WorldWideScience

Sample records for global threats sovereign

  1. Sovereign Credit Risk in Latin America and Global Common Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Agosin Trumper; Juan Díaz Maureira

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of global common factors in the evolution of sovereign credit risk in a group of emerging economies (15 countries in Latin America for which daily data are available on sovereign credit spreads and CDS quotations from the beginning of 2007 until February 2012). We arrive at three principal results. First, there is robust evidence for the existence of a common factor in the evolution of the two measurements of sovereign credit risk that we use. Second, the com...

  2. Legitimacy in global governance of sovereign default: the role of international investment agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Brahms, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the legitimacy of investor-state arbitration under international investment agreements in sovereign debt restructuring. The paper presents mechanisms governing sovereign default generally, namely collective action clauses and informal negotiation in the London and Paris clubs and then discusses how sovereign debt restructuring is governed by IIAs, looking at how the clauses affect restructuring. Taking the conception of legitimacy in global governance by Buchanan and Keoha...

  3. Sovereign Wealth Funds as Global Economic and Political Actors: Defining of Notions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Алексеевич Кинякин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to consideration of sovereign wealth funds (SWF as economic and political actors as well as analysis of different forms of their activity in the contemporary global economics and politics. The author comes to the conclusion, that sovereign wealth funds play not only the role of providers of interests of the national states, but being the special purpose vehicles (SPV, designated to fulfill the different tasks, turn out to be the new type of global actors.

  4. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  5. Modeling exchange rate volatility in CEEC countries: Impact of global financial and European sovereign debt crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to envisage the impact of global financial (GFC and European sovereign debt crisis (ESDC on foreign exchange markets of emerg- ing countries in Central and Eastern Europe CEEC countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, poland and Serbia. The daily returns of exchange rates on Czech Republic koruna (CZK, Hungarian forint (HuF, Romanian lea (RoL, polish zloty (pLZ and Serbian dinar (RSD, all against the Euro are analyzed during the period from 3rd January 2000 to15th April 2013, in respect. To examine the impact of global financial crisis and European sovereign debt crisis, dummy variables were adopted. overall results imply that global financial crisis has no impact on exchange rate returns in selected CEEC countries, while European sovereign debt crisis inf luencing in depreciation of polish zloty by 8% and Roma- nian lea by 6%. obtained results by our calculation, imply that global financial crisis increased enhanced volatility on exchange rate returns of Czech koruna, Romanian lea and polish zloty. Moreover, results of empirical analysis imply that this impact has the strongest inf luence in volatility on exchange rate returns of polish zloty.

  6. The Effect of the Global Financial Crisis and the Sovereign Debt Crisis on Public Sector Accounting: A Contextual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Igbawase Abanyam; Paul Aondona Angahar

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of global financial crisis and the sovereign debt crisis on public sector accounting. The global financial crisis and sovereign debt crisis were contextually analysed bringing out clearly its effect on public sector accounting which include accounting issues related to public sector intervention, accounting for recapitalization of investment, accounting for fiscal support, accounting for financial guarantees. The paper found out that, the unresolved fiscal and d...

  7. The evolution of sovereign wealth funds and their influence in the global economy. The case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Iulica MIHAI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper, through the deductive analysis and the causal explanations, catches the positive and negative character of the Sovereign Wealth Funds development as a relatively new economic tool, but with a strong impact in the global economy, especially in the context of the current financial changes. The benefits brought by them to the global capital market, in terms of increasing liquidity and allotting financial resources, however cannot diminish the fears related to the states holding sovereign funds in the economy of other countries, and in order to give an example we present the case of China.

  8. IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON SOVEREIGN DEBT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condea Bogdan Virgil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available At European Union level, the global financial crisis intensified the issue of sovereign debts and member states had to implement a series of fiscal measures in order to reduce the budgetary deficit and public debts, that have peaked in the last decades. These changes were also imposed in the Romanian fiscal system and the effects were felt in particular through increased tax rates or even the introduction of new taxes. 2008 was the year that marked a turning point in the fiscal policy of member states of the European Union from multiple perspectives. The impact of the economic crisis was felt mainly through the drastic decrease in tax revenues for all member states, which led to an accelerated growth of the budgetary deficit and implicitly of the indebtedness degree. In this context, EU member states were forced to adopt measures that would reduce the budgetary deficit (increases in some taxes and reduction of certain public expenditures. In 2010, the sovereign debt crisis in the euro area exposed the weaknesses of the EU economic governance. In response, the so-called "six pack" regulations were introduced in December 2011. Moreover, many countries have intensified their consolidation efforts in an attempt to regain the confidence of financial markets. The new architecture of fiscal policy in the European area has undergone many changes in recent years, market not only by the fiscal harmonization process, but mainly by the temptation of fiscal coordination that aims mainly to achieve fiscal stability and reduce medium and long-term public debt. The excessive growth of countries' indebtedness degree in recent years led to the need to study the sustainability of the indebtedness policy, considering that maintaining the budgetary deficit at a prudent level would also ensure the sustainability of fiscal policy. The study analyzes the effects in budgetary plan of economic recovery measures by highlighting the evolution of public debt in EU member

  9. Global threat reduction initiative (GTRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is a vital part of the global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. GTRI's unique mission to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites both in the United States and abroad directly addresses recommendations of the bipartisan 9/11 Commission. GTRI efforts are focused on the first line of defense, namely securing or removing vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at the source. The international community has promulgated guidance on the best practice on the technical and administrative aspects of radiological source security, and the GTRI seeks to provide technical assistance to national bodies and individual facilities to adopt this best practice. This presentation will discuss security concepts that are implemented by the GTRI in cooperation with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project. (author)

  10. Sovereign wealth funds as special international investors under global financial downfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Drozd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An overview of origin, functional orientation and characteristics of sovereign wealth funds is presented. Possibility and necessity of cooperation between Ukraine and such systemic investors is proven.

  11. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  12. Modeling Banking, Sovereign, and Macro Risk in a CCA Global VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dale F. Gray

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model framework for the analysis of interactions between banking sector risk, sovereign risk, corporate sector risk, real economic activity, and credit growth for 15 European countries and the United States. It is an integrated macroeconomic systemic risk model framework that draws on the advantages of forward-looking contingent claims analysis (CCA) risk indicators for the banking systems in each country, forward-looking CCA risk indicators for sover...

  13. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  14. Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1992-10-01

    One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

  15. Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kosenkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction.

  16. Why do Investors Buy Sovereign Default Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolovski, Valeri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    local and regional channels that may explain the trading in sovereign CDS: (a) country-specific credit risk shocks, including changes in a country's credit rating and related outlook changes, (b) the announcement and issuance of domestic and international debt, (c) macroeconomic sentiment derived from......We provide a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of trading in the sovereign credit default swaps (CDS) market, using weekly data for single-name sovereign CDS from October 2008 to September 2015. We describe the anatomy of the sovereign CDS market, derive a law of motion for gross positions...... of the variation in sovereign CDS net notional amounts outstanding. Moreover, unlike for CDS spreads, common global factors explain very little of the variation in sovereign CDS trading and net notional amounts outstanding, suggesting that it is driven primarily by idiosyncratic country risk. We analyze several...

  17. Sovereign Risk and Currently Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial...... explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness...

  18. Sovereign Risk and Currency Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial...... explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness...

  19. Paradise lost: Sovereign State Interest, Global Resource Exploitation and the Politics of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Taking its cue from the US Supreme Court judgment in Kiobel that restricted the extraterritorial reach of the Alien Tort Claims Act, this article explores how sovereignty structures the relationship between global resource exploitation and the localization of human rights in the international order of states. The argument situates international human rights law in an area of tension between national political self-determination and the global economic exploitation of natural resources. Global...

  20. The Impact of Indonesia Sovereign Credit Rating Upgrades and Investment Grade Status on the Sovereign Spread Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Anggi Novianti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting sovereign credit rating upgrades and achieving investment grade status are main goals for countries in order to gain lower yield spread and cost of borrowing. By using ordinary least square method, this research is aimed to analyze the impact of Indonesia sovereign credit rating up-grade and investment grade status on sovereign spread changes. The result shows that the sovereign credit rating upgrades within speculative grade category and investment grade status for Indonesia do not significantly impact sovereign spread reduction. On the other hand, the global condition, especially global risk appetite, has significant impact to Indonesia sovereign yield spread. The research also indicates that Indonesia macroeconomic fundamentals do not significantly explain the movement of sovereign yield spread. Keywords: Yield spread, sovereign credit rating, investment grade, Indonesia

  1. Paradise lost : Sovereign State Interest, Global Resource Exploitation and the Politics of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    Taking its cue from the US Supreme Court judgment in Kiobel that restricted the extraterritorial reach of the Alien Tort Claims Act, this article explores how sovereignty structures the relationship between global resource exploitation and the localization of human rights in the international order

  2. Nuclear security: A global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2016-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real. The possibility of criminals getting hold of nuclear and other radioactive material cannot be ruled out. Much progress has been made in tackling this threat nationally, regionally and globally, but more needs to be done. International cooperation is vital. As the global platform for cooperation in nuclear security, the IAEA helps countries to establish and maintain robust and sustainable national nuclear security regimes. We help ensure that measures are taken to protect nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the facilities in which such material is housed, from malicious acts. This has been an important year for nuclear security with the entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. This establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. I encourage all countries that have not yet done so to adhere to this Amendment and thereby contribute to a stronger global nuclear security regime. In this edition of the IAEA Bulletin, you will learn about the different areas of security where our work is making a real difference. We highlight the progress made in a number of countries.

  3. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  4. Global Climate Change: Threat Multiplier for AFRICOM?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yackle, Terri A

    2007-01-01

    .... Whatever the catalyst for this abrupt climate change, stability for Africa hinges upon mitigating the effects of global climate change to prevent future conflicts such as Darfur, and the instability...

  5. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  6. The tundra - a threat to global climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roejle Christensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The tundra biome has an important direct influence on the global climate through its exchange of radiatively active 'greenhouse gases', carbon dioxide and methane. A number of suggestions have been raised as to how a changing climate may alter the natural state of this exchange causing significant feedback effects in a changing climate. This paper provides a brief discussion of three different issues relating to the interaction between tundra and climate. It is concluded that release of methane hydrates, permafrost degradation and major biome changes are processes which in the long term may have important effects on further development of the global climate. (au) 32 refs

  7. Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mittal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and microcephaly, respectively. The gravity of the fetal anomalies linked to ZIKV vertical transmission from the mother has prompted a discussion on whether to include ZIKV as a formal member of the TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and herpes] family of pathogens known to breach placental barriers and cause congenital disease in the fetus. The mechanisms of these complex phenotypes have yet to be fully described. As such, diagnostic tools are limited and no effective modalities are available to treat ZIKV. This article will review the recent advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection as well as diagnostic tests available to detect the infection. Due to the increase in incidence of ZIKV infections, there is an immediate need to develop new diagnostic tools and novel preventive as well as therapeutic modalities based on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease.

  8. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  9. Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Nguyen, Desiree; Debs, Luca H.; Patel, Amit P.; Liu, George; Jhaveri, Vasanti M.; S. Kay, Sae-In; Mittal, Jeenu; Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Younis, Ramzi T.; Chapagain, Prem; Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively. The gravity of the fetal anomalies linked to ZIKV vertical transmission from the mother has prompted a discussion on whether to include ZIKV as a formal member of the TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes] family of pathogens known to breach placental barriers and cause congenital disease in the fetus. The mechanisms of these complex phenotypes have yet to be fully described. As such, diagnostic tools are limited and no effective modalities are available to treat ZIKV. This article will review the recent advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection as well as diagnostic tests available to detect the infection. Due to the increase in incidence of ZIKV infections, there is an immediate need to develop new diagnostic tools and novel preventive as well as therapeutic modalities based on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:29276699

  10. Chytridiomycosis: a global threat to amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P L L; Torres, A M C; Soares, D F M; Hijosa-Valsero, M; Bécares, E

    2013-12-01

    Chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. The disease is one of the main causes of the global decline in amphibians. The aetiological agent is ubiquitous, with worldwide distribution, and affects a large number of amphibian species in several biomes. In the last decade, scientific research has substantially increased knowledge of the aetiological agent and the associated infection. However, important epidemiological aspects of the environment-mediated interactions between the aetiological agent and the host are not yet clear. The objective of the present review is to describe chytridiomycosis with regard to the major features of the aetiological agent, the host and the environment.

  11. Regime-dependent determinants of Euro area sovereign CDS spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommestein, H.J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Qian, Zongxin

    We study the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads of five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. We find that global and/or European Monetary Union (EMU)-wide factors are the main drivers of changes in the sovereign CDS spreads in

  12. Sovereign Wealth Funds: Issue of transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the paper includes Sovereign Wealth Funds and the formation of the first regulatory framework for their investment activities. Sovereign Wealth Funds invested a significant amount of money in Western financial institutions during the global financial crisis and thus played a crucial role in the preservation and stabilization of the global financial system. However, at the same time, a large gap between the financial power of Sovereign Wealth Funds and the level of their transparency was noted. The need to improve the transparency of Sovereign Wealth Funds has been recognized by international institutions, the OECD and the IMF, which initiated the formulation of the first international regulatory framework regarding the operations of these types of funds. The current international regulatory framework represents a sufficient basis for the gradual improvement of transparency, but because of its non-binding and voluntary nature, certain issues such as the protection of national security interests remain open. Therefore, the solutions can be sought through a process of continuous improvement of international regulation as well as strengthening cooperation between Sovereign Wealth Funds and governments of countries in which they invest.

  13. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity and ECB Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    This paper explores the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, in the context of the intervention by the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis. The laboratory for our investigation is the Italian sovereign bond market, the largest in the Euro-zone. We use a unique data...... between changes in Italian sovereign credit risk and liquidity in the secondary bond market, conditional on the level of credit risk, measured by the Italian sovereign credit default swap (CDS) spread. We demonstrate the existence of a threshold of 500 basis points (bp) in the CDS spread, above which...... there is a structural change in this relationship. Other global systemic factors also a ffect market liquidity, but the speci c credit risk of primary dealers plays only a modest role in a ffecting market liquidity, especially under conditions of stress. Moreover, the data indicate that there is a clear structural...

  15. Identifying species threat hotspots from global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2017-01-04

    Identifying hotspots of species threat has been a successful approach for setting conservation priorities. One important challenge in conservation is that, in many hotspots, export industries continue to drive overexploitation. Conservation measures must consider not just the point of impact, but also the consumer demand that ultimately drives resource use. To understand which species threat hotspots are driven by which consumers, we have developed a new approach to link a set of biodiversity footprint accounts to the hotspots of threatened species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The result is a map connecting consumption to spatially explicit hotspots driven by production on a global scale. Locating biodiversity threat hotspots driven by consumption of goods and services can help to connect conservationists, consumers, companies and governments in order to better target conservation actions.

  16. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  17. REGIME SWITCHING DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN CDS SPREADS: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umurcan Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is assessed the main determinants of sovereign CDS spreads in Turkey from January 2006 to December 2015. Before delving into the nonlinear Markov regime-switching model estimation, a conventional one-state linear model is estimated answering to what extent the sovereign credit risk is affected in between global and country-specific market variables and by credit ratings announcement changes. In broad strokes, the regime-switching analysis reveals that among domestic variables, it is the foreign exchange rate that affects the sovereign credit risk more in more volatile periods and among global variables, the indicators standing for global volatility risk premiums and international liquidity primarily influence the changes in the sovereign CDS spread in turbulent regimes whereas proxies for global risk free rate are significant more in tranquil regimes.

  18. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  19. Sovereignty and Nuclear Weapons: The Need for Real Sovereign Authority Rooted in the People’s Global Expectations about Survival, Peace and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current international security framework is based on an incomplete, anachronistic conception of sovereignty shaped largely by historical circumstance rather than principles of universal justice. Evolution of the global community over the past half century necessitates a reformulation of the concept to justly represent the rights of individual citizens and the global community as a whole. The reconceptualization of sovereignty is an essential condition for the elimination of major threats to global security, most especially those arising from the continued existence and proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.

  20. Risk, ambiguity and sovereign rating

    OpenAIRE

    Di Caro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Decisions of investing in sovereign assets involve both risk and ambiguity. Ambiguity arises from unknown elements characterizing the value of a generic sovereign. In presence of ambiguity, ambiguity-averse investors are prone to pay for obtaining summary information such as ratings which reduces ambiguity. Ambiguity-neutral and ambiguity-averse investors, then, make decisions on the basis of different informative sources. By presenting a simple model of sovereign rating under ambiguity, thre...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance: A global emerging threat to public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Maurizio; Ranucci, Elena; Romagnoli, Paola; Giaccone, Valerio

    2017-09-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) became in the last two decades a global threat to public health systems in the world. Since the antibiotic era, with the discovery of the first antibiotics that provided consistent health benefits to human medicine, the misuse and abuse of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine have accelerated the growing worldwide phenomenon of AMR. This article presents an extensive overview of the epidemiology of AMR, with a focus on the link between food producing-animals and humans and on the legal framework and policies currently implemented at the EU level and globally. The ways of responding to the AMR challenges foresee an array of measures that include: designing more effective preventive measures at farm level to reduce the use of antimicrobials; development of novel antimicrobials; strengthening of AMR surveillance system in animal and human populations; better knowledge of the ecology of resistant bacteria and resistant genes; increased awareness of stakeholders on the prudent use of antibiotics in animal productions and clinical arena; and the public health and environmental consequences of AMR. Based on the global nature of AMR and considering that bacterial resistance does not recognize barriers and can spread to people and the environment, the article ends with specific recommendations structured around a holistic approach and targeted to different stakeholders.

