WorldWideScience

Sample records for global tobacco surveillance

  1. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  2. Global youth tobacco surveillance, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Peruga, Armando; Chauvin, James; Baptiste, Jean-Pierre; Costa de Silva, Vera; el Awa, Fatimah; Tsouros, Agis; Rahman, Khalil; Fishburn, Burke; Bettcher, Douglas W; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-25

    Tobacco use is a major contributor to deaths from chronic diseases. The findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) suggest that the estimate of a doubling of deaths from smoking (from 5 million per year to approximately 10 million per year by 2020) might be an underestimate because of the increase in smoking among young girls compared with adult females, the high susceptibility of smoking among never smokers, high levels of exposure to secondhand smoke, and protobacco indirect advertising. This report includes GYTS data collected during 2000-2007 from 140 World Health Organization (WHO) member states, six territories (American Samoa, British Virgin Islands, Guam, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands), two geographic regions (Gaza Strip and West Bank), one United Nations administered province (Kosovo), one special administrative region (Macau), and one Commonwealth (Northern Mariana Islands). For countries that have repeated GYTS, only the most recent data are included. For countries with multiple survey sites, only data from the capital or largest city are presented. GYTS is a school-based survey of a defined geographic site that can be a country, a province, a city, or any other geographic entity. GYTS uses a standardized methodology for constructing sampling frames, selecting schools and classes, preparing questionnaires, conducting field procedures, and processing data. GYTS standard sampling methodology uses a two-stage cluster sample design that produces samples of students in grades associated with students aged 13-15 years. Each sampling frame includes all schools (usually public and private) in a geographically defined area containing any of the identified grades. In the first stage, the probability of schools being selected is proportional to the number of students enrolled in the specified grades. In the second sampling stage, classes within the selected schools are selected randomly. All students in selected classes attending

  3. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2011. The World Health Organization, CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, developed the GHPSS to collect data on tobacco use and cessation...

  4. Improving the delivery of global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Asaf; Green, Carol; Colbert, James

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco control must remain a critical global health priority given the growing burden of tobacco-induced disease in the developing world. Insights from the emerging field of global health delivery suggest that tobacco control could be improved through a systematic, granular analysis of the processes through which it is promoted, implemented, and combated. Using this framework, a critical bottleneck to the delivery of proven health promotion emerges in the role that the tobacco industry plays in promoting tobacco use and blocking effective tobacco-control policies. This "corporate bottleneck" can also be understood as a root cause of massive disease and suffering upon vulnerable populations worldwide, for the goal of maximizing corporate profit. Naming, understanding, and responding to this corporate bottleneck is crucial to the success of tobacco-control policies. Three case studies of tobacco-control policy--South Africa, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and Uruguay--are presented to explore and understand the implications of this analysis. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  5. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  6. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2011. The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data on students aged 13–15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame,...

  7. Global teens and tobacco: a review of the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Bethany; Lando, Harry; Klein, Jonathan; Winickoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, the burden of suffering to children caused by tobacco does not just originate from exposure to tobacco smoke or smoking, but includes exposure to tobacco-friendly media, poverty associated with money spent on tobacco, increased incidence of tobacco-related fires, and the harms related to child labor in tobacco cultivation. Despite global efforts through human rights acts, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the MPOWER report, tobacco use continues to accelerate in most countries. While the efforts that have been taken, such as smoking bans in public, are worthy actions, not enough is being done to protect children and teens. More can be done at the policy level, by individuals, and by health care providers. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodology of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Azahadi; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Hiong, Tee Guat; Aris, Tahir; Morton, Jeremy; Pujari, Sameer

    Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies. GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays. The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.

  9. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-04

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.

  10. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  11. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System: A Protocol for Assessing Health Warning Compliance, Design Features, and Appeals of Tobacco Packs Sold in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Washington, Carmen; Brown, Jennifer; Vadnais, Alison; Kroart, Laura; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Cohen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco remains the world's leading preventable cause of death, with the majority of tobacco-caused deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), outlines a set of policy initiatives that have been demonstrated as effective in reducing tobacco use. Article 11 of the FCTC focuses on using the tobacco package to communicate tobacco-caused harms; it also seeks to restrict the delivery of misleading information about the product on the pack. The objective of this study was to establish a surveillance system for tobacco packs in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number of smokers. The Tobacco Pack Surveillance System (TPackSS) monitors whether required health warnings on tobacco packages are being implemented as intended, and identifies pack designs and appeals that might violate or detract from the communication of harm-related information and undermine the impact of a country's tobacco packaging laws. The protocol outlined is intended to be applicable or adaptable for surveillance efforts in other countries. Tobacco packs were collected in 14 countries during 2013. The intention was, to the extent possible, to construct a census of "unique" pack presentations available for purchase in each country. The TPackSS team partnered with in-country field staff to implement a standardized protocol for acquiring packs from 36 diverse neighborhoods across three cities in each country. At the time of purchase, data on price and place of acquisition of each pack was recorded. The field staff, according to a standardized protocol, then photographed packs before they were shipped to the United States for coding and archiving. Each pack was coded for compliance with the country-specific health warning label laws, as well as for key design features of the pack and appeals of the branding elements. The coding protocols were developed based upon prior research, expert

  12. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  13. Three Eras in Global Tobacco Control: How Global Governance Processes Influenced Online Tobacco Control Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather; Chu, Kar-Hai; Lancaster, Molly; Valente, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Online networks can serve as a platform to diffuse policy innovations and enhance global health governance. This study focuses on how shifts in global health governance may influence related online networks. We compare social network metrics (average degree centrality [AVGD], density [D] and clustering coefficient [CC]) of Globalink, an online network of tobacco control advocates, across three eras in global tobacco control governance; pre-Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policy transfer (1992-1998), global regime formation through the FCTC negotiations (1999-2005), and philanthropic funding through the Bloomberg Initiative (2006-2012). Prior to 1999, Globalink was driven by a handful of high-income countries (AVGD=1.908 D=0.030, CC=0.215). The FCTC negotiations (1999-2005) corresponded with a rapid uptick in the number of countries represented within Globalink and new members were most often brought into the network through relationships with regional neighbors (AVGD=2.824, D=0.021, CC=0.253). Between 2006 and 2012, the centrality of the US in the network increases significantly (AVGD=3.414, D=0.023, CC=0.310). The findings suggest that global institutionalization through WHO, as with the FCTC, can lead to the rapid growth of decentralized online networks. Alternatively, private initiatives, such as the Bloomberg Initiative, can lead to clustering in which a single source of information gains increasing influence over an online network.

  14. One Hundred Years in the Making: The Global Tobacco Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Today's global tobacco epidemic may represent one of the first instances of the globalization of a noninfectious cause of disease. This article focuses on the first century of the global tobacco epidemic and its current status, reviewing the current and projected future of the global tobacco epidemic and the steps that are in progress to end it. In the United States and many countries of Western Europe, tobacco consumption peaked during the 1960s and 1970s and declined as tobacco control programs were initiated, motivated by the evidence indicting smoking as a leading cause of disease. Despite this policy advancement and the subsequent reductions in tobacco consumption, the global tobacco epidemic continued to grow exponentially in the later years of the twentieth century, as the multinational companies sought new markets to replace those shrinking in high-income countries. In response, between 2000 and 2004, the World Health Organization developed its first public health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which entered into force in 2005. An accompanying package of interventions has been implemented. New approaches to tobacco control, including plain packaging and single representation of brands, have been implemented by Australia and Uruguay, respectively, but have been challenged by the tobacco industry.

  15. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  16. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009-2010--study strengths, limitations and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Biliński, Przemysław; Raciborski, Filip; Samoliński, Bolesław; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A tobacco surveillance system is crucial for improving the planning and implementation of effective tobacco control policies. The purpose of the presented study was to describe a review of the process of implementation and methodological assumption of a Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Poland. The study strengths and limitations are evaluated, as well as some recommendations given for further tobacco surveillance activities in Poland. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was implemented in Poland between 2008-2010. The survey population selection process was based on a three-stage stratified geographically-clustered sample of a non-institutional population aged 15 years and over. Those who lived in institutions were not surveyed. The GATS questionnaire was very detailed and provides a significant amount of data. The filed work was preceded by several training sessions for all survey staff and the pretest. Questionnaires were administered in respondents' homes during the face-to-face interviews. Of the 14,000 households selected for the survey, 8,948 (63.9%) households and 7,840 (93.9%) sampled individuals completed the interviews. The total survey response rate was 65.1%. GATS was an important step towards obtaining representative, current data on the tobacco epidemic in Poland. Basic results of the study are currently available. More in-depth analysis will provide useful data for public health experts and policymakers to assign resources and establish health priorities. Unfortunately, competing targets and lack of awareness on the part of stakeholders still constrains the financial resources available to those undertaking tobacco control research in Poland. The circumscribed capacity to undertake multidisciplinary policy research limits both the quality and quantity of such studies. There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles

  17. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.

  18. GHOST: global hepatitis outbreak and surveillance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Atkinson G; Sims, Seth; Rytsareva, Inna; Campo, David S; Skums, Pavel; Dimitrova, Zoya; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Thai, Hong; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Lin, Yulin; Punkova, Lili T; Sue, Amanda; Mirabito, Massimo; Wang, Silver; Tracy, Robin; Bolet, Victor; Sukalac, Thom; Lynberg, Chris; Khudyakov, Yury

    2017-12-06

    Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters. Global Hepatitis Outbreak and Surveillance Technology (GHOST) is a cloud-based system enabling users, regardless of computational expertise, to analyze and visualize transmission clusters in an independent, accurate and reproducible way. We present and explore performance of several GHOST implemented algorithms using next-generation sequencing data experimentally obtained from hypervariable region 1 of genetically related and unrelated HCV strains. GHOST processes data from an entire MiSeq run in approximately 3 h. A panel of seven specimens was used for preparation of six repeats of MiSeq libraries. Testing sequence data from these libraries by GHOST showed a consistent transmission linkage detection, testifying to high reproducibility of the system. Lack of linkage among genetically unrelated HCV strains and constant detection of genetic linkage between HCV strains from known transmission pairs and from follow-up specimens at different levels of MiSeq-read sampling indicate high specificity and sensitivity of GHOST in accurate detection of HCV transmission. GHOST enables automatic extraction of timely and relevant public health information suitable for guiding effective intervention measures. It is designed as a virtual diagnostic system intended for use in molecular surveillance and outbreak investigations rather than in research. The system produces accurate and reproducible information on HCV transmission clusters for all users, irrespective of their level of bioinformatics

  19. New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob

  20. The China National Tobacco Corporation: From domestic to global dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley; Sejpal, Nidhi

    2017-03-01

    The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world's cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to 'go global'. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets. The paper concludes that the company has undergone substantial change over the past two decades and is consequently poised to become a new global player in the tobacco industry. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  1. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petersen P.E., World Health Organization, Oral Health Programme, Chronic Disease and Health. Promotion, 20 Avenue .... particular, Health Promoting Schools provide an effective setting for tobacco prevention amongst children and youth.

  2. The China National Tobacco Corporation: From domestic to global dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley; Sejpal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world’s cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to ‘go global’. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets. The paper concludes that the company has undergone substantial change over the past two decades and is consequently poised to become a new global player in the tobacco industry. This article is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. PMID:27737622

  3. Global and Regional Patterns of Tobacco Smoking and Tobacco Control Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality from various diseases, including urologic diseases. We reviewed, at global and regional levels, the prevalence and trends of tobacco smoking and legislative and regulatory efforts around tobacco control. We also provided information about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. We used several sources to present the most up-to-date information from national surveys, including the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, the Global Tobacco Control Report, and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Smoking prevalence has been decreasing globally, although trends in smoking vary substantially across countries and by gender. Among men, smoking prevalence in most high-income countries started to decrease in the mid-1990s, followed after a few decades by generally smaller decreases in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there has been no change, or there has even been an increase, in smoking prevalence in many other LMICs. Countries with the highest male smoking prevalence are located in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe. Similar to men, smoking prevalence for women has been decreasing in most high-income countries and some LMICs, although the decrease began later and was slower than that for men. Except in a few countries, smoking is much less common for women than for men. Most countries with the highest smoking prevalence in women are in Europe. Countries that have implemented the best practices for tobacco control, including monitoring, smoke-free policies, cessation programs, health warnings, advertising bans, and taxation, have been able to reduce smoking rates and related harms. E-cigarette use has rapidly increased since its introduction to the market. Health care providers should advise smoking patients about quitting smoking. Countries must improve the implementation and enforcement of tobacco control policies. Particular attention should be paid to preventing an increase in

  4. Estimating the size of illicit tobacco consumption in Brazil: findings from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Szklo, André Salem; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence between 2008 and 2013. Tax rate increases since 2007 and a new tobacco tax structure in 2012 may have played an important role in this decline. However, continuous tax rate increases pushed up cigarette prices over personal income growth and, therefore, some consumers, especially lower income individuals, may have migrated to cheaper illicit cigarettes. To use tobacco surveillance data to estimate the size of illicit tobacco consumption before and after excise tax increases. We defined a threshold price and compared it with purchasing prices obtained from two representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of illicit cigarette use among daily smokers. Generalised linear model was specified to understand whether the absolute difference in proportions over time differed by sociodemographic groups and consumption levels. Our findings were validated using an alternative method. Total proportion of illicit daily consumption increased from 16.6% to 31.1% between 2008 and 2013. We observed a pattern of unadjusted absolute decreases in cigarette smoking prevalence and increases in the proportion of illicit consumption, irrespective of gender, age, educational level, area of residence and amount of cigarettes consumed. The strategy of raising taxes has increased government revenues, reduced smoking prevalence and resulted in an increased illicit trade. Surveillance data can be used to provide information on illicit tobacco trade to help in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) article 15 and the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to tobacco control policy in Turkey--2003 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguder, Toker; Polat, Halil; Arpad, Ceylan; Khoury, Rule Nabil; Warren, Charles W; Lee, Juliette; Lea, Veronica

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Turkey in 2003 and 2009 to examine changes in tobacco use and important tobacco control measures. The GYTS were conducted in grades 7-9 in 2003 and 7-10 in 2009 in Turkey. Data in this paper are limited to 13 to 15 year old students. A total of 15,957 students from 202 schools participated in 2003 and 5,054 students from 69 schools participated in 2009. The overall response rate was 92.1% in 2003 and 87.5% in 2009. Between 2003 and 2009 current cigarette smoking did not change significantly for either boys (9.4% to 10.2%) or girls (3.5% to 5.3%). Current cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in 2003 and in 2009. In 2009, half of students reported they had been exposed to second hand smoking (SHS) at home and 80% reported they had been exposed to SHS in public places. Three in ten students reported they had been exposed to pro-tobacco advertising in newspapers or magazines; one in ten had an object with a cigarette brand logo on it; and 7% had been offered free cigarettes by a cigarette company representative. Two-thirds of current cigarette smokers reported that they wanted to stop smoking; and almost two-thirds had been taught in school in the past year about the dangers of smoking. Passing and implementing the Law No. 4207 on Prevention of Hazards of Tobacco Products, ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), raising tax on tobacco, and requiring pictorial warning labels were important steps forward for tobacco control in Turkey. However, as to the tobacco control much work yet to be accomplished including developing an effective enforcement plan for all tobacco control efforts.

  6. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  7. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  8. Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey: cross-cultural instrument adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking poses public health concerns because of its high risk for many chronic diseases. Most smokers begin using tobacco in their teens and recent reports indicate that smoking prevalence is climbing among youth. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS is a worldwide, school-based, tobacco-specific survey, but cross-cultural differences limit its effectiveness in international studies. Specifically, the GYTS assesses not only the prevalence of smoking, but also tobacco-related attitudes, school curricula, and advertisements, which are culturally influenced. Therefore, we conducted this study to develop a Chinese version of the GYTS for both national surveillance and international comparison. Methods The original English GYTS was translated and back translated using a cross-cultural adaptation process. The comprehensiveness and feasibility of using the Chinese-version GYTS were reviewed by a panel of 6 tobacco-control experts. The understandability and cultural relevance of the Chinese-version GYTS were discussed in a focus group of 5 schoolteachers and 8 students. The expert and focus group feedback was incorporated into a final Chinese version of the GYTS, which was administered to 382 students throughout Taiwan by multi-stage sampling from 10 randomly selected schools. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha for the GYTS subscales (smoking susceptibility, attitude toward smoking, and media messages about smoking ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. The internal logical agreement of responses ranged from 85.3 to 99.2%. Conclusion The Chinese version of the GYTS has good reliability and validity and can serve as the foundation for international comparison and tobacco control in Chinese-speaking communities.

  9. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapp...

  10. Adolescent tobacco use and its determinants: evidence from Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H

    2015-03-01

    Adolescent tobacco use (ATU) is on the rise worldwide and the problem is particularly severe in developing countries. Based on nationally representative data, this study aims to investigate the association between ATU and its possible correlates for Bangladesh, where the prevalence rate of ATU is high. The data set is extracted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Bangladesh conducted in 2007. The survey collected information from a total of 3113 students from 52 schools, with a response rate of 100% at the school level, while a response rate of 88.9% was achieved from the students. Students covered in the survey were in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10, with age ranging from 11 to 17 years. The prevalence rate of ATU at the time of the survey was 8.4%, while 35.6% of the students had used at least a type of tobacco products before. Logistic regressions were used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) in favor of ATU for each of the possible determinants and the confidence intervals (CIs) of these ratios. Use of tobacco among friends (OR = 3.46; CI = 2.37-5.05), the experience of seeing others smoking at home (OR = 2.10; CI = 1.36-3.22) or other places (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.02-2.57), receiving pocket money (OR = 7.6; CI = 4.59-13.28), receiving free tobacco from vendors (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.44-3.78), and exposure to advertisements and promotions of tobacco products (OR = 1.83; CI = 1.23-2.79) were associated with a higher likelihood of ATU. Increased awareness of health hazards of tobacco use through education in schools helped mitigate the problem of ATU. The findings of this study have ramifications for tobacco control prevention strategies in Bangladesh. © 2013 APJPH.

  11. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-30

    Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reassortant viruses during the 2001–2002 influenza season. J Infect Dis 186: 1490–1493. 6. Taubenberger...Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry Rangarajan Sampath1*, Kevin L. Russell2, Christian Massire1, Mark W...Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America Background. Effective influenza surveillance requires

  12. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Los retos del convenio marco para el control del tabaco en México: un diagnóstico a partir de la Encuesta sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes Main challenges of the framework convention on tobacco control in Mexico: a surveillance report from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydel Valdés-Salgado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la información de la Encuesta sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (ETJ sobre consumo de cigarrillo y otros indicadores que resulten útiles para una medición inicial de las condiciones en que el país ratificó el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La ETJ usa un diseño de muestreo por conglomerado en dos etapas que genera muestras representativas de estudiantes de 12 a 15 años de las escuelas secundarias públicas, privadas y técnicas. Incluye 42 024 estudiantes de 492 escuelas en el periodo 2003-2005. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística y se obtuvieron razones de momios crudas y ajustadas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fumadores en el mes anterior a la encuesta fue de 19.96% (IC95% 18.1-21.8. El índice de susceptibilidad de iniciarse en el consumo de cigarrillos fue de 25%. A 60% de los fumadores que compraron cigarrillos no les negaron la venta por ser menores de edad. El 54% de los estudiantes declara que está expuesto al humo de tabaco en lugares públicos y 86% ha visto anuncios de cigarrillos en exteriores en el mes previo a la encuesta. CONCLUSIÓN: Una intervención integral debe orientarse a impedir el acceso de los menores a los cigarrillos; dificultar el acto de fumar y prohibir toda forma de publicidad del tabaco. Asimismo, se deben ofrecer opciones a quienes deseen dejar de fumar y educar a los adolescentes y sus familias sobre los daños a la salud de los fumadores y no fumadores.OBJECTIVE: This study presents findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS regarding current cigarette smoking and other tobacco epidemic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The GYTS used a two-stage cluster sample survey to generate representative samples of students aged 12 to 15 years old enrolled in public, private and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 492 schools in 21 cities. The GYTS surveyed 42 024 students between the years 2003 and 2005. A logistic regression

  14. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Millett, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13-15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All

  15. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance. PMID:28458910

  16. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance.

  17. Tobacco, politics and economics: implications for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the expanding presence of multinational cigarette companies into almost every country in the world, and discusses the health implications of this global penetration. Cigarettes deserve special attention because tobacco is the only legally available consumer product that is harmful to one's health when used as intended. A temptation exists to blame governments for the existence of health-threatening products within their borders. However, this paper illustrates the extent to which extra-national forces influence domestic policies and circumstances. Cigarette smokers are often blamed for their lethal habit, despite billion-dollar promotional schemes which attract people to smoking, obscuring the harmful consequences of consuming a highly addictive drug. Multinational cigarette companies are increasingly targeting Asian and Third World populations. To facilitate this market penetration, political avenues are often pursued with considerable success, disregarding the health implications associated with cigarette tobacco. The use of tobacco in development programs (e.g. the U.S. 'Food for Peace' program) has political and economic implications for donor and recipient countries, and lucrative advantages for the tobacco companies. However, this paper recommends that corporate profits and foreign policy should not be pursued at the expense of tobacco-related diseases and premature deaths among Third World peoples.

  18. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  19. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  20. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined.

  1. Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna

    2015-07-01

    Despite the internet's broad reach and potential to influence consumer behaviour, there has been little examination of the volume, characteristics, and target audience of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. A full-service advertising firm was used to collect all online banner/video advertisements occurring in the USA and Canada between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. The advertisement and associated meta-data on brand, date range observed, first market, and spend were downloaded and summarised. Characteristics and themes of advertisements, as well as topic area and target demographics of websites on which advertisements appeared, were also examined. Over a 1-year period, almost $2 million were spent by the e-cigarette and tobacco industries on the placement of their online product advertisements in the USA and Canada. Most was spent promoting two brands: NJOY e-cigarettes and Swedish Snus. There was almost no advertising of cigarettes. About 30% of all advertisements mentioned a price promotion, discount coupon or price break. e-Cigarette advertisements were most likely to feature messages of harm reduction (38%) or use for cessation (21%). Certain brands advertised on websites that contained up to 35% of youth (audience. Online banner/video advertising is a tactic used mainly to advertise e-cigarettes and cigars rather than cigarettes, some with unproven claims about benefits to health. Given the reach and accessibility of online advertising to vulnerable populations such as youth and the potential for health claims to be misinterpreted, online advertisements need to be closely monitored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Governing Global Health : Knowledge and power in the global tobacco epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Katherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the coproduction of epistemic and regulatory authority in the field of global health using the case of international tobacco control. In 2005, the world's first public health treaty -- the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) -- was brought into force by the World Health Organization (WHO). Unanimously adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2003, the FCTC has since become one of the most widely and rapidly adopted treaties in the history of the United Nat...

  3. Tobacco industry surveillance of public health groups: the case of STAT (Stop Teenage Addiction to Tobacco) and INFACT (Infant Formula Action Coalition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E

    2002-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how the tobacco industry collects information about public health groups. Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and analyzed using a chronological case study approach. The industry engaged in aggressive intelligence gathering, used intermediaries to obtain materials under false pretenses, sent public relations spies to the organizations' meetings, and covertly taped strategy sessions. Other industry strategies included publicly minimizing the effects of boycotts, painting health advocates as "extreme," identifying and exploiting disagreements, and planning to "redirect the funding" of tobacco control organizations to other purposes. Public health advocates often make light of tobacco industry observers, but industry surveillance may be real, intense, and covert and may obstruct public health initiatives.

