among them, have found themselves in the state of permanent crisis, and the state crisis implies, before anything else, the crisis of state sovereignty. The state gets destroyed both from inside and outside in different ways. By using a quality method it is confirmed that within a state there comes an overstepping of constitutional regulations which encompass, before else, the issues of national economy and national security, and it is achieved in particular by seizure of economic sovereignty.

  15. Advancing the National and Global Knowledge Economy: The Role of Research Universities in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Research universities are a central part of all academic systems. They are the key points of international contact and involvement. Research is produced, disseminated and in many cases imported. For developing countries, the mechanisms for the involvement of research universities in the global knowledge economy is complex, and includes issues of…

  16. Competing in an International Era: Preparing the Workforce for the Global Economy. In Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Robert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade, countries in Asia, Latin America, and Central Europe have been experiencing a number of converging factors that drive economic growth, propelling them toward greater economic competitiveness with the economies of the United States (U.S.), Japan, and Western Europe. A major driving force behind this global economic growth is…

  17. Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Feenstra

    1998-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  18. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, as manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. I compare several different measures of foreign outsourcing, and argue that they have all increased since the 1970s. I also consider the implications of globalization for employment and wages of ...

  19. The crisis of international human rights law in the global market economy

    OpenAIRE

    AUGENSTEIN, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The contribution argues that facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business entities leads to a collusion of sovereign state interest and globalised corporate power at the expense of protecting the rights of victims of human rights violations in the global market economy. The con...

  20. Business environment and competitiveness of Serbian economy in the conditions of global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Džunić, Marija; Golubović, Nataša; Džunić, Željko

    2013-01-01

    With the outbreak of the global financial and economic crisis, the trend of continuous improvement in global business environment as a result of economic growth, liberalization and investment in infrastructure was stopped, while in some areas, regressive movements are reported. Increasing the competitiveness of the domestic economy and stable economic growth presupposes the creation of a supportive business environment. Therefore, ensuring a healthy business environment that will facilitate b...

  1. GLOBALIZATION MYTHS: SOME HISTORICAL REFLECTIONS ON INTEGRATION, INDUSTRIALIZATION AND GROWTH IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul BAIROCH; Richard KOZUL-WRIGHT

    1996-01-01

    It has become popular to draw a parallel between current globalization trends and the half century of international economic integration before the First World War. Indeed, some writers suggest that current trends mark a return to this earlier period, from which they draw strong conclusions about growth prospects and convergence associated with globalization. This paper assesses this historical parallel. It accepts that many features of today´s international economy are not unique. However, i...

  2. Trends in and outlook for the global and South African economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maia, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available , corporates and individuals, becoming more damaging, as well as harder to detect and prevent Global economy: Risks associated with socio-political order Religious conflict intensifying leading to intra- as well as inter-regional tensions, reduced... cooperation and security threats Geopolitical tensions escalating in traditional trouble-spots (Middle East, Korean peninsula, Ukraine etc.), threatening world peace, leading to mass migrations . Global political order being challenged • Major shifts...

  3. Correlation measure to detect time series distances, whence economy globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz; Ausloos, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    An instantaneous time series distance is defined through the equal time correlation coefficient. The idea is applied to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) yearly increments of 21 rich countries between 1950 and 2005 in order to test the process of economic globalisation. Some data discussion is first presented to decide what (EKS, GK, or derived) GDP series should be studied. Distances are then calculated from the correlation coefficient values between pairs of series. The role of time averaging of the distances over finite size windows is discussed. Three network structures are next constructed based on the hierarchy of distances. It is shown that the mean distance between the most developed countries on several networks actually decreases in time, -which we consider as a proof of globalization. An empirical law is found for the evolution after 1990, similar to that found in flux creep. The optimal observation time window size is found ≃15 years.

  4. A Cross Cultural Quality House in a Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s booming industry, many business are seeing to have quality their product, premises, factories, merchandise and services to be certificate. Quality certification is becoming more relevant in today’s market, mainly because people are more aware of consumerism concept. It is not just about religious related matter but it extends to the products or services being demand safe for customer as well as have healthier benefits. Both standards ISO and Halal certificate have the same feed back to protect the customer, both are the benefits like symbol of quality not only from religious point of view. A new concept about the Eco-Ethic-Bio generation using the same information for consumer is the global market concept.

  5. 75 FR 34202 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Financing; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., which will be open to the public. The purpose of the FAAC is to provide advice and recommendations to... global economy. The Financing Subcommittee will address the need for a stable, secure, and sufficient...

  6. The impact of the global crisis on transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuti Mario D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All forecasts for transition countries - the 29 EBRD countries of operation - since mid-2008 have been repeatedly downgraded. The latest forecasts (May 2009 envisage an average income decline of 5 per cent in 2009 and only a small recovery of 1.4 per cent in 2010; performance is very diverse. In general, transition countries faced two shocks: a sudden stop and reversal of capital inflows, and an exports collapse due to the global slump. More specific factors include: 1 Home made sub-primes (domestic loans to households, enterprises and governments originally denominated in foreign currency; 2 External imbalances; 3 Worsening terms of trade for primary products exporters; 4 Fall or reversal of FDI and portfolio investment inflows; 5 Funds withdrawal by foreign banks; 6 External demand reduction; 7 Differences in initial positions and policy response. Earlier membership of the Euro by the new member states through a relaxation of Maastricht rules might have been beneficial, but the current crisis is no time for changing or bending rules. By comparison with the transition recession of the 1990s, the current recession is much smaller and shorter, it benefits from more generous assistance from the international community, and from the more enlightened fiscal and monetary policies now uncharacteristically recommended by International Financial Organizations.

  7. Genomics innovation: transforming healthcare, business, and the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    The genomics revolution has generated an unprecedented number of assets to propel innovation. Initial availability of genomics-based applications show a significant potential to contribute addressing global challenges, such as human health, food security, alternative sources of energies, and environmental sustainability. In the last years, most developed and emerging nations have established bioeconomy agendas where genomics plays a major role to meet their local needs. Genomic medicine is one of the most visible areas where genomics innovation is likely to contribute to a more individualized, predictive, and preventive medical practice. Examples in agriculture, dairy and beef, fishery, aquaculture, and forests industries include the effective selection of genetic variants associated to traits of economic value. Some, in addition to producing more and better foods, already represent an important increase in revenues to their respective industries. It is reasonable to predict that genomics applications will lead to a paradigm shift in our ability to ease significant health, economic, and social burdens. However, to successfully benefit from genomics innovations, it is imperative to address a number of hurdles related to generating robust scientific evidence, developing lower-cost sequencing technologies, effective bioinformatics, as well as sensitive ethical, economical, environmental, legal, and social aspects associated with the development and use of genomics innovations.

  8. Telecommunication Sector of the Russian Economy: Transformation Into a Global Information and Telecommunication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Elena Anatolyevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author concerns the current state and possible ways of telecommunication sector of the Russian economy development in the conditions of world economy globalization and suggests that the process of globalization reflects the current stage of telecommunication companies’ capital internationalization. The analysis of telecommunication sector shows that it is not only a perspective, highmargin and dynamically developing sector but is still one of the most integrated into the system of world economic relations. The stages of Russian telecommunication companies’ capital internationalization are determined, the internal connections between internationalization process and globalization are revealed. It is revealed that the new information and communication technologies development and expansion results in substantial increase in cooperation between economical entities and provides a sustainable long-term economical growth of telecommunication enterprises. The financial and operational data determining the effectiveness of telecommunication companies’ activity are presented. The analysis of tendencies promoting the extension of the market activity of Russian telecommunication companies at global information and telecommunication infrastructure shows that the main tendencies are the following ones: foreign capital inflow increase, capital integration and expansion of new services based on technologies convergence. The author reasonably concludes in recent times, the telecommunication sector of the Russian economy formation and development is determined by the existing global trends.

  9. The Globalization of the Business Sector in a Small Open Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The growth of multinational corporations (MNCs) is often taken as a quintessential indicator of ‘globalization’. But recent detailed empirical analysis has challenged the idea that most MNCs are global in terms of their business strategy and arena of operations. This article first clarifies...... the differences between globalization, internationalization and supranational-regionalization by examining the evidence on trade and investment patterns for Denmark. In particular, it presents a detailed analysis of the business strategies of the large corporate sector in Denmark. Denmark is an interesting case......, as it is a small open economy (SOE) that might be thought to be one uniquely vulnerable to the forces of globalization. Up until now examination of MNCs' internationalization strategies has concentrated upon large economies. We provide evidence for a SOE. In addition, we expand the range of dimensions used...

  10. China's coal price disturbances: Observations, explanations, and implications for global energy economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen; Xuan, Xiaowei; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Since China decontrolled coal prices, its coal price has risen steadily and been unusually volatile. In 2011 in particular, high coal prices and capped electricity prices in China discouraged coal-fired power generation, triggering widespread power shortages. We suggest that these coal-price disturbances could be symptomatic of a major change in pricing dynamics of global fossil-fuel markets, with increasing correspondence between coal and oil prices globally. Historically, global coal prices have been more stable and lower than oil and natural gas prices on a per-heat basis. In recent years, however, coal prices have been increasingly volatile worldwide and have tracked other fossil fuel prices more closely. Meanwhile, the recent development of unconventional gas has substantially decoupled US natural gas and oil prices. Technically, low US natural gas prices, with potential fuel switching, could drive US domestic coal prices lower. However, this effect is unlikely to counteract the overall trend in increasing coal consumption globally. China's market size and unique, partially-controlled energy system make its reform agenda a key force in the global economy. Policymakers in the US, E.U. and elsewhere should monitor China's economic reform agenda to anticipate and respond to changes accompanying China's increasing importance in the global energy economy. - Highlights: ► Since China decontrolled its coal prices, the price of coal has risen steadily in China, accompanied by unusual volatility. ► Relatively high and volatile coal prices have triggered widespread power shortages in China. ► Coal and oil prices have already become, and continue to become, more closely linked globally. ► China's demand will likely drive up global coal prices and make them as volatile as that of other fossil fuels. ► Policymakers should monitor China's economic reform agenda to anticipate and respond to changes in the global energy economy.

  11. 78 FR 12787 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Institution of Investigation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Finance (Committee) dated December 13, 2012 (received on December 14, 2012) under section 332(g) of the...; Examine U.S. and global digital trade, the relationship to other cross-border transactions (e.g., foreign...

  12. Impact Of The Oil Trade On The Global Economy And The Role Of Giant Fields In Predicting Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Wayne; Bishop, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Confusion about global oil supply ('peak oil') is a distraction from the economic issue of massive wealth transfer associated with oil trading and its potential to destabilize the world economy. Without an accurate forecast of oil volumes (resources, reserves and supply), timing and cost, there is no reliable way to model the consequences of the oil trade on the global economy. This paper illustrates why it is imperative to improve our understanding of the oil trade on the global economy and proposes a method of forecasting oil supply for input into a credible global economic model.

  13. Integrating Into the Global Economy Through Services. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trade in value-added statistics, this paper examines the main developments shaping Romania’s services trade over the post-crisis years. Its aim is to assess whether the country is grabbing the new opportunities arising from services globalization. It finds that following the dramatic crisis-induced decline in the value and performance of Romania’s services trade, the outlook is now radically improving as evidenced by the strongly rebounding services flows and net exports. Nonetheless, the country’s integration into the global economy through services flows continues to remain below its potential.

  14. Integrating into the Global Economy through Services. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNES GHIBUŢIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Services represent a most important and dynamic frontier of international trade and investment. The steady expansion of trade in services and its relative resilience in the recent crisis, coupled with its key role in global production networks and its increasing potential in attracting investment provides new opportunities for countries to grow their economies and integrate into the global economy. Drawing on insights from current literature and relying on balance of payments and trade in value-added statistics, this paper examines the main developments shaping Romania’s services trade over the post-crisis years. Its aim is to assess whether the country is seizing the new opportunities arising from services globalization. It finds that following the dramatic crisis-induced decline in the value and performance of Romania’s services trade, the outlook is now radically improving as evidenced by strongly rebounding services flows and net exports. Nonetheless, the country’s integration into the global economy through services flows continues to remain below its potential.

  15. Point Climat no. 14 'Financing the transition to a green economy: their word is their (green) bond?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Romain; Bordier, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: Responding to climate change involves the implementation of initiatives that require significant up-front capital investment. At a time when bank lending is squeezed, green bonds offer an alternative financing for initiatives with an environmental goal. Lately, the Ile-de-France Region's issuance of environmentally and socially responsible bonds on March 20 2012 demonstrates that an increasing number of players are taking interest in this tool. But green bonds are not, however, the panacea to access to finance issues that mainly depend on the bond issuer's characteristics

  16. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  17. THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS, WHERE DOES PLACE ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with joining the European Union, Romania became a fullmember of the largest economic bloc in the world, strengthening its position in terms of theglobal division of labour. The access to innovation and financing networks of the EuropeanUnion will have visible effects concerning economic growth of Romania on medium and longterm. Meanwhile, the entry under the full Europe's competition policy will lead to increase theproductivity and economic growth as its main result obtained national welfare. However theglobal financial crisis has a serious impact on the Romanian economy. In this context the bankshave become more restrained in lending and therefore, the companies are facing difficulties inaccessing credit. Thus, lack of capital block business activity, which seriously affects the entireeconomy. The question which arises is: will be able Romania, to find the resources andmanagers to take out the country of one of the greatest economic crisis of the last century?

  18. South –East Asian Crisis- An Important Lesson for the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Prerna Jain; Pragati Jain

    2009-01-01

    Crises are an intrinsic feature of the market–oriented credit and financial system. Business cycles showing periods of boom and bust will continue to occur, only the intensity shall matter. An unprecedented crisis that erupted in five Asian economies: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, the Republic of Korea and Thailand, in mid 1997-1998 raised concern about the stability of the “Global Financial Architecture.” The clear evidence emerged of a rapid and unsustainable buildup of investment i...

  19. Proceedings"Agro-food and rural economy competitiveness in terms of global crisis"

    OpenAIRE

    Cvijanović, Drago; Andrei, Jean; Subić, Jonel; Ion, Raluca

    2011-01-01

    The volume contains the papers presented during the International conference entitled:’ Agro-food and rural economy competitiveness in terms of global crisis’, organized by the Faculty of Agro-Food and Environmental Economics from Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Institute Of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade – Serbia, Faculty Of Agriculture, Zemun – Serbia, Institute Of Agricultural Economics, Romanian Academy, Bucharest – Romania, Institute of Research for Agricultural Economics And Ru...

  20. The German miracle keeps running: How Germany's hidden champions stay ahead in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Venohr, Bernd; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite mediocre macro-economic performance of the German economy, German companies are successful players in global trade. This article explores the strategies of one of the pillars of this export success, the Hidden Champions, Our empirical analysis focuses on leading medium size companies identified by Hermann Simon in the early 1990s, and investigates their long-term progress over one decade. We show that these companies continue to prosper with family ownership combined with professional...

  1. The Gulf Cooperation Council countries – economic structures, recent developments and role in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sturm; Jan Strasky; Petra Adolf; Dominik Peschel

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of high and rising oil prices since 2003, the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have seen dynamic economic development, enhancing their role in the global economy as investors and trade partners. Real GDP growth has been buoyant, with non-oil activity expanding faster than oil GDP. Macroeconomic developments have also been characterised by large fiscal and current account surpluses as a result of rising oil revenues, notwithstanding fiscal expansion and rapid imp...

  2. KEY FACTORS OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET AT THE PRESENT STAGE OF GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Starostina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions of transformation of the world market in modern conditions of globalization are determined. The main transformation’s factors of the international services market at the present stage of the world’s economy development are singled out. The impacts of the global market for the growth of productivity are investigated. The features for increase of export potential of developing countries in international trade in services are explored. The main characteristic features of the subject structure of the modern world market are showed.

  3. Financing the Transition to a Green Economy - An empirical investigation of how Norwegian firms can achieve business models for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Synne Mari; Slette, Sunniva Bratt

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this Master s thesis is to explore the interaction between the state of the current financial system and sustainable value creation of companies. This is done by examining how the financial community and business actors can address tensions that currently provide barriers for sustainability investments. The thesis is structured as an exploratory case study within the context of Norwegian industry development in the transition to a green economy. More specifically, the study i...

  4. Export Trade Performance of Indian Economy during and Following the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sumanjeet Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of 2008 the effects of global recession started getting reflectedin international trade. The fall in global demand and the slowing-down ineconomic growth translated into a substantial reduction in internationaltrade. It affected the cross-border trade of virtually all countries and economicsectors. Indian exports trade could not remain unaffected in a situation whereexternal demand was dwindling globally. The present paper reviews India’sexport performance during and following the global financial crisis. Indianexports started to decline in July 2008. It declined from US$ 17,095 millionin July 2008 to US$ 11,516 million in March 2009, which accounts for almost33 per cent decline. This growth contraction has come after a robust 25 percent-plus average export growth since 2003. But, as a result of governmentpolicy measures and recovery in global economy, India’s exports growthturned positive and exports grew by a whopping 54.1 per cent in March 2010and recorded the highest growth rate among the world’s top 70 economiesin merchandise exports. India’s merchandise exports during April 2010 at US$16.9 billion recorded a growth of 36.3 per cent as compared with a declineof 32.8 per cent registered in April 2009. Exports witnessed huge annualizedgrowth of 56.9 per cent to $25.9 billion in May 2011 in a bright spot for theIndian economy, which is battling high inflation amid signs of a slowdown.

  5. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  6. Solidarity finance through community development banks as a strategy for reshaping local economies: lessons from Banco Palmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genauto Carvalho de França Filho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the possibilities and challenges of Community Development Banks (CDBs as an innovative method of socioeconomic management of microcredit for poor populations. To this end, we will discuss the case of Banco Palmas in Conjunto Palmeiras in the city of Fortaleza, in the northeastern state of Ceará, as an empirical case study. The analyses presented here are based on information obtained from Banco Palmas between late 2011 and early 2012. In addition, previous studies by other researchers on the bank and other studies on CDBs were important. The primary data collected at Banco Palmas came from documents made available by the bank, such as reports and mappings. The analyses describe some of the characteristics of the granting of microcredit and allow one to situate it in the universe of microfinance and solidarity finance. They also show the significant growth of local consumption, mostly through the use of the Palmas social currency. The Banco Palmas experience, aside from influencing national public policies of solidarity finance, initiated a CDBs network that encourages the replication of these experiences throughout the country.

  7. 'BRICS without straw'? A systematic literature review of newly emerging economies' influence in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Andrew; Xiao, Yina; Missoni, Eduardo; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2013-04-15

    Since 2010, five newly emerging economies collectively known as 'BRICS' (Brazil, India, Russia, China and South Africa) have caught the imagination, and scholarly attention, of political scientists, economists and development specialists. The prospect of a unified geopolitical bloc, consciously seeking to re-frame international (and global) health development with a new set of ideas and values, has also, if belatedly, begun to attract the attention of the global health community. But what influence, if any, do the BRICS wield in global health, and, if they do wield influence, how has that influence been conceptualized and recorded in the literature? We conducted a systematic literature review in (March-December 2012) of documents retrieved from the databases EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organisations, research institutions and philanthropic organisations. The results were synthesised using a framework of influence developed for the review from the political science literature. Our initial search of databases and websites yielded 887 documents. Exclusion criteria narrowed the number of documents to 71 journal articles and 23 reports. Two researchers using an agreed set of inclusion criteria independently screened the 94 documents, leaving just 7 documents. We found just one document that provided sustained analysis of the BRICS' collective influence; the overwhelming tendency was to describe individual BRICS countries influence. Although influence was predominantly framed by BRICS countries' material capability, there were examples of institutional and ideational influence - particularly from Brazil. Individual BRICS countries were primarily 'opportunity seekers' and region mobilisers but with potential to become 'issue leaders' and region organisers. Though small in number, the written output on BRICS influence in global health has increased significantly since a similar review conducted in

  8. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fforde; Victoria Institute of Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne

    2015-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013), Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  9. How Does the Global Economy Crisis Influence in Managing Investment in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available July 2007 is the beginning of the world’s subprime mortgage crisis. Since then, the world’s liquidity crisis occurred and never found any solution until now. The liquidity crisis began to spread from developed countries to poor countries, developing countries and emerging markets with two channels. This contagious crisis made growing economy and emerging economy fell. No country in the world survived, including Indonesia. This paper discussed the management of investments in Indonesia. It started from the spread of global crisis to Indonesia and its impact on investment in Indonesia. Then, we discussed the government's efforts to encourage investment. The last was the view of the investment for the next three years (2010-2014

  10. Contagion effects of the global financial crisis in us and European real economy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenourgios Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the contagion effects of the Global Financial Crisis (2007-2009 from the financial sector to the real economy by examining nine sectors of US and developed European region. We provide a regional analysis by testing stock market contagion on the aggregate level and the sector level, on the global level and the domestic/regional level. Results show evidence of global contagion in US and developed European aggregate stock market indices and all US sector indices, implying the limited benefits of portfolio diversification. On the other hand, most of the European regional sectors seem to be immune to the adverse effects of the crisis. Finally, all non-financial sectors of both geographical areas seem to be unaffected by their domestic financial systems. These findings have important implications for policy makers, investors and international organizations.