  2. TOWARDS NEW MEANINGS OF SOVEREIGN DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deceanu Liviu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due in part to the sovereign debt crisis, the public (and scientific interest towards indebtedness increased significantly. Regardless of the level at which we analyze it – micro or macro – it is clear from the outset that this is often unavoidable, for various reasons, and that the indebtedness state is often one of normality (necessary to cover current needs or to ensure growth targets. Of course, when the debtor is the state itself, things seem, at least apparently, more simple. States have borrowed since their beginnings, and continue to do so today. Nothing more natural ... For a long time, being a creditor of a state, especially of a developed country, meant, above all, a very safe situation – not being exposed to any risk. Recent years have shown, however, that such an approach is flawed, and that sovereign risk is omnipresent in the contemporary globalized world. For about seven years, the word „crisis” seems to have become one that is commonly used in the economic analysis. Undoubtedly, in this period there was not only a „common” financial crisis that occured, but a series of crises: finance – economic crisis – sovereign debt issues. In mid-2008, the global financial system crisis (especially in Western countries asked for a sustained intervention from the state. It came sooner or later, with more or less pro-cyclical effects. Among the taken measures, we can evoke a massive support to banks and economic activity in general, in the context of the drastic reduction in global demand. Recovery policies required their toll, however, and in this case we can talk about a significant increase in budget deficits. If the evolution of private borrowing has taken the path of stagnation, public debt, already growing, became more and more significant. In this context, we intend to highlight some new facets of sovereign risk, and to provide some remarks about how this risk should be viewed and approached.

  3. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Mitchell Aide, T

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ∼1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001–2006 and 2007–2013. Approximately 1680 km 2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007–2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós–Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena–Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ∼32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems

  4. Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, C.; Genovesi, P.; Jeschke, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence on biodiversity, and if so, which taxonomic groups are threatened and where they are threatened. We found that centres of IAS-threatened vertebrates are concentrated in the Americas, India, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. The areas in which IAS-threatened species are located do not fully match the current hotspots of invasions, or the current hotspots of threatened species. The relative importance of biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss clearly varies across regions and taxa, and changes over time, with mammals from India, Indonesia, Australia and Europe are increasingly being threatened by IAS. The chytrid fungus primarily threatens amphibians, whereas invasive mammals primarily threaten other vertebrates. The differences in IAS threats between regions and taxa can help efficiently target IAS, which is essential for achieving the Strategic Plan 2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26817767

  5. Bank and sovereign debt risk

    OpenAIRE

    Darracq Paries, Matthieu; Faia, Ester; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Euro area data show a positive connection between sovereign and bank risk, which increases with banks' and sovereign long run fragility. We build a macro model with banks subject to incentive problems and liquidity risk (in the form of liquidity based banks' runs) which provides a link between endogenous bank capital and macro and policy risk. Our banks also invest in risky government bonds used as capital buffer to self-insure against liquidity risk. The model can replicate the positive conn...

  6. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  7. Identifying the Species Threat Hotspots from Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Identifying species threat hotspots has been a successful approach for setting conservation priorities. One major challenge in conservation is that in many hotspots export industries continue to drive overexploitation. Conservation measures must consider not just the point of impact, but also the consumer demand that ultimately drives resource use. To understand which species threat hotspots are driven by which consumers, we have developed a new approach to link a set of biodiversity footprin...

  8. Joint default probabilities and sovereign risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Hameeteman, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of sovereign risk is of crucial importance for international lenders and investors. Many existing sovereign risk approaches are opaque and heavily rely on subjective choices. In general, they lack a theoretical basis. To assess sovereign risk, we use the Merton model in which a loan

  9. Ebola virus – new threat to global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2015-12-01

        The Ebola virus outbreak constitutes a serious warning that epidemics may occur anywhere and places every afflicted nation at risk. Therefore it is essential to institute measures to stop its spread and its future threat, which is a moral obligation of members of the health profession, whether academicians, researchers, or health ministry officials.

  10. Threats from urban expansion, agricultural transformation and forest loss on global conservation priority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with ~20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results

  11. Toward a psychology of human survival: Psychological approaches to contemporary global threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear weapons, population explosion, resource and food-supply depletion, and environmental deterioration have been posing increasing threats to human survival. Moreover, for the first time in history, all these major global threats are human caused and can, therefore, be traced in large part to psychological origins. After a brief overview of the nature and extent of current threats, this paper suggests criteria for an adequate psychology of human survival. The causes and effects of the threats are examined from various psychological perspectives and the psychological principles underlying effective responses are deduced. The ways in which mental health professionals may contribute to this most crucial task are discussed. 76 references

  12. Incentive-Compatible Sovereign Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bersem, Mario R. C.

    This paper presents a theory of sovereign borrowing and lending when there is no court to enforce repayment obligations. Specifically, I extend the costly state verification approach in financial contracting to include an ex-post repayment decision in which the borrower repays creditors to avoid...

  13. Cyber Terrorism demands a Global Risks and Threats Strategic Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The world is in the third wave of development, which is digital managed and networked. Information, which creates the knowledge is transferring thorough the Internet by exponential function. The rapid advancement of the computer technology has a great influence over the development of the critical information infrastructure, thus changing the safety environment and the national values and interests. This advancement produces threats and risks from computer perspective which are sublimated in different forms of international terrorism and particularly in cyber terrorism. The main aim of this paper is based on a thorough analysis of what is scientifically known and practiced when nowadays critical information infrastructure is in the focus of the cyber terrorism. The rapid IT development demands changes in the strategic management focus. As a result of a time-consuming theoretical and empirical research this paper suggests a methodology for strategic managing of: threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The proposed methodology is seen as a mean to increase the human security conscious in every sense of the word, and to promote the need for rules, procedures and standards establishment from the aspect of the strategic management in the new information epoch concerning. In addition, through a scientific discourse, a short attempt is made to relate Macedonian reality with the phenomenon mentioned above. The most fundamental set phrase is that the efficiency and promptly made decisions during strategic planning are a projection of the systematic organization of functions and models for managing the risks and threats of the critical information infrastructure. Hence, this paper could be seen as a perspective when taking in consideration the regional strategic management, and the cyber space vital functioning. (author)

  14. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The theme of the 13th World Congress on Public Health, “Moving Towards Global Health Equity: Opportunities and Threats”, strikes an optimistic note as the gaps within and between countries are greater than at any time in recent history. There is no consensus on what globalization is, but most agree that it will ...

  15. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  16. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    time in recent history. ... Results: Equity has been a long quest in public health and global health equity could be seen as part of ... Sub-Saharan Africa will remain an enduring preoccupation ..... In recent years, “Equity as a shared vision for health and ..... skilled workers is evolving as a policy position in the US and Europe.

  17. Higher Education in the Global Market: Opportunities and Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navin

    2011-01-01

    The world is marked by the twin processes of economic and cultural globalization in an era of information technology. The identities of all societies are evolving as social and political boundaries are shrinking day-by-day. As a result of significant economic and political changes, cross-cultural contact is at an all-time high in human history.…

  18. Global Challenges and Threats: European and US Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las similitudes y diferencias que existen en las aproximaciones de seguridad entre la Unión Europea y los Estados Unidos, así como sus implicaciones para la OTAN. La Estrategia de Seguridad Europea enfatiza los desafíos y amenazas globales, dejando en un segundo plano los problemas de seguridad tradicional existentes en la periferia europea. Los Estados Unidos, por su parte, que es una potencia militar global tiende a considerar los problemas de seguridad europea en un contexto más global. El artículo hace un recorrido por las políticas puestas en pie por la Unión Europea y los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desafíos globales y explica las similitudes y diferencias en orden a entender los problemas cruciales que los estados miembros de la OTAN tienen que abordar para dar consistencia y permanencia al nuevo concepto estratégico de la OTAN que se está elaborando.

  19. Evaluating Strategies for Achieving Global Collective Action on Transnational Health Threats and Social Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Steven Justin

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents three studies that evaluate different strategies for addressing transnational health threats and social inequalities that depend upon or would benefit from global collective action. Each draws upon different academic disciplines, methods and epistemological traditions. Chapter 1 assesses the role of international law in addressing global health challenges, specifically examining when, how and why global health treaties may be helpful. Evidence from 90 quantitati...

  20. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A new global threat for the public safety: Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bicheru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus, the etiological agent of Zika fever, is transmitted by mosquitoes and has been affecting the South American continent starting with 2015. It was reported in several European countries, carried by the people who returned from Latin America, as reported by the health authorities in those countries. Today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, the virus suspected to cause serious birth defects in the fetus has also been confirmed in 21 of the 55 countries of South America, but also in other states from Europe and North America. Zika virus is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to Flavivirus genus (family Flaviviridae and was first identified in 1947 in Uganda rainforest Zika. The increased number of cases of microcephaly, in children from northern Brazil, suggested a connection with Zika virus, but it has not yet been proven. Also, the virus can be transmitted sexually and through blood or blood products. Diagnosis of the infection is made using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine against the infection with Zika virus. The best form of prevention is to avoid mosquito bites. WHO has estimated that the spread of Zika virus, transmitted through mosquito bite, is “a global public health emergency”. The priority is to protect pregnant women and to control the mosquitoes.

  2. Concern over Zika virus outbreak: another alarming global threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz MY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz,1 Syed Uzair Mahmood,2 Maria Shoaib,1 Farah Hafiz Yusuf1 1Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, 2Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Zika virus, as highlighted by the World Health Organization in February 2016, has emerged as a public health emergency of international concern. Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral, and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. It belongs to Flaviviridae family. Aedes aegypticus mosquito is the known vector. Transmission is anthroponotic (human to vector to human during outbreaks, or occurs perinatally in utero, sexually, and via transfusion of infected blood. Zika virus is turning out to be a major public health concern. Not only has it shown dramatic teratogenic association and caused serious neurological concerns but it has also spread around the globe. Countries that have not yet been affected by Zika virus should adopt proper preventive methods to limit its spread in the population. Keywords: Zika virus, global spread, teratogenic, neurological anomalies, public health emergency

  3. The global nephrology workforce: emerging threats and potential solutions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad U; Elsayed, Mohamed E; Stack, Austin G

    2016-02-01

    Amidst the rising tide of chronic kidney disease (CKD) burden, the global nephrology workforce has failed to expand in order to meet the growing healthcare needs of this vulnerable patient population. In truth, this shortage of nephrologists is seen in many parts of the world, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Asia and the African continent. Moreover, expert groups on workforce planning as well as national and international professional organizations predict further reductions in the nephrology workforce over the next decade, with potentially serious implications. Although the full impact of this has not been clearly articulated, what is clear is that the delivery of care to patients with CKD may be threatened in many parts of the world unless effective country-specific workforce strategies are put in place and implemented. Multiple factors are responsible for this apparent shortage in the nephrology workforce and the underpinning reasons may vary across health systems and countries. Potential contributors include the increasing burden of CKD, aging workforce, declining interest in nephrology among trainees, lack of exposure to nephrology among students and residents, rising cost of medical education and specialist training, increasing cultural and ethnic disparities between patients and care providers, increasing reliance on foreign medical graduates, inflexible work schedules, erosion of nephrology practice scope by other specialists, inadequate training, reduced focus on scholarship and research funds, increased demand to meet quality of care standards and the development of new care delivery models. It is apparent from this list that the solution is not simple and that a comprehensive evaluation is required. Consequently, there is an urgent need for all countries to develop a policy framework for the provision of kidney disease services within their health systems, a framework that is based on accurate projections of disease burden, a

  4. Skin bleaching: A neglected form of injury and threat to global skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin bleaching: A neglected form of injury and threat to global skin. JC Street, K Gaska, KM Lewis, ML Wilson. Abstract. Skin bleaching is the use of creams, gels, or soaps to lighten the skin and is known to cause a number of injuries, many of which are potentially life-threatening. Despite the growing body of research ...

  5. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  6. Reducing the global threat of radiological terrorism in Central Asia and Caucus regions. The global threat reduction initiative approach to radioactive source security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2010-01-01

    The security of radioactive sources is of worldwide concern, due to their wide use in civilian commerce and the potentially devastating effects of their misuse. In cooperation with host countries and international partners, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative has utilized a proven process for providing technical and financial assistance to protect radioactive sources in diverse uses and unique circumstances at hundreds of sites worldwide. The mission of the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's program includes reducing the risk posed by vulnerable radiological materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device). The program's objectives are to identify, consolidate, secure, and/or dispose of high-activity radiological materials to prevent their theft and malicious use. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program's scope is global, with projects in over 100 countries at more than 755 radiological sites, including industrial, medical and commercial facilities. In addition to working bilaterally, the Program works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other partner countries. (author)

  7. Determinants of Complexity of Sovereign Debt Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mesjasz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The situation on all kinds of financial markets is determined by their increasing complexity. Negotiation of sovereign debt is also a complex endeavor. Its complexity results both from structural characteristics - number of actors, problems of coordination, communication, cooperation and conflict and from cognitive limitations. The survey of literature on sovereign debt management shows that no research has been done on complexity of sovereign debt management, and sovereign debt negotiation in particular. The aim of the paper is to provide initial framework concepts of complexity of sovereign debt restructuring negotiation referring to a universal collection of characteristics of negotiation. A model of debt restructuring negotiation is elaborated and a set of its complexity- related characteristics is proposed.

  8. Inequality and Sovereign Default under Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONG KYUN KIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Do differences in the inequality of income affect the likelihood that democratic governments decide not to honor their foreign debt contracts? I argue that sovereign default involves an intertemporal tradeoff between an immediate consumption boost and a future tax increase. Since a poorer voter internalizes less of the future cost of default, as the median is poorer, the majority’s demand for default increases. Therefore, greater income inequality implies a higher default risk. I then present a signaling game that models strategic selection that a sovereign must go through to get to the default decision node. I show that sovereign default is most likely to actually occur when the level of income inequality is intermediate. The intuition is that sovereign default occurs when risky sovereigns successfully induce creditors to provide a loan, but the most risky ones are among those least able to do so. Empirical findings support the claim.

  9. The Microstructure of the European Sovereign Bond Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    We explore the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, during the Euro-zone crisis, in the Italian sovereign bond market, using a unique tick-by-tick dataset, from the period June 2011-December 2012. We document a strong, dynamic relationship between changes in sovereign credit risk...... and market liquidity, conditional on the credit default swap (CDS) spread: When the CDS is above 500 basis points (bp), market liquidity adjusts more rapidly and signicantly to changes in the credit risk. Other global systemic factors also aect market liquidity, while, surprisingly, the specic credit risk...... of primary dealers plays only a modest role, especially under conditions of stress. Further, the Long-Term Renancing Operations (LTRO) by the European Central Bank (ECB) on December 8, 2012, clearly attenuated the relationship between credit risk and liquidity....

  10. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  11. The rise of Asian sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.

  12. Managing sovereign credit risk in bond portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Bruder, Benjamin; Hereil, Pierre; Roncalli, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    With the recent development of the European debt crisis, traditional index bond management has been severely called into question. We focus here on the risk issues raised by the classical market-capitalization weighting scheme. We propose an approach to properly measure sovereign credit risk in a fixed-income portfolio. For that, we assume that CDS spreads follow a SABR process and we derive a sovereign credit risk measure based on CDS spreads and duration of portfolio bonds. We then consider...

  13. At a global scale, do climate change threatened species also face a greater number of non-climatic threats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B. Fortini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For many species the threats of climate change occur in a context of multiple existing threats. Given the current focus of global change ecology in identifying and understanding species vulnerable to climate change, we performed a global analysis to characterize the multi-threat context for species threatened by climate change. Utilizing 30,053 species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, we sought to evaluate if species threatened by climate change are more likely threatened by a greater number of non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Our results show that species threatened by climate change are generally impacted by 21% more non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Across all species, this pattern is related to IUCN risk status, where endangered species threatened by climate change face 33% more non-climatic threats than endangered species not threatened by climate change. With the clear challenges of assessing current and projected impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, research often requires reductionist approaches that result in downplaying this multi-threat context. This cautionary note bears relevance beyond climate change threatened species as we also found other (but not all anthropogenic threats are also similarly associated with more threats. Our findings serve as a reminder that ecological research should seriously consider these potential threat interactions, especially for species under elevated conservation concern.