  4. Environmental surveillance for polioviruses in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Humayun; Diop, Ousmane M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Malik, Farzana; Shetty, Sushmitha; El Bassioni, Laila; Akande, Adefunke O; Al Maamoun, Eman; Zaidi, Sohail; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Burns, Cara C; Deshpande, Jagadish; Oberste, M Steve; Lowther, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the status of environmental surveillance (ES) used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, provides the rationale for ES, gives examples of ES methods and findings, and summarizes how these data are used to achieve poliovirus eradication. ES complements clinical acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases. ES detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage and is used to monitor transmission in communities. If detected, the genetic sequences of polioviruses isolated from ES are compared with those of isolates from clinical cases to evaluate the relationships among viruses. To evaluate poliovirus transmission, ES programs must be developed in a manner that is sensitive, with sufficiently frequent sampling, appropriate isolation methods, and specifically targeted sampling sites in locations at highest risk for poliovirus transmission. After poliovirus ceased to be detected in human cases, ES documented the absence of endemic WPV transmission and detected imported WPV. ES provides valuable information, particularly in high-density populations where AFP surveillance is of poor quality, persistent virus circulation is suspected, or frequent virus reintroduction is perceived. Given the benefits of ES, GPEI plans to continue and expand ES as part of its strategic plan and as a supplement to AFP surveillance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. A Fire in the Global Village: Teaching Ethical Reasoning and Stakeholder Interests Utilizing Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooge, Lucien J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco has been an agricultural staple from the time of the first recorded European encounter with the plant in the fifteenth century. The pervasive nature of its cultivation and consumption has made tobacco one of the most profitable crops in world agricultural history. This case study examines the role of tobacco in the global marketplace with…

  6. Socio-economic disparities in tobacco consumption in rural India: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Gorain, Ashoke; Majumdar, Saikat; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    India houses over 275 million tobacco users, with 164 million users of only smokeless tobacco, 69 million exclusive smokers, and 42 million users of both smoking and smokeless tobacco. This study aims to examine the socio-economic factors associated with types of tobacco use in a selected rural Indian population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with surveillance data from the Birbhum Population Project (BIRPOP). Total respondents of 29,783 individuals (16,038 men and 13,745 women) aged ≥15 years were surveyed between October 2010 and January 2011. Apart from bivariate analyses, a binary logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for socio-economic factors (religion, social group, education, occupation, and wealth quintile) associated with current tobacco use, current smokeless tobacco use, and current bidi use among men and women. Nearly 22% of men and 26% of women were using smokeless tobacco. While 46% of men were smoking bidi, only 4% of women reported smoking bidi. Overall, men are more likely to use tobacco. Irrespective of gender, with increasing years of education, people are less inclined to use tobacco, and unemployed people are less likely to use tobacco. With increasing income, the odds of smokeless tobacco use and the odds of smoking bidi are higher among women and men, respectively. The BIRPOP study indicates that irrespective of gender and income, raising the level of awareness through household-based health education could be an effective intervention to minimise the level of tobacco use. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  7. Surveillance of compliance with tobacco regulations in Örebro County, Sweden: a mixed methods study after the ban of test purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölin, Lisa; Eriksson, Charli

    2012-02-15

    Tobacco has long been known to be one of the most common reasons for sickness and premature deaths in the world. An important aspect of tobacco use is the youth's access to tobacco, and surveillance visits are one way to make sure how retailers are complying with age limit in the tobacco law. In Örebro County, Sweden, a project to reinforce the tobacco legislation was carried out in 2009-2010. One part of the project was surveillance visits that were done according to three different themes, called thematic surveillance. This study is an evaluation of the results from thematic surveillance and has a mixed methods approach. The quantitative analyses concerns protocols from 217 surveillance visits, where questions were asked about three themes (self-monitoring programs; marketing; labeling of products and pricing). In addition, questionnaires filled out by six tobacco administrators who worked within the project were analyzed qualitatively by content analysis in order to study their perceptions and opinions of the project. This study shows that half of the visited retailers had self-monitoring programs. Lack of self-monitoring programs was significantly more common in smaller stores/kiosks and at restaurants. Further, the tobacco administrators who worked within the project perceived thematic surveillance as a good method for accomplishing better structure in surveillance work, but not as effective as purchase attempts (mystery shopping). Thematic surveillance was perceived as positive and the method was also regarded to be a good way to work with surveillance. However, the method could be developed further for optimal use and better effect at the retailers. It is clear that people who work with tobacco prevention at the local level in Örebro County want to use purchase attempts as a surveillance method, and that they believe that purchase attempts is the best way to make sure if store comply with the tobacco law.

  8. Socioeconomic status and tobacco consumption among adolescents: a multilevel analysis of Argentina's Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetzky, Bruno; Mejia, Raul; Ferrante, Daniel; De Maio, Fernando G; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between poverty and tobacco consumption among adolescents has not been extensively studied, and what evidence exists has come almost entirely from developed countries. Moreover, the impact of contextual factors--such as school-level poverty--remains unclear. We obtained information about smoking behavior from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Argentina in 2007. School-level characteristics were derived by matching schools to census areas from the 2001 Census. Additional school-level information was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Random intercept models were used to evaluate the associations of school-level variables (poverty in the census area of the school, school receipt of social assistance, and public or private status) with current smoking, intention to quit, secondhand smoke exposure outside the home, support for smoke-free laws, purchase of single cigarettes among smokers, and susceptibility to smoking in 5 years among nonsmokers. After controlling for age and sex, students attending schools receiving social assistance were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80) and to purchase loose cigarettes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.54), whereas school poverty was significantly associated with secondhand smoke exposure (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.58). This study shows that an association exists between unfavorable contextual school characteristics and tobacco consumption and related measures among youth in Argentina. Efforts to prevent smoking may need to address the school-level factors that place youth at higher risk.

  9. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna M Palipudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate a

  10. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Andes, Linda J; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and

  11. Salience and Impact of Health Warning Label on Cigarette Packs in Vietnam: Findings From the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc Bich, Nguyen; Thu Ngan, Tran; Bao Giang, Kim; Thi Hai, Phan; Thi Thu Huyen, Doan; Ngoc Khue, Luong; Tuan Lam, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Thi Quynh Nga, Pham; The Quan, Nguyen; Loan, Vu Hoang

    2018-04-13

    Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the strongest predictor for quit intention because of health warnings was "ever made a quit attempt in the past 12 months" followed by "believes that tobacco smoking causes serious illness". Compared to GATS 2010, GATS 2015 observed the increase in salience of cigarette health warnings. However, the current pictorial health warnings are losing their impact on motivating intention to quit. The results highlight that it is time to start the rotation cycle to refresh the current health warning set. Actions to select a new and more impressive set of pictorial health warnings should be developed as soon as possible.

  12. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to Influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, about 5 million people die worldwide from tobacco-related causes and, if current trends continue, annual deaths from tobacco-related causes will increase to 10 million by 2030. In response to this global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an international instrument for tobacco control called the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Negotiations on the FCTC began in 1999, and the international treaty—the first...

  13. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D N; Palipudi, K M; Oswal, K; Gupta, P C; Andes, L J; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural). Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users) when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0). Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]). For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2]), with the trend highly significant (P marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use.

  15. A Global Cancer Surveillance Framework Within Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance: Making the Case for Population-Based Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Marion; Znaor, Ariana; Mery, Les; Bray, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    The growing burden of cancer among several major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) requires national implementation of tailored public health surveillance. For many emerging economies where emphasis has traditionally been placed on the surveillance of communicable diseases, it is critical to understand the specificities of NCD surveillance and, within it, of cancer surveillance. We propose a general framework for cancer surveillance that permits monitoring the core components of cancer control. We examine communalities in approaches to the surveillance of other major NCDs as well as communicable diseases, illustrating key differences in the function, coverage, and reporting in each system. Although risk factor surveys and vital statistics registration are the foundation of surveillance of NCDs, population-based cancer registries play a unique fundamental role specific to cancer surveillance, providing indicators of population-based incidence and survival. With an onus now placed on governments to collect these data as part of the monitoring of NCD targets, the integration of cancer registries into existing and future NCD surveillance strategies is a vital requirement in all countries worldwide. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development, endorsed by the World Health Organization, provides a means to enhance cancer surveillance capacity in low- and middle-income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  17. Global surveillance of emerging Influenza virus genotypes by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Sampath

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating viral species, and for vaccine strain selection. We have developed one such approach based on previously described broad-range reverse transcription PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS technology.Analysis of base compositions of RT-PCR amplicons from influenza core gene segments (PB1, PB2, PA, M, NS, NP are used to provide sub-species identification and infer influenza virus H and N subtypes. Using this approach, we detected and correctly identified 92 mammalian and avian influenza isolates, representing 30 different H and N types, including 29 avian H5N1 isolates. Further, direct analysis of 656 human clinical respiratory specimens collected over a seven-year period (1999-2006 showed correct identification of the viral species and subtypes with >97% sensitivity and specificity. Base composition derived clusters inferred from this analysis showed 100% concordance to previously established clades. Ongoing surveillance of samples from the recent influenza virus seasons (2005-2006 showed evidence for emergence and establishment of new genotypes of circulating H3N2 strains worldwide. Mixed viral quasispecies were found in approximately 1% of these recent samples providing a view into viral evolution.Thus, rapid RT-PCR/ESI-MS analysis can be used to simultaneously identify all species of influenza viruses with clade-level resolution, identify mixed viral populations and monitor global spread and emergence of novel viral genotypes. This high-throughput method promises to become an integral component of influenza surveillance.

  18. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when

  19. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive

  20. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    Background The global tobacco epidemic claims 5 million lives each year, facilitated by the ability of transnational tobacco companies to delay or thwart meaningful tobacco control worldwide. A series of cross-company tobacco industry "issues management organizations" has played an important role in coordinating and implementing common strategies to defeat tobacco control efforts at international, national, and regional levels. This study examines the development and enumerates the activities of these organizations and explores the implications of continuing industry cooperation for global public health. Methods Using a snowball sampling strategy, we collected documentary data from tobacco industry documents archives and assembled them into a chronologically organized case study. Results The International Committee on Smoking Issues (ICOSI) was formed in 1977 by seven tobacco company chief executives to create common anti-tobacco control strategies and build a global network of regional and national manufacturing associations. The organization's name subsequently changed to INFOTAB. The multinational companies built the organization rapidly: by 1984, it had 69 members operating in 57 countries. INFOTAB material, including position papers and "action kits" helped members challenge local tobacco control measures and maintain tobacco-friendly environments. In 1992 INFOTAB was replaced by two smaller organizations. The Tobacco Documentation Centre, which continues to operate, distributes smoking-related information and industry argumentation to members, some produced by cross-company committees. Agro-Tobacco Services, and now Hallmark Marketing Services, assists the INFOTAB-backed and industry supported International Tobacco Growers Association in advancing claims regarding the economic importance of tobacco in developing nations. Conclusion The massive scale and scope of this industry effort illustrate how corporate interests, when threatened by the globalization of

  1. Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

  2. The critical role of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Rudolf H; Lamoureux, Christine; Tallis, Graham; Goel, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is a key strategy used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to measure progress towards reaching the global eradication goal. Supported by a global polio laboratory network, AFP surveillance is conducted in 179 of 194 WHO member states. Active surveillance visits to priority health facilities are used to assure all children polio laboratories. The quality of AFP surveillance is regularly monitored with standardized surveillance quality indicators. In highest risk countries and areas, the sensitivity of AFP surveillance is enhanced by environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples). Genetic sequencing of detected poliovirus isolates yields programmatically important information on polio transmission pathways. AFP surveillance is one of the most valuable assets of the GPEI, with the potential to serve as a platform to build integrated disease surveillance systems. Continued support to maintain AFP surveillance systems will be essential, to reliably monitor the completion of global polio eradication, and to assure that a key resource for building surveillance capacity is transitioned post-eradication to support other health priorities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Factors associated with tobacco use among adolescents in India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, India (2000-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswal, Kunal C

    2015-03-01

    To differentiate between the different types of tobacco users and analyze the association between types of tobacco users and factors like pocket money and peer and parental influence across most of the state in India using the data obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) between 2000 and 2004. The GYTS data encompassed a representative 2-stage probability sample of students aged 13 to 15 years across 24 states and 2 union territories in India. These students were interviewed using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. A very strong association between users and pocket money was found in most of the states, with northeastern states having a very strong association-Sikkim, odds ratio (OR) = 8.43 (confidence interval [CI] = 6.08-11.69), and Manipur, OR = 5.58 (CI = 3.60-8.65)-after adjusting for close friend being smoker, close friend being smokeless tobacco user, parental influence, age, and gender. This study found a strong association between tobacco use by adolescents and having pocket money and close friends being tobacco users. © 2012 APJPH.

  4. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Liz Maria; Cavalcante, Tânia Maria; Casado, Letícia; Fernandes, Elaine Masson; Warren, Charles Wick; Peruga, Armando; Jones, Nathan R; Curi Hallal, Ana Luiza; Asma, Samira; Lee, Juliette

    2008-09-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Brazil was developed to provide data on youth tobacco use to the National Tobacco Control Program. The GYTS uses a standardized methodology for constructing sampling frames, selecting schools and classes, preparing questionnaires, carrying out field procedures, and processing data. The GYTS questionnaire is self-administered and includes questions about: initiation; prevalence; susceptibility; knowledge and attitudes; environmental tobacco smoke; cessation; media and advertising. SUDDAN and Epi-Info Software were used for analysis. Weighted analysis was used in order to obtain percentages and 95% confidence intervals. Twenty-three studies were carried out between 2002 and 2005 in Brazilian capitals: 2002 (9); 2003 (4); 2004 (2) and 2005 (9). The total number of students was 22832. The prevalence rate among the cities varied from 6.2% (João Pessoa, 2002) to 17.7% (Porto Alegre, 2002). The tobacco use prevalence rates in 18 Brazilian cities show significant heterogeneity among the macro regions. Data in this report can be used to evaluate the efforts already done and also as baseline for evaluation of new steps for tobacco control in Brazil regarding the goals of the WHO FCTC.

  5. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  6. The Globalisation Strategies of Five Asian Tobacco Companies: A Comparative Analysis and Implications for Global Health Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Lee, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on ?The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.? The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business st...

  7. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bedah AM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly

  8. KT&G: From Korean monopoly to ‘a global name in the tobacco industry’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue ‘The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance’. PMID:28139963

  9. KT&G: From Korean monopoly to 'a global name in the tobacco industry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue 'The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance'.

  10. Defining Polio: Closing the Gap in Global Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajaldin, Bachir; Almilaji, Khaled; Langton, Paul; Sparrow, Annie

    2015-01-01

    By late 2012 the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) had nearly eradicated this ancient infectious disease. Successful surveillance programs for acute flaccid paralysis however rely on broad governmental support for implementation. With the onset of conflict, public health breakdown has contributed to the resurgence of polio in a number of regions. The current laboratory based case definition may be a contributory factor in these regions. We sought to compare case definition rates using strict laboratory based criteria to rates obtained using the clinical criteria in modern day Syria. We also sought to examine this distribution of cases by sub-region. We examined the World Health Organization (WHO) reported figures for Syria from 2013-2014 using laboratory based criteria. We compared these with cases obtained when clinical criteria were applied. In addition we sought data from the opposition controlled Assistance Coordination Unit which operates in non-Government controlled areas where WHO data maybe incomplete. Cases were carefully examined for potential overlap to avoid double reporting. Whilst the WHO data clearly confirmed the polio outbreak in Syria, it did so with considerable delay and with under reporting of cases, particularly from non-government controlled areas. In addition, laboratory based case definition led to a substantial underestimate of polio (36 cases) compared with those found with the clinically compatible definition (an additional 46 cases). Rates of adequate diagnostic specimens from suspected cases are well below target, no doubt reflecting the effect of conflict in these areas. We have identified a gap in the surveillance of polio, a global threat. The current laboratory based definition, in the setting of conflict and insecurity, leads to under diagnosis of polio with potential delays and inadequacies in coordinating effective responses to contain outbreaks and eradicate polio. Breakdown in public health measures as a contributing

  11. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampath, Rangarajan; Russell, Kevin L; Massire, Christian; Eshoo, Mark W; Harpin, Vanessa; Blyn, Lawrence B; Melton, Rachael; Ivy, Cristin; Pennella, Thuy; Li, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating...

  12. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  13. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  14. Leveraging public finance to achieve endgame for tobacco - possible national and global strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Lal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off tobacco stocks threaten the industry´s share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. The rise of the socially responsible investment movement, increasing litigation against major tobacco companies, and an increasing emphasis on tobacco industry delegitimisation as a tobacco control strategy created a climate within which tobacco divestment was open for serious discussion. Methods This survey enquired from 19 environment (including groups working against GHGs, asbestos and Big Oil, social and development sectors (groups working on IFC exclusion criteria on the role of public finance, and the arguments to support divestment from "sin" or exclusion sectors. Results In general the respondents to this survey presented the the following arguments which support divestment: • Global obligations to the WHO´s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the other global treaties like the SDG. •\tEthical argument: Governments and their agencies that hold public funds can no longer support tobacco control and tobacco industry. •\tFiscal argument: high costs of national and global litigations make companies, public funded organisations and governments prone to heavy litigation costs and potential costs for damages •\tPublic health argument: Because tobacco industry continue to hold important policy positions, they block and interfere tobacco control efforts. Conclusions To begin a campaign for divestment would require preliminary work by civil society institutions which includes: • Tracking and monitoring institutions and investments • Collaborating with organisations which advocate for ethical or socially responsible investments. • Developing a policy research and advocacy roadmap with stakeholders towards and end date for divestment

  15. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  16. The globalization of tobacco use: 21 challenges for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas; Seffrin, John R; Brawley, Otis W; Grey, Nathan; Ross, Hana

    2010-01-01

    The globalization of tobacco began more than 500 years ago, but the public health response to the death, disease, and economic disruption that it has caused is fewer than 50 years old. In this report, the authors briefly trace the history of tobacco use and commerce as it moved from the Americas in the late 15th century and then eastward. They then discuss the wide range of issues that must be addressed, and the equally wide range of expertise that is needed if the global health community is to be successful in reducing, and eventually eliminating, the rising tide of tobacco use, particularly in the low- and middle-income nations that are the target of the multinational tobacco industry.

  17. Reassessing policy paradigms: A comparison of the global tobacco and alcohol industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; Eckhardt, Jappe; Lee, Kelley

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco is widely considered to be a uniquely harmful product for human health. Since the mid-1990s, the strategies of transnational tobacco corporations to undermine effective tobacco control policy has been extensively documented through internal industry documents. Consequently, the sale, use and marketing of tobacco products are subject to extensive regulation and formal measures to exclude the industry from policy-making have been adopted in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In contrast to tobacco, alcohol is subject to less stringent forms of regulation, and the alcohol industry continues to play a central role in policy-making in many countries and at the global level. This article examines whether there is a sufficient rationale for such different regulatory approaches, through a comparative analysis of the political economy of the tobacco and alcohol industries including the structure of the industries, and the market and political strategies they pursue. Despite some important differences, the extensive similarities which exist between the tobacco and alcohol industries in terms of market structure and strategy, and political strategy, call into question the rationale for both the relatively weak regulatory approach taken towards alcohol, and the continued participation of alcohol corporations in policy-making processes.

  18. Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. Research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background, objective, scope, detailed working plan and follow-up and final product of the project ''Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment'' are described

  19. Using taxation to lower tobacco's global toll | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... What is the economic impact of the healthcare costs of tobacco in Mexico?” ... growth,” says Monika Arora of the Public Health Foundation of India. ... IECS, for instance, is about to start research into the cost effectiveness of ...

  20. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, physical activity and tobacco use in Argentine youth: Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniel; Linetzky, Bruno; Ponce, Miguel; Goldberg, Lucila; Konfino, Jonathan; Laspiur, Sebastián

    2014-12-01

    In 2007 and 2012, the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) were implemented to estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors and protection factors among 13 to 15 year-old adolescents. To assess changes in dietary, body weight, tobacco and physical activity indicators in the past five years. Cross-sectional study. A randomized, two-stage sampling with 600 schools selected at a national level was used. Students from randomly selected courses were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire (either the GSHS or the GYTS). In 2012, the GSHS was completed by 20 697 students from 544 schools, while the GYTS was completed by 2062 students from 73 schools. Between 2007 and 2012, overweight and obesity prevalence significantly increased (overweight: 24.5% in 2007, 28.6% in 2012; obesity 4.4% in 2007, 5.9% in 2012), while the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food remained high. A slight improvement was observed in the level of physical activity (12.7% in 2007, 16.7% in 2012), although it remains below what is recommended. The prevalence of tobacco use was reduced (24.5% in 2007, 19.6% in 2012), but access to tobacco products and exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in public places, including schools. The spread of the overweight and obesity epidemic calls for a need to consolidate actions tending towards a healthy diet and physical activity. Despite a decrease in the prevalence of tobacco use, it is necessary to continue strengthening tobacco control actions.

  1. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  2. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  3. Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Five Low and Middle-Income Countries - Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2011 - 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Guat Hiong; Aris, Tahir; Rarick, James; Irimie, Sorina

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012. We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally. The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina. Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

  4. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  5. 'Preparing ourselves to become an international organization': Thailand Tobacco Monopoly's regional and global strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Ross, Hana; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    The Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM) controlled the country's tobacco industry from its formation in the 1940s, until the government dropped restrictions on imported cigarettes in the late 1980s in response to pressure from the United States. The TTM has since competed with transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in a semi-monopoly market in which TTCs have steadily increased their market share. Coupled with a decline in national smoking prevalence, the result of Thailand's stringent tobacco control agenda, the TTM now accounts for a diminishing share of a contracting market. In response, the monopoly has looked to regional trade liberalisation, and proximity to markets with some of the world's highest smoking rates to expand its operations. Expansion strategies have gone largely unrealised however, and the TTM effectively remains a domestic operation. Using TTM publications, market and trade reports, industry publications, tobacco industry documents and other resources, this paper analyses TTM expansion strategies, and the limited extent to which they have been achieved. This inability to expand its operations has left the monopoly potentially vulnerable to global strategies of its transnational competitors. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  6. Effective strategies to reduce commercial tobacco use in Indigenous communities globally: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Alexa; Lefkowitz, Ayla R F; Firestone, Michelle; Smylie, Janet K; Schwartz, Robert

    2016-01-11

    All over the world, Indigenous populations have remarkably high rates of commercial tobacco use compared to non-Indigenous groups. The high rates of commercial tobacco use in Indigenous populations have led to a variety of health issues and lower life expectancy than the general population. The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate changes in the initiation, consumption and quit rates of commercial tobacco use as well as changes in knowledge, prevalence, community interest, and smoke-free environments in Indigenous populations. We also aimed to understand which interventions had broad reach, what the common elements that supported positive change were and how Aboriginal self-determination was reflected in program implementation. We undertook a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature selected from seven databases and 43 electronic sources. We included studies between 1994 and 2015 if they addressed an intervention (including provision of a health service or program, education or training programs) aimed to reduce the use of commercial tobacco use in Indigenous communities globally. Systematic cross-regional canvassing of informants in Canada and internationally with knowledge of Indigenous health and/or tobacco control provided further leads about commercial tobacco reduction interventions. We extracted data on program characteristics, study design and learnings including successes and challenges. In the process of this review, we investigated 73 commercial tobacco control interventions in Indigenous communities globally. These interventions incorporated a myriad of activities to reduce, cease or protect Indigenous peoples from the harms of commercial tobacco use. Interventions were successful in producing positive changes in initiation, consumption and quit rates. Interventions also facilitated increases in the number of smoke-free environments, greater understandings of the harms of commercial tobacco use and a

  7. Local practice and global data: loyalty cards, social practices, and consumer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurawski, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of consumers has become the most widespread mode of surveillance today. Being a multi-billion dollar business, the collected data are traded globally without much concern by the consumers themselves. Loyalty cards are an element with which such data are collected. Analyzing the role of loyalty cards in everyday practices such as shopping, I discuss how new modes of surveillance evolve and work and why they eventually make communication about data protection a difficult matter. Further, I will propose an alternative approach to the study of surveillance. This approach is concerned with local practices, focusing on subjective narratives in order to view surveillance as an integral part of culturally or socially manifested contexts and actions and not to view surveillance as something alien to society and human interaction. This will open up other possibilities to study modes of subjectivity or how individuals situate themselves within society.