  11. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery has had a number of social and environmental consequences. Based on in-depth fieldwork and historical research, this paper examines the political economy of the bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean, with a focus on Sicily. It provides a descriptive history of the changing conditions in this fishery, paying special attention to the modern fishery. This research contributes to the discussions regarding the globalization and industrialization of agri-foodsystems and environmental degradation.

  12. The Changing Global Economy: Roles Of The United States And The European Union In The Evolving Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph McKinney

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the countries comprising the European Union have dominated the global economy during the past seventy years. However, momentous change is underway. China will soon be the largest economy in the world, and other countries of the developing world are rapidly increasing in economic importance. Meanwhile, the European Union is experiencing slow growth and the United States is struggling with serious economic problems. This paper considers how the transatlantic economic relationship is likely to be affected by these circumstances, and how the US and the EU can best work together to facilitate smooth transitions in the global economy.

  13. Assessment of impact of strong earthquakes to the global economy by example of Thoku event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Sergey, Baranov; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova

    2016-04-01

    We examine the economic consequences of strong earthquakes by example of M9 Tahoku one that occurred on March 11, 2011 close to the northeast shore of Japanese coast Honshu. This earthquake became the strongest in the whole history of the seismological observations in this part of the planet. The generated tsunami killed more than 15,700 people, damaged 332,395 buildings and 2,126 roads. The total economic loss in Japan was estimated at 309 billion. The catastrophe in Japan also impacted global economy. To estimate its impact, we used regional and global stock indexes, production indexes, stock prices of the main Japanese, European and US companies, import and export dynamics, as well as the data provided by the custom of Japan. We also demonstrated that the catastrophe substantially affected the markets and on the short run in some indicators it even exceeded the effect of the global financial crisis of 2008. The last strong earthquake occurred in Nepal (25.04.2015, M7.8) and Chile (16.09.2015, M8.3), both actualized the research of cost assessments of the overall economic impact of seismic hazard. We concluded that it is necessary to treat strong earthquakes as one very important factor that affects the world economy depending on their location. The research was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project 16-06-00056A).

  14. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  15. It is desirable allocative function of the food market in a global economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Nohra

    2008-01-01

    This article brings forth the free market influence on product patterns, agricultural output quantities and prices in the global economy? casting doubt over the allocative efficiency of markets and intending to outline some risks brought on by excessive reliance on free markets regarding consumer welfare, food security and negative impact on the environment and sustainable economic growth. As the main analytic element it is presented the preeminence of agricultural food multinational producers, as well as the scale of their influence in terms of product supply and commercialization, responding exclusively to profit maximization incentives without taking into account their role in terms of food nutrition patterns and production

  16. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  17. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health. PMID:22938504

  18. Globalization of the economy and women's work in a sustainable society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, M

    1998-01-01

    This article critiques theories of development and growth models, which are not compatible with conservation of resources, women's empowerment, and a sustainable society. Affluent societies are using up most of the world's resources in unsustainable ways. Industrial giants have co-opted the term "sustainability." This gender discussion addresses the issue of patriarchal and capitalist systems and presents a new theoretical framework. The author disagrees with the global division of labor, where women are manipulated as producer-housewives and consumer-housewives, and with the global level of violence against women, in general. Gender equality is not viable in the present patriarchal order. In all economic theories, women's work is a free resource and invisible as unpaid housework and nurturing work. The globalization of the economy leads to greater capital and power concentration in the hands of a few. Women are ill served by structural adjustment policies. New global restructuring has improved the welfare of Third World elites. Globalization of capital and new technology makes ethics obsolete. A new economic model must be based on the preservation of life at the center, with livelihood based on wage labor and unpaid work, control of communal assets, and solidarity of communities. Unpaid necessary social labor must be shared by men and women equally. The checklist for change includes, for example, that money would be a means of circulation, not of accumulation. Nature would be reintegrated into economics. There must be new meanings for work, productive labor, economics, the good life, satisfaction of needs, and political structures.

  19. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  20. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, Robert J. (Yale)

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  1. The Impact Of Regionalism On Regional Development Under The Conditions Of A Globalized Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cihelkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the difference between regionalism and regional development concepts that are often used interchangeably, to investigate the fundamental aspects of two phenomena: regionalism in the sense of “new regionalism” and in the sense of “regional development” at the background of the globalized economy; to check a hypothesis that these two phenomena may be linked together and to study the impact of regionalism on regional integration. The article deepens the concept of “regional development.” At the same time, peculiarities of the current stage of the world economy development under the conditions of globalization are considered. The paper is theoretical (verbal rather than statistical analysis of the nature, diversity and fundamental aspects of regionalism and regional development in general. The article deals with the impact of regionalism on the location of production, and the growth of competition and market expansion systematizes the main effects of regionalism on market expansion and the location of production.

  2. THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING REPORTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail PRODANCIUK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the impact of the globalization processes in Ukraine's economy on the development of accounting reports systems. Also described is the essence of harmonization and standardization of accounting reports and financial reports. There are four scientific positions known that characterize standardization records worldwide. There are submitted proposals regarding accounting reports regulation in Ukraine in terms of economic globalization.

  3. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Japan's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the global financial crisis on Japan's economy, especially on its higher education. The first section provides an overview of Japan's national economy with a focus on the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy, then the author touches on the impact on the Japanese government's finances,…

  4. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Export dynamics as an optimal growth problem in the network of global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraglio, Michele; Baldovin, Fulvio; Stella, Attilio L

    2016-08-17

    We analyze export data aggregated at world global level of 219 classes of products over a period of 39 years. Our main goal is to set up a dynamical model to identify and quantify plausible mechanisms by which the evolutions of the various exports affect each other. This is pursued through a stochastic differential description, partly inspired by approaches used in population dynamics or directed polymers in random media. We outline a complex network of transfer rates which describes how resources are shifted between different product classes, and determines how casual favorable conditions for one export can spread to the other ones. A calibration procedure allows to fit four free model-parameters such that the dynamical evolution becomes consistent with the average growth, the fluctuations, and the ranking of the export values observed in real data. Growth crucially depends on the balance between maintaining and shifting resources to different exports, like in an explore-exploit problem. Remarkably, the calibrated parameters warrant a close-to-maximum growth rate under the transient conditions realized in the period covered by data, implying an optimal self organization of the global export. According to the model, major structural changes in the global economy take tens of years.

  6. Nuclear energy-an essential option for sustainable development of global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokio Kanoh

    2005-01-01

    Increased use of nuclear energy is an essential option for us to take the sustainable development of the global economy. The reasons are as follows: 1. Energy demand, especially in oil demand; 2. Environmental impact, especially greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide emissions, CO 2 emissions to be reduced 40% by increased use of nuclear power; 3. In the era of hydrogen, nuclear power can contribute in two ways. One is hydrogen production by electrolysis of water in conventional light water reactors powered by less costly late night electricity and the other by paralysis using high temperature gas produced in a high temperature testing reactor, Electric power consumption will increase 50% from 1990 to 2050. What is striking about his projection is types of fuels in use for power generation at that time which will consist of 60% nuclear, 10% hydro and 10% of other renewable energies. In other words, nearly 80% of fuels will be non-fossil sources

  7. Considerations on the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Economies from Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Belașcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the causes and consequences of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on five Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Russia, with the purpose of identifying the common points and the differences between these economies in terms of crisis impact, with an accent on their capital markets. Our findings indicate that although the countries under scrutiny have displayed somehow different paths of economic development before the crisis, they were affected, to a higher or smaller extent, by the financial crisis. Also, the crisis was felt in these countries, at least in terms of impact on capital markets, with different lags: in some of these countries the crisis hit at beginning of 2008, while in others signs of the crisis were visible only towards the end of 2008.

  8. REDD+ Financing to Enhance Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation and Biodiversity Co-benefits: Lessons from the Global Environment Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Morita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores ways to effectively and efficiently finance Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ activities to enhance climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation by drawing on lessons from the Global Environment Facility (GEF. The study analyzed trends in the focal areas of GEF forest-related projects, the executing and implementing agencies involved in GEF forest-related multi-focal area projects, and the cofundraisers’ trends in GEF forest-related multi-focal area projects. The analysis of GEF forest-related projects identified ways to finance REDD+ mobilization and distribution to enhance its multiple benefits. The key agencies that support REDD+ activities and enhance these co-benefits are the United Nations Development Program (UNDP, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, the World Bank, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP, and the national governments of developing countries. GEF and the co-fundraisers—multilateral aid agencies, such as UNDP, the World Bank, FAO, the Asian Development Bank, and UNEP, bilateral aid agencies, such as Germany, the United States and the European Union, the private sector and nongovernmental organizations—all work to enhance REDD+ co-benefits. Because private contributions to the GEF are limited, it is important to design a scheme to mobilize more private financing for REDD+.

  9. The evolution of sovereign wealth funds and their influence in the global economy. The case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Iulica MIHAI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper, through the deductive analysis and the causal explanations, catches the positive and negative character of the Sovereign Wealth Funds development as a relatively new economic tool, but with a strong impact in the global economy, especially in the context of the current financial changes. The benefits brought by them to the global capital market, in terms of increasing liquidity and allotting financial resources, however cannot diminish the fears related to the states holding sovereign funds in the economy of other countries, and in order to give an example we present the case of China.

  10. Decarbonizing the Global Economy - An Integrated Assessment of Low Carbon Emission Scenarios proposed in Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Sascha; Khabbazan, Mohammad Mohammadi

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) reaffirmed to targeting the global mean temperature rise below 2 °C in 2100 while finding no consent on decarbonizing the global economy, and instead, the final agreement called for enhanced scientific investigation of low carbon emission scenarios (UNFCC, 2015). In addition, the Climate Action Network International (CAN) proposes Special Reports to address decarbonization and low carbon development including 1.5 °C scenarios (IPCC, 2016). In response to these developments, we investigate whether the carbon emission cuts, in accordance with the recent climate policy proposals, may reach the climate target. To tackle this research question, we employ the coupled climate-energy-economy integrated assessment Model of INvestment and endogenous technological Development (MIND, cf. Edenhofer et al., 2005, Neubersch et al. 2014). Extending MIND's climate module to the two-box version used in the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE, cf. Nordhaus and Sztorc, 2013, Nordhaus 2014), we perform a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraints on anthropogenic carbon emissions. We show that a climate policy scenario with early decarbonization complies with the 2° C climate target, even without Carbon Capturing and Storage (CCS) or negative emissions (see van Vuuren et al., 2013, for negative emissions). However, using emission inertia of 3.7 percent annually, reflecting the inflexibility on transforming the energy sector, we find a climate policy with moderately low emissions from 2100 onwards at a cost in terms of Balanced Growth Equivalents (BGE, cf. Anthoff and Tol, 2009) of 0.764 % that requires an early (2035 vs. 2120) peak of investments in renewable energy production compared to a business-as-usual scenario. Hence, decarbonizing the global economy and achieving the 2 °C target might still be possible before 2100, but the window of opportunity is beginning to close. References: Anthoff, D., and Tol, R

  11. Increasing Effectiveness of the Community College Financial Model: A Global Perspective for the Global Economy. International and Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Stewart E., Ed.; Derrico, Daniel, Ed.; Raby, Rosalind Latiner, Ed.; Valeau, Edward J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book seeks to explore thematic and pragmatic applications of financing the community college to help facilitate educational reform, to assist efforts related to internationalization, and to create systemic support systems to maintain the mission. It includes chapters on a wide variety of finance related topics, and specific case studies of…

  12. Interpreting the green economy: emerging discourses and their considerations for the Global South

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Faccer, K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The green economy concept promises to provide a concrete roadmap to the implementation of sustainable development while delivering significant social and economic benefits and reduced environmental risks. However, the concept of a green economy...

  13. Embodiment Analysis for Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Chinese Economy Based on Global Thermodynamic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent year available with input-output table and updated inventory data. The results show that the estimated total direct GHG emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 amount to 10,657.5 Mt CO2-eq by the GTPs with 40.6% from CH4 emissions in magnitude of the same importance as CO2 emissions. The five sectors of Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, are responsible for 83.3% of the total GHG emissions with different emission structures. The demands of coal and coal-electricity determine the structure of emission embodiment to an essential extent. The Construction sector holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and domestic consumption. The GHG emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with a remarkable share of direct emission induced by international trade, such as textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products exports. The fractions of CH4 in the component of embodied GHG emissions in the final demand are much greater than those fractions calculated by the Global Warming Potentials, which highlight the importance of CH4 emissions for the case of China and indicate the essential effect of CH4 emissions on global climate change. To understand the full context to achieve GHG emission mitigation, this study provides a new insight to address China’s GHG emissions status and

  14. Technological Innovation and Competitiveness in The Global Economy: India's Changing Status and Its Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Subrahmanya Mungila Hillemane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper probes the changing innovation status and resultant competitiveness in the context of global economy and questions the recent ranking improvements of India on the basis of hard economic facts. This paper has made use of secondary data comprising innovation indices and competitiveness rankings published by international organizations and reputed business schools from time to time since 1996 to analyze the changing status of India internationally. Later, using secondary data on key macro-economic variables published by the Government of India, the recent ranking of India is closely examined as well as recent steps taken by the government of India to improve competitiveness is elaborated. The study throws light on the changing but improving innovation dimensions and competitiveness ranking of India since 1996 till 2010. From nowhere India emerges and occupies the second slot, after China, in the global competitiveness ranking. But hard core macro-economic variables do not justify India’s elevation to the top in any way. Given this, the study throws light on the recent policy measures announced by the Government of India and its implications as well as policy imperatives.

  15. Energy integration: Regional economic integration lever and possible insertion factor in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokolo, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1920s, just after the War, an idea began taking root in the Old Continent, to build what could be described as the United States of Europe. Thirty years later, in 1951, a new source of energy, coal, paved the way for the economic integration of Europe. It culminated into monetary integration in January 2002. Economic integration makes sense in the context of the relatively small size of some national economies and markets, and the judicious utilization of rare resources and their unequal distribution. In this document, the author elaborated on the principles at play in economic integration and argued that the integration of the national energy markets could be the lever for economic integration through the gradual elimination of the various obstacles to trade. The author first presented a brief historical overview of economic integration from the perspective of global economic relationships, covering the period between the two world wars to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The concept and the forms of economic integration were reviewed. Energy integration as a lever of regional economic integration and as a factor in global economic insertion were discussed. Energy integration is a tool for the improvement of the human condition. 15 refs

  16. Emerging from the tragedies in Bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  17. Colombia & the New Global Economy: Implications of Tratado de Libre Comercio for Colombian Industry, Engineers and Engineering Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopaya Bidanda

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of the world economy has changed significantly over the last twenty five years. The inter-connectedness of national economies, the rapid ascent of the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China in the global engineering environment and the pro-active role of organizations such as the World Trade Organization, regional alliances such as the EU, and Mercosur are factors that have synergized this movement towards a new order. The completion of the Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC agreement is a major milestone for the Colombian economy. These developments have serious and opportunistic implications for organizations, engineers, and engineering educators. We focus here on the drivers and consequences for engineering practitioners and educators. Corporate strategies, along with the need for engineering curriculum reform to ensure that Colombian engineers will effectively compete in the global marketplace, are detailed.

  18. Youth at Work: Making It in the Global Economy. A Report of the At-Risk Youth Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Employment and Training Commission, Trenton.

    The At-Risk Youth Task Force of the State Employment and Training Commission concluded that a generation of young people faced underemployment or unemployment as a result of the increased skill demands required by the global economy. Two interrelated phenomena adversely affected the ability of a majority of young people to succeed in the labor…

  19. A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the book entitled "A Liberal Actor in a Realist World The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy" authored by Andreas Goldthau and Nick Sitter. It was published by Routledge in 2015.

  20. Transnational business as a manifestation of the integration of the global economy and a driving force of its development

    OpenAIRE

    Morkovina, Svetlana S.; Natsubidze, Alexandr S.; Irizepova, Margarita S.; Sinyavsky, Nikolai G.; Chashchin, Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the significance of transnational business in the development of the global economic system, to present perspectives on its further functioning and distribution in the global economy, and to develop recommendations for state regulation of entrepreneurship in developing countries for the purposes of attracting transnational business and stimulating the internationalization of domestic business. To achieve this purpose, the authors use statistical inf...

  1. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  2. The resilience of the Indian economy to rising oil prices as a validation test for a global energy-environment-economy CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarch, Celine; Hallegatte, Stephane; Crassous, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to test the global hybrid computable general equilibrium model IMACLIM-R against macroeconomic data. To do so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price during the 2003-2006 period. The objective is twofold: first, to disentangle the various mechanisms and policies at play in India's economy response to rising oil prices and, second, to validate our model as a tool capable of reproducing short-run statistical data. With default parameterization, the model predicts a significant decrease in the Indian growth rate that is not observed. However, this discrepancy is corrected if three additional mechanisms identified by the International Monetary Fund are introduced, namely the rise in exports of refined oil products, the imbalance of the trade balance allowed by large capital inflows, and the incomplete pass-through of the oil price increase to Indian customers. This work is a first step toward model validation, and provides interesting insights on the modeling methodology relevant to represent an economy's response to a shock, as well as on how short-term mechanisms - and policy action - can smooth the negative impacts of energy price shocks or climate policies. (author)

  3. The resilience of the Indian economy to rising oil prices as a validation test for a global energy-environment-economy CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarch, C.; Hallegatte, St.; Crassous, R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper proposes to test the global hybrid computable general equilibrium model IMACLIM-R against macro-economic data. To do so, it compares the modeled and observed responses of the Indian economy to the rise of oil price during the 2003-2006 period. The objective is twofold: first, to disentangle the various mechanisms and policies at play in India's economy response to rising oil prices and, second, to validate our model as a tool capable of reproducing short-run statistical data. With default parametrization, the model predicts a significant decrease in the Indian growth rate that is not observed. However, this discrepancy is corrected if three additional mechanisms identified by the International Monetary Fund are introduced, namely the rise in exports of refined oil products, the imbalance of the trade balance allowed by large capital inflows, and the incomplete pass-through of the oil price increase to Indian customers. This work is a first step toward model validation, and provides interesting insights on the modeling methodology relevant to represent an economy's response to a shock, as well as on how short-term mechanisms - and policy action - can smooth the negative impacts of energy price shocks or climate policies. (authors)

  4. On the strategy of modernization and development of Russian economy in a global depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurievich Glazyev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the essence of the program proposed by author on preemptive measures to develop the Russian economy in terms of a global depression. The distinctive features of the present global crisis and the prospects of overcoming it are identified. We propose three possible scenarios for the world economy after the crisis: 1 the scenario of quick withdrawal to a long wave of economic growth (optimistic; 2 the catastrophic scenario; 3 the inertial scenario. The key idea of forming a national strategy for accelerated development lies in: the timely establishment of basic industries, the new technological order and early withdrawal of the Russian economy on the associated new long wave of growth, increasing the power of multiple domestic banking and investment system; economic stabilization and creating a zone of sustainable development in the regions of the Eurasian Economic Community and the CIS. Taking into account the experience of anti-crisis policy of foreign countries, strategic mistakes in the planning of anti-crisis measures are identified. In the analysis of national anti-crisis policies and assessing the effectiveness of anti-crisis measures it is justified that the same mistakes were made in Russia. To overcome them, it is required to provide consistency of macroeconomic policies with the priorities of long-term economic and technological development. It might be achieved by concentrating resources on the development of advanced industrial and technological systems that require dedicated work of the national financial and investment system, including the mechanisms of monetary, fiscal and foreign exchange policy. Conceptual parameters of the strategic planning system that can identify promising areas of economic growth as well as guide the development of state institutions to implement them are formulated. The elements of such a system created in Russia in recent years and requiring its introduction are defined. The efficiency

  5. The Impact of Economic Globalization on Higher Education. A Regional Project on the Global Economy and Higher Education in New England. Staff Paper Number III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groennings, Sven

    The third document in a series of special papers released by the Project on the Global Economy and Higher Education in New England is presented. The paper examines the causes and manifestations of change toward internationalization at New England colleges and universities and the extent to which change is linked to the coming of the global…

  6. 78 FR 57174 - Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2; Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review.... 332-540, Digital Trade in the U.S. and Global Economies, Part 2. The investigation was instituted.... Summary of Proposal (1) Number of forms submitted: 1. (2) Title of form: Digital Trade Questionnaire. (3...