  14. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  15. Global Threat Reduction Initiative International Partners' Conference. Summary of the proceedings and findings of the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) International Partners' Conference took place in Vienna, Austria, from September 18-19, 2004. More than 590 representatives from 100 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States attended the GTRI International Partners' Conference on September 18-19, 2004, in Vienna, Austria. Representatives from ten non-governmental and international organizations were also present during the conference. The Governments of the United States and the Russian Federation co-sponsored the International Partners Conference, with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The purpose of the International Partners' Conference was to build and broaden international support for efforts by national authorities to identify, secure, recover, and/or facilitate the disposition of high-risk nuclear and radioactive materials that pose a potential threat to the international community. One of the significant outcomes of the International Partners Conference was reaching agreement on the Findings of the Conference (enclosed in this document) by participating Member States that outlined a broadly shared opinion of participating Member States on efforts to reduce the potential threat posed by vulnerable, unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material. It is hoped that this document can be used as a framework to consolidate, expand, and accelerate domestic, regional, and IAEA programs that address unsecured vulnerable nuclear and radioactive materials, as deemed necessary by Member States. As a first step, participating members states urged the international community to note additional opportunities to further build support for activities related to GTRI

  16. The global threat reduction initiative's radiological security cooperation with Russia - 59361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Tiffany A.; Abramson, William J.; Russell, James W. Jr.; Roberts, Catherine K.

    2012-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) / National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) supports both U.S. and international threat reduction goals by securing vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites throughout the world. GTRI's approach to reducing the threat posed by vulnerable, high-activity radioactive sources includes removing and disposing of orphan or disused radioactive sources; implementing physical security upgrades at civilian sites containing radioactive sources; and establishing a cooperative sustainability program at sites to ensure that upgrades are maintained. For many years GTRI has collaborated successfully with the Russian Federation and international partners to improve radiological security in Russia. This paper provides a synopsis of GTRI's accomplishments and cooperation with Russia in the following areas: 1.) recovering and disposing of orphan and disused radioactive sources, 2.) recovering and disposing of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and 3.) providing physical security upgrades at civilian sites that contain vulnerable radiological material. The success of GTRI's program to secure radiological material in the Russian Federation over the past decade is due largely to the hard work, technical expertise, and tenacity of the U.S. laboratory teams and the Russian partner organizations with whom GTRI has worked. GTRI plans to continue building on this history of cooperation in order to recover and secure additional, vulnerable radioactive sources in locations throughout Russia. GTRI also is committed to sustainability efforts so that facilities in Russia receiving physical protection equipment and training are prepared to eventually assume responsibility for those security upgrades. In the years to come, GTRI will combine financial support with capacity building to enhance Russia's domestic programs to address these challenges. Through

  17. Sovereign debt threatens the Union: the genesis of a federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubert, A.

    2012-01-01

    Eurozone sovereign debt crisis - Europe's ‘Alexander Hamilton Moment’ - American sovereign debt crisis of 1780s - Articles of Confederation - U.S. Constitution - Assumption of states' debt - Constitutional transformation key factor in enabling Alexander Hamilton's debt restructuring.

  18. The Welfare Cost of Sovereign Default and Liquidity Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous default on entrepreneur loans and funds borrowed from the central bank (liquidity injections) and investigates the welfare cost of sovereign default. The results show that sovereign default affects production through households' investment decisions and the bank's asset portfolio adjustment. The effect of sovereign default on entrepreneurs tends to be in favor of production. Sovereign default reduces the variability of th...

  19. Financial Sector Linkages and the Dynamics of Bank and Sovereign Credit Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, René; Lando, David; Murgoci, Agatha

    of the risk arising from cross-border exposures. We also construct a measure which in addition takes into account the relative size and riskiness of bank exposures to domestic government bonds and other domestic residents. Both measures help explaining the dynamics of bank CDS premia after controlling...... for country specic and global risk factors. Finally, a dynamic measure of the size of the implicit guarantee, that the sovereign may be assumed to extend for the domestic banking system, strongly impacts sovereign CDS premia....

  20. Impact of international and local conditions on sovereign bond spreads: International evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Izadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of international and domestic factors on the sovereign bond spreads for 22 developed countries in North America, Europe and Pacific Rim regions. First, for all the regions the impact of global factors on the sovereign bond spreads is more intense than regional factors. Second, the findings confirm that for the bond spreads of each region over its domestic government bonds, the countries’ local fundamentals are better determinants of the spreads compared to the spread over US government bonds as a safe haven. Third, the influence of worldwide factors in the Eurozone compared to other regions bond spreads is less. Fourth, the relationship of the market sentiment and the investor risk aversion with the sovereign bond spreads of all regions is positive. Equity market volatility plays significant role in yield speads in international bond markets.

  1. Bank/sovereign Risk Spillovers in the European Debt Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, V.; Gerhardt, M.; Schepens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates contagion between bank risk and sovereign risk in Europe over the period 2006-2011. Since this period covers various stages of the banking and sovereign crisis, it offers a fertile ground to analyze bank/sovereign risk spillovers. We define contagion as excess

  2. INFORMATION THREATS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD: ECONOMICS, POLITICS, SOCIETY (EXPERIENCE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Holovka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article deals with both integral vision of the contemporary informative risks in the globalized world and their classification. The essence of the informative security is exposed, which is one of main factors of steady development of the modern informative society. In consideration of the foreign practice, the experience of Ukraine is also analyzed in counteraction to the contemporary informative threats. The effective policy of safety and counteraction to the informative threats is one of the basic constituents of the state national safety system and at the same time testifies to the correct character of connections between the public organs and the society. Under the conditions of unrestrained progress of information technologies and general informatization in all sectors of people’s life (politics, economy, defense, energy etc., providing of control and defense of informative space of the country becomes much more difficult task. Modern Ukrainian realities certify convincingly, that Ukraine is in an extremely difficult political situation that influences all spheres of Ukrainians’ life. The key reason of such situation is a military-informative aggression against Ukraine from Russia, which is the fact of waging a «hybrid war». As it is known, this type of war combines the application of both classic soldiery instruments (military technique, firearms, regular troops and methods of informative influence (cyber-attack, informative diversions, aggressive propaganda, impact on public opinion. This factor encourages such research. The object of the study is the phenomenon of information risks in the modern world. Subject of research – is the impact of modern information threats to the state and society, namely the economic, political and social spheres. For a holistic analysis of the subject of research was used appropriate methodology – systematic approach, method of comparative analysis, general scientific methods

  3. Sovereign bonds in developing countries: Drivers of issuance and spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Presbitero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a new wave of sovereign bond issuances in Africa. What determines the ability of developing countries to issue bonds in international capital and what explains the spreads on these bonds? This paper examines these questions using a dataset that includes 105 developing countries during the period 1995–2014. We find that a country is more likely to issue a bond when, in comparison with non-issuing peers, it is larger in economic size, has higher per capita GDP, a lower public debt, and a more effective government. Spreads on sovereign bonds are lower for countries with strong external and fiscal positions, as well as robust economic growth and government effectiveness. We also find that primary spreads for the average Sub-Saharan African issuer are higher than in other regions. With regard to global factors, our results confirm the existing evidence that issuances are more likely during periods of global liquidity and high commodity prices, especially for Sub-Saharan African countries, and spreads are higher in periods of higher market volatility.

  4. Socio-Economic Correlates of Information Security Threats and Controls in Global Financial Services Industry: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Princely Ifinedo

    2015-01-01

    Threats to data and information assets of Global Financial Services Industry (GFSI) are ever-present; such problems, if not well understood, could lead to huge negative impact. To some extent, the environment where a business operates does matter for its success. This study presents information about the relationships between selected socio-economic factors and information security threats and controls in the financial services industry. Essentially, it seeks to enrich the information provide...

  5. At a global scale, do climate change threatened species also face a greater number of non-climatic threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Dye, Kaipo

    2017-01-01

    For many species the threats of climate change occur in a context of multiple existing threats. Given the current focus of global change ecology in identifying and understanding species vulnerable to climate change, we performed a global analysis to characterize the multi-threat context for species threatened by climate change. Utilizing 30,053 species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, we sought to evaluate if species threatened by climate change are more likely threatened by a greater number of non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Our results show that species threatened by climate change are generally impacted by 21% more non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Across all species, this pattern is related to IUCN risk status, where endangered species threatened by climate change face 33% more non-climatic threats than endangered species not threatened by climate change. With the clear challenges of assessing current and projected impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, research often requires reductionist approaches that result in downplaying this multi-threat context. This cautionary note bears relevance beyond climate change threatened species as we also

  6. Empirical Studies on Sovereign Fixed Income Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Duyvesteyn (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation presents evidence of five studies showing that sovereign fixed income markets are not always price efficient. The emerging local currency debt market has grown to a large size of more than 1.5 trill ion US Dollars at the end of 2012. The factors

  7. Sovereign debt and bank fragility in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    In May 2012 the Spanish government announced a debt-financed recapitalization of the undercapitalized Spanish banking system. Although there was a wide consensus among economists and policymakers that this was key to solving Spain’s economic troubles, both bank CDS and sovereign CDS further

  8. Contagion during the Greek sovereign debt crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, M.; de Haan, J.

    We examine the impact of news about Greece and news about a Greek bailout on bank stock prices in 2010 using data for 48 European banks. We identify the twenty days with extreme returns on Greek sovereign bonds and categorise the news events during those days into news about Greece and news about

  9. From debt crisis to sovereign risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukkezen, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Recent experience taught us that advanced economies can be subject to debt crises, with tremendous impact on the economy. Such crises are -fortunately- rare events with which policy makers do not have to deal on a daily basis. They do have to incorporate sovereign risk, the probability that such a

  10. THE SOVEREIGN DEBT CHALLANGE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Stanca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen profound changes in country risk and its components, in the context of crises multiplication and diversification; the sovereign risk, a main country risk component, has undergone important changes, mainly given by mutations in its determining factors; the economy of "indebtedness" represents a reality of the recent years. In this context, our paper aims to capture new issues related to sovereign risk and its manifestations, and to bring to the fore a number of relevant indicators concerning the indebtedness problems. Currently, the increasing sovereign obligations, the Greece 2010 episode and the real sovereign debt crisis testify the important implications that the national economic policy decisions have on entire nations. In general, the countries with servicing difficulties present a total external or public debt that overcomes the average of the emerging states; however, we can not accurately identify a threshold beyond which we can say that a state is overly indebted. Therefore, questions such as Starting from what point is a state overly indebted? or What is the cause of the excessive debts of a state? are fully justified and the answer or answers deserve being sought. Studies on the relationship between various economic variables and the countries ability to deal with external debt problems are present in the country risk literature since the 1970s; beginning with authors such as Frank and Cline (1971, which gave priority to external debt service indicators such as Exports, Imports / GDP, Imports / Reserves, and continuing with other specialists, among whom we mention Saini and Bates (1978, Abassi and Tafler (1982, Haque, Brewer and Rivoli (1990, North (2001 Bouchet (2003, Meunier (2005, Longueville (2010 and many others, many ratios and indicators were carefully analyzed. In our short study, we also present a number of recent aspects concerning sovereign risk, and we analyze some relevant indicators, using

  11. Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: review and predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, C.R. [Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville, Qld. (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Factors causing global degradation of coral reefs are examined briefly as a basis for predicting the likely consequences of increases in these factors. The earlier consensus was that widespread but localized damage from natural factors such as storms, and direct anthropogenic effects such as increased sedimentation, pollution and exploitation, posed the largest immediate threat to coral reefs. Now truly global factors associated with accelerating Global Climate Change are either damaging coral reefs or have the potential to inflict greater damage in the immediate future e.g. increases in coral bleaching and mortality, and reduction in coral calcification due to changes in sea-water chemistry with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. Rises in sea level will probably disrupt human communities and their cultures by making coral cays uninhabitable, whereas coral reefs will sustain minimal damage from the rise in sea level. The short-term (decades) prognosis is that major reductions are almost certain in the extent and biodiversity of coral reefs, and severe disruptions to cultures and economies dependent on reef resources will occur. The long-term (centuries to millennia) prognosis is more encouraging because coral reefs have remarkable resilience to severe disruption and will probably show this resilience in the future when climate changes either stabilize or reverse.

  12. A comparison of threats, vulnerabilities and management approaches in global seagrass bioregions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, Alana; Chartrand-Miller, Katie; McKenzie, Len; Rasheed, Michael; Taylor, Helen; Coles, Rob; Erftemeijer, Paul; Fonseca, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Global seagrass habitats are threatened by multiple anthropogenic factors. Effective management of seagrasses requires information on the relative impacts of threats; however, this information is rarely available. Our goal was to use the knowledge of experts to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic activities in six global seagrass bioregions. The activities that threaten seagrasses were identified at an international seagrass workshop and followed with a web-based survey to collect seagrass vulnerability information. There was a global consensus that urban/industrial runoff, urban/port infrastructure development, agricultural runoff and dredging had the greatest impact on seagrasses, though the order of relative impacts varied by bioregion. These activities are largely terrestrially based, highlighting the need for marine planning initiatives to be co-ordinated with adjacent watershed planning. Sea level rise and increases in the severity of cyclones were ranked highest relative to other climate change related activities, but overall the five climate change activities were ranked low and experts were uncertain of their effects on seagrasses. The experts’ preferred mechanism of delivering management outcomes were processes such as policy development, planning and consultation rather than prescriptive management tools. Our approach to collecting expert opinion provides the required data to prioritize seagrass management actions at bioregional scales. (letter)

  13. Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Yuan, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaotian; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yueqing; Wang, Chenchen; Cao, Xianghui; Li, Qifeng; Su, Jilan; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Garbutt, Richard Angus; Bush, Simon; Fletcher, Stephen; Wagey, Tonny; Kachur, Anatolii; Sweijd, Neville

    2018-08-01

    Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level. A global overview of nutrients, metals, POPs, and major environmental changes due to climate change and their impacts on coastal ecosystems was carried out in this study. Coasts of the Eastern Atlantic and Western Pacific were hotspots of concentrations of several pollutants, and mostly affected by warming climate. These hotspots shared the same features of large populations, heavy industry and (semi-) closed sea. Estimation of coastal ocean capital, integrated management of land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone, enhancement of integrated global observation system, and coastal ecosystem-based management can play effective roles in promoting sustainable management of coastal marine ecosystems. Enhanced management from the perspective of mitigating pollution and climate change was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Jetz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Amphibian population declines far exceed those of other vertebrate groups, with 30% of all species listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The causes of these declines are a matter of continued research, but probably include climate change, land-use change...... to be found in Africa, parts of northern South America and the Andes. Regions with the highest projected impact of land-use and climate change coincide, but there is little spatial overlap with regions highly threatened by the fungal disease. Overall, the areas harbouring the richest amphibian faunas...... and spread of the pathogenic fungal disease chytridiomycosis. Here we assess the spatial distribution and interactions of these primary threats in relation to the global distribution of amphibian species. We show that the greatest proportions of species negatively affected by climate change are projected...