  8. Surveillance systems to track progress toward global polio eradication - worldwide, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Alexandra; Diop, Ousmane M; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Paladin, Fem; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Burns, Cara C; Chenoweth, Paul J; Goel, Ajay; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2014-04-25

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Polio cases are detected through surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and subsequent testing of stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) at WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance, testing sewage samples from selected sites for PVs. Virologic surveillance, including genomic sequencing to identify isolates by genotype and measure divergence between isolates, guides Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) activities by confirming the presence of PV, tracking chains of PV transmission, and highlighting gaps in AFP surveillance quality. This report provides AFP surveillance quality indicators at national and subnational levels during 2012-2013 for countries that experienced PV cases during 2009-2013 in the WHO African Region (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), the remaining polio-endemic regions. It also summarizes the results of environmental surveillance and reviews indicators assessing the timeliness of reporting of PV isolation and of virus strain characterization globally. Regional-level performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation were met in five of six WHO regions in 2012 and 2013. Of 30 AFR and EMR countries that experienced cases of PV (wild poliovirus [WPV], circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV], or both) during 2009-2013, national performance indicator targets for AFP surveillance and collection of adequate specimens were met in 27 (90%) countries in 2012 and 22 (73%) in 2013. In 17 (57%) countries, ≥80% of the population lived in subnational areas meeting both AFP performance indicators in 2012, decreasing to 13 (43%) in 2013. To achieve polio eradication and certify interruption of PV transmission, intensive efforts to strengthen and maintain AFP surveillance are

  9. Surveillance of Human Rabies by National Authorities--A Global Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L H; Knopf, L

    2015-11-01

    Effective prevention of deaths due to human rabies is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the scale of the problem, and the distribution of both animal and human cases across countries, regions and continents. Unfortunately, despite the severity of the disease, accurate data on which to assess these questions and to prioritize and direct public health interventions are not available for many parts of the world. This survey sought to understand the current global situation regarding the surveillance of human rabies. Data were collected from 91 countries across all continents and all categories of human rabies risk, generating the most complete and representative global data set currently available. Respondents were asked key questions about whether human rabies was a notifiable disease, how the surveillance system for human rabies operated and whether the respondent considered that the surveillance system was working effectively. Across the 91 countries from which data were collated, human rabies was a notifiable disease in all but eight. Despite international guidance, surveillance systems were very varied. Even where rabies is a notifiable disease, many countries had surveillance system judged to be ineffective, almost all of these being high and moderate rabies risk countries in Africa and Asia. Overall, 41% of the population covered by this survey (around 2.5 billion people) live in countries where there is no or ineffective rabies surveillance. The lack of robust surveillance is hindering rabies control efforts. However, whilst worldwide rabies surveillance would be improved if rabies were notifiable in all countries, many other challenges to the implementation of effective global human rabies surveillance systems remain. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger...

  11. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  12. From global agenda-setting to domestic implementation: successes and challenges of the global health network on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Global policy attention to tobacco control has increased significantly since the 1990 s and culminated in the first international treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization--the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the political process that led to the creation of the FCTC has been extensively researched, the FCTC's progression from an aspirational treaty towards a global health governance framework with tangible policy effects within FCTC member countries has not been well-understood to date. This article analyses the role of the global health network of tobacco control advocates and scientists, which formed during the FCTC negotiations during the late 1990 s, in translating countries' commitment to the FCTC into domestic policy change. By comparing the network's influence around two central tobacco control interventions (smoke-free environments and taxation), the study identifies several scope conditions, which have shaped the network's effectiveness around the FCTC's implementation: the complexity of the policy issue and the relative importance of non-health expertise, the required scope of domestic political buy-in, the role of the general public as network allies, and the strength of policy opposition. These political factors had a greater influence on the network's success than the evidence base for the effectiveness of tobacco control interventions. The network's variable success points to a trade-off faced by global health networks between their need to maintain internal cohesion and their ability to form alliances with actors in their social environment. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2015; all rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating surveillance indicators supporting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988 by the World Health Assembly to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV); completion of this initiative was declared a programmatic emergency of public health in January 2012. Polio cases are detected through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with linked stool specimens tested for polioviruses (PVs) at accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance findings are supplemented by testing sewage samples (environmental surveillance) collected at selected sites. Virologic data guide where targeted immunization activities should be conducted or improved. Key performance indicators are used to 1) monitor AFP surveillance quality at national and subnational levels to identify gaps where PV transmission could occur undetected; 2) provide evidence of where PV circulation has been interrupted; and 3) allow timely detection of an outbreak. Standardized surveillance indicators allow progress to be monitored over time and compared among countries. This report presents AFP surveillance performance indicators at national and subnational levels for countries affected by polio during 2011-2012, and trends in environmental surveillance, updating previous reports. In the 19 countries with transmission of PV (WPV and/or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV]) during 2011-2012, national performance indicator targets were met in 12 (63%) countries in 2011 and 13 (68%) countries in 2012. Seven countries (37%) in 2011 had ≥80% of the population living in areas meeting performance indicators, increasing to nine countries (47%) in 2012. Performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation and characterization were met in four of six World Health Organization (WHO) regions in 2011 and five regions in 2012. To achieve global polio eradication, efforts are needed to improve and maintain AFP surveillance and laboratory performance.

  14. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To ‘join the ranks of global companies’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL’s efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL’s alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.’ PMID:28139964

  15. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To 'join the ranks of global companies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL's efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL's alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.'

  16. Evaluation of the use of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data for developing evidence-based tobacco control policies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguder, Toker; Cakir, Banu; Aslan, Dilek; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-12-15

    The tobacco control effort in Turkey has made significant progress in recent years. Turkey initiated its tobacco control effort with the passing of Law 4207 (The Prevention of Harmful Effects of Tobacco Products) in 1996 and ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2004. It is important to base policy decisions on valid and reliable evidence from population-based, representative studies that are periodically repeated to enable policy makers to monitor the results of their interventions and to appropriately tailor anti-tobacco activities towards future needs. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to track tobacco use among young people and enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programs. Turkey conducted the GYTS in 2003 and data from this survey can be used as baseline measures for evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of the Turkish government. The GYTS was conducted in 2003 on a representative sample of students aged 13 to 15 years. It indicated that almost 3 in 10 students in Turkey had ever smoked cigarettes, with significantly higher rates among boys. Current cigarette smoking rates were lower, at 9% for boys and 4% for girls. The prevalence of current use of other tobacco products was about half these figures for each gender. About 80% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Exposure to pro-smoking media messages was not rare. Almost half of the smokers 'usually' bought their tobacco from a store, despite the law prohibiting this. Exposure to teaching against smoking in schools was not universal. Findings from the GYTS, with periodic repeats of the survey, can be used to monitor the impact of enforcing various provisions of the present law (No: 4207), the progress made in achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC, and the effectiveness of various preventive interventions against smoking. Such

  17. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  18. Global frameworks, local strategies: Women's rights, health, and the tobacco control movement in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Martínez, Hepzibah; Pederson, Ann

    2018-02-23

    The article examines how civil society organisations in Argentina used the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) to frame the country's failure to enact strong national tobacco control legislation as a violation of women's rights in the late 2000s. We analyze this case study through the politics of scale, namely the social processes that produce, reproduce, and contest the boundaries of policies and socio-economic relations. This approach understands how multiple scales overlap and connect to obstruct or enhance the right to health in Latin America. In Argentina, the global organisation of tobacco companies, the reach of international financial institutions and the national dynamics of economic austerity and export-orientation promoted the local production and use of tobacco (leaf and cigarettes) and reproduced health inequalities in the country throughout the 1990s and the early 2000s. Yet, the visible legacy of local and national human rights struggles in the adoption of international human rights treaties into Argentina's national constitution allowed the tobacco control movement to link the scale of women's bodies to the right to health through the use of CEDAW to change national legislation, tackling the social determinants of the tobacco epidemic.

  19. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  20. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  1. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against

  2. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    Full Text Available In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the World Health Organization (WHO has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs to try to undermine the proposed convention.The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists, and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation.TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help

  3. Global Health Governance and the Commercial Sector: A Documentary Analysis of Tobacco Company Strategies to Influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. Methods and Findings The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, “good governance,” and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. Conclusions TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance

  4. WHO global rotavirus surveillance network: a strategic review of the first 5 years, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Mary M; Serhan, Fatima; Yen, Catherine; Mwenda, Jason M; de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Teleb, Nadia; Wasley, Annemarie; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Fox, Kimberley; Tate, Jacqueline E; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-07-25

    Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged reporting and testing inclusion criteria for data analysis. Of the 37 countries with sites meeting inclusion criteria, 13 (35%) had introduced rotavirus vaccine nationwide. All 79 sites included in the analysis were meeting 2008 network objectives of documenting presence of disease and describing disease epidemiology, and all countries were using the rotavirus surveillance data for vaccine introduction decisions, disease burden estimates, and advocacy; countries were in the process of assessing the use of this surveillance platform for other vaccine-preventable diseases. However, the review also indicated that the network would benefit from enhanced management, standardized data formats, linkage of clinical data with laboratory data, and additional resources to support network functions. In November 2013, WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) endorsed the findings and recommendations made by the review team and noted potential opportunities for using the network as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. WHO will work to implement the recommendations to improve the network's functions and to provide higher quality surveillance data for use in decisions related to vaccine introduction and vaccination program sustainability.

  5. Mass gatherings: A one-stop opportunity to complement global disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habida Elachola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infections including those resulting from the bioterrorist use of infectious agents have indicated the need for global health surveillance. This paper reviews multiple surveillance opportunities presented by mass gatherings (MGs that align with fundamental questions in epidemiology (why, what, who, where, when and how. Some MGs bring together large, diverse population groups coming from countries with high prevalence of communicable diseases and disparate surveillance capacities. MGs have the potential to exacerbate the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases due to various factors including the high population density and rigor of events, increase in number of people with underlying diseases that predisposes them to disease acquisition, mixing of people from countries or regions with and without efficient disease control efforts, and varying endemicity or existence of communicable diseases in home countries. MGs also have the potential to increase the opportunities for mechanical and even heat-related injuries, morbidity or deaths from accidents, alcohol use, deliberate terrorist attacks with biological agents and/or with explosives and from exacerbation of pre-existing conditions. Responding to these wider range of events may require the use of novel bio-surveillance systems designed to collect data from different sources including electronic and non-electronic medical records from emergency departments and hospitalisations, laboratories, medical examiners, emergency call centres, veterinary, food processors, drinking water systems and even other non-traditional sources such as over-the-counter drug sales and crowd photographs. Well-structured, interoperable real-time surveillance and reporting systems should be integral to MG planning. The increase in magnitude of participants exceeding millions and diversity of people attending MGs can be proactively used to conduct active surveillance of communicable and non

  6. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.

  7. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.’ The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation. PMID:28139967

  8. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galanis, E.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Patrick, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonellae are a common cause of foodborne disease worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports international foodborne disease surveillance through WHO Global Salm-Surv and other activities. WHO Global Salm-Surv members annually report the 15 most frequently isolated Salmonella...... serotypes to a Web-based country databank. We describe the global distribution of reported Salmonella serotypes from human and nonhuman sources from 2000 to 2002. Among human isolates, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most common serotype, accounting for 65% of all isolates. Among nonhuman...... professionals to explore hypotheses related to the sources and distribution of salmonellae worldwide....

  9. Changes in prevalence of tobacco use and the factors that may affect use among Uganda youth: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadobera, Daniel; Chaussard, Martine; Lee, Kyung Ah; Ayebazibwe, Nicholas; Ndyanabangi, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    To assess changes from 2007 to 2011 in the prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-related indicators in Uganda by examining results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Both the 2007 (n=2,251) and 2011 (n=2,026) Uganda GYTS were conducted among students in primary seven, secondary one, two, and three. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to generate a representative sample of students for the surveys. Stata 12 software was used to provide weighted prevalence estimates and logistic regression models were developed to examine the relationship between factors that influence tobacco use and current tobacco use. The percentage of students who had ever smoked a cigarette, even just one or two puffs, declined from 15.6% in 2007 to 10.9% in 2011 (p=0.03). From 2007 to 2011, neither the percentage of current use of any tobacco (16.6% to 17.3%, p=0.75), nor the percentage of current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking (5.5% to 4.8%,p=0.59) changed significantly. Following adjustment, having parents [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):1.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.3-2.8] and friends [AOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0)] who smoke, and having seen tobacco advertisements in print media [AOR 1.8(1.3-2.4)], were associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2007.Having parents who smoke [AOR;1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0] was associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2011. From 2007 to 2011, no significant change occurred in the prevalence of current tobacco use or cigarette smoking among youth in Uganda. These findings underscore the importance of implementing effective population-level public health interventions, as outlined in the articles of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to prevent and reduce the use of tobacco among youth in Uganda.

  10. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  11. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A.; Lopareva, Elena N.; Woo, Gibson K.S.; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N.; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. Study design A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. Results A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. Conclusions These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. PMID:23806666

  13. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A; Lopareva, Elena N; Woo, Gibson K S; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Determinants of heavy smoking: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-03-01

    The aim of current analysis was to identify socio-demographic correlates of heavy smoking. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household study was implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. We used data on representative sample of 1915 adults, age 25 years and older. The Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for heavy smoking to the broad number of variables including age, age at smoking onset, education, occupational classification, living conditions, place of residence, place of residence at age about 14 years, awareness of smoking health consequences were tested in logistic regression model. Among daily smokers the rate of heavy smokers was 63% in males and 45% in females (p things, educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse tobacco health effects should be widely implemented.

  15. The 'diverse, dynamic new world of global tobacco control'? An analysis of participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff

    2014-03-01

    The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries' ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation.

  16. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, N; Ling, P M

    2005-08-01

    To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci: lifestyle/psychographic research, brand studies, and advertising/communication effectiveness. Philip Morris identified core similarities in the lifestyles and needs of young consumers worldwide, such as independence, hedonism, freedom, and comfort. In the early 1990s Philip Morris adopted standardised global marketing efforts, creating a central advertising production bank and guidelines for brand images and promotions, but allowing regional managers to create regionally appropriate individual advertisements. Values and lifestyles play a central role in the global marketing of tobacco to young adults. Worldwide counter marketing initiatives, coupled with strong, coherent global marketing policies such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed to break associations between young adult values and tobacco brands. As globalisation promotes the homogenisation of values and lifestyles, tobacco control messages that resonate with young adults in one part of the world may appeal to young adults in other countries. Successful tobacco control messages that appeal to young people, such as industry denormalisation, may be expanded globally with appropriate tailoring to appeal to regional values.

  17. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Bharathi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira; Bovet, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Tobacco control has been recognized as a main public health concern in Seychelles for the past two decades. Tobacco advertising, sponsoring and promotion has been banned for years, tobacco products are submitted to high taxes, high-profile awareness programs are organized regularly, and several other control measures have been implemented. The Republic of Seychelles was the first country to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in the African region. Three population-based surveys have been conducted in adults in Seychelles and results showed a substantial decrease in the prevalence of smoking among adults between 1989 and 2004. A first survey in adolescents was conducted in Seychelles in 2002 (the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, GYTS) in a representative sample of 1321 girls and boys aged 13-15 years. The results show that approximately half of students had tried smoking and a quarter of both boys and girls had smoked at least one cigarette during the past 30 days. Although "current smoking" is defined differently in adolescents (>or=1 cigarette during the past 30 days) and in adults (>or=1 cigarette per day), which precludes direct comparison, the high smoking prevalence in youth in Seychelles likely predicts an increasing prevalence of tobacco use in the next adult generation, particularly in women. GYTS 2002 also provides important data on a wide range of specific individual and societal factors influencing tobacco use. Hence, GYTS can be a powerful tool for monitoring the situation of tobacco use in adolescents, for highlighting the need for new policy and programs, and for evaluating the impact of current and future programs.

  18. Tobacco smoking trends in Samoa over four decades: can continued globalization rectify that which it has wrought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Christine; Naseri, Take; Lin, Sophia; Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; McGarvey, Stephen T; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-06-12

    The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present study examines tobacco smoking in relation to different forms and effects of globalization in Samoa using 7 population-based surveys (n = 9223) over 1978-2013. The prevalence of daily tobacco smoking steadily decreased over 1978-2013 from 76% to 36% in men, and from 27% to 15% in women (p globalization facilitated the introduction and prolific spread of tobacco trade and consumption in the Pacific Islands from the sixteenth century, with many populations inexorably pulled into trade relations and links to the global economy. It has also been a different globalization which may have led to the decline in smoking prevalence in Samoa in recent decades, through global dissemination since the 1950s of information on the harmful effects of tobacco smoking derived from research studies in the USA and Europe. Over the past 35 years tobacco smoking has steadily declined among Samoan adults; the only NCD risk factor to demonstrate marked declines during this period. By 2013 tobacco smoking in women had decreased to levels similar to Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), however in men smoking prevalence remained more than three times higher than ANZ. The impact on smoking prevalence of the variety of tobacco control interventions that have been implemented so far in Samoa need to be evaluated in order to determine the most effective initiatives that should be prioritized and strengthened.

  19. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq Al; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira

    2016-04-01

    Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 65 Years of influenza surveillance by a WHO-coordinated global network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Thedi; Mamahit, Awandha; Cox, Nancy J

    2018-05-04

    The 1918 devastating influenza pandemic left a lasting impact on influenza experts and the public, and the importance of global influenza surveillance was soon recognized. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) was founded in 1952 and renamed to Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System in 2011 upon the adoption by the World Health Assembly, of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits ("PIP Framework"). The importance of influenza surveillance had been recognized and promoted by experts prior to the years leading up to the establishment of WHO. In the 65 years of its existence, the Network has grown to comprise 143 National Influenza Centers recognized by WHO, 6 WHO Collaborating Centers, 4 Essential Regulatory Laboratories, and 13 H5 Reference Laboratories. The Network has proven its excellence throughout these 65 years, providing detailed information on circulating seasonal influenza viruses, as well as immediate response to the influenza pandemics in 1957, 1968, and 2009, and to threats caused by animal influenza viruses and by zoonotic transmission of coronaviruses. For its central role in global public health, the Network has been highly recognized by its many partners and by international bodies. Several generations of world renown influenza scientists have brought the Network to where it is now and they will take it forward to the future, as influenza will remain a pre-eminent threat to humans and to animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  2. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  3. Global perspective of tobacco habits and lung cancer: a lesson for third world countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M; Mathew, A; Nair, M K

    1999-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, a dominant role of tobacco smoking in lung cancer causation has been demonstrated. Almost three-quarters of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to tobacco smoking. The global variation in lung cancer incidence is thought to be directly proportional to the smoking habits prevalent in that part of the world. Lung cancer shows a greater upward trend in incidence in the USA, in central and Eastern Europe than ever before, especially in females. Japan too has recorded a 10-fold increase in incidence in both sexes since 1975. In India the problem is further compounded by absence of authentic data on time trend. The recent trend of available data suggests a more or less linear trend. At present lung cancer ranks among the top three killers in men in almost every metropolis in India. The highest incidence rate has been recorded in Bombay (14.6/ 100,000) and the lowest in Barshi (2.0/100,000). How much of these can be attributed to smoking cannot be commented on as no case-control or cohort studies have ever been undertaken in India. The situation is more alarming in other developing countries, where there is no authentic data on tobacco use or lung cancer incidences. The relationship between tobacco and cancer is both simple and complex. The majority of the cancer patients are smokers, while the cancer incidence is not proportional among smokers. To explain this, various factors such as type of smoke, duration of smoke, amount of carcinogens, presence of activation and metabolism pathways, and lately genetic environment interaction, have been put forward. It appears that the relationship is more complex than at first thought. In developing countries, it is further compounded by lack of data on usage and dependence of the economies of these countries on tobacco. The situation is alarming, with ever-increasing incidence among women and non-smokers exposed to smoke (passive smokers). Tobacco use has already become an epidemic.

  4. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Baquilod, Marina; Fishburn, Burke; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in the Philippines in 2000 and 2003 which can be used as baseline measures to monitor provisions of the 2003 Tobacco Regulatory Act and Articles of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey which uses a two-stage sample design to produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. In both 2000 and 2003, the GYTS was conducted in three geographic zones in the Philippines. The zones are then combined to produce a representative national estimate each year. Data in this report are limited to students aged 13-15 years. The findings in this study show that in the Philippines changes occurred between 2000 and 2003 in that: students were less likely to smoke cigarettes or use other tobacco products, less likely to be exposed to SHS in public places, more likely to support bans on smoking in public places, more likely to have learned in school and from the media about the health hazards of tobacco use, and less likely to have been offered "free" cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. The synergy between the Philippines' leadership in passing the Clean Air Act in 1999 and the Tobacco Regulatory Air in 2003, in ratifying the WHO FCTC in 2005, and in supporting the conduct of the GYTS offers the Philippines a unique opportunity to develop, implement and evaluate the youth component of their comprehensive tobacco control policy that can be most helpful to the country.

  5. Global invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases surveillance--2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jillian; Agócs, Mary; Serhan, Fatima; Singh, Simarjit; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; O'Brien, Katherine; Mwenda, Jason M; Mihigo, Richard; Oliveira, Lucia; Teleb, Nadia; Ahmed, Hinda; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Wijesinghe, Pushpa; Thapa, Arun Bhadra; Fox, Kimberly; Paladin, Fem Julia; Hajjeh, Rana; Schwartz, Stephanie; Van Beneden, Chris; Hyde, Terri; Broome, Claire; Cherian, Thomas

    2014-12-12

    Meningitis and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children globally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae causing a large proportion of disease. Vaccines are available to prevent many of the common types of these infections. S. pneumoniae was estimated to have caused 11% of deaths in children aged Organization (WHO) has recommended inclusion of PCV in childhood immunization programs worldwide, especially in countries with high child mortality. As of November 26, 2014, a total of 112 (58%) of all 194 WHO member states and 44 (58%) of the 76 member states ever eligible for support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), have introduced PCV. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance that includes data on serotypes, along with meningitis and pneumonia syndromic surveillance, provides important data to guide decisions to introduce PCV and monitor its impact.

  6. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J; Glantz, S; Ling, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Methods: Analysis of internal company documents. Findings: Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution net...

  7. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  8. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011–2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Al Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N.; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Asma, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Methods Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Results Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. Conclusions E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. PMID:25895951

  9. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  10. Graduated Sovereignty and Global Governance Gaps: Special Economic Zones and the Illicit Trade In Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Illicit trade in tobacco products has been a significant problem globally for many years. It allows cigarettes to be sold far below their legal price and thus contributes to higher consumption, morbidity and mortality, and deprives state treasuries of a substantial amount of revenue. This article identifies special economic zones (SEZs), particularly free trade zones, as a key conduit for this illicit trade. The development of SEZs as weak points in the global governance architecture is explained with reference to the concept of 'graduated sovereignty', whereby the uniform management of territory by modern states has given way to a more spatially selective form of territorial governance, in which some slices of territory are more fully integrated into the world economy than others via various forms of differential regulation. Attempts to comprehensively (re)regulate SEZs, in the face of growing evidence of the dysfunctionalities that they can engender, have so far been unsuccessful. It is concluded that the neo-liberal global economy has facilitated a regulatory 'race to the bottom', a problem that can only ultimately be overcome by international negotiation and agreement.

  11. Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in tobacco use-related surveillance and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Randall L; Dunn, Patricia M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and public health advocates have long recognized the importance of demographic characteristics such as sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status in their efforts to understand and control the use of tobacco among population groups. Targeting prevention and cessation efforts based upon such characteristics has consistently been demonstrated to be both efficient and effective. In recent years, attention has modestly turned to how two additional demographic variables, sexual orientation and gender identity, can add to our understanding of how to reduce tobacco use. Research of tobacco industry papers has clearly documented targeted media campaigns to encourage smoking among lesbians and gays in the marketplace. The tobacco industry has long understood the role that sexual orientation can play in the uptake of smoking and the targeted marketing of brands. Those concerned with tobacco use prevention and cessation research have consequently responded to address tobacco use by lesbians and gays, and bisexuals and transgender people as well, but even more can be done. This article reviews what is known about smoking in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations and then reviews recommendations from four panels created to examine this topic. In conclusion, we recommend that sexual orientation and gender identity be considered for inclusion as variables in all major research and epidemiological studies of tobacco use. Just as such studies, without hesitation, measure sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, they need to also include questions assessing sexual orientation and gender identity. Although these new variables need not be the primary focus of these studies, at a minimum, considering their use as controlling variables should be explored. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people can benefit from being openly included in the work researchers conduct to inform the design of tobacco control programs and policies.