  7. Global Risk Management – A Necessity in a World of Vulnerabilities and of ECO-Economy and BIO -ECO-Economy Needed by ECO-SANO-Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Vision of the Eco-Bio-Economy is to sustain development of the humankind welfare in all forms, through an economy of future dedicated to human life through the rational use of the environmental resources. The present work attempts to discuss the issues that humanity faces at the beginning of a new global economic paradigm. The minimum point of the financial crisis started in 2008 meets the final years of the decline phase of the long term global economic cycle. The feeling is one of lack of vision on the part of Governments, of improvisation, of passive reaction, such as seeing and doing. One feels that the economic context is worn out , dysfunctional because of deep recovery problems. The perception, not far from the taugh reality, is that of a national competition meant to minimize losses caused by the financial crisis and to use beggar thy neighbor types of policies, similar to finding the way out of the crisis on the expense of others.

  8. Developing Economies and Global Governance: Will IMF Rethink Its Orthodox View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been constantly viewed that the developed economies unevenly ruled the governance structures in the international organizations such as International Monetary Fund (MF. The continuous development in Emerging and Developing Economies (EDEs over the last 20 years witnessed their growing importance in the world economy, but at the same time little increase in their voice in the IMF. There are reasons for the discontent of the EDEs in the present structure such as the increase of regional monetary arrangements, uneven distribution of quota shares, IMF quota reforms, and IMF voting structure. The world economy is witnessing a tremendous growth of these EDEs and is now at the verge where Asian economies are capable of leading, rather than the North Atlantic economies. This issue should be acknowledged properly and must be responded adequately. This paper makes an attempt to understand the prime issues that should be fixed in the current quotas system and voting structure in the IMF.

  9. Supply chain finance and SMEs: Evidence from international factoring data

    OpenAIRE

    Auboin, Marc; Smythe, Harry; Teh, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The unbundling of trade across regions offers unique opportunities for SMEs to integrate into global trade notably through their involvement into supply-chains. With supply-chains shifting and expanding into new regions of the world, the challenge for SMEs to accessing financing remains an important one; in many developing and emerging market economies, the capacity of the local financial sector to support new traders is limited. Moreover, after the financial crisis, several global banks have...

  10. Trading away what kind of jobs? Globalization, trade and tasks in the US economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Thomas; Rigby, David

    2012-04-01

    Economists and other social scientists are calling for a reassessment of the impact of international trade on labor markets in developed and developing countries. Classical models of globalization and trade, based upon the international exchange of finished goods, fail to capture the fragmentation of much commodity production and the geographical separation of individual production tasks. This fragmentation, captured in the growing volume of intra-industry trade, prompts investigation of the effects of trade within, rather than between, sectors of the economy. In this paper we examine the relationship between international trade and the task structure of US employment. We link disaggregate US trade data from 1972 to 2006, the NBER manufacturing database, the Decennial Census, and occupational and task data from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Within-industry shifts in task characteristics are linked to import competition and technological change. Our results suggest that trade has played a major role in the growth in relative demand for nonroutine tasks, particularly those requiring high levels of interpersonal interaction.

  11. Financial Stabilisation of Global Economy Countries under Conditions of the Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovchenko Natalia G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European crisis hinders global restoration of economy, the growth of restoration slows down. All these require supranational solutions: creatio9n of regulation structures and new financial instruments in order to preserve stable world financial order. Methods of quantitative easing (QE, carried out by the American Federal Reserve System and Bank of England, aim at stimulation of private sector activity through reduction of loan cost, generation of positive effects of well-being and increase of investment income. Purchase of assets efficiently move dangerous financial assets from private sector to the balance of the central bank or special QE fund in exchange to risk free reserves of the central bank. Thus, both types of measures are performed by means of risks, accumulating on balances of central banks and indirectly on the balance of state administration. Exchange of information between relevant agencies, including debt administration office, state enterprises that administer assets and central bank, is important for efficient administration of all state assets and liabilities. Proper assessment of financial positions requires all-sided and transparent reporting of all state liabilities and assets. Besides, financial transparency facilitates consolidation.

  12. Globalization and the Spatial Economy: Implications for the Amazon Basin in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E.; Walker, R.; Richards, P.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for food and energy will increase in the next decades as world population grows, incomes in developing countries rise, and new energy sources from biofuels are sought. Despite gains in productivity, much of the future demand for those agricultural products will be met by bringing new lands into production. Tropical forests, and in particular the Brazilian Amazon, the focus of our article, are already facing pressures from expanding production of soy, beef, cotton, and biofuels as deforestation advances the agricultural frontier. This article begins by reviewing the recent literature and provides evidences of indirect land cover change in the Amazon driven by the tandem soy - cattle, whereby mechanized agriculture encroaches on existing pastures, displacing them to the Amazonian frontier. We then consider conditions in the spatial economy that potentially inhibit ongoing forest loss. In particular, we address the prospect of forest transition in the Amazon basin. This necessitates a review of the so-called Borlaug hypothesis, and the circumstances under which land sparing occurs. Land sparing, a sufficient if not necessary condition for forest transition, represents a potential solution to environmental problems associated with land change, one that promotes sustainability by furthering rural development with improved technologies. The paper concludes by contrasting the current Brazilian agricultural and environmental policies with the conditions set in the previous section.

  13. The Necessity of Developing Nuclear Energy in Romania in the Context of Global Economy Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana-Elena MARCEAN HOLBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important elements of the global economy, being the basic unit of world economic development. In the energy mix, nuclear energy - more than any other type of energy - has generated and will always generate a series of controversies. This article aims to emphasize the economic and social implications, further than the general purpose of developing nuclear energy: national energetic security. With the starting point clearly defined – the history already written by the operation of Unit 1 and 2 – the path to discover all its elements seems to be clear, although a whole range of unknown issues can rise many different interpretations. In Romania, nuclear energy produces 18% of Romania's electricity supplies. Development of Units 3 and 4 of the Cernavoda site could more than double this capacity. This will have major implications in the trading market, significantly influencing the price of electricity not only nationally, but, in the context coupling energy markets, as well as at regional level. It is also risen the question of using this additional production. Depending on the time of commissioning, this quantity of energy that now seems overmuch, can be used for export, to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to continue to obtain electricity in the context of a system based on power plants that use fossil fuels, whose lifespan is nearing completion.

  14. A economia entre crises: economia política e finanças na Universidade de Buenos Aires (1870-1900 The economy between crises: political economy and finance at the University of Buenos Aires (1870-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ben Plotkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os momentos iniciais do ensino de economia na Argentina, a partir de um exame dos materiais ligados às cátedras de economia política e de finanças, que se constituíram por ocasião do surgimento da carreira de direito na Universidade de Buenos Aires. O recorte temporal diz respeito ao período definido pelas crises econômicas de 1873-1875 e a de 1890, já que tais conjunturas críticas são consideradas o elemento criador de uma demanda por saberes especializados, o que, por sua vez, contribui com a institucionalização e a legitimação desses saberes. Analisar o tipo de economia que se ensinava na Faculdade leva ao estudo da recepção de trabalhos produzidos em outros contextos nacionais e que foram, na Argentina, utilizados como referência legitimadora. Argumenta-se que, embora na Argentina de fins do século XIX o liberalismo econômico possa ser entendido como parâmetro de autoridade amplamente aceito, a recepção das obras canônicas da época, especialmente no caso daquelas provenientes da escola liberal francesa, foi um processo criativo que serviu para validar opiniões muitas vezes diversas em relação àquelas que os próprios autores franceses sustentavam.This article analyzes the inaugural period of teaching economics in Argentina, examining material linked to the chairs of political economy and finance created around the time of the institution of the legal career at the University of Buenos Aires. The time period under study is defined by the economic crises of 1873-1875 and 1890, since these critical phases are generally held to be responsible for creating the demand for specialized knowledge, which in turn contributed to the institutionalization and legitimization of these specialities. Analyzing the type of economics taught at the Faculty leads into a study of how works produced in other national contexts were absorbed and deployed in Argentina as legitimizing points of reference. The text argues

  15. VAGINAL ECONOMY: Cinema and Globalization in the Post-Marcos Post-Brocka Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando B. Tolentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the trope of the vaginal economy that is proliferated in the political economy and nature of Philippine migration. The vaginal economy is both receptacle and symptom of Philippine development. It represents the discourse through cinema, and historicizes the primal debate in the Marcos and Brocka contestation for image-building of the nation. Primarily through the sex-oriented (bomba films and their permutations in the various political life of the contemporary nation, the vaginal economy is historicized even in the after-life of the post-Marcos and post-Brocka era.

  16. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  17. Estimation of Effects and the Threshold of Fiscal Deficit Financing for the Nigerian Economy:An Econometric Re-evaluation of Recent Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Umoru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study uses an instrumental variable estimator to econometrically re-estimate effects of fiscal deficit financing on output growth rate plus the threshold value of such deficit financing that is consistent with growth rate of national output in Nigeria based on a system specification and theThreshold Autoregressive (TAR specification. Estimations were done with quarterly data from 2010:Q1 to 2017: Q2. Results of likelihood ratio test validated existence of threshold effect and this implies that link between fiscal deficit financing and long-run output growth is non-linear in Nigeria while empirics of threshold autoregressive results evidently upholds that changes in fiscal deficit negatively impact output growth exclusively if such deficit financing exceeds 3% of GDP. By implication, fiscal deficit financing that exceeds 3% of GDP injures output growth in Nigeria. In effect, 3% is the threshold at which the sign of existing link between fiscal deficit financing and output growth switches. At threshold of 4% and above, the link becomes negative. Henceforward, the Nigerian monetary authority (CBN can be so advised to target not more than 3% fiscal deficit financing for determination of output growth while simultaneously reduce lending rate to boost domestic investment that links local production required to boost exportation and so generate the requisite foreign exchange desirable to steer economic growth.

  18. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  19. Do global banks facilitate foreign direct investment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelhekke, S.

    2015-01-01

    The wave of globalization in finance during the last decades led to the rise of global banks. Are these merely costly liabilities to the countries that supervise them, or is their global reach also beneficial for the real economy and for FDI in particular? Recent literature has focused on the risks,

  20. Towards a Global Comprehensive Context-driven and Decision-focused Theory and Method for a New Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently significant dissatisfaction with conventional economic theory. The unreliability of conventional theory as a predictor of future economic possibilities of catastrophes emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of political economy. This paper provides a capsule of some of the important limitations and consequences of the “old” paradigm. It proposes the necessary elements of a new paradigm and it seeks to locate the new paradigm of political economy in terms of its global reach. This requires a richer contextual approach, with the tools of contextual mapping. It has as well a focus on the global process of effective power and the emerging rule of law based constitutive processes. This is a key to the role of decision and the architecture of decision-making in political economy. We conclude with the global to local implications of the Vicos Experiment in Peru. Finally, we stress the wider lens of focus to identify the real and not the illusory generation of value. The implications here facilitate real global democratization.

  1. Payments for ecosystem services and the financing of global biodiversity conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Miller, D.C.; Groot, de R.S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that addressing the ongoing loss of global biodiversity requires a substantial increase in funding for conservation activities, particularly in developing countries. An increasing interest in Payment Mechanisms for Ecosystem Services (PES) begs the question of whether a

  2. The unstable core of global finance: contingent valuation and governance of international accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.

    2015-01-01

    Accounting standards are the foundations of the financial regulatory edifice, and global financial governance is no more stable than the asset valuations that feed it. Yet for two decades and up to this day, no international accounting rule for financial instruments - the bulk of banks' balance

  3. The Role of Organizational Leadership to Enhance Top 10 CSR Issues and Trends in The Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rachmayanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on leadership and its relationship with organizational performance have been carried out and not considered Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR performance, especially in the field of community development (Comdev and even done partially. This study aims to investigate the role of organizational leadership to enhance Top 10 CSR issues and trends in the global economy which defines roles and leadership competencies. Thirteen experts were involved in the Forum of Multi Stakeholder Corporate Social Responsibility (MSHCSR through Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Data by cluster random sampling were statistically analyzed with Assumption Surfacing and Testing Strategy (SAST. The results showed from FGD experts stating if eight roles and eight competencies of the organization’s leadership is very important and influential to enhance Top 10 CSR issues and trends in the global economy.

  4. The Causes and Ramifications of the 2008- 2009 Meltdown of the Financial Markets on the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raquibuz ZAMAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The sub- prime mortgage crisis of the summer of 2007 was the first salvo of the impending global meltdown of the financial markets. This study presents a brief review of the factors that led to the collapse of the financial markets and the magnitude of the damage it caused around the globe. It then discusses the measures that need to be taken to stabilize the markets and to create conditions for the resumption of growth. It examines the prospects for financial markets recovery and economic growth in the emerging economies of Asia, Europe and Latin America, with a special reference to BRIC countries, Turkey, and the Middle East. It emphasizes the linkages between nations’ economies and asserts that economic growth cannot be sustained by individual or block of countries, without an overall global effort, to reign in greed and unethical conduct by the operatives of financial markets

  5. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José; Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne

    a lively academic atmosphere for this emerging multidisciplinary and international academic conversation around the place of finance in contemporary life. Second, we expect to demonstrate that what we term domesticizing finance adds a particular modification to the study of finance more generally......In the wake of the financial crisis, there has been an explosion of interest in the place finance occupies in our societies and economies. This paper suggests a different angle from which to study of finance, interested in how finance is domesticized. Domesticizing finance, as a theoretical...... and methodological orientation, is about simultaneously studying the use and practice of finance in domestic settings and the ways in which domestic life is enacted as target of varied financial providers and governed in terms of its financial capabilities. We aim to achieve three things in this article. First...

  6. Globalization and Industrial Revolutions in India and China: Implications for Advanced and Developing Economies and for National and International Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact on labour markets in advanced countries (ACs) of the integration of the two giant fast-growing countries, China and India, with the liberalised global economy. The integration is taking place under “current globalisation,” which consists of free trade, free capital movements and domestic labour market flexibility (instead of free international movement of labour). The first part reviews economic theory as well as several generations of empirical work on the ...

  7. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  8. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18 th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  9. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-01-01

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the government

  10. The impact of the global economic crisis on the finances of non-governmental sport organizations in Slovenia remains to be seen

    OpenAIRE

    Jurak,Gregor; Andreff,Wladimir; Popović,Stevo; Jakšić,Damjan; Bednarik,Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the global economic crisis on revenues on all non-governmental sport organizations (sport NGOs) in Slovenia, as a small European economy. Five types of operating revenues of all sport NGOs from 2007 to 2010 have been analyzed. We found that the overall trend of sport NGOs revenues does not correspond exactly to the trends of the Slovenian economy. The greatest financial impacts were experienced in grassroots sport, while professional sport NGOs have increased...

  11. Waste Picker Organizations and Their Contribution to the Circular Economy: Two Case Studies from a Global South Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Gutberlet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the circular economy (CE has attracted a rising interest within global policy and business as a way of increasing the sustainability of production and consumption. Yet the literature mostly portrays a Global North perspective. There is a diverse spectrum of community-based organizations playing important roles in resource recovery and transformation, particularly, but not only, in Global South countries, providing innovative examples for grassroots involvement in waste management and in the CE. This article proposes to add a Southern lens, situated in the context of waste picker organizations, to the concept of CE. The discursive framework in this article couples ecological economy (EE with social/solidarity economy (SSE, focusing not only on environmental sustainability but also on social, economic, political and cultural dimensions involved in production, consumption and discard. We acknowledge that grassroots movements contribute to policy making and improve urban waste management systems. The paper outlines two empirical studies (Argentina, Brazil that illustrate how waste picker organizations perform selective waste collection services, engage with municipalities and industries, and practice the CE. The research reveals that social and political facets need to be added to the debate about the CE, linking environmental management and policy with community development and recognizing waste pickers as protagonists in the CE. Our findings emphasize a need for a change of persisting inequalities in public policy by recognizing the importance of popular waste management praxis and knowledge, ultimately redefining the CE.

  12. Costa Rica: Hydroelectric utility Energía Global finances upstream reforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Energía Global (Global Energy S.A.); The National Forest Office; National Fund for Forest Financing (FONAFIFO)

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record The goal of Energía Global is to increase both the stream flow and decrease sedimentation in the hydroelectric reservoirs. They are attempting to do this by reforestation projects as well as forest conservation. The sources of revenue for this project are from the private hydroelectric company and the government through taxes on fossil fuels. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  13. ‘Hot and bothered’ in the greenhouse : the economics of global warming and international finance

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Concern about global warming is at the centre of the debate on sustainable development. This and the following section briefly explain why. Most economists agree on a broad definition of the aims of sustainable development. These are to increase average human wellbeing today, without a worsening of either the distribution of wellbeing today or the wellbeing of future generations. Sustainable development thus has a tripartite god of an enduring increase in per capita wellbein...

  14. Report on the behalf of the finance, general economy and budget control commission on the finance bill for 2012: Appendix 14: ecology, sustainable development and planning. Energy; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Finances, de l'Economie Generale et du Controle Budgetaire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2012 (n. 3775), Annexe n.14 ecologie, developpement et amenagement durables. Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrez, G.

    2011-07-01

    The author first addresses aspect of the finance bill concerning past decisions and the past energy production context and policy: the after-mining management, measure in favour of Lorraine, an electricity cost which misses out the plant dismantling financing. Then, he addresses the policy in favour of renewable energies: renewal of hydroelectric concessions, tax support for energy sobriety. He comments the on-going audit of AREVA and EDF, and notably addresses the EPR construction issue (in Finland) and the purchase of UraMin by AREVA

  15. The Challenge of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Andrew; Singh, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    From its humble beginnings in the 1990s, Islamic finance has become a trillion US dollar industry. The market consensus is that Islamic finance has a bright future due to favourable demographics and rising incomes in the Muslim community. Moreover, despite voices sceptical of an accommodation between Islamic and global finance, leading global banks are buying Islamic bonds and forming subsidiaries specially to conduct Islamic finance business. Special laws have been passed in non-Muslim fi...

  16. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  17. Global Green Governance: Embedding the Green Economy in a Global Green and Equitable Rule of Law Polity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Sanchez, N.

    2012-01-01

    The global community is crossing planetary boundaries while it has not yet met the basic needs of at least one-third of the global population. Although governance systems are developing, they are still unable to adequately deal with current global environmental problems. This article assesses global

  18. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013), Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  19. Book Review: Jandl, Thomas, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dy-namics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fforde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Thomas Jandl (2013, Vietnam in the Global Economy – The Dynamics of Integration, Decentralization and Contested Politics. Plymouth: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-7786-0, 312 pages

  20. The Sustainable Development Goals – Pathways to Eco-innovation and a Global Green Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    linked to the new Green Economy paradigm. I.e. they neglect a consistent alignment of economic and environmental issues. There is some overall reference to achieving such an alignment but this goal is not persistently pursued, nor given enough importance in the specific SDGs. This paper argues...... economy, arguing that green economic change is real and central for achieving environmental sustainability. The policy implications of this are considerable. The paper suggests revising selected core SDG goals to make them more in line with the green economy paradigm. For developing countries the paper......This paper offers a critical discussion of the influential UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for 2015-2030. While the goals in many ways represent considerable progress in treating the sustainable development agenda in a comprehensive way this paper argues that the goals are insufficiently...

  1. Across the water and down the ladder: occupational health in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H

    1999-01-01

    As the world economy becomes more integrated, and as industrial production expands in poor nations, workers in these nations face a range of occupational health and safety hazards. This article discusses the political economy of occupational health in developing nations by reference to multinational companies, free trade zones, free trade agreements, and the export of hazards. It reviews the special circumstances of occupational safety and health in developing nations and presents data on morbidity and mortality related to workplace exposures in these nations. Finally, it discusses approaches to improving workplace safety in developing nations, including policy initiatives, both mandated and voluntary, and public health initiatives, including training, technical assistance, collaborative research, and advocacy.

  2. 75 FR 47344 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Financing; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... of the meeting, which will be open to the public. The purpose of the FAAC is to provide advice and... of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Financing will address the need for a stable, secure, and... Access: The meeting is open to the public. (See below for registration instructions.) Public Comments...