  15. International forum on nuclear and biological decommissioning: Management of global security threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanian, G.; Kouzminov, V.; Martellini, M.; Santesso, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats was organized by the Landau Network-Centro Volta (LNCV) with the support of the UNESCO Venice Office, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Italian National Board for Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), the Lombardy Region and the Municipality of Como. Subjects dealt with at the conference included the reconversion of nuclear and biological military equipment produced in the 50 years of the Cold War period and the effects of radio contamination on the environment and on human life. This conference was the most recent of a number of initiatives on reconversion organized in collaboration with the UNESCO Venice Office. The issues dealt with at the conference will be among the subjects for discussion at the UNESCO International School Science for Peace, which will be set up at the 'A. Volta' Center for Scientific Culture

  16. Health system strengthening: prospects and threats for its sustainability on the global health policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimoli, Joseph F; Saxena, Sweta; Hatt, Laurel E; Yarrow, Kristina M; White, Trenton M; Ifafore-Calfee, Temitayo

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, Hafner and Shiffman applied Kingdon's public policy process model to explain the emergence of global attention to health system strengthening (HSS). They questioned, however, HSS's sustainability on the global health policy agenda, citing various concerns. Guided by the Grindle and Thomas interactive model of policy implementation, we advance and elaborate a proposition: a confluence of developments will contribute to maintaining HSS's prominent place on the agenda until at least 2030. Those developments include (1) technical, managerial, financial, and political responses to unpredictable public health crises that imperil the routine functioning of health systems, such as the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa; (2) similar responses to non-crisis situations requiring fully engaged, robust health systems, such as the pursuit of the new Sustainable Development Goal for health (SDG3); and (3) increased availability of new knowledge about system change at macro, meso, and micro levels and its effects on people's health and well-being. To gauge the accuracy of our proposition, we carried out a speculative assessment of credible threats to our premise by discussing all of the Hafner-Shiffman concerns. We conclude that (1) the components of our proposition and other forces that have the potential to promote continuing attention to HSS are of sufficient strength to counteract these concerns, and (2) prospective monitoring of HSS agenda status and further research on agenda sustainability can increase confidence in our threat assessment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Antibiotic resistance as a global threat: Evidence from China, Kuwait and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Vincent

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is an under-appreciated threat to public health in nations around the globe. With globalization booming, it is important to understand international patterns of resistance. If countries already experience similar patterns of resistance, it may be too late to worry about international spread. If large countries or groups of countries that are likely to leap ahead in their integration with the rest of the world – China being the standout case – have high and distinctive patterns of resistance, then a coordinated response could substantially help to control the spread of resistance. The literature to date provides only limited evidence on these issues. Methods We study the recent patterns of antibiotic resistance in three geographically separated, and culturally and economically distinct countries – China, Kuwait and the United States – to gauge the range and depth of this global health threat, and its potential for growth as globalization expands. Our primary measures are the prevalence of resistance of specific bacteria to specific antibiotics. We also propose and illustrate methods for aggregating specific "bug-drug" data. We use these aggregate measures to summarize the resistance pattern for each country and to study the extent of correlation between countries' patterns of drug resistance. Results We find that China has the highest level of antibiotic resistance, followed by Kuwait and the U.S. In a study of resistance patterns of several most common bacteria in China in 1999 and 2001, the mean prevalence of resistance among hospital-acquired infections was as high as 41% (with a range from 23% to 77% and that among community- acquired infections was 26% (with a range from 15% to 39%. China also has the most rapid growth rate of resistance (22% average growth in a study spanning 1994 to 2000. Kuwait is second (17% average growth in a period from 1999 to 2003, and the U.S. the lowest (6% from

  18. Sovereign wealth funds: Investment objectives and asset allocation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have steadily increased their importance in the global financial system in the last decade and especially during the financial crisis period. Although the objectives and investment strategies of SWFs are quite diverse, I propose to sort them into three main groups, depending on their sponsor countries’ endowment with resources and investment objectives. I present case studies and empirical analyses that reflect SWF investment activities and try to elaborate on the special role of each SWF group. Special emphasis is given to the recent financial crisis, where SWFs also acted as bailout investors by injecting substantial capital into global financial institutions, filling a financing gap that other institutional investors could not close

  19. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-23

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  20. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  1. The global threat reduction initiative and conversion of isotope production to LEU targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has given a decisive impetus to the RERTR program's longstanding goal of converting worldwide production of medical radioisotopes from reliance on bomb-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) unsuitable for weapons. Although the four major; isotope producers continue to resist calls for conversion, they face mounting pressure from a variety of fronts including: (1) GTRI; (2) a related, multilateral U.S. initiative to forge agreement on conversion among the states that are home to the major producers; (3) an IAEA effort to provide technical assistance that will facilitate large-scale production of medical isotopes using LEU by producers who seek to do so; (4) planned production in the United States of substantial quantities of medical isotopes using LEU; and (5) pending U.S. legislation that would prohibit the export of HEU for production of isotopes as soon as alternative, LEU-produced isotopes are available. Accordingly, it now appears inevitable that worldwide isotope production will be converted from reliance on HEU to LEU. The only remaining question is which producers will be the first to reliably deliver sizeable quantities of LEU-produced isotopes and thereby capture global market share from the others. (author)

  2. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  3. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km2 and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat. PMID:26324886

  4. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-22

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km(2) and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat.

  5. On the efficiency of sovereign bond markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Luciano; Fernández Bariviera, Aurelio; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2012-09-01

    The existence of memory in financial time series has been extensively studied for several stock markets around the world by means of different approaches. However, fixed income markets, i.e. those where corporate and sovereign bonds are traded, have been much less studied. We believe that, given the relevance of these markets, not only from the investors', but also from the issuers' point of view (government and firms), it is necessary to fill this gap in the literature. In this paper, we study the sovereign market efficiency of thirty bond indices of both developed and emerging countries, using an innovative statistical tool in the financial literature: the complexity-entropy causality plane. This representation space allows us to establish an efficiency ranking of different markets and distinguish different bond market dynamics. We conclude that the classification derived from the complexity-entropy causality plane is consistent with the qualifications assigned by major rating companies to the sovereign instruments. Additionally, we find a correlation between permutation entropy, economic development and market size that could be of interest for policy makers and investors.

  6. Exchange-traded funds of the eurozone sovereign debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drenovak Mikica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periods of high uncertainty bring liquidity concerns to the forefront for sovereign bond investors. Arguably the most liquid and cost-effective way for retail and small institutional investors to gain diversified sovereign bond exposure is through an exchange traded fund (ETF. In this paper we study the performance, country exposure, and replicating characteristics of a sample of 31 European index ETFs with exposure to eurozone sovereign debt. The obtained results are presented in the context of underlying index selection rules, types of replication, and movements in sovereign debt interest rates and sovereign CDS spreads. It is demonstrated that the ETFs focused on accurately track corresponding bond indices. This is consistent with earlier findings for equity index ETFs. Our results may be of interest for institutional investors, regulators, and everyone interested in sovereign debt investments.

  7. Global Warming: Threat to Sundarbans and the Silence of Indo-Bangladesh Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Basu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans or the ‘beautiful forest’ is a cluster of low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal, considered as one of the natural wonders of the world, which is facing the problem of global warming since the past few decades. Global warming, climate change, increasing water level and salinity of the river as well as inlet areas are some recognized threats to the Sundarbans. This is threatening species survival, the health of natural systems and causing extinction of biodiversity. This study is a modest attempt to examine the factors because of which the burning issues of Sundarbans are almost excluded from the attention of the media in India as well as Bangladesh. This is despite the fact that various initiatives have been taken by the governments and at the private level in these two countries to conserve the Sundarbans ecosystem. The research paper summarizes findings of newspaper reports on Sundarbans, from Earth Day to World Environment Day 2017 (22 April to 5 June of two reputed broadsheets dailies i.e. The Daily Prothom Alo (Dhaka, Bangladesh and The Ei Samay Sangbadpatra (Kolkata, India. The youngest member of the mass communication family, the film has also been included in this paper. This is because the joint production of the two Bengali film industries has already made a lot of cinema. There is going to be more in the near future, where many issues of India and Bangladesh are getting priority, but the destruction of Sundarbans has never been the subject of any such media intervention.

  8. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Return of Highly Enriched Uranium from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messick, C.E.; Dickerson, S.L.; Greenberg, R.F. Jr. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington D.C. (United States); Andes, T.C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In March 2010, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI), in collaboration with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), completed a shipment of 18.2 kilograms of non-U.S.-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) to the United States. The HEU was in the form of 71 aluminium-clad material test reactor (MTR) fuel elements and was the first GTRI Gap Program shipment that included non-U.S. origin irradiated nuclear fuel. Although shipments of research reactor fuels are not unique, this shipment served as a cornerstone to the first Presidential Nuclear Security Summit held in Washington, D.C., in April 2010. Carrying out the shipment became critical when a severe earthquake struck Chile just one day before the shipment was to occur. As the fuel had already been packaged in casks and the ocean vessels were nearing the port, U.S. and Chilean officials decided that it was most imperative that the shipment continue as planned. After careful analysis of the situation, inspection of the transportation packages, roadways, and port services, the shipment team was able to make the shipment occur in a safe and secure manner. This paper describes the loading activities at both the RECH-1 and RECH-2 reactors as well as the transportation of the loaded casks to the port of departure. (author)

  9. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project: Sample Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pereira, Mario M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steen, Franciska H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This sample management plan provides guidelines for sectioning, preparation, acceptance criteria, analytical path, and end-of-life disposal for the fuel element segments utilized in the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project. The Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is tasked with analysis of irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples to support the GTRI conversion program. Sample analysis may include optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fuel-surface interface analysis, gas pycnometry (density) measurements, laser flash analysis (LFA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis with mass spectroscopy (TG /DTA-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP), alpha spectroscopy, and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS). The project will utilize existing Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) operating, technical, and administrative procedures for sample receipt, processing, and analyses. Test instructions (TIs), which are documents used to provide specific details regarding the implementation of an existing RPL approved technical or operational procedure, will also be used to communicate to staff project specific parameters requested by the Principal Investigator (PI). TIs will be developed, reviewed, and issued in accordance with the latest revision of the RPL-PLN-700, RPL Operations Plan. Additionally, the PI must approve all project test instructions and red-line changes to test instructions.

  10. Sovereign immunity: Principles and application in medical malpractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Tort law seeks accountability when parties engage in negligent conduct, and aims to compensate the victims of such conduct. An exception to this general rule governing medical negligence is the doctrine of sovereign immunity. Historically, individuals acting under the authority of the government or other sovereign entity had almost complete protection against tort liability. This article addressed the following: (1) the development of sovereign immunity in law, (2) the lasting impact of the Federal Tort Claims Act on sovereign immunity, and (3) the contemporary application of sovereign immunity to medical malpractice, using case examples from Virginia and Florida. I performed an Internet search to identify sources that addressed the concept of sovereign immunity, followed by a focused search for relevant articles in PubMed and LexisNexis, literature databases for medical and legal professionals, respectively. Historically, sovereign liability conferred absolute immunity from lawsuits in favor of the sovereign (ie, the government). Practical considerations in our democratic system have contributed to an evolution of this doctrine. Understanding sovereign immunity and its contemporary application are of value for any physician interested in the debate concerning medical malpractice in the United States. Under certain circumstances, physicians working as employees of the federal or state government may be protected against individual liability if the government is substituted as the defendant.

  11. Hybrid Wars: The 21 st -Century's New Threats to Global Peace and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyber-terrorism' and 'cyber-war' against the backdrop of Russia's 'Ukrainian Spring' and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It also discusses the findings of an on-going hybrid threat project by ...

  12. China's Sovereign Wealth Fund Investments in overseas energy: The energy security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Jianping; Wang, Yongfeng; Clark, Woodrow W.

    2014-01-01

    Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are state-owned investment funds that invest in real and financial assets. Since the global financial crisis in 2008, SWFs' investments have resulted in national security concerns of host countries because SWFs continue to expand rapidly and have become increasingly active in real-time strategic transactions. Given this background, China, which has the biggest SWF in the world, is facing severe challenges of energy resources shortages while its plan is to accomplish social and economic development goals. Energy security is a key driving force of the energy investment policy of China's SWFs. This makes the SWF investments more complicated and more politically sensitive. The combination of sovereign rights and the strategic importance of energy also makes geopolitics more complicated and brings more uncertainty to SWF investments. This article explores the relationship between energy security and energy investments of China's SWFs. It is recognised that the energy investment of SWFs must follow a sustainable path to coordinate energy security, economic growth, return on investment and national security concerns. Government policymakers are urged to balance the financial and political returns on SWFs against potential negative effects. The conclusion presents insights for policymakers, energy scholars and SWF researchers. - Highlights: • Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are government-owned and may pursue geopolitical power. • SWF investment in energy is necessary for commercial and strategic interests. • China's SWFs are active in energy investment to support a “going global” strategy. • Sovereign rights are inevitable to integrate the strategic property of energy. • SWF investments in energy suffer negative impacts due to sovereign rights

  13. Introductory remarks at the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Partners Conference (GTRI). 18 September 2004, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The security of nuclear and other radioactive material has taken on dramatically heightened significance in recent years, due to a number of factors: first, the increasing awareness that nuclear weapons related 'know-how' is no longer confined to a relatively few countries; second, the uncovering of an illicit procurement network capable of supplying nuclear designs and equipment; and third, the rise of extremist groups that have demonstrated an interest in obtaining and using nuclear and radiological weapons. Against this background, the need to protect nuclear material and facilities, and to control nuclear material and radioactive sources, has become an ever more global priority. The IAEA has been active in the field of nuclear security for many years, but the urgency and scope of our efforts underwent a 'sea-change' in the months following September 2001. International cooperation has become the hallmark of these security efforts. While nuclear security is and should remain a national responsibility, many countries still lack the programmes and the resources to respond properly to the threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism. International efforts are focused both on assisting these countries in strengthening their programmes, and on building global networks for combating cross-border threats. The Agency's work has three main points of focus: prevention, detection and response. Our first objective is to assist States in preventing any illicit or non-peaceful use of nuclear or other radioactive materials - including acts of terrorism. This requires effective physical protection of nuclear materials in use, storage and transport, as well as protection of related nuclear facilities. It demands strong State programmes for accounting and control of nuclear material. It recognizes the benefits of the conversion of research reactors to use low enriched uranium a process that requires substantial funding and, in some cases, the development of technological

  14. Historical evolution of human anthrax from occupational disease to potentially global threat as bioweapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Gentile, Bernardina; Lista, Florigio; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can naturally infect livestock, wildlife and occupationally exposed humans. However, for its resistance due to spore formation, ease of dissemination, persistence in the environment and high virulence, B. anthracis has been considered the most serious bioterrorism agent for a long time. During the last century anthrax evolved from limited natural disease to potentially global threat if used as bioweapon. Several factors may mitigate the consequences of an anthrax attack, including 1. the capability to promptly recognize and manage the illness and its public health consequences; 2. the limitation of secondary contamination risk through an appropriate decontamination; and 3. the evolution of genotyping methods (for microbes characterization at high resolution level) that can influence the course and/or focus of investigations, impacting the response of the government to an attack. A PubMed search has been done using the key words “bioterrorism anthrax”. Over one thousand papers have been screened and the most significant examined to present a comprehensive literature review in order to discuss the current knowledge and strategies in preparedness for a possible deliberate release of B. anthracis spores and to indicate the most current and complete documents in which to deepen. The comprehensive analysis of the two most relevant unnatural anthrax release events, Sverdlovsk in the former Soviet Union (1979) and the contaminated letters in the USA (2001), shows that inhalational anthrax may easily and cheaply be spread resulting in serious consequences. The damage caused by an anthrax attack can be limited if public health organization, first responders, researchers and investigators will be able to promptly manage anthrax cases and use new technologies for decontamination methods and in forensic microbiology.

  15. Hydrological threats to riparian wetlands of international importance – a global quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schneider

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Riparian wetlands have been disappearing at an accelerating rate. Their ecological integrity as well as their vital ecosystem services for humankind depend on regular patterns of inundation and drying provided by natural flow regimes. However, river hydrology has been altered worldwide. Dams cause less variable flow regimes and water abstractions decrease the amount of flow so that ecologically important flood pulses are often reduced. Given growing population pressure and projected climate change, immediate action is required. However, the implementation of counteractive measures is often a complex task. This study develops a screening tool for assessing hydrological threats to riparian wetlands on global scales. The approach is exemplified on 93 Ramsar sites, many of which are located in transboundary basins. First, the WaterGAP3 hydrological modeling framework is used to quantitatively compare current and future modified flow regimes to reference flow conditions. In our simulations current water resource management seriously impairs riparian wetland inundation at 29 % of the analyzed sites. A further 8 % experience significantly reduced flood pulses. In the future, eastern Europe, western Asia, as well as central South America could be hotspots of further flow modifications due to climate change. Second, a qualitative analysis of the 93 sites determined potential impact on overbank flows resulting from planned or proposed dam construction projects. They take place in one-third of the upstream areas and are likely to impair especially wetlands located in South America, Asia, and the Balkan Peninsula. Third, based on the existing legal/institutional framework and water resource availability upstream, further qualitative analysis evaluated the capacity to preserve overbank flows given future streamflow changes due to dam construction and climate change. Results indicate hotspots of vulnerability exist, especially in northern Africa and the

  16. Sovereign cat bonds and infrastructure project financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croson, David; Richter, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    We examine the opportunities for using catastrophe-linked securities (or equivalent forms of nondebt contingent capital) to reduce the total costs of funding infrastructure projects in emerging economies. Our objective is to elaborate on methods to reduce the necessity for unanticipated (emergency) project funding immediately after a natural disaster. We also place the existing explanations of sovereign-level contingent capital into a catastrophic risk management framework. In doing so, we address the following questions. (1) Why might catastrophe-linked securities be useful to a sovereign nation, over and above their usefulness for insurers and reinsurers? (2) Why are such financial instruments ideally suited for protecting infrastructure projects in emerging economies, under third-party sponsorship, from low-probability, high-consequence events that occur as a result of natural disasters? (3) How can the willingness to pay of a sovereign government in an emerging economy (or its external project sponsor), who values timely completion of infrastructure projects, for such instruments be calculated? To supplement our treatment of these questions, we use a multilayer spreadsheet-based model (in Microsoft Excel format) to calculate the overall cost reductions possible through the judicious use of catastrophe-based financial tools. We also report on numerical comparative statics on the value of contingent-capital financing to avoid project disruption based on varying costs of capital, probability and consequences of disasters, the feasibility of strategies for mid-stage project abandonment, and the timing of capital commitments to the infrastructure investment. We use these results to identify high-priority applications of catastrophe-linked securities so that maximal protection can be realized if the total number of catastrophe instruments is initially limited. The article concludes with potential extensions to our model and opportunities for future research.