  12. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Hürlimann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. METHODOLOGY: With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and 'grey literature', contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques. The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment

  13. Toward an Open-Access Global Database for Mapping, Control, and Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Laserna de Himpsl, Maiti; Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Laizer, Nassor; Camenzind, Lukas; Di Pasquale, Aurelio; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Simoonga, Christopher; Mushinge, Gabriel; Saarnak, Christopher F. L.; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark for monitoring and evaluation. What is currently missing is a georeferenced global database for NTDs providing open-access to the available survey data that is constantly updated and can be utilized by researchers and disease control managers to support other relevant stakeholders. We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs. Methodology With an emphasis on schistosomiasis in Africa, we systematically searched the literature (peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey literature’), contacted Ministries of Health and research institutions in schistosomiasis-endemic countries for location-specific prevalence data and survey details (e.g., study population, year of survey and diagnostic techniques). The data were extracted, georeferenced, and stored in a MySQL database with a web interface allowing free database access and data management. Principal Findings At the beginning of 2011, our database contained more than 12,000 georeferenced schistosomiasis survey locations from 35 African countries available under http://www.gntd.org. Currently, the database is expanded to a global repository, including a host of other NTDs, e.g. soil-transmitted helminthiasis and leishmaniasis. Conclusions An open-access, spatially explicit NTD database offers unique opportunities for disease risk modeling, targeting control interventions, disease monitoring, and surveillance. Moreover, it allows for detailed geostatistical analyses of disease distribution in space and time. With an initial focus on schistosomiasis in Africa, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept that the establishment and running of a

  14. Global surveillance of emerging diseases: the ProMED-mail perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Woodall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is changing the way global disease surveillance is conducted. Countries and international organizations are increasingly placing their outbreak reports on the Internet, which speeds up distribution and therefore prevention and control. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the value of nongovernmental organizations and the media in reporting outbreaks, which it then attempts to verify through its country offices. However, WHO and other official sources are constrained in their reporting by the need for bureaucratic clearance. ProMED-mail has no such constraints, and posts outbreak reports 7 days a week. It is moderated by infectious disease specialists who add relevant comments. Thus, ProMED-mail complements official sources and provides early warning of outbreaks. Its network is more than 20,000 people in over 150 countries, who place their computers and time at the network's disposal and report on outbreaks of which they have knowledge. Regions and countries could benefit from adopting the ProMED-mail approach to complement their own disease surveillance systems.

  15. Prevalence of tobacco use and perceptions of student health professionals about cessation training: results from Global Health Professions Students Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali

    2018-05-26

    Health professionals play an important role in providing advice to their patients about tobacco prevention and cessation. Health professionals who use tobacco may be deterred from providing cessation advice and counselling to their patients. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of tobacco use among student health professionals and describe their attitudes towards tobacco cessation training. Country-wise aggregate data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey on 'c urrent cigarette smoking' (smoking cigarettes on 1 or more days during the past 30 days), and ' curren t use of tobacco products other than cigarettes' (chewing tobacco, snuff, bidis, cigars or pipes, 1 or more days during the past 30 days) were analysed. For each WHO region, we estimated mean prevalence rates of tobacco use weighted by the population of the sampling frame and aggregate proportions for ' health professionals' role' and ' cessation training' indicators using ' metaprop ' command on Stata V.11. A total of 107 527 student health professionals participated in 236 surveys done in four health profession disciplines spanning 70 countries with response rates ranging from 40% to 100%. Overall, prevalence of smoking was highest in European countries (20% medical and 40% dental students) and the Americas (13% pharmacy to 23% dental students). Other tobacco use was higher in eastern Mediterranean (10%-23%) and European countries (7%-13%). In most WHO regions, ≥70% of the students agreed that health professionals are role models, and have a role in advising about smoking cessation to their patients and the public. Only ≤33% of all student health professionals in most WHO regions (except 80% dental students in the Eastern Mediterranean region) had received formal training on smoking cessation approaches and ≥80% of all students agreed that they should receive formal cessation training. Tobacco control should take place together with medical educators to discourage tobacco use among

  16. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  17. PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; Trees, Eija; Kubota, Kristy; Takkinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Carleton, Heather

    2017-01-01

    PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The

  18. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  19. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-12-15

    In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC.

  20. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreskes, Naomi; Conway, Erik M.; Treiner, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on public health, environmental science, and other issues affecting the quality of life. US scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming. But at the same time, a small yet potent subset of this community leads the world in vehement denial of these dangers. In this book, the historian authors explain how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists, with extensive political connections, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades. In seven compelling chapters addressing tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, global warming, and DDT, they roll back the rug on this dark corner of the American scientific community, showing how the ideology of free market fundamentalism, aided by a too-compliant media, has skewed public understanding of some of the most pressing issues of our era

  1. Global tobacco control and economic norms: an analysis of normative commitments in Kenya, Malawi and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Reddy, Srikanth K; Labonte, Ronald; Drope, Jeffrey; Magati, Peter; Goma, Fastone; Zulu, Richard; Makoka, Donald

    2018-04-01

    Tobacco control norms have gained momentum over the past decade. To date 43 of 47 Sub-Saharan African countries are party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The near universal adoption of the FCTC illustrates the increasing strength of these norms, although the level of commitment to implement the provisions varies widely. However, tobacco control is enmeshed in a web of international norms that has bearing on how governments implement and strengthen tobacco control measures. Given that economic arguments in favor of tobacco production remain a prominent barrier to tobacco control efforts, there is a continued need to examine how economic sectors frame and mobilize their policy commitments to tobacco production. This study explores the proposition that divergence of international norms fosters policy divergence within governments. This study was conducted in three African countries: Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia. These countries represent a continuum of tobacco control policy, whereby Kenya is one of the most advanced countries in Africa in this respect, whereas Malawi is one of the few countries that is not a party to the FCTC and has implemented few measures. We conducted 55 key informant interviews (Zambia = 23; Kenya = 17; Malawi = 15). Data analysis involved deductive coding of interview transcripts and notes to identify reference to international norms (i.e. commitments, agreements, institutions), coupled with an inductive analysis that sought to interpret the meaning participants ascribe to these norms. Our analysis suggests that commitments to tobacco control have yet to penetrate non-health sectors, who perceive tobacco control as largely in conflict with international economic norms. The reasons for this perceived conflict seems to include: (1) an entrenched and narrow conceptualization of economic development norms, (2) the power of economic interests to shape policy discourses, and (3) a structural divide between sectors in

  2. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J D; Glantz, S A; Ling, P M

    2004-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Analysis of internal company documents. Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market.

  3. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production.

  4. Smoke screen? The globalization of production, transnational lobbying and the international political economy of plain tobacco packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Louise; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence. WTO litigation is typically the result of Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) lobbying their own government, but here third countries were mobilized. Lobbying in third country contexts, with the objective of accessing multilateral dispute settlement systems, has been little studied. We thus know very little about the driving factors behind such activities, how target governments are selected and what lobbying strategies are used. This paper draws on emerging research on transnational lobbying and a case study of the PP case to explore these issues in detail and, by doing so, aims to further our theoretical understanding of the political economy of international trade in the context of increasing regime complexity and globalization of production. PMID:28630533

  5. Policy perspective on the global use of Smokeless Tobacco (ST: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Siddiqi

    2018-03-01

    gaps in the implementation of key demand-reduction measures with regard to ST. Methods A series of focused literature reviews was conducted and findings were synthesized by relevant Articles (6 - 14 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC. Results We found sufficient evidence to support implementation of key demand-reduction measures for ST. For example, raising taxes can reduce ST consumption, with price elasticity on a par with, or sometimes higher than, cigarettes. Similarly, graphic pictorial warnings on ST packaging are far more effective than text-only warning labels. But despite supportive evidence, countries have either not implemented measures or have kept the bar much lower than that for cigarettes. For example, very few countries regulate the contents of ST products. Some have raised ST taxes but not to the extent of cigarette taxes, risking product substitution. Similarly, health-warning requirements for ST are less strict than those for cigarettes. Even where strong policies exist, compliance has been poor. For example, despite bans on ST advertising, most suppliers continue to promote products, especially at points of sale and via print and digital media. Consequently, ST demand-reduction measures have had limited impact. Conclusions The full implementation of FCTC Articles 6-14 is likely to reduce the global demand for ST, but their current state of implementation lags behind that for cigarettes. The existing policy gaps can be addressed through better knowledge of ST products, setting unambiguous standards, innovative systems for tax administration, building capacity in testing ST products and undertaking targeted research.

  6. Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.

  7. Tobacco industry's elaborate attempts to control a global track and trace system and fundamentally undermine the Illicit Trade Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Gallagher, Allen W A; Rowell, Andy

    2018-06-13

    The Illicit Trade Protocol (ITP) requires a global track and trace (T&T) system to reduce tobacco smuggling. Given the tobacco industry's (TI) historical involvement in tobacco smuggling, it stipulates that T&T 'shall not be performed by or delegated to the tobacco industry'. This paper explores the rationale for & nature of the TI's effors to influence the ITP & its T&T system. Analysis of leaked TI documents and publicly available data; ,investigation of front groups, trademark and patent ownership. Growing & diverse sources of evidence indicate that the TI remains involved in tobacco smuggling and that TI cigarettes account for around two-thirds of the illicit cigarette market. The TI therefore has a vested interest in controlling the global T&T system aimed to curtail this behaviour. To this end, Philip Morris International (PMI) adapted its pack marker system, Codentify, to meet T&T requirements, licensed it for free to its three major competitors who then collectively promoted it to governments using front groups and third parties including companies claiming to be independent despite clear TI links. PMI also sought to suggest Codentify was independent by selling some parts of its intellectual property on Codentify while retaining others, leaving a complex web of shared interests. In Africa, British American Tobacco used payments to obtain data suggesting its smaller competitor companies were evading taxes and secure influence with tax authorities. Regulatory capture has been enhanced by a public relations effort involving TI funding for conferences, training, research, and international police and anti-corruption organisations. Collectively this has created public messaging and a powerful network of organisations supportive of the TI's misleading postion on illicit. Governments should assume the TI seeks to control T&T systems in order to avoid scrutiny and minimise excise tax payments and that any T&T system based on Codentify, on intellectual property

  8. Global sale of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Elkhadragy, Nervana; Kusynová, Zuzana; Besançon, Luc; Brock, Tina Penick; Corelli, Robin L

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of countries/territories that allow sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in community pharmacies. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations were contacted by email and asked to respond to a two-item survey assessing whether their country/territory allowed sales of (a) tobacco products and (b) ENDS in community pharmacies. Of 95 countries/territories contacted, responses were received from 60 (63.2%). Seven countries (11.7%) reported that tobacco products were sold in community pharmacies, and 11 countries (18.3%) reported that ENDS were sold in community pharmacies. Among the FIP member organisations, there are few countries that allow the sale of tobacco products and ENDS in community pharmacies, with ENDS being more likely than tobacco products to be sold. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  10. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  11. What Could Be Future Scenarios?-Lessons from the History of Public Health Surveillance for the Future: --A keynote address presented at the 8th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference on October 30, 2013, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the future based on a review of the past and present of public health surveillance-the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 BC in Egypt. A number of lessons and items of interest are summarised from a review of historical perspectives in the past 5,000 years and the current practice of surveillance. Some future scenarios are presented: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; and enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

  12. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.

  13. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  14. 2008: A Year of Transition. DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Vibrio cholera O1 (1%). Significant antibiotic resistance was also documented. Migratory Bird Surveillance In collaboration with the National...ICEID). March 2008. Atlanta, Georgia. 3. Agustine W, Waslia L, Agtini M, Kasper MR, Listiyaningsih E, and Putnam SD. The Presentation of Vibrio cholerae ...surveillance program to 72 countries, 20 Navy ships, 1 foreign ship, and 6 clinics along the Mexican border (four in California, two in Mexico

  15. Framing Progress In Global Tobacco Control To Inform Action On Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Samet, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Much has been learned about the tobacco epidemic, including its consequences, effective measures to control it, and the actors involved. This article identifies lessons learned that are applicable to the other principal external causes of noncommunicable diseases: alcohol abuse, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. Among these lessons are the development of evidence-based strategies such as proven cessation methods, tax increases, and smoke-free policies; the role of multinational corporations in maintaining markets and undermining control measures; and the need for strategies that reach across the life course and that begin with individuals and extend to higher levels of societal organization. Differences are also clear. Tobacco products are relatively homogeneous and have no direct benefit to consumers, whereas food and alcohol consumed in moderation are not inherently dangerous. Some tobacco-related diseases have the singular predominant cause of smoking, while many noncommunicable diseases have multiple interlocking causes such as poor diet, excess alcohol consumption, insufficient physical activity, and smoking, along with genetics. Thus, the tobacco control model of comprehensive multilevel strategies is applicable to the control of noncommunicable diseases, but the focus must be on multiple risk factors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... brand and subbrand (sections 904, 915 of the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 387d, 387o). Please visit http://www... science. CTP's strategic public health goals include: Decreasing initiation of tobacco product use... Control Act; (3) plan, build, adapt, or expand data collection/information sharing mechanisms, management...

  17. Tax and poverty analyses for a leap forward with global tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... de Salud Pública of Mexico, aims to contribute a series of background studies to the ... The models will project the impact of increased taxes on health benefits ... to grow in Latin America, it is a critical time to advance tobacco control policies.

  18. Tobacco and oral health--the role of the world health organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2003-01-01

    In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider this platform for their future work for tobacco prevention since in several countries they play an important role in communication with patients and communities. The WHO Oral Health Programme gives priority to tobacco control in many ways through the development of national and community programmes which incorporates oral health and tobacco issues, tobacco prevention through schools, tobacco risk assessment in countries, and design of modern surveillance systems on risk factors and oral health. Systematic evaluation of coordinated efforts should be carried out at country and inter-country levels.

  19. GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON ESTABLISHMENT A UNIFIED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION OF ORGANS, TISSUES AND CELLS OF HUMAN ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From from February 7th to 9th 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Italian National Transplant Cen- tre and the EU-funded Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin» joined forces to organise a major global consultation that took place in Bologna, Italy. The scope of the project included organs, tissues and cells for transplantation and for assisted reproduction. The participants represented regulatory and non-regulatory government agencies, professional societies and scientific and clinical specialities from all WHO regions. The meeting explored the work already carried out on-line and agreed on priorities for the future deve- lopment of the Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin». 

  20. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  1. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  2. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina

    2011-01-01

    After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark...

  3. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  4. The use of a surveillance system to measure changes in mental health in Australian adults during the global financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Taylor, Anne W; Goldney, Robert; Winefield, Helen; Gill, Tiffany K; Tuckerman, Jane; Wittert, Gary

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to describe trends in a range of mental health indicators in South Australia where a surveillance system has been in operation since July 2002 and assess the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC). Data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system. Participants, aged 16 years and above, were asked about doctor-diagnosed anxiety, stress or depression, suicidal ideation, psychological distress (PD), demographic and socioeconomic factors using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Overall, there was a decreasing trend in the prevalence of PD between 2002 and 2009. Stress has decreased since 2004 although anxiety has increased. Comparing 2008 or 2009 (the economic crisis period) with 2005 or 2007, there was significant increase in anxiety for part-time workers but a decrease for full-time workers. There were significant differences for stress by various demographic variables. The overall prevalence of mental health conditions has not increased during the GFC. Some subgroups in the population have been disproportionately impacted by changes in mental health status. The use of a surveillance system enables rapid and specifically targeted public health and policy responses to socioeconomic and environmental stressors, and the evaluation of outcomes.

  5. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Risk factors of future smoking among Thai youth: a secondary analysis of the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. Method A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Thai GYTS 2005 was analysed to obtain prevalence of selected attributes and assess factors associated with current cigarette smoking. Current cigarette smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette, even a single puff, in the last 30 days. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the level of association between the explanatory variables and current smoking. Results Of the 18,368 respondents, 22.0% males and 5.2% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Current cigarette smoking was associated with male gender, smoking parents or closest peers. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was associated with less likelihood of being a current smoker.

  8. A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

  9. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKay

    Full Text Available Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited.To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India.Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative.Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12 and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14. They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8, tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16 indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11 were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17.Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved

  10. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  11. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-14

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above). The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for pocket money; adolescents who had parents who smoked, chewed or applied tobacco; adolescents who said that boys or girls who smoke or chew tobacco have more friends; adolescents who said that smoking or chewing tobacco makes boys look less attractive; adolescents who said that there is no difference in weight between smokers and non-smokers; adolescents who said that smoking makes one gain weight; and adolescents who had most or all of their closest friends who smoked. The factors that were negatively associated with smoking were: adolescents who said that boys or girls who smoke or chew tobacco have less number of friends; adolescents who said that girls who smoke or chew tobacco are less attractive; and adolescents who had some of their closest friends who smoked. The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  12. Ideology, Critique and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Herzogenrath-Amelung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-07-01

    The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes initiated the habit when they were adolescents or young adults. While rates of smoking and associated factors are known among 13-15 year olds in Malawi, correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in a national representative sample in Malawi have not been studied. We, therefore, carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of current smoking and determine its correlates in a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in Malawi. An analysis of the Malawi Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 was conducted. Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall, 2.5% of adolescents (3.2% among males, and 1.8% among females) were current cigarette smokers. Smoking among parents was 9.6% with no significant difference between males and females (10.3% versus 10.1%). Stronger associations with smoking were observed for friends smoking status (AOR=3.07, 95%CI 2.99, 3.16), receiving pocket money (AOR=3.06, 95%CI 2.98, 3.14), and perception that smoking increases body weight (AOR=2.98, 95%CI 2.81, 3.16). Students who thought that cigarette smoking is harmful to health were 56% (AOR=0.44, 95%CI 0.43, 0.45) less likely to smoke than students who thought otherwise. Despite being the world's second leading grower of tobacco, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent is lower than has been reported elsewhere.

  14. Recommended procedures for disease and serological surveillance as part of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    One important activity of GREP is to recommend to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Member Countries a zoosanitary approach for achieving rinderpest eradication and for determining the effectiveness of this achievement. To this end, a Consultants Meeting on Animal Disease Surveillance Systems was held in Vienna from 27 September to 1 October 1993 under the auspices of FAO and IAEA. This document represents the conclusions of the meeting and attempts to outline, in a highly practical manner, the various factors to be taken into account and steps to be undertaken by a country in the process of moving along a zoosanitary pathway culminating in a declaration of freedom from rinderpest virus. 14 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Genome sequencing - the ultimate answer to global real time genotyping and surveillance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2013-01-01

    organised to discuss the possibility of using WGS as diagnostic tool on a global scale. These meetings were attended by scientists and policy makers from around the world. The general conclusion of these meetings was that the technology exists and that the spread in the application should be linked...

  16. Towards a global antibiotic resistance surveillance system : a primer for a roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo

    The need for global data about the scale of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in a geographical explicit and timely manner has been identified by many stakeholders, including the World Health Organization. This primer should help defining the objectives, scale, scope, and structure of possible future

  17. 75 FR 62837 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Building Global Capacity for the Surveillance and Monitoring of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Rational Use of Drugs in Nairobi. The meeting recommended that the WHO and relevant stakeholders should... medicines and supply chain risks in support of national, sub-regional and global strategies and decision-making to prevent and address the incidence of counterfeit/falsified medicines and risks within supply...

  18. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  19. New nuclear scanning and surveillance systems for global security and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L. G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses new innovative techniques for both cargo and personnel scanning and plant and infrastructure surveillance and protection. It contains Intellectual Property and some of the systems described are covered by Patents. For example, a typical container inspection system is based on Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis operating on the following principles: 1. An accelerator produced pulses of fast neutrons, which interact with the elemental composition of the cargo under inspection. In a manner similar to radar scanning the timing and positioning of the pulsed neutrons indicates where the interactions occurs. These interactions initiate the emission of gamma radiation which characterises the elemental composition and which is collected by sensor arrays. 2. The gamma ray signals are analysed in a high speed processor which identifies the presence and location of the chemical element combinations in all types of contraband. These may be drugs, explosives or nuclear material. 3. High resolution images display the location and shape of all contraband in the cargo under inspection. An x-ray like image of the cargo can also be provided. Because the scanning system software already contains standard gamma ray material signatures, the need for time consuming and unreliable manual interpretation of complicated images obtained in x-ray scanning systems is completely eliminated

  20. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  1. Towards a global system of vigilance and surveillance in unrelated donors of haematopoietic progenitor cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B E; Chapman, J; Fechter, M; Foeken, L; Greinix, H; Hwang, W; Phillips-Johnson, L; Korhonen, M; Lindberg, B; Navarro, W H; Szer, J

    2013-11-01

    Safety of living donors is critical to the success of blood, tissue and organ transplantation. Structured and robust vigilance and surveillance systems exist as part of some national entities, but historically no global systems are in place to ensure conformity, harmonisation and the recognition of rare adverse events (AEs). The World Health Assembly has recently resolved to require AE/reaction (AE/R) reporting both nationally and globally. The World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) is an international organisation promoting the safety of unrelated donors and progenitor cell products for use in haematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation. To address this issue, we established a system for collecting, collating, analysing, distributing and reacting to serious adverse events and reactions (SAE/R) in unrelated HPC donors. The WMDA successfully instituted this reporting system with 203 SAE/R reported in 2011. The committee generated two rapid reports, reacting to specific SAE/R, resulting in practice changing policies. The system has a robust governance structure, formal feedback to the WMDA membership and transparent information flows to other agencies, specialist physicians and transplant programs and the general public.

  2. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2018-01-01

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  3. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  4. Smokeless tobacco use among adults in ten countries of SEA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Satpathy

    2018-03-01

    for tobacco control. Complementing tobacco use surveillance tools should always be compared or triangulated for a comprehensive picture of tobacco use burden. Higher use of SLTs among women in Timor Leste needs further exploration.

  5. [Monitoring strategy for control of tobacco in Mexico: advertising, promotion and sponsorship, packaging and labeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bolaños, Rosibel; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Ibañez-Hernández, Norma A; Santos-Luna, René; Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Avila-Tang, Erika; Stillman, Frances

    2010-01-01

    To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Tobacco products points of sale (POS) were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006) schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS). In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control legislation in regards to selling to minors and single cigarettes. It is necessary to implement a surveillance system to monitor strategies for tobacco control and the tobacco industry.

  6. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.