  3. 75 FR 60491 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Financing; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... announces the date, time, and location of the meeting, which will be open to the public. The purpose of the... needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Financing will address... Terminal, Level 6, Denver, Colorado 80249. Public Access: The meeting is open to the public. (See below for...

  4. 75 FR 55631 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Financing; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., time, and location of the meeting, which will be open to the public. The purpose of the FAAC is to..., challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Financing will address the need for... 60601. Public Access: The meeting is open to the public. (See below for registration instructions...

  5. Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy: Challenges for Developing Countries. Directions in Development Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    This report is an attempt to layout an analytical framework for understanding the challenges of developing a lifelong learning system in developing countries. Chapter 1, "The Knowledge Economy and the Changing Needs of the Labor Market" focuses on the role of education and training in helping build an educated and skilled populace to…

  6. How reliable is pooled analysis in political economy? : the globalization-welfare state nexus revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittel, B.E.A.; Winner, H.

    2002-01-01

    Panel data analysis has become very popular in comparative political economy. However, in order to draw meaningful inferences from such data, one has to address specification and estimation issues carefully. This paper aims to demonstrate various pitfalls that typically occur in applied empirical

  7. Labor Market Efficiency as One of the Pillars of the Global Competitiveness of an Economy - Conclusions for the Labor Market Regimes of the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Ostoj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Labor market activity may have an effect on global economy competitiveness. This issue has been described as "labor market efficiency" (LME, which is a constituent of The Global Competitiveness Index published by The World Economic Forum (WEF. The article's purpose is to clarify the phenomenon of LME and explain the mechanisms which help the constituents affect economy competitiveness. The structure of LME points at the meaning of labor market regime, especially after considering the fact that European Union countries operate within various models of regime. The analysis of the LME diversity may help determine what type of labor market regimes are most efficient in enhancing economy competitiveness

  8. “CANARIES IN THE COAL MINE:” THE DEINDUSTRIALIZATION OF NEW ENGLAND AND THE RISE OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY, 1923-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Doherty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the process that led to the decline of New England’s traditional industries and to the creation of its depressed milltowns. It argues that the decline of the New England textile and shoe industries was part of the maturation of industrial capitalism. This deindustrialization had along-term structural impact on the local economies of many New England communities and would have implications for other industries and communities in the creation of the global economy. These depressed milltowns were the first casualties of a strategy of capital mobility that would become institutionalized in the multinational corporation and the global economy.

  9. African Review of Economics and Finance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Review of Economics and Finance (AREF) is the official journal of the African Finance and Economics Consult (AFEC). The Journal acknowledges that the word 'economic' is plural and all economies are positioned, situated, and embedded in particular societies. Therefore, how the economy is studied must ...

  10. Tel Aviv, Israel - a world city in evolution: urban development at a deadend of the global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barukh Kipnis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Tel Aviv was mentioned as a world city for the first time by Kellerman (1993 who empha-sized the existence of leading economic functions typical for the late 20th century city. This paper extends the notion of Tel Aviv as a world city in evolution, using up-to-date world city literature and indicators. Greater (metropolitan Tel Aviv with 2.6 million population in 2000 (Tel Aviv City had 350000 has been Israel`s primate urban agglomeration since the 1920s. Since the 1990s it has evolved into a hard core of Israel`s post-industrial, globally orientated economy, and has displayed a post-modern physical ambience and social and cultural lifestyle. Tel Aviv evolved into a global city in spite of the fact that it is located at a frontier in its own region, the Mideast, and at the cul-de-sac site relative to the mainstream global economic centers with which it maintains most of its network links. In addition to common attributes of a world city one of the main assets of Tel Aviv is its high R&D inten-sive industry, acting as a growth pole for the local and national economies. Future research avenues are an in-depth analysis of Tel Aviv`s social inequalities and the linkage patterns that Tel Aviv maintains with other urban centers of world city caliber.

  11. United States Hegemony and the Structural Power of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    This thesis advances and substantiates the claim that financialization and hegemony in the twentieth century are two sides of the same process. It begins by reviewing the insights and limitations of existing theories of hegemony and world order in the international political economy and international relations literature. Foundational categories in the theory of hegemony, such as capital, the state, money, finance and globalization are then re-examined with the intent of superseding some of t...

  12. Exporting Chinese Culture: Industry Financing Models in Film and Television

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the financing of creative industries in the People’s Republic of China. Creative industries embrace both traditional and contemporary culture, but exportable industries are primarily content-driven. This focus on export content shifts the development argument away from the provision of infrastructure towards innovation in the global economy. The concern of this paper therefore is on the synergy between financial and creative inputs into production, distribution, and mark...

  13. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2009-01-01

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants

  14. The effects of the global economic crisis on Macedonian economy: Some macroeconomic indicators and future policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Tosheva

    2016-01-01

    The experiences and lessons taken from the global economic crisis should serve as a basis for changing the current economic model with a new one in order the economy of the country to catch a connection with the intense changes that are expected to occur in the coming period. It is expected that creating new economic model in Republic of Macedonia will result in multiple positive effects that primarily manifested in the increasing number of newly small and medium enterprises, domestic investments, industrial production, GDP, number of new employees and total exports as well as in reduction of the trade deficit in maintaining macroeconomic stability of the country.

  15. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995—2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, J.; Singh, L.; Whiteford, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH) in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year) as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies. Methods In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars) and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs) produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas—development assistance for health (in US Dollars) per DALY. Findings DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH), while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%). DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden—approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY. Interpretation Combining estimates of disease burden

  16. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995-2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Charlson

    Full Text Available A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies.In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas-development assistance for health (in US Dollars per DALY.DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH, while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%. DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden-approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY.Combining estimates of disease burden and development assistance for health

  17. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995-2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, F J; Dieleman, J; Singh, L; Whiteford, H A

    2017-01-01

    A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH) in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year) as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies. In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars) and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs) produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas-development assistance for health (in US Dollars) per DALY. DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH), while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%). DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden-approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY. Combining estimates of disease burden and development assistance for health provides

  18. The Rise of Global Science and the Emerging Political Economy of International Research Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This article charts the rise of global science and a global science infrastructure as part of the emerging international knowledge system exemplifying a geography of knowledge and the importance of new info-communications networks. The article theorises the rise of global science, which still strongly reflects a Western bias and is highly…

  19. Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dipti

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between globalization and postmodern multicultural art education. The questions that drive my investigation are: What is the role of postmodern multiculturalism in this current phase of globalization and what challenges does globalization pose for multiculturalism? I explore the shifts in the field of art…

  20. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  1. Book reviews: Animal spirits. How human psychology drives the economy and why it matters for global capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MANOLESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal spirits*. How human psychology drives the economy and why it matters for global capitalism helps us understand how the economic systems operate on the economic theory crisis background. The message of the book is recognizing the importance of irrationality factors in formulating the economic theory. The paper calls for reconsidering the economy fundamentals and principles, presenting a new way of understanding the significant economic phenomena that standard economic science cannot explain or accurately interpret. In this respect, a new way to revolutionize the economic thinking which might change the approach of the economic crises, unemployment, poverty, economic fluctuations and the like, is open. * The “animal spirits” collocation (coming from Latin spiritus animalis, where animus pertains to the soul or means to animate refers to that nervous fluid presently covering the psychological and emotional motivation factors. In a broad sense, the animal spirits refer to vivacity, to the natural state of a healthy animal, acting as an intermediary between the body and soul. In an economic context, Keynes speaks about the people’s strength and vitality determining them to make bold decisions and to invest money, effort and time in business initiatives. From an economic perspective, the animal spirits cover an element of anxiety and inconsistency present in the economy, the people’s unusual ambiguity and insecurity which sometimes paralyse them, while otherwise stimulate them overcome fear and hesitation.

  2. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200...

  3. Monetary policy options for mitigating the impact of the global financial crisis on emerging market economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Marek A.; Śmiech, Sławomir; Papież, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Though the hypothesis that exchange rate regimes fully predetermine monetary policy in the face of external shocks hardly finds any advocates on theoretical ground it has crept in the most of empirical research. This study adopts a more discerning empirical approach that looks at monetary policy tools used in order to accommodate the recent financial crisis. We investigated the GDP growth in 45 emerging market economies in the most intense phase of the crisis and found out that there is no cl...

  4. THE EXPANSION OF THE TRANSNATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Bogdan Zamfir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of transnationalisation and multinationalisation evokes just the differences between the two types of corporations. It can be said that a transnational company is above geographical boundaries, wich from the perspective of revolutionary technological communications and transport have been dimmed, but above the borders represented by language, culture, mentalities and technology. The transnational company operates spot transactions because it is listed on the various first rank Stock Exchanges and the financial, technical, image and brand results recorded by this, are public information that it is measuring the success or unsucces of the transnationalisations phenomenon. By comparison, the multinational company is listed either at stock exchanges of secondary importance, or it is a group or family bussines which has the active abroad. At the same time the multinational corporations effectively produce without to generate significant resources for the development of it's own research activities, so, having failed to impose an uniform structure and culture regardless of the assets location. Another significant difference is at the financing access. The transnational company is standing in attention of the rating firms having a low-risk investment that it allows to access the financing at low cost. In most cases, multinational society has limited financial funding in the country of origin, sometimes exclusive relying on the raised funds of the branches which it controls.

  5. International Inequality in the Age of Globalization: Japanese Economic Ascent and the Restructuring of the Capitalist World-Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Ciccantell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state constructed a development model based on the steel industry as a generative sector that drove Japan’s economic ascent in the world-historical context of U.S. hegemony. We make three arguments in this paper. First, there is a new model of capital accumulation that does create new forms of social inequality by redistributing costs and bene?ts in very di?erent ways than earlier models. Second, Japanese ?rms and the Japanese state created this new model of capital accumulation and social inequality via mechanisms including joint ventures, long term contracts, and other forms of international trade and investment, not U.S.-based transnational corporations, as is usually assumed. Third, world-systems theory reconstructed through the lens of the new historical materialism explains this restructuring of the capitalist world-economy as the outcome of Japan’s economic ascent over the last ?fty years. Further, we argue that this new model of capital accumulation has had similar impacts on redistributing the costs and bene?ts of development between core and peripheral regions of the capitalist world-economy in a wide range of global industries. These strategies created a tightly linked set of technological and organizational innovations to overcome the natural and social obstacles to Japanese development, dramatically increase Japan’s international economic competitiveness by lowering production costs in all sectors of the economy, turn Japan into the world’s largest exporter of manufactured products, restructure a range of global industries, and recreate the world-system hierarchy in support of Japanese development. In particular, organizational inno-vations in the use of long term contracts and joint ventures in raw materials industries to foster global excess capacity and lower rents to resource extracting ?rms and states reallocated the costs of providing the material building blocks of

  6. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P.; Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R.; Aiking, H.; Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.; Lysen, E.

    2008-01-01

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics

  7. Industrial opportunities related to energy transition. Report to Mister the Minister of Economy and Finances, Mister the Secretary of State of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Mireille; Sorro, Jean-Francois; Peries-Joly, Quentin

    2017-02-01

    This report examines opportunities created by energy transition for the French industry, and aims at identifying the most promising niches in order to help French enterprises to be competitive and thus to improve the French trade balance by five to ten years. The study focuses on three main sectors: equipment and installations of renewable energy production (ground-based and offshore grounded wind energy, floating wind energy, hydroelectric energy, solar photovoltaic, methanization), management of electric systems of any size (more particularly smart grids) and issue of energy storage in relationship with production source decentralisation, and building efficiency (energy renovation, heat pumps, active consumption steering and connected housing). A first part describes, for each of these sectors, the situation of the world market and the French situation in terms of market and actors (strengths and weaknesses), as well as objectives which could be envisaged to improve actor competitiveness. The second part discusses existing tools which could be means to reach these objectives: R and D financing tools, other financing types, sector dynamics. The third part proposes a set of measures and recommendations to develop the French offer in sustainable technologies, to ease a better demand structuring, and to steer demand towards a sustainable (and notably French) content

  8. Globalizing Urban Economies and Social Inequality: an Empirical Assessment: The Case of Amsterdam and Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.L. Burgers (Jack); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOne of the key arguments in the grand narratives on globalization is that of time-space compression. Reflecting the discussion on the relations between globalization and inequality, this chapter argues that the most important local effect of the immensely increased mobility has been a

  9. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  10. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  11. EU effect: Exporting emission standards for vehicles through the global market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Guizzardi, D; Galmarini, S

    2016-12-01

    Emission data from EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), rather than economic data, are used to estimate the effect of policies and of the global exports of policy-regulated goods, such as vehicles, on global emissions. The results clearly show that the adoption of emission standards for the road transport sector in the two main global markets (Europe and North America) has led to the global proliferation of emission-regulated vehicles through exports, regardless the domestic regulation in the country of destination. It is in fact more economically convenient for vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell a standard product to the widest possible market and in the greatest possible amounts. The EU effect (European Union effect) is introduced as a global counterpart to the California effect. The former is a direct consequence of the penetration of the EURO standards in the global markets by European and Japanese manufacturers, which effectively export the standard worldwide. We analyze the effect on PM 2.5 emissions by comparing a scenario of non-EURO standards against the current estimates provided by EDGAR. We find that PM 2.5 emissions were reduced by more than 60% since the 1990s worldwide. Similar investigations on other pollutants confirm the hypothesis that the combined effect of technological regulations and their diffusion through global markets can also produce a positive effect on the global environment. While we acknowledge the positive feedback, we also demonstrate that current efforts and standards will be totally insufficient should the passenger car fleets in emerging markets reach Western per capita figures. If emerging countries reach the per capita vehicle number of the USA and Europe under current technological conditions, then the world will suffer pre-1990 emission levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oil for development: The future of ethical investment in a globalized economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    The presentation reviews the resource development in China, firm models and social situations such as corruption and economic growth. Various aspects of globalization, environmental effects and economic competition are discussed (tk)

  13. Examining possible relationship between carbon finance availability and growth of wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible relationship between carbon fund availability and the growth of wind energy. This has become apposite considering global quest for renewable energies as a veritable option for carbon reduction and sustainable development. Whilst some extant literature blames delay in climate policy as an obstacle to green energy, others regard carbon finance availability as a booster to renewable energy. Raging argument is that similar to any other investment, renewable energy finance availability may mar or catalyse growth in renewable energy. Consequently, in this paper, a conceptual overview of carbon finance and renewable energy is undertaken and a test of the relationship between the World Bank carbon finance availability and wind energy growth is conducted. The result indicates a significant positive relationship between World Bank carbon financing and global growth in wind energy. The paper thus concludes that aside from policy options, renewable energy financing seems to be a contributory catalyst that may spur improvement in global renewable energy. The paper highlights that achieving green economic development in developing countries would depend, not only on climate policies alone, but also on sustainable financing. Hence government and private sources of funding is very desirable in achieving global green economic development, most importantly, for developing economies. The paper thus offers a research agenda on awareness creating for local and international sources of green energy for developing countries.

  14. Economic consequences of global warming. What will be the impact of global warming on our economies and on our societies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumergues, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    This publication is a white paper and an extract from an article entitled 'Greenhouse gas: stakes of reduction and counting methods'. It aims at giving an assessment of modifications our societies must be prepared to, at identifying the riskiest sectors and actions to be undertaken for the adaptation to climate change. The author addresses the following issues: strategic stakes of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (disturbances of the world market, transports, energy reserves, job market, banking and finance, investment and insurance, and so on, evolution of impacts with respect to temperature increase), a threatened biodiversity (examples and assessment of variations and even destruction of species), evolving agriculture practices (evolution of crop dates, of animal diseases, of efficiencies, of flora, of species, and identification of possible adaptation actions), actual human migrations (examples), expected impact on tourism (reduced snowfalls, coastal erosion, natural risks), an evolution of job market (in transport, in energy production, in steel industry, in the building sector), and consequences of climate impacts on the insurance sector (costs of floods, tempests, dry periods and heat waves). In conclusion, the author proposes a table which indicates the main sector interactions, i.e. the existence of a relationship between effects due to climate change (loss of water resource, use of wood resource, development of transmissible animal and vegetal diseases, modification of local agriculture productions, modification of fishing resources, disease transmission by travellers, microbial developments, disease development, energy consumption in the built environment, floods, coastal risks, fires) and sectors (agriculture, forest, water, health, tourism, energy, infrastructures, natural risks, biodiversity)

  15. Lean Internationalization: How to Globalize Early and Fast in a Small Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Neubert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the early market internationalization of 32 high-tech startups that operate internationally from small and open economies. It uses a comparative cross-national multiple case study research design to explore how such startups may differ in their speed of internationalization. Based on interviews with the founders, the speed of early market internationalization in these startups increases significantly due to the application of lean market development processes. The findings provide a basis for developing propositions for further comparative studies focusing on the early and fast internationalization of high-tech startups based in emerging and developed markets. The study contributes to the literature on networks, internationalization, and international entrepreneurship.

  16. China – A New Center of Power in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, this paper looks at China’s rapid economic transformation of the last more than three decades, at its accelerated, never-met-in-history growth, and at the factors underneath: masive investments, both foreign and local, technology and managerial know-how transfers, related productivity rises, huge exports and, hopefully, increasingly larger future domestic comsumption. In its second part, the article highlights China’s complex impact on world demand, supply and prices, resulting from its extensive development and from its new positioning in the world economy. Finally, the paper also looks at the negative externalities of China’s unsustainable development, in terms of land, water and air pollution, speedier depletion of the natural resources of the planet and climate change, stressing upon the ideea that while the whole mankind is affected, the first to suffer are the Chinese themselves.

  17. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  19. Tax credit for the equipment expenses of the main dwelling promoting energy saving and sustainable development. Article 83 of the 2006 finances law (law No. 2005-1719 from December 30, 2005); Credit d'impot pour depenses d'equipements de l'habitation principale en faveur des economies d'energie et du developpement durable. Art. 83 de la loi de finances pour 2006 (loi n. 2005-1719 du 30 decembre 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Article 90 of the 2005 French finances law has implemented a tax credit for the dwelling equipments acting in favor of energy saving and sustainable development. The article 83 of the 2006 finances law makes some changes on some particular points: credit increase for some categories of equipments, connection to district heating networks, simplification of the pluri-annual global ceiling credit. Various notices relative to biomass-fueled energy generation systems and double-grate boilers have been added. (J.S.)

  20. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedavalli, Rangaswamy

    1994-01-01

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  1. Sustainability of National Immunization Programme (NIP) performance and financing following Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Mibulumukini, Benoît; Da Silva, Alfred; Colombini, Anaïs

    2013-04-08

    The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is a public-private global health partnership aiming to increase access to immunisation in poor countries. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the third largest recipient of GAVI funds in terms of cumulative disbursed support. We provided a comprehensive assessment of GAVI support and analysed trends in immunisation performance and financing in the DRC from 2002 to 2010. The scope of the analysis includes GAVI's total financial support and the value of vaccines and syringes purchased by GAVI for the DRC from 2002 to 2010. Data were collected through a review of published and grey literature and interviews with key stakeholders in the DRC. We assessed the allocation and use of GAVI funds for each of GAVI's support areas, as well as trends in immunisation performance and financing. DTP3 coverage increased from 2002 (38%) to 2007 (72%) but had decreased to a level below 70% in 2008 (68%) and 2010 (63%). The overall funding for vaccines increased from US$5.4 million in 2006 to US$30.5 million in 2010 (mostly from GAVI support for new vaccines). However, during the same period, the funding from national (government) and international (GAVI and other donors) sources for routine immunisation services (except vaccines) decreased from US$36.4 million to US$24.4 million. This drop in overall funding (33%) primarily affected surveillance, transport, and cold chain equipment. GAVI support to DRC has enhanced significant progress in routine immunisation performance and financing during 2002-2010. Although progress has been partly sustained, the initial observed increase in DTP3 coverage and available funding for routine immunisation halted towards the end of the analysis period, coinciding with tetravalent and pentavalent vaccine introduction. These findings highlight the need for additional efforts to ensure the sustainability of routine immunization program performance and financing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  2. Financing Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Funder, Mikkel; Engberg-Pedersen, Lars

    In the fall of 2015, world leaders adopted the most ambitious global development agenda in history. Meeting the aspiring targets of the Sustainable Development Goals will require financing far beyond traditional aid. At the same time, aid itself is under major pressure as European governments cut...... aid budgets or divert them to meet refugee and migration issues. In this context of massive global ambition and concurrent uncertainty on the future of aid, other actors and sources of development financing seem ever more critical, such as the private sector, private foundations and the BRICS....... But what are in fact the interests and modes of operation of such actors in the context of development financing, and to what extent do they align with the aims of the SDGs? And how do national governments of developing countries themselves perceive and approach these new sources of financing?...