  17. Credit ratings and the pricing of sovereign debt during the euro crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Mahir Binici; Michael Hutchison

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of credit rating changes on the sovereign spreads in the European Union and investigates the macro and financial factors that account for the time-varying effects of a given credit rating change. We find that changes of ratings are informative, economically important, and highly statistically significant in panel models, even after controlling for a host of domestic and global fundamental factors and investigating various functional forms, time and country g...

  18. Limits to Arbitrage in Sovereign Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    the recent Euro-zone sovereign bond crisis and, surprisingly, find that: (i) even though the futures market leads the cash market in price discovery, the cash market leads the futures market in liquidity discovery, i.e., the willingness of market makers to trade (measured by market depth and bid-ask spread......), and (ii) the liquidity in the cash market, and not in the futures market, has a significant impact on the basis between the price of the futures contract and that of the cash bond that is cheapest to deliver. However, the interventions of the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis, had...

  19. Diplomatic advantages and threats in global health program selection, design, delivery and implementation: development and application of the Kevany Riposte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    Global health programs, as supported by organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), stand to make significant contributions to international medical outcomes. Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation, however, fail to capture downstream, indirect, or collateral advantages (and threats) of intervention selection, design, and implementation from broader donor perspectives, including those of the diplomatic and foreign policy communities, which these programs also generate. This paper describes the development a new métier under which assessment systems designed to consider the diplomatic value of global health initiatives are described and applied based on previously-identified "Top Ten" criteria. The "Kevany Riposte" and the "K-Score" were conceptualized based on a retrospective and collective assessment of the author's participation in the design, implementation and delivery of a range of global health interventions related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Responses and associated scores reframe intervention worth or value in terms of global health diplomacy criteria such as "adaptability", "interdependence", "training," and "neutrality". Response options ranged from "highly advantageous" to "significant potential threat". Global health initiatives under review were found to generate significant advantages from the diplomatic perspective. These included (1) intervention visibility and associations with donor altruism and prestige, (2) development of international non-health collaborations and partnerships, (3) adaptability and responsiveness of service delivery to local needs, and (4) advancement of broader strategic goals of the international community. Corresponding threats included (1) an absence of formal training of project staff on broader political and international relations roles and responsibilities, (2) challenges to recipient cultural and religious practices

  20. 31 CFR 357.23 - Judicial proceedings-sovereign immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings-sovereign immunity. 357.23 Section 357.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.23 Judicial proceedings—sovereign immunity. (a) Department...

  1. Essays on sovereign bond pricing and inflation-linked products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Zorka

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation consists of three chapters on the pricing of sovereign debt and inflation-linked products. The first chapter examines the relative pricing of nominal and inflation-linked debt of the three largest Eurozone sovereign issuers. Its main contribution is to present evidence of

  2. Status, progress and plans for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the efforts under the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, also known as GTRI. On May 26, 2004, then Secretary of Energy Abraham established GTRI. GTRI is a cooperative program to provide international support for countries' national programs to identify, secure, recover or facilitate the disposition of vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world that pose a potential threat to the international community. The formation of GTRI consolidated a number of nonproliferation programs you may be familiar with that work together to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civil nuclear applications worldwide. In particular, the Office of Global Threat Reduction, which was set up to implement GTRI, has oversight of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program, the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance program, and the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return program. This consolidation allows these three programs to work in concert to bring about the elimination of research reactor materials as a source of proliferation concern. This speech is highlighting the work that these programs have undertaken in cooperation with the global research reactor community and the importance placed on fuel development under the RERTR program It contains an update on the work done to support the US - Russian Presidential Bratislava Summit Statement

  3. Sovereign ratings in the post-crisis world : an analysis of actual, shadow and relative risk ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; De, Supriyo; Ratha, Dilip; Timmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of sovereign credit ratings in the wake of the global financial crisis by studying changes in actual, shadow, and relative ratings between 2008 and 2012. For countries that do not have a rating from the major rating agencies, shadow ratings are estimated as a function of macroeconomic, structural, and governance variables. The shadow rating exercise confir...

  4. Wait Up!: Attachment and Sovereign Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists and feminist scholars have, over many decades, characterised attachment as a social construction that functions to support political and gender conservatism. We accept that attachment theory has seen use to these ends and consider recent deployments of attachment theory as justification for a minimal State within conservative political discourse in the UK since 2009. However, we contest that attachment is reducible to its discursive construction. We consider Judith Butler's depiction of the infant attached to an abusive caregiver as a foundation and parallel to the position of the adult citizen subjected to punitive cultural norms and political institutions. We develop and qualify Butler's account, drawing on the insights offered by the work of Lauren Berlant. We also return to Foucault's Psychiatric Power lectures, in which familial relations are situated as an island of sovereign power within the sea of modern disciplinary institutions. These reflections help advance analysis of three important issues: the social and political implications of attachment research; the relationship between disciplinary and sovereign power in the affective dynamic of subjection; and the political and ethical status of professional activity within the psy disciplines.

  5. Sovereign debt and corporate capital structure: The evidence from selected European countries during the Gglobal Financial and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent Global financial crisis and the following European debt crisis show the significance of country financial stability and its impact on the private sector. Moreover, the sovereign debt as an essential element of government macroeconomic policy influences the financial performances of the companies and their future development and growth. The capital structure and financing decisions represent one of the most significant parts of company’s financial policy and its key to financial strength. There are a lot of external factors influencing the capital structure; however, due to the European debt crisis the aim of this study is to indicate the influence of sovereign debt on capital structure of the private held companies in different European countries. This study examines the evidence from European developed countries and emerging markets for the period 2005–2012, in order to compare the level of its impact on the capital structure according to the countries’ specifics. We find that after Global Financial Crisis the sovereign debt has tendency to increase in all investigated countries. Greece and Italy have the highest level of debt and it exceeds their Gross Domestic Product (GDP. In addition to that, the Czech Republic has the lowest level of sovereign debt to GDP, but at the same time the corporate capital structure exceeds 100%. The sovereign debt levels are strongly and statistically significantly correlated with each other, however, Hungarian debt has weaker relation with other countries. The findings also show the integration and interdependence of European countries. Moreover, Hungarian, Czech and German private sectors are the most depended on the level of sovereign debt.

  6. Global Inventory of Methane Hydrate: How Large is the Threat? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, B. A.; Frederick, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Methane hydrate is a dark horse in the science of climate change. The volume of methane sequestered in marine sediments is large enough to pose a potential threat, yet the expected contribution to future warming is not known. Part of the uncertainty lies in the poorly understood details of methane release from hydrate. Slow, diffusive loss of methane probably results in oxidation by sulfate and precipitation to CaCO3 in the sediments, with little effect on climate. Conversely, a direct release of methane into the atmosphere is liable to have strong and immediate consequences. Progress in narrowing the possibilities requires a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for methane release. Improvements are also needed in our estimates of the hydrate inventory, as this sets a limit on the possible response. Several recent estimates of the hydrate inventory have been constructed using mechanistic models. Many of the model parameters (e.g. sedimentation rate and sea floor temperature) can be estimated globally, while others (e.g. vertical fluid flow) are not well known. Available observations can be used to estimate the poorly known parameters, but it is reasonable to question whether the results from a limited number of sites are representative of other locations. Fluid flow is a case in point because most hydrate locations are associated with upward flow. On the other hand, simple models of sediment compaction predict downward flow relative to the sea floor, which acts to impede hydrate formation. A variety of mechanisms can produce upward flow, including time-dependent sedimentation, seafloor topography, subsurface fractures, dehydration of clay minerals and gradual burial of methane hydrate below the stability zone. Each of these mechanisms makes specific predictions for the magnitude of flow and the proportion of sea floor that is likely to be affected. We assess the role of fluid flow on the present-day inventory and show that the current estimates for

  7. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushulak, Bd; Weekers, J; Macpherson, Dw

    2009-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  8. Importance of rapid testing to combat the global threat of bird flu.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important outcomes of the recently held meeting of the World Heatlh Organization (EHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the World Organization of Animal Heath (OIE) and the World Bank in Genevan November 7- 9, 2005, on the threat of avian inluenza

  9. Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Yuan, J.; Lu, X.; Su, Chao; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Cao, X.; Li, Q.; Su, Jilan; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Garbutt, Richard Angus; Bush, S.R.; Fletcher, Stephen; Wagey, Tonny; Kachur, Anatolii; Sweijd, Neville

    2018-01-01

    Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients,

  10. Sovereign Default Analysis through Extreme Events Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile George MARICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contagion in international credit markets through the use of a novel jump detection technique proposed by Chan and Maheuin (2002. This econometrical methodology is preferred because it is non-linear by definition and not a subject to volatility bias. Also, the identified jumps in CDS premiums are considered as outliers positioned beyond any stochastic movement that can and is already modelled through well-known linear analysis. Though contagion is hard to define, we show that extreme discrete movements in default probabilities inferred from CDS premiums can lead to sound economic conclusions about the risk profile of sovereign nations in international bond markets. We find evidence of investor sentiment clustering for countries with unstable political regimes or that are engaged in armed conflict. Countries that have in their recent history faced currency or financial crises are less vulnerable to external unexpected shocks. First we present a brief history of sovereign defaults with an emphasis on their increased frequency and geographical reach, as financial markets become more and more integrated. We then pass to a literature review of the most important definitions for contagion, and discuss what quantitative methods are available to detect the presence of contagion. The paper continues with the details for the methodology of jump detection through non-linear modelling and its use in the field of contagion identification. In the last sections we present the estimation results for simultaneous jumps between emerging markets CDS and draw conclusions on the difference of behavior in times of extreme movement versus tranquil periods.

  11. Macroeconomic Considerations and Motives of Sovereign Wealth Funds Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign wealth funds are entities regarded as an institutional innovation in the international financial market. Due to the nature of the ownership rights, the investment activity of such entities is still highly controversial. Objections against sovereign wealth funds included the alleged extraeconomic goals of their activity. This article attempts to show that the establishment development and operation of sovereign wealth funds are determined by economic factors. The study presents a description of the international monetary system and the motives for building foreign exchange reserves by countries. It has been evidenced on the basis of the most recent data that some countries have reserves considerably exceeding the level regarded as optimal for the economy. The article presents benefits for the economy from the use of sovereign wealth funds to manage excessive foreign exchange reserves.

  12. 14 CFR 375.26 - Waiver of sovereign immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that are engaged in proprietary of commercial activities waive any defense of sovereign immunity from suit in any action or proceeding instituted against any of them in any court or other tribunal in the...

  13. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, C; Van Sebille, E; Hardesty, BD

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  14. Asymmetric correlation of sovereign bond yield dynamics in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajcman Silvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the symmetry of correlation of sovereign bond yield dynamics between eight Eurozone countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain in the period from January 3, 2000 to August 31, 2011. Asymmetry of correlation is investigated pair-wise by applying the test of Yongmiao Hong, Jun Tu, and Guofu Zhou (2007. Whereas the test of Hong, Tu, and Zhou (2007 is static, the present paper provides also a dynamic version of the test and identifies time periods when the correlation of Eurozone sovereign bond yield dynamics became asymmetric. We identified seven pairs of sovereign bond markets for which the null hypothesis of symmetry in correlation of sovereign bond yield dynamics can be rejected. Calculating rolling-window exceedance correlation, we found that the time-varying upper- (i.e. for positive yield changes and lower-tail correlations (i.e. for negative yield changes for pair-wise observed sovereign bond markets normally follow each other closely, yet during some time periods (for most pair-wise observed countries, these periods are around the September 11 attack on the New York City WTC and around the start of the Greek debt crisis the difference in correlation does increase. The results show that the upper- and lower-tail correlation was symmetric before the Eurozone debt crisis for most of the pair-wise observed sovereign bond markets but has become much less symmetric since then.

  15. Coral reefs: threats and conservation in an era of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegl, Bernhard; Bruckner, Andy; Coles, Steve L; Renaud, Philip; Dodge, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Coral reefs are iconic, threatened ecosystems that have been in existence for approximately 500 million years, yet their continued ecological persistence seems doubtful at present. Anthropogenic modification of chemical and physical atmospheric dynamics that cause coral death by bleaching and newly emergent diseases due to increased heat and irradiation, as well as decline in calcification caused by ocean acidification due to increased CO(2), are the most important large-scale threats. On more local scales, overfishing and destructive fisheries, coastal construction, nutrient enrichment, increased runoff and sedimentation, and the introduction of nonindigenous invasive species have caused phase shifts away from corals. Already approximately 20% of the world's reefs are lost and approximately 26% are under imminent threat. Conservation science of coral reefs is well advanced, but its practical application has often been lagging. Societal priorites, economic pressures, and legal/administrative systems of many countries are more prone to destroy rather than conserve coral-reef ecosystems. Nevertheless, many examples of successful conservation exist from the national level to community-enforced local action. When effectively managed, protected areas have contributed to regeneration of coral reefs and stocks of associated marine resources. Local communities often support coral-reef conservation in order to raise income potential associated with tourism and/or improved resource levels. Coral reefs create an annual income in S-Florida alone of over $4 billion. Thus, no conflict between development, societal welfare, and coral-reef conservation needs to exist. Despite growing threats, it is not too late for decisive action to protect and save these economically and ecologically high-value ecosystems. Conservation science plays a critical role in designing effective strategies.

  16. Global analysis of threat status reveals higher extinction risk in tropical than in temperate bird sister species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such

  17. The NNSA global threat reduction initiative's efforts to minimize the use of highly enriched uranium for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, Parrish

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) is to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. GTRI is a key organization for supporting domestic and global efforts to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications. GTRI implements the following activities in order to achieve its threat reduction and HEU minimization objectives: Converting domestic and international civilian research reactors and isotope production facilities from the use of HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU); Demonstrating the viability of medical isotope production technologies that do not use HEU; Removing or disposing excess nuclear and radiological materials from civilian sites worldwide; and Protecting high-priority nuclear and radiological materials worldwide from theft and sabotage. This paper provides a brief overview on the recent developments and priorities for GTRI program activities in 2010, with a particular focus on GTRI's efforts to demonstrate the viability of non-HEU based medical isotope production technologies. (author)

  18. The Crisis of the Sovereign Debt - Interdependencies, Responsibilities and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of government debt continues and maintains the financial crisis as an additional risk factor at national, regional or global level. The causes which lead to the raise of the national debt can be found in the effects of a major crisis but, in turn, this phenomenon feeds imbalances generating economic and financial crisis. The importance of this topic is defined by its magnitude and dynamics, in the long-term effects on the economy, finances, policies and, ultimately, on the completeness of a state. Solutions are available to the national public authorities in the context of regional policy, but they are circumscribed also to the imperatives imposed by the international lenders. Not infrequently, their efficiency was affected by subjective factors, along with the lack of preventive actions or of proper long-term vision. There have been made references to the analysis of international bodies or financial authorities, at authors dedicated to this complex problem. As method of approach we have used the bibliographic study, processing and analysis of data, and previous researches. The results are the analysis and explanation of specific developments of sovereign debt crisis, of interactions, highlighting the effects and solutions. The research is an important basis for specialists, public authorities and academics. As value, the work is a synthesis and a comparative analysis so as to identify trends, responsibilities and solutions.

  19. The global energy challenge: new challenges and threats, the ways to overcome them

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandr N. Zakharov

    2017-01-01

    The article describes key aspects of global energy issues, with an emphasis on energy security. The Russian Federation is to face three inter-related challenges: provide energy security, stimulate economic growth and protect the environment, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that will reduce the level of air pollution and contribute to the global improvement of the atmosphere. The author analyzes the status and prospects of world energy markets and the forecast of their development for t...

  20. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C; Daszak, Peter

    2014-12-30

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral "One Health" pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual.