  7. Global estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes: analysis of multinational antenatal surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Newman

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis aims for ≥ 90% of pregnant women to be tested for syphilis and ≥ 90% to receive treatment by 2015. We calculated global and regional estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes for 2008, as well as antenatal care (ANC coverage for women with syphilis.Estimates were based upon a health service delivery model. National syphilis seropositivity data from 97 of 193 countries and ANC coverage from 147 countries were obtained from World Health Organization databases. Proportions of adverse outcomes and effectiveness of screening and treatment were from published literature. Regional estimates of ANC syphilis testing and treatment were examined through sensitivity analysis. In 2008, approximately 1.36 million (range: 1.16 to 1.56 million pregnant women globally were estimated to have probable active syphilis; of these, 80% had attended ANC. Globally, 520,905 (best case: 425,847; worst case: 615,963 adverse outcomes were estimated to be caused by maternal syphilis, including approximately 212,327 (174,938; 249,716 stillbirths (>28 wk or early fetal deaths (22 to 28 wk, 91,764 (76,141; 107,397 neonatal deaths, 65,267 (56,929; 73,605 preterm or low birth weight infants, and 151,547 (117,848; 185,245 infected newborns. Approximately 66% of adverse outcomes occurred in ANC attendees who were not tested or were not treated for syphilis. In 2008, based on the middle case scenario, clinical services likely averted 26% of all adverse outcomes. Limitations include missing syphilis seropositivity data for many countries in Europe, the Mediterranean, and North America, and use of estimates for the proportion of syphilis that was "probable active," and for testing and treatment coverage.Syphilis continues to affect large numbers of pregnant women, causing substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality that could be prevented by early testing and

  8. Global Estimates of Syphilis in Pregnancy and Associated Adverse Outcomes: Analysis of Multinational Antenatal Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori; Kamb, Mary; Hawkes, Sarah; Gomez, Gabriela; Say, Lale; Seuc, Armando; Broutet, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis aims for ≥90% of pregnant women to be tested for syphilis and ≥90% to receive treatment by 2015. We calculated global and regional estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes for 2008, as well as antenatal care (ANC) coverage for women with syphilis. Methods and Findings Estimates were based upon a health service delivery model. National syphilis seropositivity data from 97 of 193 countries and ANC coverage from 147 countries were obtained from World Health Organization databases. Proportions of adverse outcomes and effectiveness of screening and treatment were from published literature. Regional estimates of ANC syphilis testing and treatment were examined through sensitivity analysis. In 2008, approximately 1.36 million (range: 1.16 to 1.56 million) pregnant women globally were estimated to have probable active syphilis; of these, 80% had attended ANC. Globally, 520,905 (best case: 425,847; worst case: 615,963) adverse outcomes were estimated to be caused by maternal syphilis, including approximately 212,327 (174,938; 249,716) stillbirths (>28 wk) or early fetal deaths (22 to 28 wk), 91,764 (76,141; 107,397) neonatal deaths, 65,267 (56,929; 73,605) preterm or low birth weight infants, and 151,547 (117,848; 185,245) infected newborns. Approximately 66% of adverse outcomes occurred in ANC attendees who were not tested or were not treated for syphilis. In 2008, based on the middle case scenario, clinical services likely averted 26% of all adverse outcomes. Limitations include missing syphilis seropositivity data for many countries in Europe, the Mediterranean, and North America, and use of estimates for the proportion of syphilis that was “probable active,” and for testing and treatment coverage. Conclusions Syphilis continues to affect large numbers of pregnant women, causing substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality that

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Rao, Saadiyah; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-02-21

    Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking.

  11. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wagenlehner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI. Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/. Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years.

  12. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  13. Cross-country comparison of waterpipe use: nationally representative data from 13 low and middle-income countries from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jeremy; Song, Yang; Fouad, Heba; Awa, Fatimah El; Abou El Naga, Randa; Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2014-09-01

    Evidence shows that smoking tobacco using a waterpipe is significantly associated with diseases. Despite this, waterpipe use seems to be increasing worldwide, though nationally representative data are not widely available. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) provides an opportunity to measure various indicators of waterpipe use from nationally representative surveys. Data were obtained for adults 15 years of age or older from 13 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam) who completed GATS from 2008-2010. The GATS questionnaire collected data on current waterpipe use, including daily/less than daily prevalence and number of sessions per day/week. An optional waterpipe module measured former use, age of initiation, and level of consumption during a session. GATS was successful in producing nationally representative data on waterpipe use from 13 countries, many of which for the first time. The prevalence of waterpipe use among men was highest in Vietnam (13.0%) and Egypt (6.2%); among women, waterpipe use was highest in Russia (3.2%) and Ukraine (1.1%). While over 90% of adults in Ukraine thought smoking tobacco causes serious illness, only 31.4% thought smoking tobacco using a waterpipe causes serious illness. GATS data provide the ability to analyse waterpipe use within a country and across countries. Monitoring of waterpipe use at a national level will better enable countries to target tobacco control interventions such as education campaigns about the negative health effects of waterpipe use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  15. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally.

  16. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

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    Taru Kinnunen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  17. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud-now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)-was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of 'globalisation and non-communicable diseases'. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest.

  18. Cigarettes point of purchase patterns in 19 low-income and middle-income countries: Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Kruger, Judy; Hsia, Jason; Yin, Shaoman; Salandy, Simone; Orlan, Elizabeth N; Agaku, Israel; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2018-04-05

    There is little information on cigarette-purchasing behaviour among smokers globally. Understanding cigarette purchase and point-of-sale patterns can help guide the development and implementation of tobacco-control strategies in retail environments. The purpose of this study was to identify where adults in 19 countries last purchased cigarettes. Data were from 19 low-income and middle-income countries that conducted the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008-2012. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 years or older using a standardised protocol to measure tobacco-related behaviours. Data were weighted to yield nationally representative estimates within each country and summarised by using descriptive statistics. Overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.7% in Nigeria to 38.5% in the Russian Federation. Among current cigarette smokers, locations of last purchase were as follows: stores, from 14.6% in Argentina to 98.7% in Bangladesh (median=66.8%); street vendors, from 0% in Thailand to 35.7% in Vietnam (median=3.0%); kiosks, from 0.1% in Thailand to 77.3% in Argentina (median=16.1%); other locations, from 0.3% in China and Egypt to 57.5% in Brazil (median=2.6%). Cigarettes are purchased at various retail locations globally. However, stores and kiosks were the main cigarette purchase locations in 18 of the 19 countries assessed. Knowledge of where cigarette purchases occur could help guide interventions to reduce cigarette accessibility and use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Follow the money: how the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts.

  20. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

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    Joan Puig-Barberà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014–2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014–2015 influenza season.

  1. First-year results of the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network: 2012–2013 Northern hemisphere influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) was developed to improve understanding of severe influenza infection, as represented by hospitalized cases. The GIHSN is composed of coordinating sites, mainly affiliated with health authorities, each of which supervises and compiles data from one to seven hospitals. This report describes the distribution of influenza viruses A(H1N1), A(H3N2), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata resulting in hospitalization during 2012–2013, the network’s first year. Methods In 2012–2013, the GIHSN included 21 hospitals (five in Spain, five in France, four in the Russian Federation, and seven in Turkey). All hospitals used a reference protocol and core questionnaire to collect data, and data were consolidated at five coordinating sites. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hospitalized patients admitted within 7 days of onset of influenza-like illness were included in the analysis. Results Of 5034 patients included with polymerase chain reaction results, 1545 (30.7%) were positive for influenza. Influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and both B lineages co-circulated, although distributions varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. All age groups were affected. A(H1N1) was the most common influenza strain isolated among hospitalized adults 18–64 years of age at four of five coordinating sites, whereas A(H3N2) and B viruses were isolated more often than A(H1N1) in adults ≥65 years of age at all five coordinating sites. A total of 16 deaths and 20 intensive care unit admissions were recorded among patients with influenza. Conclusions Influenza strains resulting in hospitalization varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. These first-year results of the GIHSN are relevant, useful, and timely. Due to its broad regional representativeness and sustainable framework, this growing network should contribute substantially to understanding the

  2. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003

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    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. Methods We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. Results A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above. The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for Conclusion The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  3. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

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    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  4. Malaria and Other Vector-Borne Infection Surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Program: Review of 2009 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    Vector borne infections (VBIs) such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, scrub typhus , and plague comprise a significant proportion of the global...a VBI: scrub typhus (19), murine typhus (three), Japanese encephalitis (JE) (two), primary dengue infection (12), secondary dengue infection (nine...prioritized by GSRI, half are VBIs (malaria, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya, CCHF, sandfly fever, O’nyong-nyong, Sindbis virus, scrub typhus

  5. Políticas de género de ámbito global en el control y la prevención del tabaquismo Global gender policies in prevention and tobacco control

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    Isabel Nerín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las fases más avanzadas de la epidemia tabáquica muestran que las desigualdades sociales, en general, y las de género, en particular, favorecen el consumo de tabaco entre las mujeres y los grupos sociales más desfavorecidos. Dada la creciente prevalencia de tabaquismo entre las mujeres, resulta prioritario incorporar la perspectiva de género en el diseño de políticas de prevención y tratamiento del tabaquismo. Tras breve mención del marco global del control del tabaquismo, se describen las diferentes políticas con las estrategias mínimas que deberían incluir los aspectos específicos de género. Entre ellas se incluyen medidas de empoderamiento destinadas, en principio, a disminuir la desigualdad de género; medidas legislativas; medidas asistenciales y, por último, medidas relacionadas con la investigación y la evaluación, con el objetivo de incorporar la perspectiva de género tanto en la elaboración de políticas como en el análisis del problema.Later stages of the smoking epidemic show that social and gender inequalities increase tobacco use among women and more deprived social groups. Given that smoking prevalence among women is increasing adding gender perspective in the design of prevention and tobacco control policies is a priority. After a brief description of the overall frame of tobacco control, different policies including minimum strategies that should incorporate gender specific aspects are described. Among them, empowerment measures addressed to reduce gender inequities are included; legislative measures; health care measures; and lastly measures related to research and evaluation aiming to add gender perspective in tobacco policy implementation and analysis.

  6. Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements

  7. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-21

    The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents' self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  8. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS

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    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01 lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  9. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  10. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  11. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

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    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  12. The relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking in low and middle income countries: cross-sectional analysis of the global adult tobacco survey.

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    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is receiving growing attention due to accumulating evidence suggesting increasing prevalence in some populations and deleterious health effects. Nevertheless, the relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking remain unknown, particularly in low and middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed waterpipe and cigarette smoking using data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household survey of adults aged ≥15 years conducted between 2008-2010 in LMICs. Factors associated with waterpipe and cigarette use were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Factors associated with the quantity of waterpipe and cigarette smoking were assessed using log-linear regression models. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, residence, education, occupation and smokeless tobacco use, waterpipe smoking was significantly higher among cigarette users than in non-cigarette users in India (5.6% vs. 0.6%, AOR 13.12, 95% CI 7.41-23.23 and Russia (6.7% vs. 0.2%, AOR 27.73, 95% CI 11.41-67.43, but inversely associated in Egypt (2.6% vs. 3.4%, AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and not associated in Vietnam (13.3% vs. 4.7%, AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.23. Compared to non-cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers who also used cigarettes had more waterpipe smoking sessions per week in Russia (1.3 vs. 2.9, beta coefficient 0.31, 95% CI 0.06, 0.57, but less in Egypt (18.2 vs. 10.7, beta coefficient -0.45, 95% CI -0.73, -0.17 and Vietnam (102.0 vs. 79.3, beta coefficient -0.31, 95% CI -0.56, -0.06 and similar amounts in India (29.4 vs. 32.6, beta coefficient -0.12, 95% CI -0.46, 0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking is low in most LMICs but important country-level differences in use, including concurrent cigarette smoking, should be taken into account when designing and evaluating tobacco control interventions.

  13. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  14. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  15. The WHO Tobacco Convention: A New Dawn in the Implementation of International Health Instrument? Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durojaye, Ebenezer

    2017-07-05

    The Tobacco Convention was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. Nikogosian and Kickbusch examine the five potential impacts of the Tobacco Convention and its Protocol on public health. These include the adoption of the Convention would seem to unlock the treaty-making powers of WHO; the impact of the Convention in the global health architecture has been phenomenal globally; the Convention has facilitated the adoption of further instruments to strengthen its implementation at the national level; the Convention has led to the adoption of appropriate legal framework to combat the use of tobacco at the national level and that the impact of the Convention would seem to go beyond public health but has also led to the adoption of the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco. However, the article by Nikogosian and Kickbusch would seem to overlook some of the challenges that may militate against the effective implementation of international law, including the Tobacco Convention, at the national level. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  16. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  17. Contrasting trends of smoking cessation status: insights from the stages of change theory using data from the global adult tobacco survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarous Mbulo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Quitting tobacco use can reduce smokers' risks for disease and premature death. We used the trans-theoretical behavior change model to examine temporal differences in readiness to quit smoking among adults in five countries. Methods We analyzed two independent samples from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a standardized national adult household survey of persons aged ≥15 years, for five countries: Mexico (2009, 2015, Philippines (2010, 2016, Thailand (2009, 2011, Turkey (2008, 2012, and Vietnam (2010, 2016. Response rates ranged 82.5%-96.3% and sample sizes ranged 8,996-20,606. Current smokers were defined as adults who smoked tobacco on a daily or non-daily basis. Using responses to questions assessing intention to quit cigarette smoking, we categorized current smokers into the following stages of change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation. Relative change was compared using z-tests ( p < 0.05. Results No significant change in smoking prevalence between wave 1 and 2 occurred for Mexico (15.9% to 16.4%, Thailand (23.7% to 24.0%, or Vietnam (23.8% to 22.5%. In contrast, smoking prevalence declined for Philippines (28.2% to 22.7% and Turkey (31.2% to 27.1%. There was an increase in the proportion of smokers in the pre-contemplation stage in Thailand (76.1% to 85.4% and Vietnam (70.8% to 82.3%, while a decline occurred in Turkey (31.2% to 27.1%; no significant change occurred in Mexico or Philippines. The proportion of smokers in the contemplation stage declined in Thailand (17.6% to 12.0% and Vietnam (21.6% to 14.1%, but increased in Turkey (21.2% to 26.9%; no significant change occurred in Mexico or Philippines. The proportion in the preparation stage declined in Thailand (6.3% to 2.6% and Vietnam (7.6% to 3.6%; no significant changes occurred in, Mexico, Philippines, or Turkey. Conclusions Using the stages of change model, smokers' readiness to quit varies by country. Tailored interventions towards specific stages of

  18. Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, and Training on Cessation Counseling Among Nursing Students: Cross-Country Data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Jones

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nursing Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS has been conducted in schools in 39 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank (identified as “sites” for the remainder of this paper. In half the sites, over 20% of the students currently smoked cigarettes, with males having higher rates than females in 22 sites. Over 60% of students reported having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places in 23 of 39 sites. The majority of students recognized that they are role models in society, believed they should receive training on counseling patients to quit using tobacco, but few reported receiving any formal training. Tobacco control efforts must discourage tobacco use among health professionals, promote smoke free workplaces, and implement programs that train health professionals in effective cessation-counseling techniques.

  19. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  20. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  1. External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) of the WHO Global Salmonella Surveillance and Laboratory Support Project (Global Salm-Surv) Results from 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Evans, M.C.

    An international collaborative study on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial suscept...... of the quality control range specified by NCCLS guidelines....

  2. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Sarunya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Hsia, Jason; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Puckcharern, Hataichanok; Touchchai, Chitrlada; Lohtongmongkol, Areerat; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2013-03-27

    Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and

  3. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A global network for the control of snail-borne disease using satellite surveillance and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J B; Bergquist, N R; Huh, O K; Bavia, M E; Bernardi, M; El Bahy, M M; Fuentes, M V; Kristensen, T K; McCarroll, J C; Yilma, J M; Zhou, X N

    2001-04-27

    At a team residency sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation in Bellagio, Italy, 10-14 April 2000 an organizational plan was conceived to create a global network of collaborating health workers and earth scientists dedicated to the development of computer-based models that can be used for improved control programs for schistosomiasis and other snail-borne diseases of medical and veterinary importance. The models will be assembled using GIS methods, global climate model data, sensor data from earth observing satellites, disease prevalence data, the distribution and abundance of snail hosts, and digital maps of key environmental factors that affect development and propagation of snail-borne disease agents. A work plan was developed for research collaboration and data sharing, recruitment of new contributing researchers, and means of access of other medical scientists and national control program managers to GIS models that may be used for more effective control of snail-borne disease. Agreement was reached on the use of compatible GIS formats, software, methods and data resources, including the definition of a 'minimum medical database' to enable seamless incorporation of results from each regional GIS project into a global model. The collaboration plan calls for linking a 'central resource group' at the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, Louisiana State University and the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory with regional GIS networks to be initiated in Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Latin America and Southern Asia. An Internet site, www.gnosisGIS.org, (GIS Network On Snail-borne Infections with special reference to Schistosomiasis), has been initiated to allow interaction of team members as a 'virtual research group'. When completed, the site will point users to a toolbox of common resources resident on computers at member organizations, provide assistance on routine use of GIS health maps in selected national disease control

  5. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco’s perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. Results PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT’s Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. Conclusions PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level. PMID:21636611

  6. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  7. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control: An International Journal "A must read for potential or current lobbyists against ... a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  8. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  9. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  10. The Tobacco Industry and Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Bialous, Stella A; Glantz, Stanton

    2018-05-01

    The manufacture, use, and marketing of tobacco present a serious threat to children's right to health. This makes the Convention on the Rights of the Child a potentially powerful tobacco-control tool and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which oversees the convention's implementation, a potential leader in tobacco control. UNICEF actively supported tobacco control initiatives in the late 1990s, but since the early 2000s UNICEF's role in tobacco control has been minimal. Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents library, an online collection of previously secret tobacco industry documents, we sought to uncover information on the tobacco industry's ties with UNICEF. We found that from 1997 to 2000, when UNICEF was actively promoting tobacco control to support children's rights, the tobacco industry saw children's rights and UNICEF as potentially powerful threats to business that needed to be closely monitored and neutralized. The industry then positioned itself as a partner with UNICEF on youth smoking prevention initiatives as a way to avoid meaningful tobacco control measures that could save children's lives. After UNICEF's corporate engagement guidelines were loosened in 2003, tobacco companies successfully engaged with UNICEF directly and via front groups, including the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. This was part of an overall tobacco industry strategy to improve its corporate image, infiltrate the United Nations, and weaken global tobacco-control efforts. As part of its mission to protect children's rights, UNICEF should end all partnerships with the tobacco industry and its front groups. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  12. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  13. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  14. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play...

  15. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  16. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  19. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  20. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  2. Impact of a comprehensive law on the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain: evaluation of different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raña, P; Pérez-Ríos, M; Santiago-Pérez, M I; Crujeiras, R M

    2016-09-01

    Since 2011, smoking legislation was hardened in Spain, banning tobacco consumption in all hospitality venues. Law 42/2010 was the first comprehensive tobacco control policy enacted in Spain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect that this intervention has had in reducing the prevalence of tobacco consumption, setting up three scenarios on the basis of different theoretical levels of effect of the law. A predictive model based on Markov Chains was developed to distinguish the effect of tobacco control policies in different scenarios. The model developed uses population, smoking rates and smoking characteristics from a non-transmissible disease surveillance system developed in Galicia (namely SICRI). Results show that tobacco control policies hardly affect the predicted trend in a temporal frame of 10 years, with relative reduction in the predicted male smoking prevalence of 20.4% with no intervention, reaching a reduction of 26.1% under the maximum effect of the policies. In the global population the effects of the law in the predicted prevalence have been barely perceived. For people under 25 years of age, interventions have had an important and positive effect, which proves that policies affecting this age group should be hardened. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Weir, Hannah K; Carreira, Helena; Harewood, Rhea; Spika, Devon; Wang, Xiao-Si; Bannon, Finian; Ahn, Jane V; Johnson, Christopher J; Bonaventure, Audrey; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Chen, Wan-Qing; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Rachet, Bernard; Soeberg, Matthew J; You, Hui; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Storm, Hans; Tucker, Thomas C; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15–99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0–14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995–2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005–09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15–19% in North America, and as low as 7–9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10–20% between 1995–99 and 2005–09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer

  4. [The tobacco problem in French-speaking Africa and regional perspectives of the French-speaking African tobacco observatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Mokhtar Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    The tobacco problem is one which is both global and political. The epidemic and the growing smoking crisis in Africa is a menace to the health of our continent, with significant socio-economic repercussions to follow in the coming years. Approximately 1.1 billion people around the world smoke, and between now and the year 2025, this number will most likely increase to 1.6 billion. By 2030, 10 million tobacco-related deaths will have occurred, and for the most part those deaths will be concentrated in developing countries. The tobacco industry clearly lies at the heart of the development of the tobacco pandemic in the 20th century. Specifically, cigarettes have made tobacco a massively consumed product, constantly expanding and opening up new markets; the day before yesterday it was men, yesterday it was women and youth, and today it is the developing world. The strategy is identical: increase sales, and do goat a price which puts a heavy burden on the population's health. The industries turn themselves towards developing countries, and namely Africa, in order to compensate for their losses in the markets of the Northern Hemisphere at a time when the demand in these countries is decreasing. The industry's cynical strategy targets Africa as its strongest potential market for development, counting on an estimated increase in consumption of 16% over the next decade, according to WHO's recent World Tobacco Atlas. The illegal importation of cigarettes is a practice which is growing more and more within African countries, with a well-structured African network for smuggling. Smuggled cigarettes are even more toxic with very elevated levels of nicotine and tar. Sponsorship as well as direct and indirect advertising are rapidly developing in all kinds of formats, with a proliferation of aggressive advertising messages targeting African populations with cynicism, manipulation, the complicity of smuggling in broad daylight, and disrespect for the law, while exploiting all of

  5. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yuko; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-01-24

    Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  6. Smoke and mirrors: the Canadian tobacco war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Rob

    1996-01-01

    .... It explains how Canada emerged as a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco industry and describes in fascinating detail the bitter campaigns to maintain high...

  7. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  8. A behavioral economics perspective on tobacco taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2010-04-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally.

  9. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  10. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  11. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem against Carbapenemase-Positive Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Collected by the SMART Global Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Lob, Sibylle H; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella oxytoca , and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC ( n = 794), OXA-48-like ( n = 300), and NDM ( n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 1,127), Escherichia coli ( n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae ( n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  13. Global surveillance of emerging diseases: the ProMED-mail perspective Vigilância global de doenças emergentes: a perspectiva da ProMED-mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Woodall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is changing the way global disease surveillance is conducted. Countries and international organizations are increasingly placing their outbreak reports on the Internet, which speeds up distribution and therefore prevention and control. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the value of nongovernmental organizations and the media in reporting outbreaks, which it then attempts to verify through its country offices. However, WHO and other official sources are constrained in their reporting by the need for bureaucratic clearance. ProMED-mail has no such constraints, and posts outbreak reports 7 days a week. It is moderated by infectious disease specialists who add relevant comments. Thus, ProMED-mail complements official sources and provides early warning of outbreaks. Its network is more than 20,000 people in over 150 countries, who place their computers and time at the network's disposal and report on outbreaks of which they have knowledge. Regions and countries could benefit from adopting the ProMED-mail approach to complement their own disease surveillance systems.A Internet está mudando a condução da vigilância global de doenças. Cada vez mais, os países e as organizações internacionais estão divulgando seus informes na Internet, o que acelera não apenas a distribuição desta informação, como também, consequentemente, a prevenção e controle das doenças. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS já reconheceu a importância das ONGs e da imprensa na notificação de surtos, que procura verificar posteriormente através de suas agências locais. Entretanto, a OMS e outras fontes oficiais sofrem restrições em seus relatórios pela obrigatoriedade da autorização burocrática, além de só publicarem informes nos dias úteis. A ProMED-mail não está sujeita a tais restrições. A rede é moderada por especialistas em doenças infecciosas, que acrescentam comentários relevantes. Assim, a Pro

  14. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  15. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  16. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  17. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  18. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  19. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  20. The Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program: Technical Report on Program Methods for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available To request col lection kits, use the current ve rsion of the “Supply Orde r Form ” avai lable (under...Influenza Surveillance Program Sentinel Sites • Order the “RESPIRATORY CULTURE PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available • Submit 6-10 specimens

  1. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  2. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  3. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  4. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  5. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  6. Turbo-charging tobacco control in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco use globally and in. South Africa. Tobacco continues to be the leading cause of death and disease worldwide.[1] Globally, the prevalence of smoking among adults decreased between 1980 and 2012 from 41% to 31% for men and from 11% to 6% for women, yet the number of smokers increased to nearly 1 billion ...

  7. Addressing conflicts between public health and tobacco production

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measures to control tobacco use will suppress global ... product that goes into global markets. .... lie elsewhere and are grounded in the business model of the ... Today,. 90% of commercial tobacco leaf is grown in LMICs, com- pared to much ...

  8. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It aims to fill critical gaps in tobacco tax and price research in China, an area ... to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South. ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  9. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  10. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  11. Effects of individual characteristics and school environment on cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15: A multilevel analysis of the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Quynh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Vietnam ages 13-15 and examines its relationship with compositional and contextual factors. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in nine provinces in Vietnam. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to analyse the association between the current incidence of cigarette smoking and factors on both the individual and school level. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among students was 3.3% overall. The prevalence of smoking among male students (5.9%) was higher than that among females (1.2%). Parental smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking among the students. Having a friend who smoked was the strongest predictor of smoking status among the study subjects. We have demonstrated that school-level factors appeared to impact the prevalence of cigarette smoking among students ages 13-15. This paper highlights the importance of utilising an extensive range of actions to prevent students from using tobacco in Vietnam. These actions should include providing specific curricula for students that address both individual characteristics and the school environment. Further, prevention programmes should also target both parental- and peer-smoking issues.