  3. Attitudes towards globalization and cosmopolitanism: cultural diversity, personal consumption and the national economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Ian; Skrbis, Zlatko; Bean, Clive

    2008-06-01

    One of the widely accepted consequences of globalization is the development of individual outlooks, behaviours and feelings that transcend local and national boundaries. This has encouraged a re-assessment of important assumptions about the nature of community, personal attachment and belonging in the face of unprecedented opportunities for culture, identities and politics to shape, and be shaped by, global events and processes. Recently, the upsurge of interest in the concept of cosmopolitanism has provided a promising new framework for understanding the nexus between cosmopolitan dispositions and global interconnectedness across cultural, political and economic realms. Using data from a representative social survey of Australians this paper investigates the negotiation of belonging under the conditions of globalization. The data tap into attitudes and behaviours associated with a broad gamut of cosmopolitan traits in the domains of culture, consumption, human rights, citizenship, and international governance. They show how cosmopolitan outlooks are shaped by social structural factors, and how forms of identification with humanity and the globe are fractured by boundaries of self and others, threats and opportunities, and the value of things global and local.

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS IN TERMS OF GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This analysis is based on the study of two interdisciplinary complex concepts: globalization and sustainability. In this complex, called globalization, sustainability is designed structure, formal, based on her idea of realizing sustainable development. Essentially, throughthe firm or enterprise we appoint a group of people, organized according to certain management requirements, economic, technological and legal, which starts and runsa complex of processes of work, often using certain means of work, reflected in products and services, for the purpose of obtaining a profit, as a general rule, as much as possible The globalization appearance marks the need for a comprehensive approach to environmental issues, defining the concepts of economic growth, sustainable development and investment explaining the distinction between economic growth and sustainable development. It also attests EU involvement by presenting their strategies for sustainable development.

  5. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'.

  6. Post-crisis Economy of the European Union in the Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IONESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently economic crisis represents a new global economic turn. The question is whether, besides the necessary tools and actions to get out of the crisis, additional policies are needed on medium and long term to prevent a future crisis. In this essay I try to give some answers, integrating into the analysis both global and European levels, highlighting the necessary policies and their features in the Economic and Monetary Union and in the ex-socialist Central and Eastern countries, members of the European Union.

  7. The impact of financial globalization and financialization on the economy in the current crisis through banking corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Azkunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the role of governance of financial entities in the current crisis. Neoliberal economic policies, deregulation and liberalization have characterized financial globalization, giving rise to the financialization of the economy. This paper, using the analysis-synthesis method, shows that the corporate governance of entities has adapted to the new social environment under the influence of the interests of the investors. The results of this paper suggest the need to monitor the over-emphasis on the maximization of short-term shareholder value without relativizing the risk taken to achieve it, as such, the emphasis on short-term shareholder value is considered a crucial contributing factor to the present crisis.

  8. Theorizing Environmental Governance of the World System: Global Political Economy Theory and Some Applications to Stratospheric Ozone Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates world-systems perspectives into an analysis of global environmental politics, thus adjoining a political economic analysis of scale with studies of global environmental policy. It is the ability of some social groups and institutions to jump scale that determines how global environmental policies are shaped. The United States’ carbon-intensive economy is seen to face larger short-term costs from global environmental agreements than many other countries in the core of the world-system, but what remains unexplored in the environmental politics literature is the question of why the United States sees its long-term economic condition hindered by these agreements. This analysis points to the ways industry actors intervene at multiple scales of global environmental negotiations to affect national policy positions as well as larger discourses about science and risk. The article reviews the methyl bromide controversy in the Montreal Protocol to explain why this agreement has recently failed to live up to expectations in removing ozone-depleting substances. The United States is particularly responsible for this impediment: rather than innovate in response to new information and changing international contexts, industry actors have drawn upon US hegemony to enforce their dominant market positions. As the parties to the Montreal Protocol remain polarized over questions of methyl bromide use, this analysis calls for attention to the ways capital, states, and other social institutions are embedded in international environmental agreements and how they use such arrangements to obstruct successful multilateral agreements. I conclude by suggesting that environmental and other social movements might strategize in two ways: 1 by helping support an emergent ‘green hegemony’ (most apparent in Chinese policy as a counterhegemonic alternative, and 2 by developing strategies that account for the ways industry interests overlap with declining

  9. Who Needs Critical Agency?: Educational Research and the Rhetorical Economy of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. A.; Vastola, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Current critical pedagogical scholarship has theorized the epistemological and social intersection between globalization and educational technology according to two distinct positions. For some, this intersection offers new liberatory knowledges and opportunities that can subvert social homogenization and economic disparity. For others, this…

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle, Global Markets and the British Columbia Forest Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    A number of near-term timber supply shocks are projected to impact global forest product markets, particularly mountain pine beetle induced timber reductions, a Russian log export tax, and timber supply increases from plantation forests in the Southern Hemisphere and Sweden. We examined their effect

  11. China and the World Economy : A Global Value Chain Perspective on Exports, Incomes and Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Bart; Timmer, Marcel; Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new dataset of world input-output tables we analyze the impact of foreign demand on Chinese factor incomes and employment since 1995. We extend the global input-output methodology introduced by Johnson and Noguera (2012) and find that exports of value added rapidly increased after 2001,

  12. The crisis of international human rights law in the global market economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution argues that facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business

  13. The Crisis of International Human Rights Law in the Global Market Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that the facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business entities

  14. Gender in the Neoliberalised Global Academy: The Affective Economy of Women and Leadership in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Louise; Crossouard, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    As higher education (HE) institutions globally become increasingly performative, competitive and corporatised in response to neoliberal rationalities, the exigencies of HE leadership are being realigned to accommodate its value system. This article draws on recent British Council-funded research, including 30 semi-structured interviews, to explore…

  15. Multiple Paths towards Education Privatization in a Globalizing World: A Cultural Political Economy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni; Fontdevila, Clara; Zancajo, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades, education privatization has become a widespread phenomenon, affecting most education systems and giving place to a consistent increase in private school enrolment globally. However, far from being a monolithic phenomenon, privatization advances through a variety of context-sensitive policy processes that translate into…

  16. The EDUCO Program, Impact Evaluations, and the Political Economy of Global Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brent, Jr.; Loucel Urquilla, Claudia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    During the 1990s and 2000s, a policy known as Education with Community Participation (EDUCO) not only became the cornerstone of education reform in El Salvador but also became a global education policy, one which is known for decentralizing to rural families the responsibility for hiring and firing teachers. As is shown in this paper, its rise to…

  17. Waste pickers in the informal economy of the Global South: included or excluded?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.J. Bisschop (Lieselot); D. Coletto (Diego)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Purpose:_ This article aims to provide insights into the role and practices of informal waste pickers and the implications for waste management policy in urban contexts of the Global South. _Design/methodology/approach:_ Qualitative case studies were used, including interviews,

  18. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  19. Second-best carbon taxation in the global economy: The Green Paradox and carbon leakage revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Acceleration of global warming resulting from a future carbon tax is large if the price elasticities of oil demand are large and that of oil supply is small. The fall in the world interest rate weakens this weak Green Paradox effect, especially if intertemporal substitution is weak. Still, social

  20. Lifelong Learning: A National Trade Union Strategy in a Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, John

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the concepts of modernization and risk society in relation to trade unions. Discusses the role of unions in education and training. Argues the need for a coherent union strategy regarding education and places the discussion within the context of globalization. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  1. Challenges Regarding the Romanian SMTEs’ Struggle to Excellence through Innovation in a Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Oncioiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and e-business adoption are the most important issues of this century for travel agencies. At the same time, e-Small and Medium Tourism Businesses do not receive the recognition they deserve in a world where success is mandatory. This is a strange fact, if one considers that 70% of the world business is represented by small and medium tourism businesses owned by visionary persons who take advantages of acting at a small scale and help create a more dynamic economy. With the current rapid transformation of markets, the first element which influences the strategy of the economic activity of travel agencies is the character of the innovation. In order to learn the current business processes and the requirements of travel agencies, interviews and questionnaires will he conducted, business processes will be observed and existing reports, forms and procedures will be reviewed. Competitive strength of Romanian Small and Medium-sized Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs lies in competitive advantages and distinctive competencies that we possess in relation to other competitors. The paper also focuses on the question: what could the contribution of Romanian SMTEs to the development and competitiveness of tourism destination be?

  2. Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labour in a Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Picherit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, Indian Telephone Industries (ITI, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, became India’s first State-run enterprise. In 2009, the company was privatized. Dilip Subramanian’s book provides a remarkable in-depth history of the journey of this Indian State-owned factory in post-colonial India, from the birth of the Nehruvian model of industrialization to the contemporary deregulation of the telecommunications industry. In a context of global neoliberal policies and discourses agai...

  3. Space commerce in a global economy - Comparison of international approaches to commercial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Kleber, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective, current status, and comparison of national government/commercial space industry relationships in the United States and Europe are presented. It is noted that space technology has been developed and used primarily to meet the needs of civil and military government initiatives. Two future trends of space technology development include new space enterprises, and the national drive to achieve a more competitive global economic position.

  4. White hats or Don Quixotes? Human rights vigilantes in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Ann Elliot; Richard B. Freeman

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing expansion of global economic integration, labor standards in developing countries have become a hot button issue. One result has been a proliferation of efforts to use the market to put pressure directly on multinational corporations to improve wages and working conditions in their overseas operations and to insist that their suppliers do so as well. This paper analyzes the dynamics of these efforts in terms of a 'market for standards' in which consumers, stimulated by hum...

  5. Analysis of the effects of the global financial crisis on the Turkish economy, using hierarchical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2012-04-01

    We have analyzed the topology of 50 important Turkish companies for the period 2006-2010 using the concept of hierarchical methods (the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). We investigated the statistical reliability of links between companies in the MST by using the bootstrap technique. We also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) technique to observe the cluster structures much better. The MST and HT are known as useful tools to perceive and detect global structure, taxonomy, and hierarchy in financial data. We obtained four clusters of companies according to their proximity. We also observed that the Banks and Holdings cluster always forms in the centre of the MSTs for the periods 2006-2007, 2008, and 2009-2010. The clusters match nicely with their common production activities or their strong interrelationship. The effects of the Automobile sector increased after the global financial crisis due to the temporary incentives provided by the Turkish government. We find that Turkish companies were not very affected by the global financial crisis.

  6. The Crisis of the Existing Global Paradigm of Governance and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to underline the central challenges to world order that are outcomes of our current system of global, social, power and constitutional processes. The article outlines these major problems which it is suggested represent a crisis for the future trajectory of human survival and well-being. The paper then uses the problem of the emergence of transnational criminal activity in order to underline the limits of the current global paradigm of governance. In effect, in the criminal law context the jurisdiction of sovereign states to attack the problem of transnational crime is hedged with severe limitations. The most important of these limitations is the fact that the jurisdiction over crimes by sovereigns is limited by the territorial character of the definition of sovereignty. Thus a sovereign has a limited capacity to control and police criminal activity whose main locus of operation is generated outside of the territorial reach of the sovereign state. This essentially means that the element of global governance generates a juridical vacuum which permits organized crime to flourish outside of the boundaries of the state but at the same time, having the capacity to penetrate and corrupt the social, political and juridical processes of the sovereign state. The article explores the effort of the UN to provide some form of response to this crisis in the form of an international agreement.

  7. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  8. The global financial crisis and national financial systems survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on global financial crisis and its implications on the economy of nations. The questions asked to which answers were given among others include: Is the globalization of finance profitable against the backdrop of the failure of banking institutions in the United States of America that has snowballed into a ...

  9. Global Energy-Economy-Environment (E3) Scenarios to 2050 and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrattenholzer, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Program at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) develops policy-relevant global and world-regional energy perspectives. The basic premise of the ECS's research program is a global trend of d ecarbonization . Firstly, decarbonization includes a trend toward ever-greater efficiency, or ever less waste, in society's use of energy resources. Secondly, it includes a trend towards less carbon-intensive fossil fuels (e.g., from coal toward natural gas) and, further, to non-fossil fuels, especially renewable energy carriers. Technological change is generally regarded as one of the key drivers of sustained economic growth. Long-term energy scenarios developed at IIASA and elsewhere show that, depending on key assumptions on drivers such as population, economic growth and technological development, global energy development can be environmentally unsustainable. First, energy development might not lead to stabilizing greenhouse concentrations and might thus have significant negative impacts on the global climate. In addition, some, especially coal-intensive, scenarios might lead to levels of acid deposition at which significant damage to sensitive ecosystems is expected to occur in Europe and, even more so, in Asia. A continuation of the observed historical long-term trends of decarbonization, dematerialization, and energy efficiency improvements might therefore not be sufficient to achieve sustainable growth. Targeted technological development aiming at accelerating decarbonization, dematerialization, and/or efficiency improvement may be one of the most effective means for reconciling economic growth with global environmental objectives. This might require a step-up in investments in R and D and in the demonstration of technologies so as to stimulate both learning-by-searching and learning-by-doing. In this presentation, global E3 scenarios will be summarized in the following three groups: Non

  10. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  11. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Sganderla, J A; Prodanov, C C; Daroit, D

    2010-12-01

    This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  12. Impacts of the globalized economy on the environment: the tanning industry in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA. Figueiredo-Sganderla

    Full Text Available This case study analysed the impact of the global economy on the environment of the Vale do Rio do Sinos region in southern Brazil. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data from social, cultural, economic and political agents in this region, and documents about the tanning industry were reviewed and analysed. Global perspectives and local conditions were brought together to understand the causes and consequences of social, political and economic structures and to evaluate the intrinsic association of the tanning industry with the social, historical and cultural development of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos. The behaviour of the local community, where individuals believe that progress is primordially based on industrial development and go to any lengths to achieve it, was also studied. The analysis of industries that have a high contamination potential revealed that dirty industries moved from central to peripheral countries up to the 1980s, but movement is currently internal and occurs between states in Brazil due to several types of incentives.

  13. The double burden of neoliberalism? Noncommunicable disease policies and the global political economy of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sara; Schrecker, Ted

    2015-07-01

    The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The double burden of neoliberalism? Noncommunicable disease policies and the global political economy of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sara; Schrecker, Ted

    2016-05-01

    The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. School and Work: Does the Eastern Caribbean Education System Adequately Prepare Youth for the Global Economy? Skill Challenges in the Caribbean: Phase I Report. Report No. 38555

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank Publications, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As the global economy rapidly changes and new technologies are introduced, more highly skilled workers are required. In the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), firms struggle to fill skilled positions due to a lack of qualified candidates, while the number of unemployed low skilled workers is growing. This paradox especially affects…

  16. Transformation of financial services companies in the global knowledge economy : how to map and measure customer value created with relationship capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, Antonius Petrus de

    2001-01-01

    This research focused on how a model in support of an interactive strategy decision-making process within the context of the global Knowledge Economy could be developed and applied within the constraints of time and an overload of data and information available. The focus was on constructing a

  17. The European crisis and global economy dynamics: Continental enlargement versus Atlantic opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça António

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental idea we discuss in this paper is that the failure of Europe to deal with the international crisis is due, first and foremost, to the deepening of a more specific crisis that affected the very process of European integration and developed through two main channels: one, broader, linked to the erosion of the original driving forces underpinning integration in Europe; another, more circumscribed, linked to the malfunctioning of the euro as an internal adjustment mechanism of the currency zone. To deal with these structural dimensions of the crisis, we put forward a model of a Global Europe against the model of Continental Europe that has dominated the integration process until now and in this alternative framework we discuss the potential role of Portugal and of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries.

  18. The impact of the global economic crisis on the finances of non-governmental sport organizations in Slovenia remains to be seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jurak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the global economic crisis on revenues on all non-governmental sport organizations (sport NGOs in Slovenia, as a small European economy. Five types of operating revenues of all sport NGOs from 2007 to 2010 have been analyzed. We found that the overall trend of sport NGOs revenues does not correspond exactly to the trends of the Slovenian economy. The greatest financial impacts were experienced in grassroots sport, while professional sport NGOs have increased their operating revenues, mostly due to increases of public revenues. The findings suggest that the true impact of the recession on Slovenian sport NGOs remains to be seen. We conclude that the ongoing recession will affect grassroots sport the least, while semi-professional and professional sport NGOs will be under financial threat. Because of the synergistic effects of different types of NGOs, this could affect the sustainability of Slovenian sport.

  19. The Mechanisms of Financial Incentives and Credit Support of Small Business in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Mortaza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to analyze the existing programs and technologies in the field of financial incentives and credit support of business, as well as justification of qualitatively new methodological tools in the study area for its adaptation in domestic practice. Subject of the article is relevant because it is devoted to description of sources of financial incentives and credit support to small businesses, which are currently the engine of the modern economy. In the first part of the article, an overview of the financial resources and types of funding sources of organizations and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME in major developed European countries is provided. Also a description is provided of modern methods of creation of an innovative climate, support innovative ideas and internal business. The second part of the article describes the direction, forms of financing small and medium enterprises (SME in the major developed European countries, taking into account the peculiarities of the development and functioning. The possibility of using foreign experience in Russia is analyzed. The presented research topic is particularly relevant in connection to an increase in the role of sources of financing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME. In current economic environment exists the need to address problem of financial support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME, attraction of new sources of funding, as well as the development of bank credit loans. Processes of market transformation of small and medium-sized businesses have acquired a special importance in relation to the defining role of these enterprises in the system of provision of the economic security of the country. Methods: the methodological bases of this article are the economic and statistical analysis methods, regulatory documents in the field of economic security, publications in the field of economic and financial security, public

  20. Financing Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz de Mello; Douglas Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    The need for infrastructure building, replacement and updating is large worldwide and governments - particularly subnational governments - will need to mobilise budgetary resources while simultaneously restoring public finances to sound health and meeting other spending pressures. This paper considers the factors affecting investment in infrastructure (with an emphasis on fixed networks), the specific characteristics of the different financing modalities applicable to subnational governments ...

  1. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  2. GLOBALIZATION AND THE AFRICAN DILEMMA | Ogunbanjo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper states that while globalization had a hopeful ring for the developing countries in general and African countries in particular, it also promised new challenges and new risks. There was the hope that close integration with the world economy, through rapid liberalization of trade investment and finance, would be the ...

  3. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  4. Financing low carbon energy access in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, Haruna; Thorne, Steve; Mulugetta, Yacob; Rai, Kavita; Sokona, Youba

    2012-01-01

    Modern energy access in Africa is critical to meeting a wide range of developmental challenges including poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite having a huge amount and variety of energy resources, modern energy access in the continent is abysmal, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Only about 31% of the Sub-Saharan African population have access to electricity while traditional biomass energy accounts for over 80% of energy consumption in many Sub-Saharan African countries. With energy use per capita among the lowest in the world, there is no doubt that Africa will need to increase its energy consumption to drive economic growth and human development. Africa also faces a severe threat from global climate change with vulnerabilities in several key areas or sectors in the continent including agriculture, water supply, energy, etc. Low carbon development provides opportunities for African countries to improve and expand access to modern energy services while also building low-emission and climate-resilient economies. However, access to finance from different sources will be critical in achieving these objectives. This paper sets out to explore the financial instruments available for low carbon energy access in Africa including the opportunities, markets and risks in low carbon energy investments in the continent. - Highlights: ► Access to finance will be critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa. ► Domestic finance will be important in leveraging private finance. ► Private sector participation in modern and clean energy in Africa is still low. ► Many financing mechanisms exist for low carbon energy access in Africa. ► The right institutional frameworks are critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa.