  1. The 800 Pound Gorilla: The Threat and Taming of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article provides two case studies that examine the current and future consequences of continued global warming at the current business-as-usual pace and at a decreased (new alternative forms of energy) level. Cause and effect relationships, such as the varying levels of CO[subscript 2] (carbon dioxide) emissions and the effect it has on…

  2. Economic optimization of a global strategy to address the pandemic threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Bogich, Tiffany; Elwood, Sarah; Finnoff, David C.; Daszak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emerging pandemics threaten global health and economies and are increasing in frequency. Globally coordinated strategies to combat pandemics, similar to current strategies that address climate change, are largely adaptive, in that they attempt to reduce the impact of a pathogen after it has emerged. However, like climate change, mitigation strategies have been developed that include programs to reduce the underlying drivers of pandemics, particularly animal-to-human disease transmission. Here, we use real options economic modeling of current globally coordinated adaptation strategies for pandemic prevention. We show that they would be optimally implemented within 27 y to reduce the annual rise of emerging infectious disease events by 50% at an estimated one-time cost of approximately $343.7 billion. We then analyze World Bank data on multilateral “One Health” pandemic mitigation programs. We find that, because most pandemics have animal origins, mitigation is a more cost-effective policy than business-as-usual adaptation programs, saving between $344.0.7 billion and $360.3 billion over the next 100 y if implemented today. We conclude that globally coordinated pandemic prevention policies need to be enacted urgently to be optimally effective and that strategies to mitigate pandemics by reducing the impact of their underlying drivers are likely to be more effective than business as usual. PMID:25512538

  3. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  4. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Drylands face potential threat under 2 °C global warming target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Yu, Haipeng; Dai, Aiguo; Wei, Yun; Kang, Litai

    2017-06-01

    The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean surface warming to less than 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels. However, we show this target is acceptable only for humid lands, whereas drylands will bear greater warming risks. Over the past century, surface warming over global drylands (1.2-1.3 °C) has been 20-40% higher than that over humid lands (0.8-1.0 °C), while anthropogenic CO2 emissions generated from drylands (~230 Gt) have been only ~30% of those generated from humid lands (~750 Gt). For the twenty-first century, warming of 3.2-4.0 °C (2.4-2.6 °C) over drylands (humid lands) could occur when global warming reaches 2.0 °C, indicating ~44% more warming over drylands than humid lands. Decreased maize yields and runoff, increased long-lasting drought and more favourable conditions for malaria transmission are greatest over drylands if global warming were to rise from 1.5 °C to 2.0 °C. Our analyses indicate that ~38% of the world's population living in drylands would suffer the effects of climate change due to emissions primarily from humid lands. If the 1.5 °C warming limit were attained, the mean warming over drylands could be within 3.0 °C therefore it is necessary to keep global warming within 1.5 °C to prevent disastrous effects over drylands.

  6. THE CONTAGION EFFECT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE EUROZONE TO THE SOVEREIGN DEBT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Peptine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a number of phenomena that characterize the euro area, one of them being the contagion effect. This is one of the mechanisms by which financial instability becomes so widespread that the crisis reached global dimensions. The following lines argue that contagion plays a crucial role in exacerbating the sovereign debt problems in the Eurozone. Consequently, the management of the crisis by the competent authorities should focus on policy measures that are able to mitigate the contagion. Therefore, many of the European Central Bank interventions (ECB in the European Union were motivated by the need for understanding and mitigating the contagion phenomenon.

  7. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce A; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-12-05

    Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems. These studies document the speed with which pathogens evolve to overcome crop resistance genes and pesticides. They also show that crop pathogens can be disseminated very quickly across and among continents through human activities. In this review, we discuss how the peculiar architecture of agro-ecosystems facilitates pathogen emergence, evolution and dispersal. We present four example pathosystems that illustrate both pathogen specialization and pathogen speciation, including different time frames for emergence and different mechanisms underlying the emergence process. Lastly, we argue for a re-design of agro-ecosystems that embraces the concept of dynamic diversity to improve their resilience to pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Forest Distribution on Small Isolated Hills and Implications on Woody Plant Distribution under Threats of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Liao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Treelines have been found to be lower in small isolated hilltops, but the specific dynamics behind this unique phenomenon are unknown. This study investigates the distribution patterns of woody plants in Yangmingshan National Park (YMSNP, Northern Taiwan in search of the limitation mechanisms unique to small isolated hills, and to evaluate potential threats under global warming. Forests distributed between 200 to 900 m above sea level (ASL. Remnant forest fragments between 400 and 900 m ASL, have the highest species richness, and should be protected to ensure future forest recovery from the former extensive artificial disturbance. The lower boundary is threatened by urban and agricultural development. The lack of native woody species in these low elevation zones may cause a gap susceptible to invasive species. A consistent forest line at 100 m below mountain tops regardless of elevation suggests a topography-induced instead of an elevation-related limiting mechanism. Therefore, upward-shift of forests, caused by global warming, might be limited at 100 m below hilltops in small isolated hills because of topography-related factors. The spatial range of woody plants along the altitudinal gradient, thus, is likely to become narrower under the combined pressures of global warming, limited elevation, exposure-related stress, and artificial disturbance. Management priorities for forest recovery are suggested to include preservation of remnant forest fragments, increasing forest connectivity, and increasing seedling establishment in the grasslands.

  9. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  10. The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    100,000 cases in 1997, it still comprises two- thirds of the global cholera burden. TB is a growing problem regionwide, especially in Brazil, Peru ...deficiency anemia 39 15 Protein-energy malnutrition 37 16 War 8 17 Self-inflicted injuries 14 19 Violence 12 28 HIV 10 33 Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers...dollars in lost revenue. • Cholera in Peru . The outbreak of cholera in 1991 cost the Peruvian fishing industry an estimated $775 million in lost tourism

  11. The perils of payoff: corruption as a threat to global biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F

    2004-08-01

    Corruption is a worldwide phenomenon, particularly in many developing countries, which contain a large proportion of global biodiversity. Most alarming, from a biodiversity-conservation perspective, is the frequent corruption of government officials who manage valuable natural resources, such as timber, oil and precious minerals. A recent study by Joyotee Smith and colleagues describes rampant corruption in the timber industry of Indonesia, and shifts in the prevalence of different types of corruption as the country has become destabilized politically. By placing corruption into a conceptual framework, Smith et al. provide important insights into how developing nations and their natural resources can be besieged by corruption.

  12. A new estimation technique of sovereign default risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Soytaş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the fixed-point theorem, sovereign default models are solved by numerical value function iteration and calibration methods, which due to their computational constraints, greatly limits the models' quantitative performance and foregoes its country-specific quantitative projection ability. By applying the Hotz-Miller estimation technique (Hotz and Miller, 1993- often used in applied microeconometrics literature- to dynamic general equilibrium models of sovereign default, one can estimate the ex-ante default probability of economies, given the structural parameter values obtained from country-specific business-cycle statistics and relevant literature. Thus, with this technique we offer an alternative solution method to dynamic general equilibrium models of sovereign default to improve upon their quantitative inference ability.

  13. The global energy challenge: new challenges and threats, the ways to overcome them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr N. Zakharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes key aspects of global energy issues, with an emphasis on energy security. The Russian Federation is to face three inter-related challenges: provide energy security, stimulate economic growth and protect the environment, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that will reduce the level of air pollution and contribute to the global improvement of the atmosphere. The author analyzes the status and prospects of world energy markets and the forecast of their development for the period up to 2050. As the main trend the development of smalldistributed generation is highlighted, primarily in developing countries. The article justifies the importance of energy efficiency increase in Russia. In our country per unit of GDP consumes two times more energy than the member countries of the IEA, but a noticeable improvement has not yet been achieved. Meanwhile, aging, and often obsolete infrastructure in the electricity and district heat is in urgent need of investment. Attracting investment in the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency can be provided with the following key measures: reducing the dependence of fuel and energy complex on equipment imports; the research of renewable energy sources (RES; development of the most cost-effective oil and gas reserves and the change in export strategy.

  14. International organizations and their exercise of sovereign powers

    CERN Document Server

    Sarooshi, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the exercise of sovereign powers by international organizations that include the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the European Union in order to answer fundamental questions about the relationship between an international organization and its member states. In their membership of international organizations, states must confer some of their sovereign powers upon those organizations. This book develops a three-tiered typology of conferrals which ranges from agency relationships, to delegations of authority, to full transfers of power. The legal aspects of these conferrals are examined, and their implications for the growing importance of international organizations in international relations are assessed.

  15. GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE LIBERALIZATION: “A THREAT OR AN OPPORTUNITY”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Stefan Enghiş

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to evaluate the global economic system through the perspective of neoliberalism, which advocates for the continuous liberalization of trade and the progressive opening of the markets in different economic sectors. Seeking to observe the neoliberal vision on the world economy, the study relies on two speeches delivered by the former European Union’s Trade Commissioner, Pascal Lamy in a time span of four years, between 2000 and 2004, a period marked by two important WTO Ministerial Conferences: the Doha 2001 WTO Ministerial Conference and the Cancun 2003 WTO Ministerial Conference. Nonetheless, in order to provide a balanced analysis of the world economic system, the study provides a brief introspection into the other theoretical vision, alterglobalism, which advocates for a different understanding of the relations between trade liberalization, state intervention in the economy and the reduction of the existent economic disparities. The analysis is divided into three sections: the first section portrays the two antithetical visions, neoliberalism and alterglobalism, while the second one focuses exclusively on the person of Pascal Lamy and on the speeches that represent the core of this study. The third section consists in a comparative analysis of the two divergent economic perspectives, trying to identify the main opposing points, as well as those points on which the two economic perspectives may converge. The conclusion looks closely at the relations between globalization and trade liberalization and the criticism brought about by alterglobalism, the archrival of neoliberalism and trade liberalization. It also considers the relation between the two neoliberal speeches of the former EU Trade Commissioner, attempting to identify potential links or divergent attitudes between the two.

  16. Acidovorax citrulli: generating basic and applied knowledge to tackle a global threat to the cucurbit industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, Saul; Walcott, Ron

    2012-10-01

    Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbit plants. In recent years, the disease has spread to many parts of the world, mainly via the inadvertent distribution of contaminated commercial seeds. Because of the costly lawsuits filed by growers against seed companies and the lack of efficient management methods, BFB represents a serious threat to the cucurbit industry, and primarily to watermelons and melons. Despite the economic importance of the disease, little is known about the basic aspects of A. citrulli pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the release of the genome of one A. citrulli strain, as well as the optimization of molecular manipulation and inoculation methods, has prompted basic studies and allowed advances towards an understanding of A. citrulli pathogenicity. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge about this important pathogen, with emphasis on its epidemiology and the factors involved in its pathogenicity and virulence. Bacteria; Betaproteobacteria; order Burkholderiales; family C omamonadaceae; genus Acidovorax; species citrulli. Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped; average dimensions of 0.5 μm × 1.7 μm; motile by means of an ~5.0-μm-long polar flagellum; colonies on King's medium B are round, smooth, transparent and nonpigmented; optimal temperatures for growth around 27-30 °C; induces a hypersensitive response on nonhost tobacco and tomato leaves. Acidovorax citrulli strains are pathogenic to various species of the Cucurbitaceae family, including watermelon, melon, squash, pumpkin and cucumber. Significant economic losses have been reported in watermelon and melon. Watermelon and melon seedlings and fruits are highly susceptible to A. citrulli. Typical seedling symptoms include water-soaked lesions on cotyledons that are often adjacent to the veins and later become necrotic, lesions on the hypocotyl, and seedling collapse and death. On watermelon fruits, symptoms begin as small

  17. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-01-01

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the government

  18. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  19. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18 th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  20. Gender and climate change in the Indian Hindu-Kush Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2014-11-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the Western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, seasonal pastoral migration, male out-migration, and localized natural resource extraction. Particularly under conditions of heavy male outmigration, but throughout the region, mountain women play a key role in providing labor and knowledge related to the management of local natural resources, yet often lack authority in related political and economic decision-making processes. This gap has important implications for addressing the impacts of climate change: while warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios throughout the region, mountain women increasingly face new challenges in their roles as household managers that have not adequately been emphasized in larger scale planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These challenges are complex in nature, and are shaped not only by gender issues but also interacting factors such as class, caste, ethnicity, and age (among others). In this paper, we review the main arguments behind the discursive gender/climate change nexus, discuss the implications for gendered vulnerabilities and transformation of adaptive capacities in the region, and suggest ways that researchers and policymakers seeking to promote "climate justice" can benefit from the incorporation of gender-based perspectives and frameworks.

  1. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  2. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter, E-mail: peter.toft@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: > Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. > Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. > Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. > Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  3. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: → Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. → Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. → Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. → Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  4. Sovereign default and the stability of inflation targeting regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the impact of interactions between monetary and fiscal policy on macroeconomic stability. We find that in the presence of sovereign default beliefs a monetary policy, which aims to stabilize inflation through an active interest rate policy, will destabilize the economy if the feedback

  5. Revisiting sovereign bond spreads’ determinants in the EMU

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, António; Reis, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of 10-year sovereign bond yield spreads of 11 EMU member states, covering the lifetime of the euro, up until the end of 2014. Panel and SUR analyses coupled with qualitative variables show that the pricing of European debt has not been static across time and EMU countries, and market participants became increasingly aware of macro- economic and fiscal fundamentals.

  6. The Sovereign as Educator: Thomas Hobbes's National Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Geraint

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on Thomas Hobbes, an English political philosopher who argued that the solution to civil disorders lay in a sovereign authority backed with force. Argues that education should be seen at the center of Hobbes's project of rescuing society from the disorders threatening civilization throughout 17th-century Europe. (CMK)

  7. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Urban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  8. Long term government debt, financial fragility, and sovereign default risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction between bank rescues, financial fragility and sovereign debt discounts. To that end we set up a model that contains balance sheet constrained financial intermediaries financing both capital expenditure of intermediate goods producers and government deficits. The financial

  9. Foucault Comes to Bakur: Sovereign Power and Collective Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümtaz Murat Kök

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Solution Process in Turkey has come to an abrupt end and along with it came an unprecedented violence in Bakur (Northern Kurdistan. This paper argues that the violence ravaging the region – especially in those areas where curfews have been declared – can be considered as a practice of punishment that is being employed indiscriminately. In line with this thought, the paper adopts a Foucauldian approach for comprehending the motivations behind the practice of collective punishment. In doing so, the paper revolves around the concepts of sovereign power and punishment introduced and argued by Michel Foucault. The paper argues that success of a pro-Kurdish party (HDP in June 7 elections and following declarations of self-rule in the region constituted an obstacle in Erdoğan’s desire for presidency but more importantly he took it as an act of dissent to his sovereign will. As can be seen in the functioning of sovereign power, he therefore punishes those people who are HDP’s main constituent while making an example out of them for potential challengers to his sovereign will.

  10. Sovereign Risk and Natural Disasters in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the effect of large-scale natural disasters on sovereign default risk. We use a heterogeneous dynamic panel model including a set of more than 380 large-scale natural disasters for about forty emerging market countries in the period 1999-2010. After testing for the

  11. Determinants of sovereign debt yield spreads under EMU: Pairwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazlioglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at providing an empirical analysis of long-term determinants of sovereign debt yield spreads under European EMU (Economic and Monetary Union) through pairwise approach within panel framework. Panel gravity models are increasingly used in the cross-market correlation literature while

  12. Co-investments of sovereign wealth funds in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; de Roode, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct investments are the preferred vehicle for large institutional investors to have control over their portfolio investments. We study the deal structure of direct investments by sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in private equity transactions. We find that SWFs shift from investing in private equity

  13. The Elephant in The Ground: Managing Oil and Sovereign Wealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, T.; van der Ploeg, F.; Wills, S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important developments in international finance and resource economics in the past twenty years is the rapid and widespread emergence of the $6 trillion sovereign wealth fund industry. Oil exporters typically ignore below-ground assets when allocating these funds, and ignore

  14. Determinants of sovereign wealth fund investment in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan, S.A.; Knill, A.M.; Mauck, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines investment patterns of 50 sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in nations around the world. We study investment by SWFs in 903 public and private firms over the period 1984-2009. As expected, we observe SWFs investments are more often in private firms when the market returns of target

  15. PECULIARITIES OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onopko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign wealth funds as the subjects of economic relations are analyzed and the main approaches to the assessment of their activities are discussed. The dependence of the performance measurement system and the strategic objectives of the funds and economic policy objectives of the government is indicated.

  16. Sovereign risk and macroeconomic fluctuations in an emerging market economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Rieth, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of sovereign risk in explaining macroeconomic fluctuations in Turkey. We estimate two versions of a simple New Keynesian small open economy model on quarterly data for the period 1994Q3-2008Q2: a basic version and a version augmented by a default premium on government

  17. Government spending shocks, sovereign risk and the exchange rate regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonam, D.; Lukkezen, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Keynesian theory predicts output responses upon a fiscal expansion in a small open economy to be larger under fixed than floating exchange rates. We analyse the effects of fiscal expansions using a New Keynesian model and find that the reverse holds in the presence of sovereign default risk. By

  18. Hybrid threats, cyber warfare and NATO's comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats: mapping the new frontier of global risk and security management

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    The end of the so-called ‘Cold War’ has seen a change in the nature of present threats and with it to the overall role and mission of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact in 1991 also removed the original raison d’etre of the Alliance: the prospect of having to repel a Soviet led attack by the Warsaw Pact on the West through the so called ‘Fulda gap’ in Germany (referring to the German lowlands between Frankfurt am Main and the for...