  12. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  13. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  14. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  15. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  16. Tobacco Dependence Treatment Grants: A Collaborative Approach to the Implementation of WHO Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret B. Nolan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of global tobacco-related deaths is projected to increase from about 6 million to 8 million annually by 2030, with more than 80% of these occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC came into force in 2005 and Article 14 relates specifically to the treatment of tobacco dependence. However, LMICs, in particular, face several barriers to implementing tobacco dependence treatment. This paper is a descriptive evaluation of a novel grant funding mechanism that was initiated in 2014 to address these barriers. Global Bridges. Healthcare Alliance for Tobacco Dependence Treatment aims to create and mobilize a global network of healthcare professionals and organizations dedicated to advancing evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment and advocating for effective tobacco control policy. A 2014 request for proposals (RFP focused on these goals, particularly in LMICs, where funding for this work had been previously unavailable. 19 grants were awarded by Global Bridges to organizations in low- and middle-income countries across all six WHO regions. Virtually all focused on developing a tobacco dependence treatment curriculum for healthcare providers, while also influencing the political environment for Article 14 implementation. As a direct result of these projects, close to 9,000 healthcare providers have been trained in tobacco dependence treatment and an estimated 150,000 patients have been offered treatment. Because most of these projects are designed with a “train-the-trainer” component, two years of grant funding has been a tremendous catalyst for accelerating change in tobacco dependence treatment practices throughout the world. In order to foster such exponential growth and continue to maintain the impact of these projects, ongoing financial, educational, and professional commitments are required.

  17. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  18. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  20. Using Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance as a Platform for Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilak, Steven G F; Williams, Cheryl L; Murrill, Christopher S; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Tangermann, Rudolf H

    2017-07-01

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitud......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  3. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-02-18

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.

  4. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  5. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  6. Effect of Anti-Tobacco Audiovisual Messages on Knowledge and Attitude towards Tobacco Use in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. Aims: To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Settings and Design: Interventional community-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above, irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site. In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Results: Overall 784 (39.2% subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%, imitating elders (53.4% and imitating celebrity (63.5%. Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%. Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people′s attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. Conclusions: The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use.

  7. Effect of Anti-Tobacco Audiovisual Messages on Knowledge and Attitude towards Tobacco Use in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Kishore, Jugal; Kumar, Monika

    2012-10-01

    Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Interventional community-based study. A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above), irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site). In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Overall 784 (39.2%) subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%), imitating elders (53.4%) and imitating celebrity (63.5%). Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%). Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people's attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use.

  8. They’re heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E.; Ayers, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn’s rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes’ rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco

  9. They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore L Caputi

    Full Text Available Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574 between their first (2015 and second (2016 complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173 between the products second (2016 and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017. There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79 during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep, with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490 times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304 compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13. Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing

  10. They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E; Ayers, John W

    2017-01-01

    Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco

  11. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    ground" to reduce consumption and social acceptability. To do this, we need to take back social spaces that the tobacco industry has laid claim to through advertising. Active monitoring and surveillance of tobacco advertising strategies is necessary and legislation and enforcement to curb the industry should be put in place.

  12. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@cdc.gov Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  13. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  14. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  15. Youth tobacco use in South-East Asia: Implications for tobacco epidemic and options for its control in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Agarwal, Naveen

    2017-09-01

    Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database. More than 10% of 13-15-year-old adolescent students reported tobacco use in 8 out of 11 countries. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco exceeded that of cigarettes except in Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor-Leste. No consistent declining trends in tobacco use were observed in any of the countries with 3 or more data points. More than half of all daily smokers aged 20-34 years initiated "daily" smoking before 20 years of age. 19% (Bangladesh) to 55% (Timor-Leste) of 13-17-year old students tried their first cigarette before their 14th birthday. Majority of adolescent students in most of the SEAR countries reported purchasing their cigarettes from store/shop/vendor and as single sticks, with few exceptions and purchased them as "single" cigarette. There is a limited change in affordability of cigarettes in SEAR over time. Tobacco use remains high among youth in SEAR. Efforts should be strengthened to fully implement/enforce recommended policy measures (legal minimum age, fiscal measures to reduce tobacco affordability; prohibiting sale of single cigarettes, etc.) and to explore new measures (e.g., tobacco-free generation).

  16. A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products by 2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-03-14

    The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  18. Aiding surveillance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    arashid

    8 See, for example, the work of the Center for Global Development, ..... toward social protection, cash transfer, or social safety net programs as effective tools for .... that the [MIS] will fit within the users' work environment and be useful to them.

  19. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  20. Tobacco smuggling estimates based on pack examination in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette pack examination as a part of tobacco surveillance allows estimating the proportion of cigarettes brought from other countries, part of which could be smuggled. This information can be used for counterbalancing the industry's statements, which usually overestimate the level of cigarette smuggling.

  1. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  2. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  3. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  4. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: An analytical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT With 30% of the world’s smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. The article discusses the core questions to be addressed and presents an analytical framework for assessing the globalisation strategies of Asian tobacco firms. The article also discusses the selection of the five case studies, namely as independent companies in Asia which have demonstrated concerted ambitions to be a major player in the world market. PMID:27884083

  5. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    With 30% of the world’s smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. The article discusses the core questions to be addressed and presents an analytical framework for assessing the globalisation strategies of Asian tobacco firms. The article also discusses the selection of the five case studies, namely as independent companies in Asia which have demonstrated concerted ambitions to be a major player in the world market.

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  7. Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus share similar demographics, health problems, ... Tobacco taxation policies remain one of the most effective tobacco control ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ... (DHSC)—are partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  8. An overview of tobacco control and prevention policy status in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; English, Lorna McLeod; Ramanandraibe, Nivo

    2016-10-01

    Tobacco smoking prevalence remains low in many African countries. However, growing economies and the increased presence of multinational tobacco companies in the African Region have the potential to contribute to increasing tobacco use rates in the future. This paper used data from the 2014 Global Progress Report on implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), as well as the 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, to describe the status of tobacco control and prevention efforts in countries in the WHO African Region relative to the provisions of the WHO FCTC and MPOWER package. Among the 23 countries in the African Region analyzed, there are large variations in the overall WHO FCTC implementation rates, ranging from 9% in Sierra Leone to 78% in Kenya. The analysis of MPOWER implementation status indicates that opportunities exist for the African countries to enhance compliance with WHO recommended best practices for monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from tobacco smoke, offering help to quit tobacco use, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing bans on tobacco advertising and promotion, and raising taxes on tobacco products. If tobacco control interventions are successfully implemented, African nations could avert a tobacco-related epidemic, including premature death, disability, and the associated economic, development, and societal costs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Contextual Factors Related to Conventional and Traditional Tobacco Use Among California Asian Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Mistry, Ritesh; Maxwell, Annette E; Divan, Hozefa A; McCarthy, William J

    2018-04-01

    California's tobacco control program contracted for tobacco use surveillance of Asian Indian Americans to address the paucity of information about tobacco use in this community, given their growing proportion of California's population. This study examined correlates of conventional (CTU) and Asian Indian traditional tobacco use (TTU) in a population-based sample of predominantly immigrant Asian Indian adults residing in California (N = 3228). The analytic sample (n = 2140) was limited to self-identified immigrants from India. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine correlates of tobacco use among Asian Indian immigrants related to their acculturation and religious affiliation. While 65% of the sample had ever used traditional tobacco products (paan masala, gutka, bidis), only 25% had ever used conventional tobacco (cigarettes, cigar, pipe, chewing tobacco, snuff). Less than 5% reported tobacco use in the past 30 days. Rates of ever TTU and CTU were higher among men than women. Ethnic enclave residence was not associated with tobacco use. Impaired mental health was associated with CTU, and number of years spent in the U.S. was positively associated with both CTU and TTU. Individuals affiliated with Sikhism were less likely to use tobacco than individuals affiliated with Hinduism. Few population-based studies in the U.S. address both CTU and TTU use among Asian Indian immigrants. Tobacco use in Asian Indian immigrants may be seriously underestimated if surveillance is limited to conventional tobacco products. Interventions to reduce tobacco use should address mental health issues and consider religious affiliation.

  10. Use of corporate sponsorship as a tobacco marketing tool: a review of tobacco industry sponsorship in the USA, 1995-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N J; Siegel, M

    2001-09-01

    To describe the nature and extent of tobacco company sponsorship in the USA during the period 1995-99 and analyse this sponsorship in a marketing context. A cross-sectional study of tobacco company sponsorships identified through a customised research report from IEG Inc, and from internet web site searches. First, a customised report was received from IEG Inc, which identified sponsorship activities for Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, Lorillard, and US Tobacco for the years 1997 and 1998. Second, the internet was systematically searched for tobacco industry sponsorships during the period 1995-99 by the same parent companies and their respective brands. During the period 1995-99, tobacco companies sponsored at least 2733 events, programmes, and organisations in the USA. Sponsorships involved all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and the minimum total funding amount of these sponsorships was $365.4 million. Tobacco corporate sponsorships involved numerous small, community based organisations, both through direct funding and through grants to larger umbrella organisations, and many of these organisations were part of the public health infrastructure. Tobacco corporate sponsorship serves as an important marketing tool for tobacco companies, serving both a sales promotion and public relations function. Public health practitioners need to develop better surveillance systems for monitoring tobacco sponsorship, to seek out alternative funding sources for tobacco company sponsored events and organisations, and to consider promoting a ban on tobacco sponsorship, possibly linking such regulation to the creation of alternative funding sources.

  11. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  12. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Brock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  13. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  14. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa.

  15. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  16. Evolutionary ARMS Race: Antimalarial Resistance Molecular Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Christiane; Meyer, Wieland; Ellis, John; Lee, Rogan

    2018-04-01

    Molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers has become an important part of resistance detection and containment. In the current climate of multidrug resistance, including resistance to the global front-line drug artemisinin, there is a consensus to upscale molecular surveillance. The most salient limitation to current surveillance efforts is that skill and infrastructure requirements preclude many regions. This includes sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most of the global malaria disease burden. New molecular and data technologies have emerged with an emphasis on accessibility. These may allow surveillance to be conducted in broad settings where it is most needed, including at the primary healthcare level in endemic countries, and extending to the village health worker. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro activity of Ceftaroline against bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries: AWARE global surveillance program 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Iaconis, Joseph P; Sahm, Daniel F

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to document antimicrobial susceptibility testing surveillance data for ceftaroline and comparative agents from the AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) global surveillance program for bacterial pathogens causing skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract infections in African and Middle Eastern countries from 2012 through 2014. Pathogen identities were confirmed by MALDI-TOF and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by CLSI broth microdilution methodology in a central laboratory. All methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n= 923; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL) and 91.8% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n= 1161; MIC90, 1 μg/mL) tested were susceptible to ceftaroline. The maximum ceftaroline MIC observed for isolates of MRSA was 2 μg/mL. All Streptococcus pyogenes (n= 174; MIC90, 0.008 μg/mL), Streptococcus agalactiae (n= 44; MIC90, 0.015 μg/mL), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n= 351; MIC90, 0.25 μg/mL), and Haemophilus influenzae (n= 84; MIC90, ≤0.015 μg/mL) were susceptible to ceftaroline. Rates of susceptibility to ceftaroline among ESBL-negative Escherichia coli (n= 338), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 241), and Klebsiella oxytoca (n= 97) were 89.1% (MIC90, 1 μg/mL), 94.2% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), and 99.0% (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Associations of Adolescents' Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Dual Tobacco Use With Parental Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Dierking, Leah; Kheriallah, Khalid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Pbert, Lori; Ward, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Little is known, however, about how parental tobacco use is related to waterpipe and dual waterpipe/cigarette use, which is increasing dramatically in the Arab countries. Study data (n = 34 788, N = 6 109 572) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in 17 Arab countries. Study outcome was adolescents' tobacco use categorized into none, cigarette smoking only, waterpipe smoking (WPS) only, and dual use. Primary exposure included parental tobacco use categorized into 10 groups-maternal (mother) cigarette smoking only, maternal WPS only, maternal dual use, paternal (father) cigarette smoking only, paternal WPS only, paternal dual use, parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking only, parental WPS only, parental dual use, and none. Weighted multinomial regression models were conducted to assess the relationships. Adolescents reported smoking WPS only (5.7%), cigarettes only (2.9%), and dual use (3.5%). Compared to adolescent with no exposure to parental tobacco use, adolescent exposure to parental dual use was associated with significant increase in WPS only (OR = 6.08, 95% CI = 2.38-15.51) and dual use (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.43-10.43). Effect modification of the relationship by adolescents' sex was observed. This is the first study to examine adolescent cigarette, waterpipe, and dual use with parental tobacco use. Study findings may help development of cessation interventions targeting parental tobacco use to prevent the rising waterpipe and dual use strain of the global tobacco epidemic. (1) Influence of parents' cigarette smoking on adolescents' smoking has been demonstrated in earlier studies, however, little is known about how tobacco use behaviors of mother and father influences an adolescent's cigarette, waterpipe and dual cigarette/waterpipe use. (2) Associations of parental (both

  19. Characterizing Social Interaction in Tobacco-Oriented Social Networks: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-06-19

    Social media is becoming a new battlefield for tobacco "wars". Evaluating the current situation is very crucial for the advocacy of tobacco control in the age of social media. To reveal the impact of tobacco-related user-generated content, this paper characterizes user interaction and social influence utilizing social network analysis and information theoretic approaches. Our empirical studies demonstrate that the exploding pro-tobacco content has long-lasting effects with more active users and broader influence, and reveal the shortage of social media resources in global tobacco control. It is found that the user interaction in the pro-tobacco group is more active, and user-generated content for tobacco promotion is more successful in obtaining user attention. Furthermore, we construct three tobacco-related social networks and investigate the topological patterns of these tobacco-related social networks. We find that the size of the pro-tobacco network overwhelms the others, which suggests a huge number of users are exposed to the pro-tobacco content. These results indicate that the gap between tobacco promotion and tobacco control is widening and tobacco control may be losing ground to tobacco promotion in social media.

  20. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion Among the Adult Population in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Van Anh, Tran Thi; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Linh, Tran Nu Quy; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-10-01

    The Law on Tobacco Control and the Law on Advertisement prohibit the advertising of any tobacco product in Vietnam. Tobacco promotion and marketing are alsostrictly prohibited. However, the violation of tobacco adverting and promotion is still common in Vietnam. This article aims at describing the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion among the population aged 15+ years in Vietnam based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 from the view of the community, identifying any possible associations between the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and other individual factors, and discussing its possible public health implications. A cross-sectional study with the nationwide scale. Secondary data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 was explored and analyzed. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were applied in the data analysis. The most common type of adults' exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion was points of sale (8.6%); 9.8% adults exposure to one source of tobacco advertising and 4.0% of them exposed to one source of tobacco promotion. Around 13.3% of Vietnamese adults were exposed to tobacco advertisement, while 2.0% were exposed to tobacco promotion, 5.3% were exposed to both tobacco advertising and promotion, and 16.6% were exposed to tobacco advertising or promotion. Gender, educational level, age, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, location (urban, rural), and current smoking status were associated with the exposure to tobacco advertising, tobacco promotion, tobacco advertising and promotion, and tobacco advertising or promotion. Although there are comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam, adults aged 15+ years still reported their exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion. There should be a strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam.

  1. Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Abascal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Materials and methods. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Results. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  2. [Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, Winston; Lorenzo, Ana

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  3. US tobacco export to Third World: Third World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J

    1992-01-01

    Global tobacco-related mortality will rise from the current 2.5 million to over 10 million annually by 2050. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries, where legislative controls and other measures that succeed in limiting the use of tobacco in industrialized countries do not exist or are at best inadequate. Of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns that include specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. The transnational tobacco companies advertise and market in ways long banned in the United States, for example, selling cigarettes without health warnings, advertising on television, and selling cigarettes with higher tar content than the same cigarettes sold in the United States. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries, where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low. The transnational tobacco companies interfere with the national public health laws of developing countries via political and commercial pressures to open markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This has led to an increase in market share by foreign cigarettes, but evidence also points to market expansion, especially among young people. The entry of the transnationals leads to a collapse of national tobacco monopolies or to their changing from unsophisticated government departments that may still cooperate with health initiatives on tobacco to copying the aggressive marketing and promotional behavior of the transnationals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  5. Understanding the vector in order to plan effective tobacco control policies: an analysis of contemporary tobacco industry materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B

    2012-03-01

    This paper builds on tobacco document research by analysing contemporary materials to explore how the global tobacco market has changed, how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) are responding and the implications for tobacco control. The methods involved analysis of a variety of materials, including tobacco company annual reports, investor relations materials, financial analyst reports, market research reports and data. Once China, where TTCs have little market share, is excluded, global cigarette volumes are already declining. Nevertheless, industry profits continue to increase. This pattern is explained by the pricing power of TTCs-their ability to increase prices faster than volumes fall, a consequence of market failure. Pricing power is now fundamental to the long term future of TTCs. Consequently, and in light of growing regulations, the business model of the TTCs is changing. Product innovation is now a key marketing technique used to drive consumers to buy more expensive (ie, profitable) premium cigarettes. Contrary to established wisdom, high tobacco excise rates, particularly where increases in excise are gradual, can benefit TTCs by enabling price (profit) increases to be disguised. Large intermittent tax increases likely have a greater public health benefit. TTC investments in smokeless tobacco appear designed to eliminate competition between smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, thereby increasing the pricing power of TTCs while enabling them to harness the rhetoric of harm reduction. Monitoring TTCs can inform effective policy development. The value maximising approach of TTCs suggests that a ban on product innovation and more informed tobacco excise policies are needed.

  6. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of quinupristin/dalfopristin tested against gram-positive cocci from Latin America: results from the Global SMART (GSMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sader Helio S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive cocci are important causes of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, and antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens has become an important problem worldwide. Since resistance among these organisms can vary substantially by geographic location, we conducted a multicenter surveillance study with isolates from five Latin American countries (15 medical centers. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (formerly RP-59500 is a novel streptogramin combination with focused activity against Gram-positive cocci, many exhibiting emerging resistance. The in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 12 other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 1,948 strains including Staphylococcus aureus (747 strains, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 446 strains, enterococci (429 strains, and various Streptococcus spp. (326 strains. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 41% of S. aureus (MIC, or = 13 mm and 40% of CoNS (MIC, or = 18 mm. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, 0.25 - 1 mug/ml remained effective against all strains, but cross-resistance was high among other tested drugs. The quinupristin/dalfopristin MIC50 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci was only 0.5 mug/ml (13% to 28% were penicillin-resistant; 12% to 22% were macrolide-resistant. Enterococci demonstrated variable inhibition by quinupristin/dalfopristin depending upon identification and the susceptibility testing method used. The demonstrated quinupristin/dalfopristin activity against Enterococcus faecium was confirmed, but potential species identification errors with various commercial systems continue to confuse susceptibility statistics, even though some strains of E. faecium confirmed by PCR-based or other molecular identification techniques did have quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs of > or = 4 mug/mL. Most important, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci are rapidly emerging in Latin America, and quinupristin/dalfopristin appears

  8. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  9. Is Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship Associated with Initiation of Tobacco Use among Current Tobacco Users in Youth in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Mohini; Goel, Sonu; Gupta, Madhu; Sardana, Veera; Singh, B S

    2015-01-01

    The rise in consumption of tobacco products among youth is a public health concern in India. Several studies have shown that advertisements promoting tobacco products influence decisions and behaviour of youth towards smoking. To ascertain which method of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion and Sponsorship (TAPS) was more influential for initiating tobacco use in youth in India. The secondary data of youth (15-24 years) from nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-2010 was analyzed. Odds ratio and p-value were used to know the association between TAPS and initiation of use of tobacco products among youth. Logistic regression was used to determine the most significant means of TAPS altering the youth's behaviour towards tobacco products. Out of 13,383 youths, 1,982 (14.7%) used smokeless forms of tobacco and 860 (6.38%) used smoke forms. Logistic regression reveals that promotional activities mainly through cinemas (padvertisements particularly in cinema and promotional activities like distribution of free samples, coupons and sales on the price of tobacco products. Stronger legislative measures should be enforced to curb promotional advertisements in cinemas and distribution of free samples.

  10. Tobacco smoking in Mongolia: findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Nehme, Jessica; Otgontuya, Dugee; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Enkhtuya, Palam

    2014-02-28

    In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a national NCDs knowledge, attitudes and practices survey focusing, among other things, on NCD risk factors was implemented in Mongolia in late 2010 to complement the previous WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance Survey (STEPS) findings from 2009. This publication explores the smoking-related findings of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAPS). A nationally representative sample size was calculated using methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPS surveys. As a result, 3450 people from across Mongolia were selected using a multi-stage, random cluster sampling method from permanent residents aged between 15 and 64 years. The KAP survey questionnaire was interviewer-administered on a door-to-door basis. In Mongolia at 2010, 46.3% of males and 6.8% of females were smokers. This practice was especially dominant among males and urban dwellers (MOR 2.2), and more so among the middle-aged (45-54) (MOR 2.1) while still displaying a high prevalence among Mongolian youth (15.5%). The probability of smoking was independent of the level of education. Although the level of awareness of the health hazards related to tobacco smoking was generally very high in the population, this was influenced by the level of education as more people with a primary and secondary level of education believed that smoking at least one pack of cigarette per day was required to harm one's health (MOR 5.8 for primary education and 2.5 for secondary). Finally, this knowledge did not necessarily translate into a

  11. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  14. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  15. Population Immunity against Serotype-2 Poliomyelitis Leading up to the Global Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine: Spatio-temporal Modelling of Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Molodecky, Natalie A; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana M; Etsano, Andrew; Vaz, Rui Gama; Jafari, Hamid; Grassly, Nicholas C; Blake, Isobel M

    2016-10-01

    Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan. Population immunity was estimated from the vaccination histories of children poliomyelitis. District immunity estimates were spatio-temporally smoothed using a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Coverage estimates for immunisation activities were also obtained, allowing for heterogeneity within and among districts. Forward projections of immunity, based on these estimates and planned immunisation activities, were produced through to April 2016 using a cohort model. Estimated population immunity was negatively correlated with the probability of VDPV2 poliomyelitis being reported in a district. In Nigeria and Pakistan, declines in immunity during 2008-2009 and 2012-2013, respectively, were associated with outbreaks of VDPV2. Immunity has since improved in both countries as a result of increased use of trivalent OPV, and projections generally indicated sustained or improved immunity in April 2016, such that the majority of districts (99% [95% uncertainty interval 97%-100%] in Nigeria and 84% [95% uncertainty interval 77%-91%] in Pakistan) had >70% population immunity among children poliomyelitis was forecasted to improve in April 2016 compared to the first half of 2015 in Nigeria and Pakistan. These analyses informed the endorsement of OPV2 withdrawal in April 2016 by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization.

  16. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  17. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  18. New Tobacco and Tobacco-Related Products: Early Detection of Product Development, Marketing Strategies, and Consumer Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Yvonne Cm; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Havermans, Anne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-05-28

    A wide variety of new tobacco and tobacco-related products have emerged on the market in recent years. To understand their potential implications for public health and to guide tobacco control efforts, we have used an infoveillance approach to identify new tobacco and tobacco-related products. Our search for tobacco(-related) products consists of several tailored search profiles using combinations of keywords such as "e-cigarette" and "new" to extract information from almost 9000 preselected sources such as websites of online shops, tobacco manufacturers, and news sites. Developments in e-cigarette design characteristics show a trend toward customization by possibilities to adjust temperature and airflow, and by the large variety of flavors of e-liquids. Additionally, more e-cigarettes are equipped with personalized accessories, such as mobile phones, applications, and Bluetooth. Waterpipe products follow the trend toward electronic vaping. Various heat-not-burn products were reintroduced to the market. Our search for tobacco(-related) products was specific and timely, though advances in product development require ongoing optimization of the search strategy. Our results show a trend toward products resembling tobacco cigarettes vaporizers that can be adapted to the consumers' needs. Our search for tobacco(-related) products could aid in the assessment of the likelihood of new products to gain market share, as a possible health risk or as an indicator for the need on independent and reliable information of the product to the general public. ©Yvonne CM Staal, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Anne Havermans, Reinskje Talhout. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 28.05.2018.