  5. Stem cell treatments in China: rethinking the patient role in the global bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haidan; Gottweis, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The paper looks in detail at patients that were treated at one of the most discussed companies operating in the field of untried stem cell treatments, Beike Biotech of Shenzhen, China. Our data show that patients who had been treated at Beike Biotech view themselves as proactively pursuing treatment choices that are not available in their home countries. These patients typically come from a broad variety of countries: China, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Africa and Australia. Among the patients we interviewed there seemed to be both an awareness of the general risks involved in such experimental treatments and a readiness to accept those risks weighed against the possible benefits. We interpret this evidence as possibly reflecting the emergence of risk-taking patients as 'consumers' of medical options as well as the drive of patients to seek treatment options in the global arena, rather than being hindered by the ethical and regulatory constraints of their home countries. Further, we found that these patients tend to operate in more or less stable networks and groups in which they interact and cooperate closely and develop opinions and assessments of available treatment options for their ailments. These patients also perform a multiple role as patients, research subjects, and research funders because they are required to pay their way into treatment and research activities. This new social dynamics of patienthood has important implications for the ethical governance of stem cell treatments. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Drug pricing and reimbursement information management: processes and decision making in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourougiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Background : Cost-containment initiatives are re-shaping the pharmaceutical business environment and affecting market access as well as pricing and reimbursement decisions. Effective price management procedures are too complex to accomplish manually. Prior to February 2013, price management within Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd was done manually using an Excel database. The system was labour intensive, slow to update, and prone to error. An innovative web-based pricing information management system was developed to address the shortcomings of the previous system. Development : A secure web-based system for submitting, reviewing and approving pricing requests was designed to: track all pricing applications and approval status; update approved pricing information automatically; provide fixed and customizable reports of pricing information; collect pricing and reimbursement rules from each country; validate pricing and reimbursement rules monthly. Several sequential phases of development emphasized planning, time schedules, target dates, budgets and implementation of the entire system. A test system was used to pilot the electronic (e)-pricing system with three affiliates (four users) in February 2013. Outcomes : The web-based system was introduced in March 2013, currently has about 227 active users globally and comprises more than 1000 presentations of 150 products. The overall benefits of switching from a manual to an e-pricing system were immediate and highly visible in terms of efficiency, transparency, reliability and compliance. Conclusions : The e-pricing system has improved the efficiency, reliability, compliance, transparency and ease of access to multinational drug pricing and approval information.

  7. Impact of Digital Finance on Financial Inclusion and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ozili, Peterson Kitakogelu

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a discussion on some issues associated with digital finance – an area which has not been critically addressed in the literature. Digital finance and financial inclusion has several benefits to financial services users, digital finance providers, governments and the economy; notwithstanding, a number of issues still persist which if addressed can make digital finance work better for individuals, businesses and governments. The digital finance issues discussed in this arti...

  8. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of finances, economy and plan about the law project (no. 1613) relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Avis presente au nom de la Commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carayon, B.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the advice of the commission of finances and economy about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions and comments made by the commission about the law project while the second part concerns the detailed analysis of the articles 16 and 22 about the pension funds of EdF and GdF agents and the change of the status of both utilities. The amendments adopted by the commission for these articles conclude the report. (J.S.)

  9. [Agreement and asymmetry. Population and wages vis vis a vis the globalization of the economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusidman, C

    1991-01-01

    The free flow of labor and services across national borders will be 1 of the most difficult problems of future negotiations for integration of the markets of the US, Mexico, and Canada. The free flow of products and increasingly of capital have been accepted in general terms, and land and natural resources are entering the globalization process through external investment. In the trilateral free trade treaty between Mexico, the US, and Canada, the US is particularly interested in access to the service markets of Canada and Mexico. Mexico would like freer access to the other markets, and to protect its migrant workers. Canada needs foreign labor for its agricultural production. All 3 countries would potentially benefit from more flexible population movement. Mexico, Canada, and the US have very different structures, population dynamics, and labor markets. Mexico's population growth rate is the highest and its active population is increasing the most rapidly. Mexico must generate 1 million new jobs annually, the US requires 2.1 million, and Canada around 230,000. The 3 countries, with about 360 million inhabitants in 1991, must create 3.4 million new jobs annually. Because of differences in occupational and activity structures, levels of skill, salaries, productivity, and cultures of work in the 3 countries, it is clear that the new jobs correspond to different labor markets, making predictions about average salaries difficult. The 1990 average minimum wage in the US was about 10 times that of Mexico, while the average minimum in the manufacturing sector as about 7 times greater. The degree to which the trilateral treaty can contribute to reducing the differential is an important question. 3 possible scenarios suggest themselves. If current restrictions on mobility of workers are maintained, wage disparities will probably continue unless there is a very great foreign investment in activities throughout Mexico that require significant labor inputs. This would probably

  10. Identifying strategies for mitigating the global warming impact of the EU-25 economy using a multi-objective input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés-Borda, D.; Ruiz-Hernández, A.; Guillén-Gosálbez, G.; Llop, M.; Guimerà, R.; Sales-Pardo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Global warming mitigation has recently become a priority worldwide. A large body of literature dealing with energy related problems has focused on reducing greenhouse gases emissions at an engineering scale. In contrast, the minimization of climate change at a wider macroeconomic level has so far received much less attention. We investigate here how to mitigate global warming by performing changes in an economy. To this end, we make use of a systematic tool that combines three methods: linear programming, environmentally extended input output models, and life cycle assessment principles. The problem of identifying key economic sectors that contribute significantly to global warming is posed in mathematical terms as a bi-criteria linear program that seeks to optimize simultaneously the total economic output and the total life cycle CO 2 emissions. We have applied this approach to the European Union economy, finding that significant reductions in global warming potential can be attained by regulating specific economic sectors. Our tool is intended to aid policy makers in the design of more effective public policies for achieving the environmental and economic targets sought. - Highlights: • We minimize climate change by performing small changes in the consumption habits. • We propose a tool that combines multiobjective optimization and macroeconomic models. • Identifying key sectors allows improving the environmental performance significantly with little impact to the economy. • Significant reductions in global warming potential are attained by regulating sectors. • Our tool aids policy makers in the design of effective sustainability policies

  11. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production.

  12. Nuclear system for problems of environment, economy, and energy. 2. Nuclear system and global policy of CO2 emission constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Hatano, Mamoru; Aoki, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    World energy demand is prospected to double or triple in the 21st century, particularly in developing countries and global warming appears to be a serious problem. Therefore, the harmonization of energy, environment, and economy becomes an urgent and heavy problem in the world. As the result of optimization calculation, non-nuclear scenario drives the average generation cost to 108 mills/kWh in 2100. LWR-FBR scenario holds regional generation costs from 49 to 59 mills/kWh, while that of non-nuclear scenario expands from 50 to 122 mills/kWh. When only developed countries are under the constraint like the Kyoto Protocol and the others are free, that of developing countries rises up to 71-103 mills/kWh. If nuclear power is promoted in developing countries, their generation costs become 58 to 76 mills/kWh. As nuclear power is the only a feasible and important option currently, it is reconfirmed that Pu recycling can make it sustainable and great growing countries should utilize it effectively in the 21st century. (author)

  13. Maize dependence or market integration? Caries prevalence among indigenous Maya communities with maize-based versus globalized economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Lizama, Elma Maria; Cucina, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Transnational Corporations in World Development – Still the Same Harmful Effects in an Increasingly Globalized World Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Herkenrath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational corporations (TNCs have reached historically unprecedented weight and power in the world’s political economy. Thus, the old question of how these corporations a?ect global development is nowadays more signi?cant than ever. While some scholars claim that corporate globalization will eventually close the worldwide development gap, many others contend that TNC activities lead to insu?cient exploitation of growth potentials within the host country, thereby hindering convergence of national income levels. The present study aims at assessing the validity of these controversial positions by confronting them with the results of past and present empirical research. In the ?rst part, we examine the e?ect of TNC presence on intra-national income inequality by reviewing the most recent cross-national studies dealing with this issue. In the second part, we present the results of our own research, which analyzes the e?ect of TNC presence on economic growth in a sample of 84 countries. The contemporary empirical evidence discussed in the ?rst part as well as the results of our own analyses tend to con?rm earlier ?ndings. They suggest that dependence on TNC activities increases inequality without adding to economic growth. However, the strong negative e?ect of TNC presence on growth found in analyses of data from the late 1960s cannot be reproduced in our contemporary analysis. In a signi?cant number of cases, the potentially harmful consequences of TNC activities seem to have been overcome by adequate countervailing state actions.

  15. South Africa's opportunity to maximise the role of nuclear power in a global hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greyvenstein, R. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) (Pty) Ltd. (South Africa)], E-mail: renee.greyvenstein@pbmr.co.za; Correia, M. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) (Pty) Ltd. (South Africa)], E-mail: michael.correia@pbmr.co.za; Kriel, W. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) (Pty) Ltd. (South Africa)], E-mail: willem.kriel@pbmr.us

    2008-11-15

    Global concern for increased energy demand, increased cost of natural gas and petroleum, energy security and environmental degradation are leading to heightened interest in using nuclear energy and hydrogen to leverage existing hydrocarbon reserves. The wasteful use of hydrocarbons can be minimised by using nuclear as a source of energy and water as a source of hydrogen. Virtually all hydrogen today is produced from fossil fuels, which give rise to CO{sub 2} emissions. Hydrogen can be cleanly produced from water (without CO{sub 2} pollution) by using nuclear energy to generate the required electricity and/or process heat to split the water molecule. Once the clean hydrogen has been produced, it can be used as feedstock to fuel cell technologies, or in the nearer term as feedstock to a coal-to-liquids process to produce cleaner synthetic liquid fuels. Clean liquid fuels from coal - using hydrogen generated from nuclear energy - is an intermediate step for using hydrogen to reduce pollution in the transport sector; simultaneously addressing energy security concerns. Several promising water-splitting technologies have been identified. Thermo-chemical water-splitting and high-temperature steam electrolysis technologies require process temperatures in the range of 850 deg. C and higher for the efficient production of hydrogen. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), under development in South Africa, is ideally suited to generate both high-temperature process heat and electricity for the production of hydrogen. This paper will discuss South Africa's opportunity to maximise the use of its nuclear technology and national resources in a global hydrogen economy.

  16. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  17. How is China economic growth financed? a look towards SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Aragón Sandoval

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to explain the different factors that contribute to the financing the economic activity of small and medium enterprises (SMES in China. The reason for analyzing these types of companies revolves around the fact that they have benefitted its nation´s economy growth. First, an analysis was done in the formal sector, where certain deficiencies were identified specifically in the legal and financial systems and how these deficits hold back the access needed for SMES to join conventional mechanisms of finances. Afterwards, a study of the existence of a financial system, which is parallel to the formal system, emerged, only to realize that this parallel system helped these companies to grow. This is known as an informal economy based on connections and reputation, which acts as a substitute for the traditional formal way. Due to the success of this economy, despite the deficiencie within the legal system of the country, it is important to contemplate and understand the elements which allow this to be sustainable through time. Lastly, various questions arise concerning the future of China as a global economic power. So it was proven that this informal economy is the main reason for their economic growth, but the question to be asked is, until when can this country relay on informality for its success?

  18. Essays on banking and finance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese economy has grown at a spectacular speed during the past three decades while the financial system is not well developed in China. On the one hand, the informal financing channels, i.e. borrowing from family members, friends, moneylenders, trade credit, etc., may provide proper financing

  19. Health financing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pocket payments, and donor aid — to finance their health systems. In these fragmented systems, benefits and risks are unevenly shared. The poorest have less access to medical care and face a higher risk of cata- strophic expenditure.

  20. From public to private climate change adaptation finance : Adapting finance or financing adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Private financing is the latest mark of the privatisation of global governance. The implementation of international agreements in the fields of environment, climate change and development has always been supported by public finance from developed countries. This tradition is broken by a

  1. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  2. The Global Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Hubert; Lema, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the changing relationship between European and Chinese wind power firms. It shows that fierce competition between the lead firms in this industry co-exists with cooperation between Chinese wind turbine makers and European knowledge intensive business services. These relation...

  3. Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014: development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-20

    An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends. We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development. Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3·0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5·9) and lower-middle-income groups (5·0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4·6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59·2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29·1% and 58·0% of spending was OOP

  4. Network analysis of Chinese provincial economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; An, Haizhong; Liu, Xiaojia

    2018-02-01

    Global economic system is a huge network formed by national subnetworks that contains the provincial networks. As the second largest world economy, China has "too big to fail" impact on the interconnected global economy. Detecting the critical sectors and vital linkages inside Chinese economic network is meaningful for understanding the origin of this Chinese impact. Different from tradition network research at national level, this paper focuses on the provincial networks and inter-provincial network. Using Chinese inter-regional input-output table to construct 30 provincial input-output networks and one inter-provincial input-output network, we identify central sectors and vital linkages, as well as analyze economic structure similarity. Results show that (1) Communication Devices sector in Guangdong and that in Jiangsu, Transportation and Storage sector in Shanghai play critical roles in Chinese economy. (2) Advanced manufactures and services industry occupy the central positions in eastern provincial economies, while Construction sector, Heavy industry, and Wholesale and Retail Trades sector are influential in middle and western provinces. (3) The critical monetary flow paths in Chinese economy are Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Guangdong, Metals Mining sector to Iron and Steel Smelting sector in Henan, Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Jiangsu, as well as Petroleum Mining sector in Heilongjiang to Petroleum Processing sector in Liaoning. (4) Collective influence results suggest that Finance sector, Transportation and Storage sector, Production of Electricity and Heat sector, and Rubber and Plastics sector in Hainan are strategic influencers, despite being weakly connected. These sectors and input-output relations are worthy of close attention for monitoring Chinese economy.

  5. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J.; Chauhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO 2 equivalent emission rate. Both CO 2 and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO 2 was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO 2 ). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO 2 from fuel consumption

  6. Fintech and Entrepreneurial Finance: what´s coming next?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariscal Gregorio, Cristina Araume

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 Fintech is a developing sector, due to the technological innovations and its importance in the economy because it is changing the way in which firms realize its business plans. Its evolution started as a result of the Global Financial Crisis in the United States and was in that country were started its advancement. Subsequently, its expansion was mainly to Europe and Asia. In addition, the...

  7. Innovative Financing of Higher Education: Changing Options and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Jinusha

    2018-01-01

    With the onset of new public management, there is a shift in the methods of financing of higher education institutions across the countries of the world, particularly emerging market economies, from public financing to private financing of higher education. Many countries adopted this shift very quickly while others have moved towards a gradual…

  8. Building a sustainable future - The effects of CSR-finance on national oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Vishal

    2010-09-15

    Since the release of Goldman Sach's 'Path to 2050' report, arguing the combined economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China, would ellipse the economies of the current richest countries by 2050, the BRIC countries have garnered global attention. As demand for oil in these nations increases, NOCs within the BRIC have gone beyond national borders for exploration and financing - giving rise to concerns over emerging policies, objectives and priorities. The purpose of this paper is to examine NOCs of the BRIC and their compliance with international standards of corporate social responsibility and their effects through international capital markets.

  9. Integration Processes in the Global Economy: Current State and Prospects. The Cases of the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the current state of the integration processes in the global economy and prognosticate on the foreseeable changes in this phenomenon in the upcoming. Will they be divergence from or continuity with the past trends in the global economy in this field? The article examines three regional integration groupings, i.e. the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA. The analysis makes it possible to conclude that all of these groupings/organizations are encountering some problems. In the case of the EU, these are mainly: the two – speed integration process as far as a monetary union is concerned; serious negative consequences of the global financial crisis for the socio-economic cohesion of the EU-28; as well as a worsening position in the world trade in goods and services and in the total global gross capital inflows. The problems of the ASEAN Economic Community seem to be connected with some discrepancies between the political will in favour of deepening integration among member states and the real economic difficulties involved in attaining higher stages of integration among a group of countries extremely differentiated in their economic development. NAFTA’s problems also lie in the asymmetrical development between member states, as well as in the lessening importance of the integration within the organization for the member states, which results from the putting into effect numerous other FTAs. The growing openness of all the analyzed integration groupings, being in line with the globalization process, seems to be a future characteristic of integration processes in the global economy.

  10. 'Hot and bothered' in the greenhouse: the economics of global warming and international finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Peter

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides an accessible review of the role that economics is playing to clarify the main issues associated with the debate on global warming. The most important questions in the global warming debate concern to what extent greenhouse gas emissions should be controlled, how, and at whose expense. Economics possess considerable experience of concepts and techniques - developed in a variety of fields such as public goods, externalities, cost benefit analysis, equity, uncertainty, environmental management and game theory - that can inform the policy debate on global warming. The paper argues that the debate should focus on issues of intra- and inter-generational equity, flexibility mechanisms, and international co-operation incentives and enforcement. From this it also sketches an outline policy agenda for international financial institutions such as the European Investment Bank. (Author)

  11. International impacts of global climate change: Testimony to House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulkerson, W.; Cushman, R.M.; Marland, G.; Rayner, S.

    1989-02-21

    International impacts of global climate change are those for which the important consequences arise because of national sovereignty. Such impacts could be of two types: (1) migrations across national borders of people, of resources (such as agricultural productivity, or surface water, or natural ecosystems), of effluents, or of patterns of commerce; and (2) changes to the way nations use and manage their resources, particularly fossil fuels and forests, as a consequence of international concern over the global climate. Actions by a few resource-dominant nations may affect the fate of all. These two types of international impacts raise complex equity issues because one nation may perceive itself as gaining at the expense of its neighbors, or it may perceive itself as a victim of the actions of others. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. International Impacts of Global Climate Change: Testimony to House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, W.; Cushman, R. M.; Marland, G.; Rayner, S.

    1989-02-21

    International impacts of global climate change are those for which the important consequences arise because of national sovereignty. Such impacts could be of two types: (1) migrations across national borders of people, of resources (such as agricultural productivity, or surface water, or natural ecosystems), of effluents, or of patterns of commerce; and (2) changes to the way nations use and manage their resources, particularly fossil fuels and forests, as a consequence of international concern over the global climate. Actions by a few resource-dominant nations may affect the fate of all. These two types of international impacts raise complex equity issues because one nation may perceive itself as gaining at the expense of its neighbors, or it may perceive itself as a victim of the actions of others.

  13. HEALTH & FINANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEALTH & FINANCE. Patrick Thokwa Masobe. Patrick Thokwa Masobe completed his undergraduate studies at Grinnel/. University in the USA, and a Master. Degreefrom the University of London in. 1995. He is wrrently employed by the national Department of Health, where he led the task team charged with making.

  14. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  15. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  16. Financing Innovation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Finance, real estate and business services are expanding their share with regard to government services. South Africa's ...... Although limited in amplitude, venture capital (VC) initiatives have existed since the 1980s, supported by the Brazilian Innovation Agency (FINEP) and BNDES (Melo 1988 and 1994). The question ...

  17. SOURCES OF FINANCING INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhela Zakhitovna Namitulina

    2016-01-01

    ; scarce resources and limited domestic savings, private investors the opportunity to compensate for the lack of public financial resources to overcome the crisis in investment; risky prospects for attracting investment in the real economy through the securities market; set too high price of credit resources, and for the banks is a high risk of untimely return loans and big enough payback period (for example, in mechanical engineering from 3 to 7 years; the passivity of banks and other credit institutions in the capitalization of financial resources; the low efficiency of investment programs associated with attraction of foreign direct investment; the increased export of capital abroad, estimated at billions of dollarst; the main source of investment in the real sector are own funds of enterprises and organizations (60% of total investments; inadequate legal regulation of investment activities of foreign investors in the Russian economy, which reduces the efficiency of the organization of production and the restructuring of a signifi cant number of companies. Thus, the implementation of reforms in the process of market transformation of the military-industrial complex – it is the policy of the new millennium. The processes of globalization and transformation, especially in the search for new sources of financing and investing MIC enterprises, showed the need to find new ways and convert existing lines of financing business projects of the military-industrial complex. of such transformations for Russia is the cornerstone.Conclusions and Relevance. The practical significance of the work lies in the orientation of the provisions of the conclusions and recommendations of the work on the widespread use of search and adaptation funding sources of military-industrial complex may be used by the legislative and executive authorities of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defence in the current activity.

  18. Carbon Finance – A Platform for Development of Sustainable Business in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nahar AL-HUSSAINI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1880, the temperature of global has increased by 0.85 degree Celsius. Due to the increase in temperature, the impact of climate change is constantly increasing, which is known as global warming. The increase in temperature is due to emission of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas, which is capable of causing serious hazardous influence to the environment. Carbon emission reduction and low-carbon economy development have become global targets and national policy in both developing and developed countries. Carbon finance is a tool for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a process called capture and storage (CCS. Using this process, the carbon dioxide is captured and stored for further usage as a renewable resource. Carbon finance has a high impact on the growth of sustainable business development. This research analyzes the various possibilities of developing sustainable business through carbon trading in Kuwait and the strategic options offered by both government, as well as private sectors for carbon trading in Kuwait. The central focus of research is to discover the role of carbon finance in developing sustainable business and environmental quality. Since no previous research is conducted on the specific role of carbon finance in developing a sustainable business preferably in Kuwait, the influence of carbon financing in sustainable business development and environmental quality are analyzed in this research.