  19. Pollution from Fossil-Fuel Combustion is the Leading Environmental Threat to Global Pediatric Health and Equity: Solutions Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2017-12-23

    Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world's most significant threat to children's health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases-all of which may be "seeded" in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course. By impairing children's health, ability to learn, and potential to contribute to society, pollution and climate change cause children to become less resilient and the communities they live in to become less equitable. The developing fetus and young child are disproportionately affected by these exposures because of their immature defense mechanisms and rapid development, especially those in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and lack of resources compound the effects. No country is spared, however: even high-income countries, especially low-income communities and communities of color within them, are experiencing impacts of fossil fuel-related pollution, climate change and resultant widening inequality and environmental injustice. Global pediatric health is at a tipping point, with catastrophic consequences in the absence of bold action. Fortunately, technologies and interventions are at hand to reduce and prevent pollution and climate change, with large economic benefits documented or predicted. All cultures and communities share a concern for the health and well-being of present and future children: this shared value provides a politically powerful lever for action. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly review the data on the health impacts of fossil-fuel pollution, highlighting the neurodevelopmental

  20. Sovereign Wealth and Pension Funds Controlling Canadian Businesses: Tax-Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Jog

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a world without taxes, investors that take over companies would do so because they expect to be able to operate the business efficiently and at a high rate of return. But in Canada today, some acquirers enjoy tax advantages over others. And that could mean that certain buyers, who may not be best suited to owning a particular company, are able to outbid those who are better positioned to run that company at optimal efficiency. That is a problem not just for investors who end up outbid, due to Canada’s uneven tax policy, but for the Canadian economy, which suffers from the resulting economic inefficiency. With respect to registered pension plans, the so-called 30-per-cent rule puts a cap on the amount of voting equity in a company that they are permitted to own. Meanwhile, however, sovereign wealth funds — whether controlled by China or Australia — face no such limit when purchasing stakes in Canadian firms. The number and size of sovereign wealth funds, globally, is only growing — and rapidly. But as Canada increasingly attracts foreign capital, with foreign-controlled government-affiliated funds seeking out Canadian takeover targets, much of the discussion around public policy has focused primarily on the Investment Canada Act and the “net benefit test” for foreign direct investment. Another component in ensuring that Canadian interests are preserved, however, is the question of whether Canadian institutional investors can operate on a level playing field with foreign sovereign wealth funds. With the 30-per-cent rule limiting equity purchases for one but not the other, it would appear that they are not. The most appealing remedy to this imbalance is a tax solution: limiting the corporate deductions on interest, fees, royalties, rents, and the like, that so often factor in to the takeover calculation, as part of a tax-minimization strategy. This would not only put pension funds and sovereign wealth funds on equal footing, but it

  1. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola

  2. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public

  3. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L.; Griffin, Justin M.; Matzke, James L.; Pearson, Michael W.; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: (sm b ullet) Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; (sm b ullet) Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; (sm b ullet) Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; (sm b ullet) Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; (sm b ullet) Technology transfer of

  4. Pollution from Fossil-Fuel Combustion is the Leading Environmental Threat to Global Pediatric Health and Equity: Solutions Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2017-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world’s most significant threat to children’s health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases—all of which may be “seeded“ in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course. By impairing children’s health, ability to learn, and potential to contribute to society, pollution and climate change cause children to become less resilient and the communities they live in to become less equitable. The developing fetus and young child are disproportionately affected by these exposures because of their immature defense mechanisms and rapid development, especially those in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and lack of resources compound the effects. No country is spared, however: even high-income countries, especially low-income communities and communities of color within them, are experiencing impacts of fossil fuel-related pollution, climate change and resultant widening inequality and environmental injustice. Global pediatric health is at a tipping point, with catastrophic consequences in the absence of bold action. Fortunately, technologies and interventions are at hand to reduce and prevent pollution and climate change, with large economic benefits documented or predicted. All cultures and communities share a concern for the health and well-being of present and future children: this shared value provides a politically powerful lever for action. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly review the data on the health impacts of fossil-fuel pollution, highlighting the

  5. The role of sovereign credit ratings in fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Duygun, Meryem; Ozturk, Huseyin; Shaban, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates several aspects of the relationship between sovereign credit ratings and fiscal discipline. The analysis of over one thousand country–year observations for 93 countries during the 1999–2010 period reveals that a country’s debt level is likely to increase with higher ratings, confirming the existence of pro–cyclicality and path dependence of ratings. In addition, the study finds no evidence to support the theory of Political Business Cycle, which implies that political ...

  6. The Greek sovereign debt: Are there really any options?

    OpenAIRE

    Papanikos, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Debt Overhang is a controversial issue in the eurozone countries and is considered as one of the factors which created the current economic crisis. How to deal with sovereign debt has been debated both at the theoretical and policy making level. This paper looks at the Greek debt and four options are discussed: (a) unilateral default (b) unilaterally imposed austerity measures (c) restructuring through negotiating and (d) a tax on wealth to pay for the debt. Optimal options depend on the borr...

  7. Dynamic Correlations of Sovereign Bond Yield Spreads in the Euro zone and the Role of Credit Rating Agencies' Downgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The European debt crisis that followed the global financial crisis, erupting first with Greece, then Ireland, Portugal, Italy and Spain, has threatened the very existence of the Euro zone. In this paper we examine the evolution of dynamic co-movements of sovereign bond yield spreads (BYS) in the Euro zone and the role of credit rating agency downgrades on those co-movements. Estimation results from a multivariate DCC-GARCH model on daily BYS data for nine Euro zone countries over the period 2...

  8. Energy security: between markets and sovereign politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudau Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a constant presence in the energy-related political discourse all over the world. States strive to secure steady inflows of needed energy supplies, as well as the price affordability of those supplies. However, what are deemed to be the best means to meet such goals depends on one’s theoretical vantage point. On the one hand, economically-minded theorists maintain that energy security is only a matter of market rules and interactions. Thus, they call upon energy markets to deliver both steady supplies and competitive prices. On the other hand, politically-minded scholars emphasize the political and hard-power nature of international energy trades, especially in a global context market by the emergence of state-centered, authoritarian regimes that use large national energy companies as foreign policy instruments. These two positions delineate competing approaches to how energy security risks ought to be managed. The former approaches energy security risks by means similar to portfolio management, requiring diversification of investments in order to insulate them from market shocks. The latter approaches energy security as a matter of foreign policy, by which states envisage interest coordination and favorable alignments within countervailing alliances against the agent of energy security risk. The present paper goes beyond the uncontentious point that these two dimensions are complementary. It argues that, depending on the international context, a more market-driven or a more-politically driven behavior may be adequate.

  9. SOVEREIGN DEBT RESTRUCTURING AND “VULTURE FUNDS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defining sovereign debt - debt issued or guaranteed by a public entity: central and / or regional public authorities, central banks, public institutions or enterprises - must include the risks that its management may generate, mainly the risk of default. If an medium period of time - 3-5 years – the macroeconomic growth of a state, and as the result the increase of the public revenues constantly lies below the growth of sovereign debt, these will cause an insolvability risk to cover it, and that state should proceed to restructure its debt. Financial stability of public authorities and sovereign debt occurred since the beginning of the creation of democratic states, and instruments for debt restructuring have been continuously adapted to economic and social conjuncture. Initially, states faced a necessity of funding were borrowed from foreign governments and / or large consortia bank, and when their debts had to be restructured it has been created the international institutional framework to negotiate between debtor countries and public creditors - Paris Club - and to coordinate negotiations between public authorities and major debtor consortia - London Club. In the last decade 'vulture funds' occurred, which are hedge funds acquiring from the secondary financial market debt the securities, including public debt, to a much lower share nominal value. Subsequently, vulture funds claim states issuing debt repayment at values close or equal to the face value - in this way can make a profit of more than 100% of the financial investment they made it on the secondary market. If these countries do not comply, generally being unable to honor their public debt, vultures funds act the countries in international courts, which usually prevails because vultures funds’ action is legal under current conditions.

  10. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity, and European Central Bank Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relation between credit risk and liquidity in the Italian sovereign bond market during the eurozone crisis and the subsequent European Central Bank (ECB) interventions. Credit risk drives the liquidity of the market. A 10% change in the credit default swap (CDS) spread leads...... to a 13% change in the bid-ask spread, the relation being stronger when the CDS spread exceeds 500 basis points. The Long-Term Refinancing Operations of the ECB weakened the sensitivity of market makers’ liquidity provision to credit risk, highlighting the importance of funding liquidity measures...

  11. Sovereign Immunity in a Constitutional Government: The Federal Employment Discrimination Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    Considers employment discrimination suits against federal officers where application of the sovereign immunity doctrine has generated considerable confusion and attendant injustice, and develops the separation of powers rationale for sovereign immunity, showing how the immunity principles adopted by the Supreme Court implicitly define the…

  12. Sovereign defaults, business cycles and economic growth in Latin America, 1870-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, Tjeerd M.

    2013-01-01

    Sovereign debt crises have regained attention since the recent crises in several European countries. This paper focuses on a particular aspect of the debt crisis literature: the impact of sovereign default on economic growth. Previous research agrees on the negative impact, but not on size and

  13. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  14. Financial fragility, sovereign default risk and the limits to commercial bank bail-outs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that with intertwined weak banks and weak sovereigns, bank recapitalizations become much less effective. We construct a DSGE model with leverage constrained banks lending to firms and holding domestic government bonds. Bond prices reflect endogenously generated sovereign risk. This

  15. Using Probabilistic Models to Appraise and Decide on Sovereign Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Ley-Borrás, Roberto; Fox, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the structure of probabilistic catastrophe risk models, discusses their importance for appraising sovereign disaster risk financing and insurance instruments and strategy, and puts forward a model and a process for improving decision making on the linked disaster risk management strategy and sovereign disaster risk financing and insurance strategy. The pa...

  16. Greek Sovereign Debt Crisis: Causes, Fiscal Adjustment Programs and Lessons for Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Brkić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the factors that have led to the Greek sovereign debt crisis in order to derive policy lessons for Croatia and other highly indebted countries. In the first years after euro adoption, it seemed that membership in the monetary union facilitated a catching-up process for Greece, given that it enjoyed high growth rates and a rapid convergence of per capita income. However, the global crisis has revealed that the previous economic expansion was an unsustainable process based on excessive inflow of debt-creating foreign capital. In this paper, it is argued that the government sector contributed the most to the rising vulnerability of the Greek economy. Data are presented showing that extensive government borrowing was the main factor behind the rapid accumulation of Greece's external debt, which made it highly vulnerable to external shocks. Besides the procyclical fiscal policy, some other factors also contributed to the overheating of economic activity in Greece. Hence, this paper reviews the literature that deals with the compression of peripheral countries' sovereign bond yields after the creation of the monetary union, the doubtful suitability of the ECB's expansionary policy stance from the perspective of then booming peripheral states, and the institutional shortcomings of the EMU. The main motivation of this paper is to identify the key roots of the Greek debt crisis in order to derive lessons for policy-makers in Croatia. Since the beginning of the recession in 2008, Croatia has seen a significant deterioration in fiscal fundamentals, with high public debt becoming the main source of macroeconomic vulnerability. Reducing the debt-to-GDP ratio has emerged as a key policy challenge that needs to be addressed in order to reduce the likelihood of a debt crisis.

  17. Are Sovereign Wealth Funds a Threat to Australia’s National Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    to conduct cost and price transfer along the vertically owned production process to avoid Australian taxation and to destabilize the price of...economic 70 conditions to profit from exacerbating the Asian financial crisis. The Malaysian Prime Minister and officials in Thailand referred to Soros as

  18. STATE OBLIGATION ON VIRUS SAMPLE SHARING;FROM COMMON HERITAGE OF MANKIND TO STATE’S SOVEREIGN RIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Barizah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of free international exchange of viruses have been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO probably based on the principle of “Common Heritage of Mankind”.  This tradition lead to legal uncertainty and unfairness in the movement of resources among states and provides an opportunity for developed countries to obtain easy access to viruses of developing countries. Then, International Law has introduced a new regime of “State’s Sovereign Right.” This research focuses on whether Member States have an obligation to share pathogen materials, including viruses for preventing global public health emergency, and whether WHO Collaborating Centers has a right to  share viruses to private sectors. It examines the reason why States should apply that principle. This research is normative legal research by using conceptual approach and  statute approach. This research finds that viruses are part of genetic resources under the meaning of CBD Convention. Accordingly, there is no state obligation under International Law to share it. However, if there is an international human rights obligation to share virus, there should also be an international human rights obligation to assure the access of affordability of drugs and vaccines. Thus, each state will have an equal obligation to enhance the global public health.Key Words : Intellectual Property, Virus Sample Sharing, Common Heritage of Mankind, and State’s Sovereign Right

  19. Taxation in the Sovereign State of Tolima, 1863 – 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pinto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sovereign State of Tolima was one of the poorest and most conflictive of Federalist Colombia 1863-1886. Its main sources of wealth were the exports of tobacco and indigo which had short periods of prosperity, complimented by the Antioqueño colonization that introduced a growth dynamic to the north of the State. Its geographical diversity and of its regional elites created frequent armed conflicts, compounded by the contagion of Colombian civil wars, since its territory was right in the middle of the country and besides the main river that communicated most of it. All these factors weighed heavily and made it difficult for state building at the regional level; in spite of them, as we will show, Tolima achieved some advances in its political organization, in its finances and, above all, in the coverage of its public educational system.

  20. Sovereign funds: energy products and investors in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin Delacour, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Energy, especially oil, is the source of wealth of two-thirds of SWFs, located in the Middle East, Africa, America, Russia and Norway. The countries exporting natural resources use these investment vehicles to fight against the drawbacks of their rent economy: price volatility, non-renewal of resources, resource curse and 'dutch disease'. SWFs can indeed stabilize export earnings, preserve wealth for future generations and diversify the economy. Energy is also a prime area for investment of sovereign wealth funds, which have different objectives depending on their origin. The funds of the Persian Gulf, already rich in fossil resources, form partnerships with leading groups in the field of energy to acquire the technology they lack. The funds from countries lacking natural resources, such as China, seek to take control of foreign companies operating or processing raw materials with a view to secure energy independence of their country

  1. Simulated ICJ Judgment : Revisiting the Lawfulness of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author prepared this simulated judgment at the request of Cadmus editors to demonstrate that there is ample ground for revisiting and revising the landmark 1996 advisory opinion of the ICJ on the legality of nuclear weapons. The ICJ failed to anticipate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which expands the evolution of the concept of sovereignty, the potential cataclysmic impact of nuclear war on climate change, the multiplication of nuclear-weapon-free zones as evidence of a widespread rejection, mounting evidence regarding the physical and psychological harm, and unwillingness of the nuclear weapons states to fulfill their obligations under the NPT. This article challenges the notion that a few sovereign states should be the sole arbiters of international law and affirms the legitimate claim of the global community of protection from the existential threat posed by nuclear weapons. The use or threat of use undermines foundational values of the international legal system and the specific rules of self-defense and humanitarian law. The contribution seeks to give an accentuated role for the explicit use of the fundamental values of international legal order, in crafting an innovative methodology for the formulation of the judgment. The very existence of these weapons undermines the rights of all of humanity. The ICJ should be moved to categorically declare the use and possession of nuclear weapons a crime against humanity.

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPOSED TO THE RISK OF THE SOVEREIGN DEBT CRISIS. CASE STUDY: SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Iulica, MIHAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis, intensely debated, started almost six years ago, subjected the EU to new resistance tests because of the macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro Zone, generated by the increase of sovereign debts, especially in the PIIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain. The situation has degenerated because of the lack of legal leverages through which the member countries should be forced to correct the fiscal imbalances and to meet the macroeconomic convergence criteria imposed. The Treaty on Fiscal Governance in the EU, signed on 2 March 2012, appears to be the key to the macroeconomic recovery in the Euro Zone, due to the more severe budgetary discipline it imposes. This paper, by means of deductive analysis and causal explanations, outlines the current economic situation of the Euro Zone, under the impact of the member countries’ sovereign debt crisis, focusing on Spain and Portugal. In addition to reliable statistics, the paper also presents the EU’s economic recovery strategy that anticipates its future. Unfortunately, the perspective of the Euro Zone is still in a fairly high degree of uncertainty, strongly influenced by the economic development of the member countries and by solving the problems they face. Spain and Portugal are the actual example.

  3. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  4. The Bank-Sovereign Nexus: Evidence from a non-Bailout Episode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Natvik, Gisle J.; Ravazzolo, Francesco

    We explore the interplay between sovereign and bank credit risk in a setting where Danish authorities first let two Danish banks default rather than bail them out and then left the country's largest bank, Danske Bank, to recapitalize privately. We find that the correlation between bank...... and sovereign credit default swap (CDS) rates changed with these events, indicating that the non-bailout decisions and recapitalization helped to curb the feedback loop between bank and sovereign risk. Following the non-bailout events, the sensitivity to external shocks declined both for Danske Bank...... and private bank debt indicates that the non-bailout policies succeeded in breaking the vicious circle generated by the risks on the bank and sovereign debts. Our results are reinforced by the use of an indirect testing approach and by focusing on CDS-quantiles....