  19. Invitro activity of imipenem-relebactam against gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections in the United States in 2015 - Results from the SMART global surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Hackel, Meredith A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Hoban, Daryl J; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor relebactam inactivates class A β-lactamases, including KPC-type carbapenemases, and class C β-lactamases. Relebactam combined with imipenem is in clinical development for several indications, including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Employing CLSI-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the activities of imipenem-relebactam (using imipenem MIC breakpoints) and comparators against non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae (n=853) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=598) isolated from lower respiratory tract infection samples in 20 hospital laboratories in the United States participating in the 2015 SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program. Imipenem-relebactam and imipenem susceptibilities were 97.2% and 91.6% for non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae and 93.1% and 68.1% for P. aeruginosa. Relebactam restored imipenem susceptibility to 66.7% and 78.5% of imipenem-non-susceptible non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n=72) and P. aeruginosa (n=191), respectively. Further development of imipenem-relebactam as therapy for lower respiratory tract infections is warranted given relebactam's ability to restore activity to imipenem against non-susceptible non-Proteeae Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents against a global collection of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms: tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial 2004 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Mark W; Mutters, Reinier; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial began in 2004 to monitor the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents against a global collection of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. Against Gram negatives (n = 63 699), tigecycline MIC(90)'s ranged from 0.25 to 2 mg/L for Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (but was > or =32 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Against Gram-positive organisms (n = 32 218), tigecycline MIC(90)'s were between 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro activity of tigecycline was maintained against resistant phenotypes, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (9.2% of isolates), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli (7.0%) and K. pneumoniae (14.0%), beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae (22.2%), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (44.5%), vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (45.9%) and E. faecalis (2.8%), and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (13.8%). Tigecycline represents a welcome addition to the armamentarium against difficult to treat organisms.

  1. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  2. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  3. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  4. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  5. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  6. Tobacco use among urban school boys of Paschim Midnapore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashok Kumar; Sarkar, Jhuma

    2010-09-01

    To assess the prevalence, perception and pattern of tobacco use among 13-15-year-old urban school boys along with associated factors of tobacco use. A cross sectional, observational, study was carried out among 454 urban school boys aged 13-15 years studying in VIII, IX, X using self administered modified Global Youth Tobacco Survey Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution tables, proportion, line diagram, chi square test as required. Out of 454 students, 201(44.3%) were ever users of tobacco whereas 135(29.7%) were current users. Majority of the current users utilized both form of tobacco. Initiation of tobacco before 10 years were more in smokeless (11.4%) form than smoking (4.5%), but smokers showed steep rise (49.3%) at 14-15 years. Proportion of current users significantly (p pocket money. Compared to non-users current users had more exposure to tobacco in the family and friends. Both current users and nonusers showed positive attitude towards tobacco use. Though knowledge of harmful effects of tobacco was well perceived but significantly more (p < 0.005) non-users had shown interest to prohibit smoking in public places. More non-users (75%) than ever users (26.4%) had shown favourable opinion regarding future tobacco use. Due increased exposure to the world through several ways and increased modern amenities to influence teenagers, there is high prevalence, average perception and variable patterns of tobacco at Midnapore town where tobacco is trapping teenagers which needs proper intervention.

  7. Tobacco industry's ITGA fights FCTC implementation in the Uruguay negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary

    2012-11-01

    To illustrate how the tobacco industry' front group, the International Tobacco Growers Association (ITGA), mobilised tobacco farmers to influence the fourth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP4) negotiations and defeat the adoption of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Articles 9 and 10 Guidelines and Articles 17 and 18 progress report. A review of COP4 documents on Articles 9, 10, 17 and 18 was triangulated with relevant information from tobacco industry reports, websites of British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International and ITGA, presentations by tobacco industry executives and internal industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website. Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco rejected Articles 9 and 10 draft Guidelines claiming that banning ingredients in cigarettes will render burley leaf less commercially viable making tobacco growers in many countries suffer economic consequences. They claimed the terms 'attractiveness' and 'palatability' are not appropriate regulatory standards. The ITGA launched a global campaign to mobilise farmers to reject the draft Guidelines at COP4 in Uruguay. Tobacco producers, Brazil, Philippines, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe, sent large delegations to COP4 and participated actively in the negotiation on the draft Guidelines. Partial Guidelines on Articles 9 and 10 on product regulation and disclosure were adopted. COP4's work on Article 17 provides guidance on viable alternatives, but the ITGA is opposed to this and continues fight crop substitution. Despite ITGA's international campaign to thwart the Guidelines on Articles 9 and 10 and a strong representation from tobacco-growing countries at COP4, the outcome after intense negotiations was the adoption of Partial Guidelines and work on Articles 17 and 18 to proceed.

  8. The economics of tobacco use in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an independent survey of tobacco use in Jordan following the methods and template of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Using data collected on cigarette use and cigarette prices, we estimated the price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimate the impact of prices on the decision to smoke while controlling for individual demographic and environmental characteristics. Conditional on smoking, we then estimate the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan was estimated to be -0.6. Smoking among women was found to be relatively unresponsive to price (elasticity of -0.01), whereas smoking among men was much more responsive to price (elasticity of -0.81). The price elasticity estimates suggest that significant increases in tobacco taxes are likely to be effective in reducing smoking in Jordan, particularly smoking among men.

  9. Trends in US newspaper and television coverage of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David E; Pederson, Linda L; Mowery, Paul; Bailey, Sarah; Sevilimedu, Varadan; London, Joel; Babb, Stephen; Pechacek, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The news media plays an important role in agenda setting and framing of stories about tobacco control. The purpose of this study was to examine newspaper, newswire and television coverage of tobacco issues in the USA over a 7-year period. Analyses of 2004-2010 news media surveillance system data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health, based on content analysis and quantitative methods. Information on extent of news coverage, and types of tobacco-related themes, were examined from articles in 10 newspapers and 2 major newswires, as well as transcripts from 6 national television networks. The overall extent of newspaper, newswire and television stories about tobacco, and level of coverage by specific media outlets, varied over time, especially for newspapers. Nevertheless, there was an average of 3 newspaper stories, 4 newswire stories, and 1 television tobacco-related story each day. Television stories were more likely to contain cessation/addiction or health effects/statistics themes and less likely to contain secondhand smoke or policy/regulation themes than newspaper/newswire stories. There was more variation in the choice of tobacco theme among individual newspapers/newswires than television media outlets. News coverage of tobacco in the USA was relatively constant from 2004 to 2010. Audiences were more likely to be exposed to different tobacco themes in newspapers/newswires than on television. Tracking information about tobacco news stories can be used by advocates, programs and others for planning and evaluation, and by researchers for hypothesis generation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Adult recall of tobacco advertising on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Delnevo, Cristine D; Lewis, M Jane

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of New Jersey adults who reported seeing tobacco products advertised on the Internet and described the means by which these products were advertised. Data were analyzed from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey (NJATS), a repeated, cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted with a statewide representative sample. We used logistic regression to determine factors associated with recall of tobacco Internet advertising, adjusting for demographics, smoking behavior variables, and receipt of tobacco industry direct mail. Participants included 3,930 adults who completed the 2001 NJATS, 4,004 adults who completed the 2002 survey, and 3,062 adults who completed the 2005 survey. The proportion of adult Internet users reporting exposure to tobacco product advertising on the Internet has increased each year (6.9% in 2001, 15.6% in 2002, 17.8% in 2005). Based on 2005 data, recall of tobacco product advertising on the Internet was higher among males young adults aged 18-24 years, Asians, adults who reported receipt of direct mail advertising, and adults with a postcollege education. In addition, adult Internet users most often reported seeing tobacco products advertised on the Internet via pop-up or banner ads (60.7%), followed by E-mail messages (24.6%), and Web sites (14.9%). Recall of tobacco advertising by Internet users increased between 2001 and 2005 and was particularly high among certain subgroups. An urgent need exists for expanded surveillance of Internet tobacco sales and marketing practices.

  11. Maternal and newborn outcomes in Pakistan compared to other low and middle income countries in the Global Network's Maternal Newborn Health Registry: an active, community-based, pregnancy surveillance mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Omrana; Saleem, Sarah; Ali, Sumera; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Garces, Ana; Esamai, Fabian; Patel, Archana; Chomba, Elwyn; Althabe, Fernando; Moore, Janet L; Harrison, Margo; Berrueta, Mabel B; Hambidge, K; Krebs, Nancy F; Hibberd, Patricia L; Carlo, Waldemar A; Kodkany, Bhala; Derman, Richard J; Liechty, Edward A; Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Despite global improvements in maternal and newborn health (MNH), maternal, fetal and newborn mortality rates in Pakistan remain stagnant. Using data from the Global Network's Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) the objective of this study is to compare the rates of maternal mortality, stillbirth and newborn mortality and levels of putative risk factors between the Pakistani site and those in other countries. Using data collected through a multi-site, prospective, ongoing, active surveillance system to track pregnancies and births in communities in discrete geographical areas in seven sites across six countries including Pakistan, India, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala and Argentina from 2010 to 2013, the study compared MNH outcomes and risk factors. The MNHR captures more than 60,000 deliveries annually across all sites with over 10,000 of them in Thatta, Pakistan. The Pakistan site had a maternal mortality ratio almost three times that of the other sites (313/100,000 vs 116/100,000). Stillbirth (56.5 vs 22.9/1000 births), neonatal mortality (50.0 vs 20.7/1000 livebirths) and perinatal mortality rates (95.2/1000 vs 39.0/1000 births) in Thatta, Pakistan were more than twice those of the other sites. The Pakistani site is the only one in the Global Network where maternal mortality increased (from 231/100,000 to 353/100,000) over the study period and fetal and neonatal outcomes remained stagnant. The Pakistan site lags behind other sites in maternal education, high parity, and appropriate antenatal and postnatal care. However, facility delivery and skilled birth attendance rates were less prominently different between the Pakistani site and other sites, with the exception of India. The difference in the fetal and neonatal outcomes between the Pakistani site and the other sites was most pronounced amongst normal birth weight babies. The increase in maternal mortality and the stagnation of fetal and neonatal outcomes from 2010 to 2013 indicates that current levels of

  12. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  13. Tobacco use patterns, knowledge, attitudes towards tobacco and availability of tobacco control training among school personnel from a rural area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco-free school environment as well as non-smoking teachers and school personnel provide positive role models for children and young people. In Poland, smoking should be banned in colleges, schools, educational establishments and educational care facilities. However, for the existing law to be effective, awareness of all people in school curriculum and enforcement of the law are crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate tobacco use patterns, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco as well as availability of tobacco control training among school personnel in a rural area in Poland. Moreover, compliance with tobacco control policies and their enforcement were assessed. The study was carried out in Piotrkowski district between November 2014 and May 2015 in accordance with the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) methodology. Sixty schools participated in the survey (92% of the schools from the region) with involvement of 1044 teachers and 500 non-teaching staff (the response rate - 83.1%). The multivariate linear regression analyses were applied to study factors linked to the need for anti-tobacco training dedicated to the youth and teachers' knowledge as well as activities to educate the students about tobacco use and its prevention. About 24% of the school personnel were current and 9% were ex-smokers. Significantly more teachers than the non-teaching staff indicated that the schools had a policy prohibiting tobacco use among students. In addition, 6% of the study participants indicated everyday violations of the tobacco control policy by the school personnel. More than 80% of the teaching personnel indicated the need for training dedicated to the youth to prevent their tobacco use. In the multivariate linear regression model, longer duration of working experience predicted higher levels of knowledge and more activities performed to teach the youth about tobacco use and its prevention. The smokers comparing to the non-smokers perceived the need for anti

  14. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Chinedu Azodo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and intervention studies are needed to evaluate the best way to control tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials in Nigeria.

  15. Content Analysis of Tobacco-related Twitter Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslín, Mark; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present results of a content analysis of tobacco-related Twitter posts (tweets), focusing on tweets referencing e-cigarettes and hookah. Introduction Vast amounts of free, real-time, localizable Twitter data offer new possibilities for public health workers to identify trends and attitudes that more traditional surveillance methods may not capture, particularly in emerging areas of public health concern where reliable statistical evidence is not readily accessible. Existing applications include tracking public informedness during disease outbreaks [1]. Twitter-based surveillance is particularly suited to new challenges in tobacco control. Hookah and e-cigarettes have surged in popularity, yet regulation and public information remain sparse, despite controversial health effects [2,3]. Ubiquitous online marketing of these products and their popularity among new and younger users make Twitter a key resource for tobacco surveillance. Methods We collected 7,300 tobacco-related Twitter posts at 15-day intervals from December 2011 to July 2012, using ten general keywords such as cig* and hookah. Each tweet was manually classified using a tri-axial scheme, capturing genre (firsthand experience, joke, news, …), theme (underage usage, health, social image, …), and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral). Machine-learning classifiers were trained to detect tobacco-related vs. irrelevant tweets as well as each of the above categories, using Naïve Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machine algorithms. Finally, phi correlation coefficients were computed between each of the categories to discover emergent patterns. Results The most prevalent genre of tweets was personal experience, followed by categories such as opinion, marketing, and news. The most common themes were hookah, cessation, and social image, and sentiment toward tobacco was more positive (26%) than negative (20%). The most highly correlated categories were social image

  16. Containing diffusion: the tobacco industry's multipronged trade strategy to block tobacco standardised packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Eckford, Robert; Bialous, Stella

    2018-04-21

    To analyse the tobacco industry's strategy of using trade and investment agreements to prevent the global diffusion of standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products. Review of tobacco industry documents, relevant government documents and media items. The data were triangulated and thematically analysed. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that during the early 1990s, tobacco companies developed a multipronged trade strategy to prevent the global diffusion of progressive tobacco packaging and labelling proposals, including SP. This strategy consisted of (1) framing the health issue in terms of trade and investment, (2) detailing alleged legal violations concerning trade barriers, intellectual property and investment rights, (3) threatening legal suits and reputational damage, and (4) garnering third-party support. These efforts helped delay SP until 2010 when Australia became the first country to reintroduce SP proposals, followed by governments in the UK and New Zealand in 2012, Ireland in 2013 and France in 2014. Review of government documents and media sources in each of the five countries indicate the industry continues to employ this multipronged strategy throughout the SP policy's progression. Although this strategy is tailored towards each domestic context, the overall tobacco industry's trade strategy remains consistently focused on shifting the attention away from public health and towards the realm of trade and investment with more corporate-friendly allies. Governments seeking to implement SP need to be prepared to resist and counter the industry's multipronged trade strategy by avoiding trade diversions, exposing false industry legal and reputational claims, and monitoring third-party support. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. ?Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy?: industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40?years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4?% globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18?%), Zimbabwe (20?%), Malawi (26?%) and Bangladesh (>30?%). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-at...

  18. Tobacco outlet density and tobacco knowledge, beliefs, purchasing behaviours and price among adolescents in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Helena; Shortt, Niamh K; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard J; Pearce, Jamie R

    2018-06-01

    Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies. In this study we use path analysis to assess how outlet density in the home environment is related to adolescent tobacco knowledge, beliefs, retail purchases and price in Scotland. We assessed 22,049 13 and 15 year old respondents to the nationally representative cross-sectional 2010 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Outlet density was based on Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register, 2012, data. A spatially-weighted Kernel Density Estimation measure of outlet density within 400 m of respondents' home postcode was grouped into tertiles. The analysis considered whether outlet density was associated with the number of cigarette brands adolescents could name, positive beliefs about smoking, whether smokers purchased cigarettes from shops themselves or through adult proxies and perceived cost of cigarettes. Models were stratified by adolescent smoking status. The path analyses indicated that outlet density was not associated with most outcomes, but small, significant direct effects on knowledge of cigarette brands among those who had never smoked were observed. With each increase in outlet density tertile the mean number of brands adolescents could name rose by 0.07 (mean = 1.60; SD = 1.18; range = 4). This suggests greater outlet densities may have affected adolescents' knowledge of cigarette brands but did not encourage positive attitudes to smoking, purchases from shops or lower cigarette

  19. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem-Relebactam against Gram-Negative ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated by Clinical Laboratories in the United States in 2015 (Results from the SMART Global Surveillance Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Hackel, Meredith A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    Relebactam (formerly MK-7655) is an inhibitor of class A and C β-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), and is currently in clinical development in combination with imipenem-cilastatin. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the in vitro activities of imipenem-relebactam, imipenem, and seven routinely tested parenteral antimicrobial agents against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (including Klebsiella pneumoniae , n = 689; Acinetobacter baumannii , n = 72; Pseudomonas aeruginosa , n = 845; and Enterobacter spp., n = 399) submitted by 21 clinical laboratories in the United States in 2015 as part of the SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program. Relebactam was tested at a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml in combination with doubling dilutions of imipenem. Imipenem-relebactam MICs were interpreted using CLSI imipenem breakpoints. The respective rates of susceptibility to imipenem-relebactam and imipenem were 94.2% (796/845) and 70.3% (594/845) for P. aeruginosa , 99.0% (682/689) and 96.1% (662/689) for K. pneumoniae , and 100% (399/399) and 98.0% (391/399) for Enterobacter spp. Relebactam restored imipenem susceptibility to 80.5% (202/251), 74.1% (20/27), and 100% (8/8) of isolates of imipenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa , K. pneumoniae , and Enterobacter spp. Relebactam did not increase the number of isolates of Acinetobacter spp. susceptible to imipenem, and the rates of resistance to all of the agents tested against this pathogen were >30%. Further development of imipenem-relebactam is warranted given the demonstrated ability of relebactam to restore the activity of imipenem against current clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa that are nonsusceptible to carbapenems and its potential as a therapy for treating patients with antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections. Copyright © 2017 American

  20. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  1. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  2. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  3. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  4. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  5. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  6. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  8. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  9. Content Analysis of Tobacco-related Twitter Posts

    OpenAIRE

    Mysl?n, Mark; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present results of a content analysis of tobacco-related Twitter posts (tweets), focusing on tweets referencing e-cigarettes and hookah. Introduction Vast amounts of free, real-time, localizable Twitter data offer new possibilities for public health workers to identify trends and attitudes that more traditional surveillance methods may not capture, particularly in emerging areas of public health concern where reliable statistical evidence is not readily accessible. Existing appli...

  10. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2004-12-01

    To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities.

  11. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  12. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  13. Monitoring of non-cigarette tobacco use using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Lowery, Ashley; Grucza, Richard A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-05-01

    Google Trends is an innovative monitoring system with unique potential to monitor and predict important phenomena that may be occurring at a population level. We sought to validate whether Google Trends can additionally detect regional trends in youth and adult tobacco use. We compared 2011 Google Trends relative search volume data for cigars, cigarillos, little cigars and smokeless tobacco with state prevalence of youth (grades 9-12) and adult (age 18 and older) use of these products using data from the 2011 United States state-level Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System and the 2010-2011 United States National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), respectively. We used the Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the associations. We found significant positive correlations between state Google Trends cigar relative search volume and prevalence of cigar use among youth (r=0.39, R(2) = 0.154, p=0.018) and adults (r=0.49, R(2) = 0.243, pGoogle Trends smokeless tobacco relative search volume and prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among youth and adults were both positive and significant (r=0.46, R(2) = 0.209, p=0.003 and r=0.48, R(2) = 0.226, pGoogle Trends has the potential to be a valuable monitoring tool for tobacco use. The near real-time monitoring features of Google Trends may complement traditional surveillance methods and lead to faster and more convenient monitoring of emerging trends in tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco--United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Smoking cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products causes adverse health outcomes, particularly cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. A priority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to develop innovative, rapid-response surveillance systems for assessing changes in tobacco use and related health outcomes. The two standard approaches for measuring smoking rates and behaviors are 1) surveying a representative sample of the public and asking questions about personal smoking behaviors and 2) estimating consumption based on tobacco excise tax data. Whereas CDC regularly publishes findings on national and state-specific smoking rates from public surveys, CDC has not reported consumption estimates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which previously provided such estimates, stopped reporting on consumption in 2007. To estimate consumption for the period 2000-2011, CDC examined excise tax data from the U.S. Department of Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB); consumption estimates were calculated for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, and small and large cigars. From 2000 to 2011, total consumption of all combustible tobacco decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6, a 27.5% decrease; per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374, a 36.0% decrease. However, while consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8% from 2000 to 2011, consumption of loose tobacco and cigars increased 123.1% over the same period. As a result, the percentage of total combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011. The data suggest that certain smokers have switched from cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products, most notably since a 2009 increase in the federal tobacco excise tax that created tax disparities between product types.

  15. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Caitlin R; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London's Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions.

  16. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Caitlin R.; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. Results: In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London’s Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Conclusion: Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions. PMID:20159772

  17. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  18. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...

  19. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical developm......We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  20. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  1. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995-2009: analysis of individual data for 25,676,887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Weir, Hannah K; Carreira, Helena; Harewood, Rhea; Spika, Devon; Wang, Xiao-Si; Bannon, Finian; Ahn, Jane V; Johnson, Christopher J; Bonaventure, Audrey; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar; Chen, Wan-Qing; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Rachet, Bernard; Soeberg, Matthew J; You, Hui; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Storm, Hans; Tucker, Thomas C; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-03-14

    Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15-99 years) and 75,000 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995-2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005-09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15-19% in North America, and as low as 7-9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10-20% between 1995-99 and 2005-09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer, national estimates of 5-year survival range from less

  3. Tobacco usage among tribal population of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikneshan Murugaboopathy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use is attributed for deaths of 3.5 to 4 million people globally, which is expected to increase to about 10 million during 2020 and around more than two-third will be occurring in developing countries as they are showing an increasing trends of tobacco use. Anti-tobacco messages or campaigns do not reach the Tribal regions. Tobacco use is ingrained in many of the cultural practices of tribal people. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tobacco usage among tribal populations of Nilgiris region, Tamil Nadu. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 4 villages of Conoor and Kothagiri districts of nilgiris region. A total of 363 people were screened and their tobacco usage status was assessed using Interview method. A trained interviewer along with help of community leader collected information about the usage of tobacco among the populations. Oral health status and presence of oral mucosal lesions were also recorded. Results Smokeless tobacco usage was high among the subjects. Majority of the males between 21-40 years were having both smoking and smokeless tobacco. Bidis was the most common form of smoking tobacco and gutka was the commonest smokeless tobacco used. More than 32% females in the age group of 30-45 years were tobacco users. Conclusions Tobacco usage was high among the tribal populations. Interestingly, the number of tobacco users among females was more prevalent. Customized tobacco cessation education programs has to be carried out for effective control of tobacco usage among the tribal population of Nilgiris region.

  4. Exposure and Engagement With Tobacco- and E-Cigarette-Related Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Emily T; Case, Kathleen R; Kelder, Steven H; Delk, Joanne; Perry, Cheryl L; Harrell, Melissa B

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the nature and extent of adolescents' exposure to tobacco- and e-cigarette-related communications on social media. In this study, we describe the prevalence and correlates of youth exposure and engagement with tobacco- and e-cigarette-related social media. Data are from the baseline survey of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance system, a cross-sectional sample of sixth, eighth, and 10th graders (n = 3907, N = 461,097). Weighted logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics, sensation seeking, tobacco use, and exposure and engagement with tobacco-related social media. Overall, 52.5% of students reported exposure to tobacco-related social media in the past month, whereas social media was higher among those who were susceptible to, had ever, or currently use both combustible tobacco and e-cigarettes (AOR = 2.10-3.46, p social media. Adolescents who are susceptible to or use e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco are exposed to and engage with tobacco-related social media more than their peers. Social media appears to be an important venue when targeting vulnerable youth in prevention campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.