  19. Report on the behalf of the Commission for finances, general economy and budgetary control on the finance bill project for 2018 (nr 235). Appendix Nr 18 - Ecology, sustainable development and mobility: energy, climate and after-mines, public service for energy, financing the support to communities for rural electrification, energy transition - Nr 273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Joel; Aubert, Julien

    2017-01-01

    After some general statements and recommendations regarding public policy issues expressed within the mission for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Mobility, and more particularly on some specific budgetary allocations related to the public policy for energy and its specific programmes, this report presents some key budget-related data. It outlines and discusses how the budget for 2018 commits the French energy policy in an ecological and supportive transition, and then states some critics about the bill project readability. It comments the adequacy between the budgetary effort and ambitions of the energy policy, notably by commenting the financing increase or decrease of some specific programmes. In the next part, the author focuses on the way to find a new momentum for nuclear energy in France. In this respect, he discusses known benefits of nuclear power, increasing risks which threaten the sector (ageing reactors, EPR construction delays, unresolved issue of management for some nuclear wastes, AREVA dismantling and EDF's fragile financial situation). He also discusses conditions to be met to find out sustainable solution to this crisis as the application of the energy transition trajectory will require a decrease of the number of operated nuclear reactors, ways to open perspectives by keeping on supporting research and by adopting a dynamic exporting approach, and the importance of a maintained attention in terms of nuclear safety. The report of Commission debates and hearing is provided

  20. C. Walker-Said and J. D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Charlotte Walker-Said and John D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp.......Book review of: Charlotte Walker-Said and John D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp....

  1. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of 2003 financial law (no. 230), tome 6, economy, finances and industry, industry-energy; Avis presente au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2003 (no. 230), tome 6, economie, finances et industrie, industrie-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu-Arus, J.

    2002-10-01

    This report presents in a detailed way the evolution of the French industry and energy financial supplies for 2003: 1 - general evolution of supplies; 2 - measures devoted to the improvement of the environment of industrial companies: quality policy, technical centers, financing of engineers schools; 3 - research and innovation supplies: main industrial research programs, small- and medium-size companies, innovation and technologies diffusion; 4 - budgetary sustain of the energy sector: budgetary sustain of nuclear energy and the French atomic energy commission (CEA) supplies, the commission of electric power regulation (CRE), the research network on oil and gas technologies, the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP); 5 - the follow up of industrial mutations: mechanical decay of the supplies to the sectors in crisis: Charbonnages de France situation, naval construction, reconversion of coal mining and steelmaking industries (funds and conversion companies); 6 - economic and financial situation of Electricite de France (EdF): continuous deterioration of results, low profitability of daughter companies, consequences for the future. (J.S.)

  2. Re-making the global economy of knowledge: do new fields of research change the structure of North-South relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn; Pearse, Rebecca; Collyer, Fran; Maia, João; Morrell, Robert

    2017-08-17

    How is global-North predominance in the making of organized knowledge affected by the rise of new domains of research? This question is examined empirically in three interdisciplinary areas - climate change, HIV-AIDS, and gender studies - through interviews with 70 researchers in Southern-tier countries Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The study found that the centrality of the North was reinstituted as these domains came into existence, through resource inequalities, workforce mechanisms, and intellectual framing. Yet there are tensions in the global economy of knowledge, around workforce formation, hierarchies of disciplines, neoliberal management strategies, and mismatches with social need. Intellectual workers in the Southern tier have built significant research centres, workforces and some distinctive knowledge projects. These create wider possibilities of change in the global structure of organized knowledge production. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. Evolutionary Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Igor V. Evstigneev; Thorsten Hens; Klaus Reiner Schenk-Hoppé

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary finance studies the dynamic interaction of investment strategies in financial markets. This market interaction generates a stochastic wealth dynamics on a heterogenous population of traders through the fluctuation of asset prices and their random payoffs. Asset prices are endogenously determined through short-term market clearing. Investors' portfolio choices are characterized by investment strategies which provide a descriptive model of decision behavior. The mathematical framew...

  4. VAR—ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON PUBLIC BUDGET AND UNEMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM THE ECONOMY OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiza Bakytovna Alymkulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global financial crisis hit the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic by the third wave of its transmission in the early of 2009. The article examines the impact of the Global financial economic crisis on the public budget and unemployment of the Kyrgyz Republic. We analyzed the transmission of the crisis on the public budget firstly and its effect on unemployment level by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and quarterly data for 2005–2013 within the framework of IS-LM model for small open economies with floating exchange rate. There is an inverse relationship between the public budget and remittances inflow, liquidity level, volume of deposits, and exchange rate. As a result of the study, the fall in remittances inflows, liquidity level of the banking system, depreciation of the national currency lead to an increase in public revenue. Therefore, the increase in public spending during the crisis period, with the aim of unemployment reduction, may be considered as a crucial policy. The study result allows to policy-makers to exactly know what channels of transmission mechanism transfer the Global crisis on the public budget and its effect on unemployment level of the republic in order to undertake anticrisis macroeconomic policy. The final result of the study indicates that the increase of unemployment level by 1 % requires the increase of public spending by 0.63 %.

  5. INSUFFICIENCY OF SERBIAN ECONOMY'S OPERATING PERFORMANCES: MANIFESTATIONS, CAUSES AND MAIN GUIDELINES OF RECOVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Malinić

    2013-01-01

    Serbia faced the economic crisis with powerless and very fragile economy. The inconvenient transition heritage made the consequences of global economic crisis even worse. The companies that had already experien,ced serious problems approached to bankruptcy. Other, healthier com,panies, kept some kind of business activity, but they were faced with the lack of capital. Low activity level disabled generating higher incomes. In this way, the possibility of growth based on internal financing sourc...

  6. International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: from push-pull to global political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Roberts, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Health worker migration theories have tended to focus on labour market conditions as principal push or pull factors. The role of education systems in producing internationally oriented health workers has been less explored. In place of the traditional conceptual approaches to understanding health worker, especially nurse, migration, I advocate global political economy (GPE) as a perspective that can highlight how educational investment and global migration tendencies are increasing interlinked. The Indian case illustrates the globally oriented nature of health care training, and informs a broader understanding of both the process of health worker migration, and how it reflects wider marketization tendencies evident in India's education and health systems. The Indian case also demonstrates how the global orientation of education systems in source regions is increasingly central to comprehending the place of health workers in the global and Asian rise in migration. The paper concludes that Indian corporate health care training systems are increasingly aligned with the production of professionals orientated to globally integrated health human resource labour markets, and our conceptual analysis of such processes must effectively reflect these tendencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing and financing neglected disease vaccines in our new era of "blue marble health" and the anthropocene epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2017-09-25

    New findings of widespread neglected diseases among the poor living in wealthy group of 20 (G20) economies and the concept of "blue marble health" offer innovative mechanisms for financing urgently new vaccines, especially for vector-borne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). This approach could complement or parallel a recently suggested global vaccine development fund for pandemic threats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investing in gas industry in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, J.

    1996-01-01

    Financing of energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe is meant for markets in transition which induces the financing concepts of the projects and preconditions international funding. The basic conditions to be fulfilled in transition from command economy to market economy are liberalisation and privatisation of energy markets. Preconditions include: prices and tariff at market; regulatory environment supporting independent projects and local capital markets

  9. Miraculous financial engineering or toxic finance? The genesis of the U.S. subprime mortgage loans crisis and its consequences on the global financial markets and real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Pezzuto

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the U.S. subprime mortgage loans defaults have turned into Wall Street’s biggest crisis since the Great Depression. As hundreds of billions in mortgage-related investments went bad, banks became suspicious of one another’s potential undisclosed credit losses and preferred to reduce their exposure in the interbank markets, thus causing interbank interest rates and credit default swaps increases, a liquidity shortage problem and a worsened credit crunch condition to consume...

  10. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Mark; Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili

    2017-01-01

    As ever more policy-makers, governments and organisations turn to the gig economy and digital labour as an economic development strategy to bring jobs to places that need them, it becomes important to understand better how this might influence the livelihoods of workers. Drawing on a multi-year study with digital workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia, this article highlights four key concerns for workers: bargaining power, economic inclusion, intermediated value chains, and upgrad...

  11. Global Megacities Differing Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: an Analysis of Annual Spend of Ten Major cities on the adaptation economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M. A.; Georgeson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities, to improve the resilience of their infrastructure, economy and environment to climate change. Policymakers need to understand what is already being spent on adaptation so that they can make more effective and comprehensive adaptation plans. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined 'Adaptation Economy' we analysis the current efforts of 10 global megacities in adapting to climate change. These cities were chosen based on their size, geographical location and their developmental status. The cities are London, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jakarta, Lagos and Addis Ababa. It is important to study a range of cities in different regions of the world, with different climates and at different states of socio-economic development. While in economic terms, disaster losses from weather, climate and geophysical events are greater in developed countries, fatalities and economic losses as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries. In all cities examined the Adaptation Economy is still a small part of the overall economy accounting for a maximum of 0.3% of the Cities total GDP (GDPc). The differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed and rapidly emerging countries, compared to those in developing countries with a spend ranging from £16 million to £1,500 million. Comparing key sub sectors, we demonstrate that there are distinctive adaptation profiles with developing cities having a higher relative spend on health, while developed cities have a higher spend on disaster preparedness, ICT and professional services. Comparing spend per capita and as a percentage of GDPc demonstrates even more clearly disparities between the cities in the study; developing country cities spend half as much as a proportion of GPCc in some cases, and

  12. Solidarity Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mendell, Marguerite; Nogales, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Collective enterprises in the social and solidarity economy are economic actors, engaged in market activity while committed to and meeting larger societal objectives. They are now part of an ensemble of new business forms that are rapidly evolving today calling for financial innovation and enabling public policy. Often referred to as social enterprise or social purpose business to distinguish these enterprises from profit-driven private enterprises, these "hybrid" business forms are emergi...

  13. Global economic and financial crisis: Exploring the transmission channels and impacts on sub-saharan african economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Yu Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade sub-Saharan African countries have made remarkable gains in promoting growth alongside economic stability. However, with the outbreak of the financial and economic crisis in advanced economies, will these hard-won economic gains in the region be threatened? In this paper, we seek to provide an overview of how sub-Saharan African countries are exposed to the crisis through both financial and real transmission channels, and to critically assess the impact of the crisis on different economies. To accomplish this task, we first provide an overview of the recent economic development of sub-Saharan African countries, and a brief discussion of the sources and the development of the crisis. We then proceed to explore the direct financial transmission channels of the crisis and their impacts on sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, we explore the indirect real transmission channels of the crisis and how the sub-Saharan African economies are impacted by them. Thereafter, we identify a couple of policy implications

  14. THE ROLE OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM IN MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU GENU ALEXANDRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial system can be approached from the perspective of sales in socio-economic system, namely a global financing mechanism, taking version account specific components, such as: normative base regulatory a financialmonetary methods, forms and techniques version running streams Monetary Financial methods, techniques usable forms and version carrying cash flows, financial levers. Integration contexts, the financial system becomes part of gear intended to ensure implementation and regulation of money flows version compared with the normal performance requirements of real processes in the economy.

  15. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  16. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  17. Heroes of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    – futures. The thesis provides new knowledge about the relationship between the development of a global knowledge economy in policy and popular culture, and of the ethnographic detail in which it is materializing. Throughout the thesis it is explored how students cope with policy expectations, and how...... of anxieties over falling out or falling behind in a global economy, as well as about the student and institutional work to further India’s position in this economy....

  18. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  19. Financing energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariwara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The 1990s is likely to be a decade of double growth: in energy demand and environmental protection. This leads the author of this paper to ask the pertinent questions of where the money will come from, and in what form, to finance the growth in capacity to produce this energy and the technology required to produce and burn it cleanly. With a focus on Asian energy markets, this paper first illustrates the problem by describing the rapid growth of energy demand in the region. It describes the growth in Japan as well as China and the fast-growing economies of Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Energy demand growth rates of almost 5 percent in the 1980s are expected to continue to grow at that rate at least until 2005, doubling today's level of consumption and putting the energy supply system under great strain. Because of the large sums involved, this paper pints out the necessity of inventing new, innovative devices for future fund raising. This will require the participation of institutions such as insurance companies and regional banks that have little experience in the energy field. This paper suggests that these and the established players in energy finance will have recourse to two new approaches: Build-Operate-Transfer and Trustee Borrowing schemes

  20. Connecting to Compete 2014 : Trade Logistics in the Global Economy--The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Arvis, Jean-François; Saslavsky, Daniel; Ojala, Lauri; Shepherd, Ben; Busch, Christina; Raj, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Improving logistics performance is at the core of the economic growth and competitiveness agenda. Policymakers globally recognize the logistics sector as one of their key pillars for development. Trade powerhouses in Europe like the Netherlands or in developing countries like Vietnam or Indonesia see seamless and sustainable logistics as an engine of growth and of integration with global value ...

  1. Can we Finance the Energy Transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2015-05-01

    decisions; changes in decision-tools especially the use of high discount rates and inadequate accounting rules; a stable and appropriate price for carbon, the largest economic externality in the sector; and a major uplift in efforts to conserve both energy and capital. Innovative schemes between public and private finance should be deepened. Long term institutional capital (such as pension funds and sovereign wealth funds are an important growth area for energy funding. “Green bonds” have shown promise and are growing fast. Public finance, bilateral and multi-lateral, must be increased to address the major public good issue of climate change. However, at heart, lies a financial sector not equipped to provide finance to the real economy and to the kind of investment streams outlined in this report: an overhaul of the global financial sector must underwrite any of the specific financing efforts proposed in this paper.

  2. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  3. Report on the behalf of the Commission for finances, general economy and budgetary control on the finance bill project for 2017 (nr 4061). Nr 4125, Appendix Nr 14: ecology, sustainable development and mobility, risk prevention, management and steering of policies of ecology, sustainable development and mobility; Appendix Nr 16: ecology, sustainable development and mobility, climate and post-mining, public service of energy, financing supports to communities for rural electrification, energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabault, Valerie; Goua, Marc

    2016-01-01

    A first part discusses the risk prevention program by outlining that financial resources are not consistent whereas the program displays voluntarism here and everywhere: actual advances but problematic assessment, actions affected by a sustained budgetary constraint and decreasing finances. It also comments and criticizes the content of a program related to human resources and support function of the Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Sea (MEEM) and that of Dwelling and Sustainable Housing (MLHD). The second part comments the budget awarded to energy policy in France. It notices and comments that some budgets are mainly financing the post-mining social policy: decrease of miners' guarantees, financing of the ANDRA, support of policies for air quality, financing of financial burden of the energy public service, support of renewable electricity production, support and maintenance of rural electricity networks. It also comments the extra-budgetary financing of the French energy policy: reorganisation, restructuring and re-capitalisation of the sector, a higher energy efficiency as a lever for energy transition, and energy tariffs enabling actors of energy transition to finance their investments

  4. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Embodied Carbon Emission in Global Trade Flows: 41 Economies and 35 Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang

    2014-01-01

    The spatial-temporal variations of embodied carbon emissions in international trade at global scope are still unclear. This paper studies the variations of outflows and inflows of embodied carbon emissions at 35-disaggregated sectors level of 41 countries and regions, and an integrated world input-output model is employed. It also examines what would happen if there were not international trade flows in China, USA and Finland, the representatives of three different levels of the global balanc...

  5. The Resilience of Dependency Effects in Explaining Income Inequality in the Global Economy: A Cross National Analysis, 1975-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is one of both accelerated economic globalization and rising inequality. There is an increasing awareness among both academic scholars and development professionals that globalization puts certain populations at risk. However, there has been inadequate theoretical analysis and a lack of up to date empirical studies that explain just how contemporary globalization a?ects inequality and the well being of individuals. This study explores the conditions under which TNC penetration and other globalization processes in?uence change in domestic income distribution. Its aim is to investigate whether theoretical models that have proven successful in explaining di?erences in income inequality cross-sectionally also allow for an understanding of the dynamics of income distribution during the 1980s and early 1990s, an era characterized by a dramatic acceleration of globalization. We present an analysis of change in national income distribution using linear regression models with a panel design. This study suggests that dependence on foreign investment as a development strategy, especially compared to domestic and human capital investment, may be misguided for nations concerned with equality. Net of other factors, foreign investment dependence bene?ts the elite segments of the income-earning population over the poorer eighty percent. Our analysis provides evidence of a shift in capital/labor relations brought about by globalization that has signi? cantly contributed to the rise in income inequality seen throughout the world.

  6. Internet finance: Digital currencies and alternative finance liberating the capital markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the sudden shift in policy reform and innovation has the potential to liberate the financial markets. The economic potential of internet finance is beginning to take hold across the capital markets as industries like Peer – to – Peer Lending, Equity and Debt based Crowdfunding and virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies which are types of digital currency are quickly transforming the way businesses are being financed. From borrowing and lending, buying and selling securities, to conducting wire transfers internationally, these innovations are creating a new class and generation of investors will source investments opportunities. Helping institutions and governments assess risks and manage performance in order to determine where to deploy capital; and showing signs of lessening the inequality gap. Following the neolithic agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution, this new revolution will enable more people to access financial services in less traditional ways, especially the unbanked world with its huge potential. These new financial opportunities, such as peer – to - peer (P2P lending, will be discussed and examined, and we will stress how they can allow people to bypass current barriers in the global economy. We conclude by arguing that all these developments, energized by the efforts of innovators and entrepreneurs, have the potential to radically transform the world in which we live, while promoting the core values of industrialized societies including democracy, capital formation, sustainability, and equality without solely relying on tax increases

  7. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  8. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... of Airbnb’s early legal issues Daniel Guttentag 8.Free walking tour enterprises in Europe: An evolutionary economic approach Maria del Pilar Leal and L. Xavier Medina, 9.Cultural capitalism: Manipulation and control in Airbnb’s intersection with tourism Michael O' Reganand Jaeyeon Choe 10.Sharing the new...

  9. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark; Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili

    2017-05-01

    As ever more policy-makers, governments and organisations turn to the gig economy and digital labour as an economic development strategy to bring jobs to places that need them, it becomes important to understand better how this might influence the livelihoods of workers. Drawing on a multi-year study with digital workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-east Asia, this article highlights four key concerns for workers: bargaining power, economic inclusion, intermediated value chains, and upgrading. The article shows that although there are important and tangible benefits for a range of workers, there are also a range of risks and costs that unduly affect the livelihoods of digital workers. Building on those concerns, it then concludes with a reflection on four broad strategies - certification schemes, organising digital workers, regulatory strategies and democratic control of online labour platforms - that could be employed to improve conditions and livelihoods for digital workers.

  10. The impact of the financial crisis under the effects of increasing global economic interdependence. The case of Eastern and Central Europe Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bușega Ionuț

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress that arose in areas such as transportation, communication and information exchange has led to a series of consequences that forced national economies to converge into a global, market based economy. In addition to the aforementioned causes, increased liberalisation amidst financial markets has supplemented the initiation of this metamorphosis that had several benefits in terms of general commercial exchange (trade, capital flows, and investment opportunities for business organisations. Simultaneously with the financial leverage resulted from the expansion of these interconnections, a series of channels that are detrimental to the financial welfare of entities has emerged, which, in consequence elevated the vulnerability and susceptibility to external economic shocks. The major debate elicited by this trade-off mainly concerns the costs and benefits of the international liberalisation of capital flows and trade. The purpose of this article is to examine the methods through which globalisation has affected the expansion of the international financial crisis back in 2008, by identifying and assessing the subsequent transfer routes, to and from the United States, where it was initially triggered. This article also aims to evaluate the repercussions experienced by Central and Eastern Europe and how they re-established economic growth following the financial crisis.