  6. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, G G; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Sansone, G C; Quah, A C K; Bansal-Travers, M; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 revealed that more than one-third (35%) of adults in India use tobacco in some form: 21% use smokeless tobacco, 9% smoke, and 5% are mixed users (they smoke and use smokeless tobacco), and the quit rate is very low. In an effort to decrease prevalence of tobacco use, it is thus important to understand the factors that are related to intention to quit among Indian tobacco users. Research has shown consistently that intention to quit is a strong predictor of future quitting. The present study reports the factors encouraging quitting tobacco products in India. Cross-sectional data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Survey conducted in four cities and surrounding rural areas (i.e. Mumbai [Maharashtra], Patna [Bihar], Indore [Madhya Pradesh], and Kolkata [West Bengal]) between August 2010 and December 2011 were analyzed. A total of 8051 tobacco users (15+ years) were randomly sampled from 8586 households: 1255 smokers, 5991 smokeless users, and 805 mixed (smoke and smokeless) users. Validated, standardized questions were asked about current tobacco use, intention to quit, and factors encouraging quitting. Overall, 19.6% of tobacco users intended to quit. Smokers had less intention to quit as compared to smokeless tobacco users whereas mixed users had more intention to quit (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.12-1.97) compared to smokeless tobacco users. Highly educated people were more likely to report intention to quit (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.09-3.02) compared to less educated. Advice by doctors to quit tobacco had a strong impact on intention to quit (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.29-2.15). Tobacco users who were exposed to antitobacco messages at work places (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.23-2.46), at restaurants (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.12-2.43), bars (OR = 1.81, CI = 1.07-3.06), on public transportation (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.49-3.08) and on tobacco packages (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.14) also

  7. Estrategia de vigilancia para el control del tabaco en México: publicidad, promoción y patrocinio, empaque y etiquetado Monitoring estrategy for control of tobacco in Mexico: advertising, promotion and sponsorship, packaging and labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosibel Rodríguez-Bolaños

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir las estrategias de publicidad, mercadeo, y venta productos del tabaco en 12 ciudades de México. Material y métodos. Los puntos de venta de tabaco, a 500mts alrededor de escuelas participantes de la Encuesta de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (2005-2006, fueron identificados usando formatos observacionales y un Sistema de Información Geográfica en línea. Resultados. En promedio se encontraron 8 establecimientos y 5 puestos de calle alrededor de las 257 escuelas visitadas. 44.4% de los establecimientos tenía publicidad en interior, 8.3% poseían productos a la altura de los ojos de los niños y 6.5% tenía alguna promoción. El 33.6% tenía letrero de prohibición de venta a menores, en tanto que 44.4% de los establecimientos y 58.8% puestos de calle vendían cigarros sueltos. Conclusiones. Los productos de tabaco son ampliamente publicitados y comercializados alrededor de las escuelas. Existe un alto incumplimiento de las leyes referentes a la venta a menores y por menores. Es urgente implementar un sistema que permita una vigilancia continua de las estrategias de la industria y para el control del tabaco.Objective. To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Material and Methods. Tobacco products points of sale (POS were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006 schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS. Results. In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Conclusions. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control

  8. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  9. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  10. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  11. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  12. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  13. Non-cigarette tobacco products: What have we learned and where are we headed?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exists and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks, and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in both form and health hazards, with some clearly toxic forms (e.g. South Asia), and some forms with far fewer hazard...

  14. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  15. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  16. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  17. [Tobacco use rate and associated factors in middle school students in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, L; Feng, G Z; Jiang, Y; Zhang, J R; Liu, L X

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand tobacco use rate and explore the factors associated with tobacco use in middle school students in China. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 155 117 eligible middle students selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 31 provinces of China. The questionnaire consists of the following topics: tobacco use and cessation, passive smoking, access to tobacco products, tobacco control and tobacco advertisement, and knowledge about and attitudes to tobacco. Software SAS 9.3 was used for sample weighting and data analysis. Results: Current tobacco use rate was 6.9 % in middle school students in China. The rate was higher in boys (11.2 % ) than in girls (2.2 % ), and in rural area (7.8 % ) than in urban area (4.8 % ). Students in western area had the highest tobacco use rate (10.3 % ), followed by the students in middle area (6.4 % ), and the rate in students in eastern area was lowest (4.5 % ). Parent smoking (especially mother smoking), friend smoking, teacher smoking, pocket money for a week>20 yuan, tobacco advertisement or promotion, passive smoking, misconception of tobacco addiction, active attitude to smoking behavior were the risk factors for tobacco use. Conclusions: Smoking rate in boys in China was higher than the average global level. A comprehensive intervention strategy by Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should be used to reduce tobacco use in adolescents, including health education, increasing cigarette price, banning tobacco advertisement and promotion, and smoke-free legislation.

  18. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  19. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-07-01

    Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent.Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information.Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products

  20. The Risk of Hypertension and Other Chronic Diseases: Comparing Smokeless Tobacco with Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the past, studies have compared smokeless tobacco and non-tobacco users for the risk of various chronic diseases. The differences in the risk of chronic diseases between smokeless tobacco user and smokers have not been explored. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of chronic diseases among smokeless tobacco users compared to smokers.MethodsThe data were used from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave-1, conducted in 2007–2008 in India. The study sample is the respondents who reported consuming any form of tobacco in last 1 month. The total sample size was 4,038 respondents. The odds ratio of chronic morbidities was estimated taking smokers as the reference category.ResultsThe odds ratios for (self-reported diabetes, asthma, and hypertension were not significant for smokeless tobacco user compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of chronic lung diseases (CLDs was significantly lower among smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of hypertension (measured combined with low education and belonging to lowest wealth quintiles were not significant for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. Duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and quantity of use was found to have no significant relation with risk of chronic diseases as compared to smoking.ConclusionThis study did not find the significantly higher risk of chronic morbidities except for CLD for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The study suggests that the use of any form of tobacco may have a similar risk of chronic diseases.

  1. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  2. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    ... of stress in causing chronic illness. The lack of comprehensive deployment health surveillance has made it difficult to determine possible causes of adverse health effects reported by Gulf War veterans...

  3. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  4. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  5. Epidemiologic investigation of an occupational illness of tobacco harvesters in southern Brazil, a worldwide leader in tobacco production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Patrícia; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; de Oliveira, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Tania Esther Herc Holmer; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sobel, Jeremy; de Moura, Lenildo

    2012-07-01

    As part of smoking surveillance, the authors conducted an epidemiologic investigation in southern Brazil to identify the occurrence of Green Tobacco Sickness and risk factors for illness and to recommend control and prevention measures. A 1:2 case-control study matched by subjects' smoking habits. The study population was residents of Candelária, Rio Grande do Sul state, who farm tobacco and provided a urine sample for cotinine measurement by high-performance liquid chromatography. Confirmed cases were persons with compatible clinical presentation (headache, nausea, vomit, dizziness or weakness) and cotinine level >10 ng/ml. Controls were persons without compatible signs or symptoms. The association measure was the matched OR with 95% CIs and p<0.05. Of 33 confirmed cases, 64% were men, average age was 33 years (SD ± 11.8 years) and 57% were landowners. Cases have had similar illness in the past and were likelier to be workers hired by farmers-landowners than controls. Multivariate analysis yielded independent association between these variables and illness, controlled for age and sex. Contact with pesticides and working with wet tobacco leaves were not associated with illness. The authors confirmed Green Tobacco Sickness in southern Brazil; the authors recommend investigation of its prevalence in tobacco-growing regions and monitoring of and education about the disease and its prevention by occupational health authorities.

  6. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  7. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  8. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  9. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  10. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  11. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  12. The ERS role on Tobacco Control Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gratziou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Respiratory Society is an international medical organisation that brings together physicians, healthcare professionals, scientists and other experts working in respiratory medicine. Its aim is to alleviate suffering from respiratory diseases and promote lung health globally through science, education and advocacy. ERS has since its founding in 1990 demonstrated strong commitment to tobacco control. Through scientific assemblies, education courses, various alliances and collaboration (Framework Convention Alliance, European Chronic Disease Alliance, World Health Organisation etc. As well as a Tobacco Control Committee (TCC dedicated to advocacy, ERS constantly strives to promote strong and evidence-based policies to reduce the burden of tobacco related diseases. One of the main outcome of the TCC is the creation of Smokehaz, a website aimed at providing policy-makers with scientific information on the Health hazards associated with smoking. Recently, ERS created the Latin-America Working Group which aims at strengthening tobacco control activities in Spain, Portugal and Latin-American countries.

  13. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  14. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  15. Implementation of a Multimodal Mobile System for Point-of-Sale Surveillance: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in Washington, DC, and New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Ganz, Ollie; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Kreslake, Jennifer; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Aidala, Angela; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Background In tobacco control and other fields, point-of-sale surveillance of the retail environment is critical for understanding industry marketing of products and informing public health practice. Innovations in mobile technology can improve existing, paper-based surveillance methods, yet few studies describe in detail how to operationalize the use of technology in public health surveillance. Objective The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from 2...

  16. Hands-on Workshops Aim to Strengthen Tobacco Control Efforts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2011 by the Indonesian National Institute of Health Research and Development and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, showed that more than 67% of men and almost 40% of boys aged 13-15 use tobacco.

  17. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  18. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  19. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sahadat; Hossain, Shakhaoat; Ahmed, Fahad; Islam, Rabiul; Sikder, Tajuddin; Rahman, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be the key preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality at the global level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and factors associated with the initiation of smoking among university students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 264 students of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. A standard, self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on socio-demographic variables, tobacco smoking status, family and peer tobacco smoking history, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco smoking, as well as knowledge about the negative health consequences of tobacco smoking was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models, chi square, and Fisher exact tests. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 60.2%, where males smoked at higher rates than females (68.81% and 19.56%, respectively). The influence of friends was the most significant reason for initiating tobacco smoking (OR: 0.862; CI: 0.810-0.917). Perception regarding tobacco smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco use. Logistic regression models identified that smoking-related attitudes, potential health problems, and family members dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer were significantly associated with tobacco smoking. The current tobacco smoking prevalence among university students in Bangladesh is over 60%. We suggest adopting WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially for university students.

  20. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  1. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  2. Availability, accessibility and promotion of smokeless tobacco in a low-income area of Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Nair, Saritha; Bilgi, Sameena; Cromley, Ellen; Kadam, Vaishali; Mello, Sunitha D; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of accessibility, product availability, promotions and social norms promotion, factors contributing to the use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products in a typical low-income community of Mumbai community using Geographic Information System (GIS), observational and interview methodologies and to assess implementation of Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) legislation. Rationale In India, the third largest producer of tobacco in the world, smokeless tobacco products are used by men, women and children. New forms of highly addictive packaged smokeless tobacco products such as gutkha are inexpensive and rates of use are higher in low-income urban communities. These products are known to increase rates of oral cancer and to affect reproductive health and fetal development. Methods The study used a mixed methods approach combining ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation and key informant interviews. Accessibility was defined as density, clustering and distance of residents and schools to tobacco outlets. Observation and interview data with shop owners and community residents produced an archive of products, information on shop histories and income and normative statements. Results Spatial analysis showed high density of outlets with variations across subcommunities. All residents can reach tobacco outlets within 30–100 feet of their homes. Normative statements from 55 respondents indicate acceptance of men’s, women’s and children’s use, and selling smokeless tobacco is reported to be an important form of income generation for some households. Multilevel tobacco control and prevention strategies including tobacco education, community norms change, licensing and surveillance and alternative income generation strategies are needed to reduce accessibility and availability of smokeless tobacco use. PMID:22387521

  3. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  4. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  5. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  6. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  7. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  9. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than ...

  10. Anti-tobacco control industry strategies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklik, Seda; Gultekin-Karakas, Derya

    2018-02-26

    . Rising market concentration by TTCs and the global nature of industry strategies require that the highly profitable manufacturing and trade of tobacco products should be discouraged on a basis of international collaboration. To reduce and eventually eradicate tobacco consumption, supply-side tobacco control measures are needed along with demand-side policies.

  11. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  12. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  13. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  14. Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Materials and Methods: Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco is popular among the younger age-groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.

  15. Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zaki Anwar; Bano, S Nafees; Zulkifle, M

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco) is popular among the younger age-groups. The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.

  16. The association between exposure to tobacco coupons and predictors of smoking behaviors among US youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent report showed that 13.1% of US middle and high school students were exposed to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days in 2012. The current study reanalyzed data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2012 to examine the associations between exposure to tobacco coupons in the past 30 days and predictors of smoking among US youth by smoking status. Methods 24658 middle and high school students were asked if and where they had received tobacco coupons in the past 30 days. Demographics, smoking behaviors, smoking-related beliefs, susceptibility to smoking, and confidence in quitting smoking were assessed. Analyses were stratified by smoking status (never smokers, experimenters, and current smokers). Data were weighted to be representative of US youth. Results Exposure to tobacco coupons was associated with lower likelihood of denying the social benefits of cigarette smoking and believing all tobacco products are dangerous, higher likelihood of being susceptible to smoking (among non-smokers), lower likelihood to feel confident in quitting cigarettes completely (among current smokers) and higher likelihood to intend to purchase cigarettes in the next 30 days (among experimenters and current smokers; p < 0.05). Conclusions Tobacco coupons may promote smoking and hinder smoking cessation among youth. Regulating tobacco coupons may reduce youth smoking in the US. Further research is needed to determine the effect of tobacco coupons on youth tobacco use globally. PMID:25882686

  17. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Talwar, Richa; Roy, Neelam; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000 and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000. Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  19. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  20. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  1. Success Counteracting Tobacco Company Interference in Thailand: An Example of FCTC Implementation for Low- and Middle-income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Hamann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs interfere regularly in policymaking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control provides mechanisms and guidance for dealing with TTC interference, but many countries still face ‘how to’ challenges of implementation. For more than two decades, Thailand’s public health community has been developing a system for identifying and counteracting strategies TTCs use to derail, delay and undermine tobacco control policymaking. Consequently, Thailand has already implemented most of the FCTC guidelines for counteracting TTC interference. In this study, our aims are to describe strategies TTCs have used in Thailand to interfere in policymaking, and to examine how the public health community in Thailand has counteracted TTC interference. We analyzed information reported by three groups with a stake in tobacco control policies: Thai tobacco control advocates, TTCs, and international tobacco control experts. To identify TTC viewpoints and strategies, we also extracted information from internal tobacco industry documents. We synthesized these data and identified six core strategies TTCs use to interfere in tobacco control policymaking: (1 doing business with ‘two faces’, (2 seeking to influence people in high places, (3 ‘buying’ advocates in grassroots organizations, (4 putting up a deceptive front, (5 intimidation, and (6 undermining controls on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. We present three case examples showing where TTCs have employed multiple interference strategies simultaneously, and showing how Thai tobacco control advocates have successfully counteracted those strategies by: (1 conducting vigilant surveillance, (2 excluding tobacco companies from policymaking, (3 restricting tobacco company sales, (4 sustaining pressure, and (5 dedicating resources to the effective enforcement of regulations. Policy implications from this study are

  2. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, contribute significantly to the global ... and how many people condoned bullying behaviour at their school. Increased ... smoke tobacco, researchers could examine the actual and perceived norms of ... attract consumers to a particular brand of cigarettes, they can also be used to ...

  3. Social determinants of tobacco use: towards an equity lens approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios-Fotios A. Mentis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is the only commercial product that eventually kills nearly half of all long-term users. The prevalence of tobacco use is disproportionately high in lower socioeconomic strata and vulnerable groups (such as adolescents within and across countries. Given its highly addictive nature, tobacco use perpetuates poverty and loss of opportunities, thus undermining the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Moreover, by shaping the national and international context, globalization and governance impact on the tobacco epidemic and underlying disparities. Therefore, socio-economic gradients, which influence predisposition to tobacco uptake and cessation, must be confronted. Here I argue that tobacco prevention and control must be addressed through a lifelong, equity lens approach. This approach describes the essential need for every individual to have equal access to informative prevention and cessation services independent of income, occupational status, social stratum, or residence. I also contend that rather than being occupied with “research on research”, the focus should shift to how to practically implement the existing accumulated, cogent body of scientific evidence in a societally equitable manner. Finally, in line with the core dilemma of “who really governs the policies that shape our health?” raised by the WHO’s Director General, it is time for civil society either on its own or in partnership with local authorities to formulate policies that implement the “health for all” imperative rather than the currently dominant “wealth for some”.

  4. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

  5. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers. PMID:22345238

  6. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  7. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  8. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  10. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  11. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  12. State tobacco control expenditures and tax paid cigarette sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A.; Xu, Xin; Huang, Jidong; King, Brian; Lavinghouze, S. Rene; Sneegas, Karla S.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    This research is the first nationally representative study to examine the relationship between actual state-level tobacco control spending in each of the 5 CDC’s Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program categories and cigarette sales. We employed several alternative two-way fixed-effects regression techniques to estimate the determinants of cigarette sales in the United States for the years 2008–2012. State spending on tobacco control was found to have a negative and significant impact on cigarette sales in all models that were estimated. Spending in the areas of cessation interventions, health communication interventions, and state and community interventions were found to have a negative impact on cigarette sales in all models that were estimated, whereas spending in the areas of surveillance and evaluation, and administration and management were found to have negative effects on cigarette sales in only some models. Our models predict that states that spend up to seven times their current levels could still see significant reductions in cigarette sales. The findings from this research could help inform further investments in state tobacco control programs. PMID:29652890

  13. The millennium development goals and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Neil E

    2010-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals were proposed by the UN Secretary-General in 2001. They are goals with measurable targets to be achieved by 2015 or earlier. The Goals were distilled from the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, a sweeping statement of development values, principles, objectives and proposed actions. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a demonstrable translation of some of the ideas in the Millennium Declaration into reality. With 165(i) Parties, the FCTC does more than just improve global tobacco control: * The FCTC contributes to achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and benefits from success in implementation of the Goals in other sectors. * The treaty itself is a demonstration of strengthened international and national rule of law, central tenets of the Millennium Declaration. * The FCTC expands international law into the health sector and provides better balance of international law among economic, environmental, social and health sectors. The Millennium Declaration calls for a more equitable distribution of the benefits of globalization, and the FCTC delivers this result. * The FCTC provides a model for addressing other unsolved global problems through greater use of international law. Alcohol control and dietary improvements including greater control of empty calories in manufactured foods are examples of problems that may benefit from greater governance by international law. Were that to come to pass, those new treaties would also improve implementation of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals.

  14. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  16. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  17. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  18. Conic surveillance evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, J.; Olsder, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A surveillance-evasion differential game of degree with a detection zone in the shape of a two-dimensional cone is posed. The nature of the optimal strategies and the singular phenomena of the value function are described and correlated to subsets of the space of all possible parameter combinations,

  19. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1991-09-01

    Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) is a beam of laser light which scans a plane above the water or under-water in a spent-fuel pond. The system can detect different objects and estimates its coordinates and distance as well. LASSY can operate in stand-alone configuration or in combination with a video surveillance to trigger signal to a videorecorder. The recorded information on LASSY computer's disk comprises date, time, start and stop angle of detected alarm, the size of the disturbance indicated in number of deviated points and some other information. The information given by the laser system cannot be fully substituted by TV camera pictures since the scanning beam creates a horizontal surveillance plan. The engineered prototype laser system long-term field test has been carried out in Soluggia (Italy) and has shown its feasibility and reliability under the conditions of real spent fuel storage pond. The verification of the alarm table on the LASSY computer with the recorded video pictures of TV surveillance system confirmed that all alarm situations have been detected. 5 refs

  1. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS

  2. Surveillance and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    , and acquaintances are up to on social media. In turn, they also leave trails of digital footprints that may be collected and analyzed by governments, businesses, or hackers. The imperceptible nature of this new surveillance raises some pressing concerns about our digital lives as our data doubles increasingly...

  3. The new age of tobacco marketing: Imagery on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley James

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background While many areas of tobacco marketing have been restricted, the rise of digital and social media has presented an opportunity for new marketing avenues. This study looked at celebrity social media culture and its contribution to tobacco marketing. Objectives: - Assess the prevalence of such marketing. - Assess who is being targeted, which audience segments. - Determine what types of tobacco products are being marketed. - Analyze themes or frames used to make these products appealing. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to assess the celebrity social media setting. The top 10 global celebrity personalities were included for assessment. Only Instagram accounts were included as sources for data collection. Instagram posts were reviewed for imagery of tobacco products, content, and audience targets. From this data a thematic analysis was conducted to assess frames and narratives used within marketing tactics. Review of social media posts was limited to a 3 year time frame starting October 1, 2014 and ending September 30, 2017. Results Tobacco related marketing remains present on social media within the celebrity culture. Many of the top 10 followed celebrities had portrayals of tobacco embedded within their profile and/or posts. Young females are overtly targeted and traditional themes such as fashion, glamour, fun, sex appeal and free-will continue to be used as marketing frames. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the need for intervention to monitor and restrict tobacco related marketing on social media. While it's difficult to determine the source of tobacco marketing social media (industry placed or without paid placement it warrants a discussion about influence of the celebrity and digital cultures on health behaviours. In the absence of regulation, celebrities should be considerate and responsible for the harmful imagery shared over social media.

  4. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  5. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  6. Disentangling regional trade agreements, trade flows and tobacco affordability in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appau, Adriana; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonté, Ronald; Stoklosa, Michal; Lencucha, Raphael

    2017-11-14

    In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries. We compare tobacco trading patterns to foreign direct investments made by tobacco companies. We estimate and compare changes in the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) Economic Globalization measure, relative price measure and cigarette prices. Preferential regional trade agreements appear to have encouraged the consolidation of cigarette production, which has shaped trading patterns of tobacco leaf. Since 2002, British American Tobacco has invested in tobacco manufacturing facilities in Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa strategically located to serve different regions in Africa. Following this, British America Tobacco closed factories in Ghana, Rwanda, Uganda, Mauritius and Angola. At the same time, Malawi and Tanzania exported a large percentage of tobacco leaf to European countries. After 2010, there was an increase in tobacco exports from Malawi and Zambia to China, which may be a result of preferential trade agreements the EU and China have with these countries. Economic liberalization has been accompanied by greater cigarette affordability for the countries included in our analysis. However, only excise taxes and income have an effect on cigarette prices within the region. These results suggest that the changing economic structures of international trade and investment are likely heightening the efficiency and effectiveness of the tobacco industry. As tobacco control advocates consider supply-side tobacco control interventions, they must consider carefully the effects of these economic agreements and

  7. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  8. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  9. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  10. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  11. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Antes y después del Convenio Marco en México: una comparación desde la Encuesta sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes 2003 y 2006 Before and after the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Mexico: a comparison from the 2003 and 2006 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raydel Valdés-Salgado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la información de la Encuesta sobre tabaquismo en jóvenes (ETJ sobre consumo de cigarro y otros indicadores propuestos en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La ETJ usa un diseño de muestreo por conglomerado en dos etapas que genera muestras representativas de estudiantes de 12 a 15 años de las escuelas secundarias públicas, privadas y técnicas. Incluye 33,297 estudiantes de 399 escuelas de nueve ciudades. Se obtuvieron prevalencias puntuales y diferencias de proporciones, así como razones de momios ajustadas por edad. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de fumadores en el mes anterior a la encuesta es de 24.9% (IC 95% 22.5-27.3. El índice de susceptibilidad de iniciarse en el consumo de cigarros es de 28%. Al comparar con la aplicación en 2003, no se observa una disminución del consumo ni de la exposición al humo de tabaco, ni aumento en las tasas de cesación. En los programas escolares se han incrementado significativamente los contenidos de daños a la salud causados por fumar. No se observan avances en cuanto a reducción de la publicidad del tabaco, ni reducción del acceso de los menores al tabaco. Se presentan estimados nacionales y por ciudad. CONCLUSIÓN: Dos años después de ratificado el CMCT todavía no hay avances significativos en las principales áreas abordadas por dicho convenio, especialmente no ha disminuido el consumo de tabaco entre los estudiantes de secundaria.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to present findings from the GYTS on current cigarette smoking and other tobacco epidemic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12 to 15 years enrolled in public, private and technical schools. The survey was undertaken in 2003 and 2006 at 399 schools in nine cities. The GYTS surveyed 33 297 students. Point prevalence, differences of proportions and adjusted odds ratio

  13. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...