  11. Global public goods for health: weaknesses and opportunities in the global health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2017-04-01

    Since at least the 1990s, there has been growing recognition that societies need global public goods (GPGs) in order to protect and promote public health. While the term GPG is sometimes used loosely to denote that which is 'good' for the global public, we restrict our use of the term to its technical definition (goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption) for its useful analytical clarity. Examples of important GPGs for health include standards and guidelines, research on the causes and treatment of disease, and comparative evidence and analysis. While institutions for providing public goods are relatively well developed at the national level - being clearly recognized as a responsibility of sovereign states - institutional arrangements to do so remain fragmented and thin at the global level. For example, the World Health Organization, mandated to provide many GPGs, is not appropriately financed to do so. Three steps are needed to better govern the financing and provision of GPGs for health: first, improved data to develop a clearer picture of how much money is currently going to providing which types of GPGs; second, a legitimate global political process to decide upon priority missing GPGs, followed by estimates of total amounts needed; and third, financing streams for GPGs from governments and private sources, to be channeled through new or existing institutions. Financing should go toward fully financing some GPGs, complementing or supplementing existing national or international financing for others, or deploying funds to make potential GPGs less 'excludable' by putting them into the public domain. As globalization deepens the degree of interdependence between countries and as formerly low-income economies advance, there may be less relative need for development assistance to meet basic health care needs, and greater relative need to finance GPGs. Strengthening global arrangements for GPGs today is a worthy investment for improved global

  12. Banking sector globalization and bank performance: A comparative analysis of low income countries with emerging markets and advanced economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of financial services liberalization is the increasing presence of foreign banks in a nation. This study examines the impact of banking sector globalization on bank profits and cost efficiency by using a panel of 169 nations spanning 1998–2013. Employing both fixed-effects and GMM estimations, and including banking-industry and macroeconomic controls, I find greater banking-sector globalization to reduce both profits and cost inefficiency, thereby reflecting increased competitiveness and informational asymmetries in host markets, as well as assimilation of better technology, managerial practices by domestic banks. The results are further examined for nations across different levels of economic development and with different degrees of foreign bank presence. Only in emerging markets and in nations with more than 50% foreign banks, greater banking sector globalization positively affects profits. From a policy perspective, the findings call for banking regulatory authorities to implement polices to reduce informational asymmetries in host markets.

  13. Market-Based Housing Finance Efficiency in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr; Lux, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2007), s. 241-273 ISSN 1461-6718 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/06/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : housing finance * transition economies * finance efficiency Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. Finance as a driver of corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    Finance is grease to the economy. Therefore, we assume that it may affect corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the sustainability of economic development too. This paper discusses the transmission mechanisms between finance and sustainability. We find that there is no simple one-to-one

  15. Mega-events, Local Economies, and Global Status: What Happened before the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events such as the World Cup and the Olympics have been used for economic development, urban transformation and global status enhancement. Beijing and Shanghai embraced these purposes when they won the bids for the 2008 Olympics and the 2010 World Expo respectively. This article examines the pre-event economic changes in Beijing and Shanghai that are associated with their pursuit of mega-events. Changes in a group of economic indicators are tracked from 1997 to 2006. It was found that after winning the bids for the Olympics and the World Expo, Beijing and Shanghai experienced greater growth in construction and tourism, a speeding-up in economic development and restructuring, and an improvement in physical infrastructure. However, the enhancement of global exposure was not accompanied by growth in foreign trade and in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE industries. The empirical analyses place the mega-events in large economic contexts and provide a base for future post-event studies.

  16. An Action Research into International Masters Program in Practicing Management (IMPM: Suggesting Refraction to Complement Reflection for Management Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunc D. MEDENI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available International Masters Program in Practicing Management (IMPM is a collaborative effort by major business schools and corporations around the world, balancing practical and academic issues within pedagogy of “experienced reflection”. This action research into the IMPM aims to explain the IMPM and its importance for the global knowledge economy, as well as identify and improve the current limitations of the program. As a result, we hope to provide specific suggestions for the IMPM practice and general guidelines for business education. Our suggestions are based upon a framework of “refraction” that follows a methodology of action research and pluralistic knowledge science epistemology, a critique of management learning, and a literature review on (critical reflection, as well as our findings about the IMPM practice. Also, critically reviewing Mintzberg and other authors’ ideas on management learning and IMPM specifically supports our discussion in this paper.

  17. Que faire? A Bioeconomy and Solar Energy Institute at Italy's Research Council in the Context of the Global Transition to the Solar Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Mario; Meneguzzo, Francesco

    2017-11-02

    Driven by insight for which new research and education requires new institutional organisation, and drawing on two decades of research and educational efforts, we devise the profile and activities of a new bioeconomy and solar energy institute at Italy's Research Council. We further articulate the institute's activities suggesting avenues on how to deploy sound and giving more useful research, education and policy advice in these crucial fields for making tomorrow's common development sustainable. The outcomes of the study are of general interest, because the transition to a solar economy is of intrinsic global nature and the challenges involved are similar in many countries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Financing Innovation | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-27

    Sep 27, 2013 ... As the fifth volume in a series of five books bringing together the results of intensive research on the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this book analyzes the financing of science, technology, and innovation in the BRICS economies.

  19. The Role of Banks in SME Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Norden (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Banks play a crucial role for the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs represent a large fraction of all firms in many economies and contribute significantly to employment and growth. But, SMEs are more informationally opaque, more risky, more

  20. Islamic Banking and Financial Regulation in Malaysia: Between State Sharia, the Courts and the Islamic Moral Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Emma

    2018-01-01

    This article examines Malaysia’s emergence as a global centre of Islamic finance through a pragmatic centralised regulatory framework that promotes legal certainty and consonance with the conventional financial system rather than the development of a distinctly Islamic moral economy. It also highlights the judiciary’s challenge to Central Bank regulatory dominance through civil sharia compliance cases based on Anglo-Muslim law.

  1. The Political Economy of Higher Education in the Era of Neoliberal Globalization: Latin America in Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos A.; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that current changes in Latin American higher education cannot be examined in isolation from larger political and economic changes in the region, which are in turn related to the dynamics of globalization and the rise of neoliberalism. Explores the context of university change and the main features of university restructuring. (EV)

  2. Real World Globalization and Inequality Yesterday and Today a review of Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth Century Atlantic Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This book shows that the current “globalization” buzzword refers to a process that in fact already characterized the nineteenth century until the beginning of the First World War. From then and until the end of the Second World War, the process of globalization was severely reversed—in exempli?cation of one of the authors’ sub-theses that this process can and does have its own ups and downs and is not a one way ever-onward and— upward road, as latter day parlance would have it. During the half century past, the globalization process was reinitiated laboriously but haltingly until the last two and especially the last decade of the twentieth century, when globalism more than globalization recovered the reach it had already nearly a century earlier. Although this book focuses on the nineteenth century period, the authors nonetheless express important concerns for present and future praxis and policy.

  3. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  4. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  5. The Institutional Framing of the Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    A review of the significance of the intellectual tool of the technology complex for an understanding of the role of innovation in the market economy. The framing of the market economy is understood as the way that institutions of finance, education and intellectual property are reformed to aid th...... the development of innovation for public and private purposes. It is argued that the speed and efficacy of this institutional reform effort is what distinguishes one market economy from another.......A review of the significance of the intellectual tool of the technology complex for an understanding of the role of innovation in the market economy. The framing of the market economy is understood as the way that institutions of finance, education and intellectual property are reformed to aid...

  6. South Korea’s entry to the global food economy: Shifts in consumption of food between 1998 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data are corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data are regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS is used to adjust for design effects and weight the results. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (+16 kcal/person/d); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total Alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/d to 82 kcal/person/d. Also, energy from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages increased among teens and energy from Tea & Coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained very high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from very low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government’s response are discussed. PMID:23017321

  7. The strategic role of partnerships between universities and private corporations as a driver for increasing workforce competitiveness in a global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damoc Adrian-Ioan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global economic context means increased competition as corporations face contenders from other countries, and there is a wider range of choices on the market available to consumers. This global competition drives economic actors to seek competitive edges to increase the efficiency of their operations; within this global economy, corporations seek these advantages, outsourcing their activities in order to make use of the opportunities of globalisation. The same situation can be encountered on the labour market. While the expansion of economic activities globally often means increased employment opportunities, it also means that job seekers from around the world need to become more competitive on the job market to attract better employment opportunities. Workforce competitiveness is determined by various factors, like availability and ease of access (i.e. job market legislation, level and quality of education, and cost. The level and quality of education are of particular concern, as it gauges the potential of the workforce, and is the cornerstone of the controversial “skills gap”, based on a common complaint of corporations regarding a shortage of skilled employees. Acknowledging the importance of this factor, numerous companies have concluded partnerships with local universities, leading to intimate connections between the business environment and education. Thus, in the same manner that supply and demand shape the markets for typical goods and determine the success of a market, these partnerships between universities and corporations influence the labour market, bringing together demand (i.e. the corporations seeking skilled employees and supply (universities and education centres training the future workforce. There are numerous long-term benefits that such partnerships can bring to a country’s education sector. As such, the present paper seeks to examine the strategic importance of partnerships between academia and industry as a key

  8. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    a third of the world’s largest 25 economies, and that they are likely to be critical for the success of a global economy, it is important to understand how these economies innovate, what factors affect innovation in such nations, and what are the impacts. However, to the best of our knowledge, little......ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...

  9. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.) [de

  10. Financing renewable energies. Windows for new opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontenagel, I.

    1999-01-01

    Renewable Energies are recognized as indispensable for a sustainable energy economy. Their progressive market introduction, however, depend very much on their economic competitiveness. A wide range of Renewable Energies are already cost competitive today. But still a shortage of information as well as mental and structural barriers are hindering their rapid market penetration. This volume publishes the results of two conferences, held by EUROSOLAR and dealing with the problems of Financing Renewable Energies. In five chapters - Banking Concepts for Financing Renewable Energies - Public Frameworks for Renewable Energy Market Introduction - Financing Renewable Energies in Developing Countries - Green Power - Market Structures and Players - Renewable Energy Financing Applications a variety of new concepts and fresh ideas are presented. (orig.)

  11. European social model and challenges of globalization: searching the ways of balancing of the needs of the economy and societ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Topishko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of the fundamental models of social policy in the EU and social procection system as one of its mechanisms has been characterized. The changes in the division of responsibility between the subjects of social partnership in providing social protection is analyzed. Special attention paid to the increasing socio-economic contradictions in terms of global transformations and social orientation of stabilization measures by governments. The principles on which reform is carried taxation and social welfare systems is observed. It is also described the change in the tax system in terms of finding ways to fiscal consolidation, including the measures of increasing rate of progressivity of the tax system and fiscal role of indirect taxes, broadening the tax base, increase the tax burden on passive income. Approaches to adopt the European model of social protection to globalization and the rise of the economic crisis has been investigated. The ways to achieve a balance between the social functions of the state and the level of financial supportis outlined.

  12. Conference on energy transition financing in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan; Rid, Urban; Sickenberger, Peter; Ricordeau, Damien; Schmidt, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the energy transition financing in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the legal framework, the instruments and the role of financing institutions in the development of a low-carbon society and economy. Questions regarding the successful financing of renewable energy projects and the expectations of financiers were addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Regulatory framework for investment in the 'green sector' in France (Ivan Faucheux); 2 - Overview of the financing framework for the German 'Energiewende' (Rid, Urban); 3 - Financing Renewables - KfW's Instruments and Track Record (Peter Sickenberger); 4 - French Overview on Renewable energy Financing (Damien Ricordeau); 5 - Profitability analysis of renewable energies in Germany: Which stakeholders and financing models have proven successful? (Gerrit Schmidt)

  13. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance......) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws...... to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts...

  14. Expanding Post-Harvest Finance Through Warehouse Receipts and Related Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Marisa; Bryla, Erin; Langenbucher, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Warehouse receipt financing and similar types of collateralized lending provide an alternative to traditional lending requirements of banks and other financiers and could provide opportunities to expand this lending in emerging economies for agricultural trade. The main contents include: what is warehouse receipt financing; what is the value of warehouse receipt financing; other collater...

  15. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  16. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  17. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  18. The EU Legislative Framework Against Money Laundering and Terrorist Finance:A Critical Analysis in the Light of Evolving Global Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, William; Mitsilegas, Valsamis

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of the EU anti-money laundering legislative framework (which in recent years has also included measures to counter terrorist finance), by focusing in particular on recent legislation such as the third money laundering Directive and the Regulation on controls of cash entering the EU, both adopted in 2005. The analysis highlights the relationship between these instruments and international initiatives in the field (in particular FATF standards), and addresses...

  19. Caught between the global economy and local bureaucracy: the barriers to good waste management practice in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Trois, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Empirical research shows that good waste management practice in South Africa is not always under the volitional control of those tasked with its implementation. While intention to act may exist, external factors, within the distal and proximal context, create barriers to waste behaviour. In addition, these barriers differ for respondents in municipalities, private industry and private waste companies. The main barriers to implementing good waste management practice experienced by respondents in municipalities included insufficient funding for waste management and resultant lack of resources; insufficient waste knowledge; political interference in decision-making; a slow decision-making process; lack of perceived authority to act by waste staff; and a low priority afforded to waste. Barriers experienced by respondents in private industry included insufficient funding for waste and the resultant lack of resources; insufficient waste knowledge; and government bureaucracy. Whereas, barriers experienced in private waste companies included increasing costs; government bureaucracy; global markets; and availability of waste for recycling. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organizations are subject to different structural forces that shape, enable and constrain waste behaviour.

  20. The role of ratings in structured finance: issues and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2005-01-01

    Introduction In May 2003, the Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS) decided to establish a Working Group on Ratings in Structured Finance to explore the role of rating agencies in the rapidly evolving markets for structured finance instruments. To facilitate a better understanding of this role and of structured finance markets more broadly, the Working Group was mandated to identify and explain methodological differences that exist between the rating of structured finance instrument...

  1. Finance and the global land rush : Understanding the growing role of investment funds in land deals and large-scale farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the wake of the 2007–08 food crisis, we have seen the combined development of a rapid financialization of agriculture with the expansion of large-scale corporate farming through large-scale land deals, in particular in developing countries and emerging economies. The rapidly

  2. Multiple crises and global health: new and necessary frontiers of health politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The world economy is entering an era of multiple crises, involving finance, food security and global environmental change. This article assesses the implications for global public health, describes the contours of post-2007 crises in food security and finance, and then briefly indicates the probable health impacts. There follows a discussion of the crisis of climate change, one that will unfold over a longer time frame but with manifestations that may already be upon us. The article then discusses the political economy of responses to these crises, noting the formidable obstacles that exist to equitable resolution. The article concludes by noting the threat that such crises present to recent progress in global health, arguing that global health researchers and practitioners must become more familiar with the relevant social processes, and that proposed solutions that neglect the continuing importance of the nation-state are misdirected.

  3. Multiple crises and global health: New and necessary frontiers of health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The world economy is entering an era of multiple crises, involving finance, food security and global environmental change. This article assesses the implications for global public health, describes the contours of post-2007 crises in food security and finance, and then briefly indicates the probable health impacts. There follows a discussion of the crisis of climate change, one that will unfold over a longer time frame but with manifestations that may already be upon us. The article then discusses the political economy of responses to these crises, noting the formidable obstacles that exist to equitable resolution. The article concludes by noting the threat that such crises present to recent progress in global health, arguing that global health researchers and practitioners must become more familiar with the relevant social processes, and that proposed solutions that neglect the continuing importance of the nation-state are misdirected. PMID:22657093

  4. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  5. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  6. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  7. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  8. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: The implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximizing local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; Eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing; and finance for the fuel cycle. (author)

  9. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximising local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, and domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing, and finance for the fuel cycle

  10. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...

  11. Nr 251 - Report on the behalf of the Commission of finances, general economy and budget control on the finance bill project for 2013. Appendix Nr 13: ecology, sustainable development and planning, risk prevention, management and steering of policies of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Christian; Mariton, Herve

    2012-01-01

    After having indicated some key figures (public finances and budgets awarded to different involved institutions and agencies), this report comments and discusses the various challenges and financial aspects regarding risk prevention: evolution of endowments in 2013, action in the field of prevention of technological risks and pollutions, issue of nuclear safety after the Fukushima accident (actions undertaken by the ASN, IRSN and ANDRA), assessment of the implementation of the PPRN (plan of prevention of natural risks) and management of flood risks, management of the after-mine period. The second part discusses the management and steering of policies of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea in a context of decreased endowments

  12. Financing nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) To provide an historical framework for understanding why it is difficult to finance nuclear power projects in the U.S.; (2) To mention briefly certain financing techniques utilized by companies to finance nuclear investments; and (3) To set forth the requirements investors will need before taking on the risks associated with nuclear power projects

  13. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  14. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  15. Modeling and assessing international climate financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Tang, Lichun; Mohamed, Rayman; Zhu, Qianting; Wang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Climate financing is a key issue in current negotiations on climate protection. This study establishes a climate financing model based on a mechanism in which donor countries set up funds for climate financing and recipient countries use the funds exclusively for carbon emission reduction. The burden-sharing principles are based on GDP, historical emissions, and consumptionbased emissions. Using this model, we develop and analyze a series of scenario simulations, including a financing program negotiated at the Cancun Climate Change Conference (2010) and several subsequent programs. Results show that sustained climate financing can help to combat global climate change. However, the Cancun Agreements are projected to result in a reduction of only 0.01°C in global warming by 2100 compared to the scenario without climate financing. Longer-term climate financing programs should be established to achieve more significant benefits. Our model and simulations also show that climate financing has economic benefits for developing countries. Developed countries will suffer a slight GDP loss in the early stages of climate financing, but the longterm economic growth and the eventual benefits of climate mitigation will compensate for this slight loss. Different burden-sharing principles have very similar effects on global temperature change and economic growth of recipient countries, but they do result in differences in GDP changes for Japan and the FSU. The GDP-based principle results in a larger share of financial burden for Japan, while the historical emissions-based principle results in a larger share of financial burden for the FSU. A larger burden share leads to a greater GDP loss.

  16. Creating an Effective System of Education to Prepare Future Human Resources within the Context Provided by the Global Shift toward a "Green Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Frolova, Evgenia Evgenevna; Kucherenko, Petr Aleksandrovich; Samusenko, Tatyana Mikhailovna; Voikova, Natalya Andreevna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the major aspects of putting together effective national systems of education oriented toward providing academic instruction to the population and preparing future human resources for work within the economy in specific alignment with the concept of environmental responsibility (or that of "green economy"). The…

  17. Risk Sharing in Corporate and Public Finance: The Contribution of Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises have become a recurring problem for modern economies with increasingly detrimental fallouts. Risk-sharing finance (RSF contracts may be the best instrument for addressing the problem and its fallout, and in particular the risk-sharing principles of Islamic finance offer a potential alternative. This paper offers some preliminary thoughts on the design and implementation of RSF for both private and public sector funding, for revenue and non-revenue generating projects. It is argued that such form of financing avoids the leverage of conventional debt, minimizes the costs of dilution, reduces macroeconomic vulnerability, and enhances financial inclusion. It also has the potential to be a less risky alternative for developing countries to finance public spending and economic growth. JEL Classifications: G32, P43, O16

  18. Innovative Economy in Post-Crisis Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Galieva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has shifted main attention to the role of innovative technologies in the forming of the innovation economy. Russian economy has been severely impacted by thecrisis downslide. This was predetermined by the export-orientated nature of Russian economy. Manufacturing sector is poorly developed which contributes to Russia’s falling behind from developed economies. So now the only way to eliminate the gap is to introduce innovation into production and manufacturing and save them from shutdowns and downslides. So aim of the paper is to find a mechanism for Russia to shift to innovative economy.Keywords: innovation economy, dynamics, management, information technologies, economic development

  19. Landscape of climate finance in france in 2011. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Romain; Cochran, Ian; Hubert, Romain; Dequesne, Jeanne; Herve-Mignucci, Morgan

    2014-10-01

    This study identifies and analyzes the investment spending in France in 2011 that contributed directly or indirectly to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions (GHG); this corresponds to investment in low-carbon infrastructure and fixed capital (renewable energy, building high environmental quality, public transport, etc.). This study has adopted the methodology developed by Climate Policy Initiative (CPI), which has been applied elsewhere both at global scale and to national flows in Germany [2012] and Indonesia [2014]. Funding for the energy transition is a central issue for which the available data are often incomplete. This report presents the first comprehensive view of climate finance flows in France to reduce GHG emissions. This report aims to further the current debate by providing economy-wide estimates. The main objective of this study was not to measure as precisely as possible climate finance in France in 2011. Rather, it has focused on order of magnitude estimates rather than precision to the nearest euro. The collected information has been used to identify the distribution of flows across sectors, the share of different instruments, their use and the role of different actors. (authors)

  20. MONETARY STABILITY AND UNEMPLYMENT IN AN EMERGING ECONOMY. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burz Razvan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A typical feature of an economic crisis, as is the case of the last economic and financial crisis, is the rise in the unemployment. This phenomenon represents one of the most serious aspects of an economic recession implying additional constraints for the policy makers and increased social and economic distress. In this paper we approach the issue of unemployment dynamics for Romanian economy. Modern economies must cope with the challenge of achieving financial stability, given that the globalizing financial environment is becoming more complex due to globalization, to theintersection of the monetary and financial market, and to the financial industry innovativeness. Although this evolution of the markets encourages more efficient allocation of global capital resources, allowing the ways of financing to adapt more quickly to the needs of the real economy, “the financial sector is not exempt from tensions and destabilizing movements, which generate risks not only for the players of the financial sector, but also for the economy as a whole”.