  5. Financial fragility, sovereign default risk and the limits to commercial bank bail-outs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; van der Kwaak, C.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the poisonous interaction between bank rescues, financial fragility and sovereign debt discounts. In our model balance sheet constrained financial intermediaries finance both capital expenditure of intermediate goods producers and government deficits. The financial intermediaries face the

  6. Does Central Bank Quality Determine Sovereign Ratings and Credit Default Swap Spreads: Evidence from the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlall Indranarain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study innovates from prior research which focuses on the determinants of sovereign ratings and credit default swap spreads for a large sample of countries by incorporating the quality of central banks, let alone refined proxies. Findings show that the explanatory power of both sovereign ratings and CDS spreads model improve by a hefty 11 percent in case of sovereign ratings and 6 to 9 percent in the case of CDS spreads when central bank quality is incorporated. Such a finding bolters the notion that institutional quality does play a preponderant role when it comes to assessing country risk, making it a systematic component of institutional quality. The effect of labour participation implies that countries buffeted by stronger effects of an ageing population have greater propensity of increases in CDS spreads. Evidence is also found as to the driving dynamics of CDS spreads and sovereign ratings to be distinct. Our results hold robust post tackling for endogeneity problem.

  7. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues...

  8. Impacts of Climate Change under the Threat of Global Warming for an Agricultural Watershed of the Kangsabati River

    OpenAIRE

    Sujana Dhar; Asis Mazumdar

    2009-01-01

    The effects of global warming on India vary from the submergence of low-lying islands and coastal lands to the melting of glaciers in the Indian Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of many of the most important rivers of India and South Asia. In India, such effects are projected to impact millions of lives. As a result of ongoing climate change, the climate of India has become increasingly volatile over the past several decades; this trend is expected to conti...

  9. Trafficking in human beings: a transnational threat of the globalization era (comparative analysis of the Central Causasian states)

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdieva, Aysel

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses one of the most dangerous and serious, in the social-humanitarian respect, challenges of the current stage in world globalization-trafficking in human beings, especially in women and children, which has become an international problem in recent years. The article takes a look at the special features of the human trafficking problem in post-Soviet states, primarily in the Central Caucasian countries, caused by the powerful migration flows generated by the collapse of the ...

  10. The Impact of Sovereign Credit Rating Changes on Emerging Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    YIN, WEIGUO

    2008-01-01

    This study investigate the impact of sovereign rating change in emerging markets by using 42 sample counties over the period Jan. 1999 to Aug. 2008. The concurrent relationship between sovereign rating changes and the associated stock market spread can be established: the spreads tend to rise (fall) when upgrades (downgrades) occur. Surprisingly, according to Fitch report regarding the emerging market liquidity, we divide the whole time line into two sub-periods. It is found that rating chang...

  11. Measuring Sovereign Risk in Turkey; An Application of the Contingent Claims Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keller; Peter J Kunzel; Marcos R Souto

    2007-01-01

    Improved macroeconomic conditions and changes to the asset-liability structure on Turkish balance sheets since the 2001 crisis have improved Turkey's overall sovereign risk profile. Nonetheless, the country remains subject to bouts of volatility, as evidenced most recently in the May/June 2006 market turbulence. This paper examines these changes in Turkey's risk profile using the Contingent Claims Approach (CCA), to quantify the evolution of Turkey's sovereign risk, relate risk indicators to ...

  12. Mobilising Uncertainty and the Making of Responsible Sovereigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, T.E.; Werner, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a fundamental change in the perception of threats to the security of states and individuals. Issues of security are no longer primarily framed in terms of threats posed by an identifiable, conventional enemy. Instead, post-Cold War security policies have

  13. The impact of sovereign credit rating downgrade to foreign direct investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virimai Mugobo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has grown to be an attractive alternative to borrowing from multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund for emerging economies. Global investors prefer investing in countries which have received a Sovereign Credit Rating (SCR as they perceive it as a good measure of risk allocation. This research applied an event study methodology to SCR downgrades from the three international CRAs (Moody, Standard and Poor and Fitch over the period 2004 to 2014 to investigate the impact of SCR change on FDI flow into South Africa. Empirical findings show that there is a statistically significant relationship between FDI and SCR downgrades. Evidence also shows that not all downgrades from the three CRAs equally affect investors’ decisions as Moody’s downgrades tend to dominate, causing FDI to reaction at with a higher magnitude. However, not only SCR downgrade determines FDI flow into SA but there is a host of other fundamentals that government should address to attract investment and stabilise financial markets

  14. Sovereign Wealth Fund investments in Europe as an instrument of Chinese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Chinese Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are new instruments of Chinese ‘Go Global’ strategy and the politics of maintaining raw materials and energy security. Europe has lured 60% of the total USD 27.3 billion invested by Chinese SWFs in the energy sector globally, which provokes the question as to how important SWF investments are in the political sense and what security concerns they bring. This paper is the first that presents a comprehensive picture of Chinese SWF investments in the European energy market and one of the very few papers about SWFs based on multiannual, comprehensive empirical data. The author argues that Chinese SWFs are different players on the energy market than private investors, could be potentially harmful for some European interests. By installing representatives on the company boards, China gains access to sensitive information that could be then transferred to Chinese competitors. Moreover, through its SWFs China could take control over energy companies or critical infrastructure and increase its political influence in European countries, making them more vulnerable to political pressure. Therefore, the European policy-makers should consider taking special steps to monitor and maybe limit Chinese SWFs expansion in the energy sector. - Highlights: • The energy sector account for almost half of Chinese's SWF investments in the EU. • SWFs should be treated differently on the energy market than private investors. • SWFs' representatives on company boards may create a conflict of interests.

  15. The global partnership: its achievements, missed opportunities and potential to address future threats from the spread of CBRN materials and expertise - 59335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, Alan; Bowen, Wyn; Chalmers, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In 2002, the G8 launched the Global Partnership (GP) against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. The partnerships budget was placed at $20 billion over 10 years, and it was supported by some 23 countries and the European Union (EU).Though it has had little public recognition, the partnership has been one of the G8's most successful initiatives and has led to many benefits, including improved international security and addressing a sizeable proportion of the Cold War nuclear and chemical weapons arsenal in the Former Soviet Union. Its future, however, remains undecided, as its funding is set to expire in less than two years. In 2009 and 2010 Kings College London with generous funding support from the US John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, carried out a detailed evaluation of the achievements and benefits of the GP to date, its failings and lost opportunities, and potential future direction. Our findings indicate that the partnership has aided security in the Former Soviet Union and had a significant number of wider benefits with the potential to continue to do the same on a broader geographic level in future. As such, it is a valuable tool to assist the international community to work together to address global threats relating to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials and related expertise and the G8 should take steps to renew its funding. (authors)

  16. Term structure of sovereign spreads: a contingent claim model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple structural model to estimate the termstructure and the implied default probability of a selected group of emerging countries, which account for 54% of the JPMorgan EMBIG index on average for the period 2000-2005. The real exchange rate dynamic, modeled as a pure diffusion process, is assumed to trigger default. The calibrated model generates sovereign spread curves consistent to market data. The results suggest that the market is systematically overpricing spreads for Brazil in 100 basis points, whereas for Mexico, Russia and Turkey the model is able to reproduce the market behavior.Este trabalho propõe um modelo estrutural para estimar a estrutura a termo e a probabilidade implícita de default de países emergentes que representam, em média, 54% do índice EMBIG do JPMorgan no período de 2000-2005. A taxa de câmbio real, modelada como um processo de difusão simples, é considerada como indicativa de default. O modelo calibrado gera a estrutura a termo dos spreads consistente com dados de mercado, indicando que o mercado sistematicamente sobre-estima os spreads para o Brasil em 100 pontos base na média, enquanto para México, Rússia e Turquia reproduz o comportamento do mercado.

  17. The new challenges for oil-based sovereign wealth funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Boulanger, Quentin

    2015-02-01

    Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are often presented as an effective instrument for managing hydrocarbon rents, reducing the impact of the volatility of oil or gas revenues on the economy, separating expenditure from income, and promoting a more transparent management of the rent. The asset allocation strategy has become more complex with the rapid rise in oil prices between 2007 and 2014, and the substantial financial reserves accumulated in hydrocarbon-producing countries, switching from an approach of wealth management to an approach of investment and financial optimisation. Hence, these funds have become major players on the international financial and industrial scene. Moreover, with the discovery of new hydrocarbon resources in recent years, particularly in Africa, the strategies of new funds appear to be moving towards a new goal of local economic development. But the unforeseen collapse of crude oil prices in recent months poses a new risk for some SWFs based on hydrocarbon revenues, which has to come to the aid of their economies and focus on their main principle of macro-economic stabilisation. (author)

  18. Montes Consolider Project : Spanish Mountains and Global Change: Threats and Opportunities; El proyecto Montes Consolider: los montes espanoles y el cambio global, amenazas y oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doble-Miranda, E.; Bermejo, V.; Retana, J.; Alonso, R.

    2012-11-01

    Global change is a combination of environmental and biotic alterations that threaten many natural ecosystems and the services they provide. The Project MONTES for competitive, multi-disciplinary research, in which 13 national research centers, including CIEMAT, are participating, was launched for the purpose of directing forest management toward adaptation to occurring changes. It is organized into seven work modules that study the effects of atmospheric and climate changes, land use, fire patterns, the risk that invasive species pose to the maintenance of carbon and water flows and biodiversity, plus an eighth module to coordinate cross disciplinary matters. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Cardiometabolic diseases of civilization: history and maturation of an evolving global threat. An update and call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard; Rumana, Umme

    2017-05-01

    Despite striking extensions of lifespan, leading causes of death in most countries now constitute chronic, degenerative diseases which outpace the capacity of health systems. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in both developed and undeveloped countries. In America, nearly half of the adult population has at least one chronic disease, and polypharmacy is commonplace. Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health has not meaningfully improved over the past two decades. The fall in cardiovascular deaths in Western countries, half due to a fall in risk factors and half due to improved treatments, have plateaued, and this reversal is due to the dual epidemics of obesity and diabetes type 2. High burdens of cardiovascular risk factors are also evident globally. Undeveloped nations bear the burdens of both infectious diseases and high childhood death rates. Unacceptable rates of morbidity and mortality arise from insufficient resources to improve sanitation, pure water, and hygiene, ultimately linked to poverty and disparities. Simultaneously, about 80% of cardiovascular deaths now occur in low- and middle-income nations. For these reasons, risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, including poverty, health illiteracy, and lack of adherence, must be targeted with unprecedented vigor worldwide. Key messages In developed and relatively wealthy countries, chronic "degenerative" diseases have attained crisis proportions that threaten to reverse health gains made within the past decades. Although poverty, disparities, and poor sanitation still cause unnecessary death and despair in developing nations, they are now also burdened with increasing cardiovascular mortality. Poor adherence and low levels of health literacy contribute to the high background levels of cardiovascular risk.

  20. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (ptoxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more

  1. Toxoplasmosis--a global threat. Correlation of latent toxoplasmosis with specific disease burden in a set of 88 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Prevalence data published between 1995-2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (ptoxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and

  2. Interest rate risk measurement in Brazilian sovereign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Ibsen Rodrigues de Almeida

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fixed income emerging markets are an interesting investment alternative. Measuring market risks is mandatory in order to avoid unexpected huge losses. The most used market risk measure is the Value at Risk, based on the profit-loss probability distribution of the portfolio under consideration. Estimating this probability distribution requires the prior estimation of the probability distribution of term structures of interest rates. An interesting possibility is to estimate term structures using a decomposition of the spread function into a linear combination of Legendre polynomials. Numerical examples from the Brazilian sovereign fixed income international market illustrate the practical use of the methodology.Os mercados emergentes de renda fixa são alternativas interessantes para investimentos. Devido ao elevado nível de incerteza existente em tais mercados, a mensuração dos riscos de mercado de uma carteira de investimentos é fundamental para que se evite um nível elevado de perdas. Uma das medidas de risco de mercado mais utilizadas é o Value at Risk, baseado na distribuição de probabilidades de perdas-ganhos da carteira sob análise. A estimação desta distribuição requer, no entanto, a estimação prévia da distribuição de pro-babilidades das variações da estrutura a termo da taxa de juros. Uma possibilidade interessante para a estimação de tal distribuição é efetuar uma decomposição da função de spread da estrutura a termo em uma combinação linear de Polinômios de Legendre. Exemplos numéricos do mercado internacional de títulos soberanos brasileiros são apresentados para ilustrar o uso prático desta nova metodologia.

  3. Capparis spinosa L. in A Systematic Review: A Xerophilous Species of Multi Values and Promising Potentialities for Agrosystems under the Threat of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Chedraoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caper (Capparis spinosa L. is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, … about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.

  4. Capparis spinosa L. in A Systematic Review: A Xerophilous Species of Multi Values and Promising Potentialities for Agrosystems under the Threat of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraoui, Stephanie; Abi-Rizk, Alain; El-Beyrouthy, Marc; Chalak, Lamis; Ouaini, Naim; Rajjou, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Caper ( Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries) within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, …) about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.

  5. The Correlation of Sovereign Rating and Bonds’ Interest Rate in EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian-Constantin MIRICESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of borrowing is fundamental for central public administration and it consists in sources of f nancing budget def cit and ref nanc-ing government debt. In the last years, a lot of countries had diff culties regarding the payment of public loans at their maturity due to the burden of government debt to GDP ratio. In this situa-tion, investors lose their conf dence not only in the country that is facing problems, but also in other states that pay their debt at maturity. For this reason, they are careful at any change that affects sovereign rating. From our investigation we found that sover-eign rating has a negative inf uence on bonds’ interest rate. As such, decision makers from central public administration should focus on improving sovereign ratings in order to decrease interest rates.

  6. Efficiency or speculation? A time-varying analysis of European sovereign debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    The outbreak of the Greek debt crisis caused turmoil in European markets and drew attention to the problem of public debt and its consequences. The increase in the return rates of sovereign debts was one of these consequences. However, like any other asset, sovereign debt returns are expected to have a memoryless behaviour. Analysing a total of 15 European countries (Eurozone and non-Eurozone), and applying a time-varying analysis of the Hurst exponent, we found evidence of long-range memory in sovereign bonds. When analysing the spreads between each bond and the German one, it is possible to conclude that Eurozone countries' spreads show more evidence of long-range dependence. Considering the Eurozone countries most affected by the Eurozone crisis, that long-range dependence is more evident, but started before the crisis, which could be interpreted as possible speculation by investors.

  7. The impact of news ans the SMP on realized (co)variances in the Eurozone sovereign debt market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; de Jong, F.; Giuliodori, M.; Widijanto, D.

    2014-01-01

    We use realized variances and covariances based on intraday data from Eurozone sovereign bond market to measure the dependence structure of eurozone sovereign yields. Our analysis focuses on the impact of news, obtained from the Eurointelligence newsash, on the dependence structure. More news raises

  8. The Mirage of Global Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    The literature about global democracy deals with two different types of democratization: Type 1 is about spreading democracy across sovereign states as the basis for good governance. It focuses on the quality of the state/society-nexus: the balance between coercion, reward and identity. Type 2 is

  9. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  10. Rating agencies : Role and influence of their sovereign credit risk assessment in the Eurozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the role of credit rating agencies (CRAs) during the 2010–11 EU sovereign debt crisis is assessed. It is concluded that rating agencies lag behind markets, that their business model is flawed, and that the lack of competition renders the big three CRAs with too strong a market

  11. Procyclicality and path dependence of sovereign credit ratings: The example of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the behavior of Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) when assessing sovereign solvency for European countries. Using Probit regressions I find that even after controlling for macroeconomic factors, CRAs take the business cycle into account. Also, there is a clear case of

  12. The rise of sovereign wealth funds: the new geography of wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Granrut, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    For some time now states have been 'making a comeback' in the management of certain strategic areas of the economy, such as energy, as in the case of Russia that was covered in the January 2008 issue of Futuribles. Some emergent countries or countries whose main source of income is their oil revenues are also moving into strategic sectors through the financial markets, using so-called 'sovereign' investment funds. Charles du Granrut describes what sovereign funds are, what they represent in terms of international economic relations and the investment strategies they apply etc. He first recalls the substantial accumulation of trading surpluses that underlies these funds in the Asian countries and the oil-exporting nations. An accumulation of currency reserves ensues, conferring substantial power on these countries with regard to the management of exchange rates and the possibility of managing a part of these reserves dynamically through sovereign funds (funds for the international investment of national savings that come under the authority of the states or central banks of these countries). After giving an account of the main existing sovereign funds, their scope and their strategy, Charles du Granrut shows what the consequences of their development might be, particularly for the international monetary system: among other things, a lasting rise in exchange rates against the US dollar, generating a transfer of wealth from the United States to its creditor countries, foremost among them the emerging Asian nations and the oil exporting states. (author)

  13. A multi-layered network of the (Colombian) sovereign securities market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Leon Rincon, Carlos; Pérez, Jhonatan; Alexandrova-Kabadjova, Bilana; Diehl, Martin; Heuver, Richard; Martinez-Jaramillo, Serafín

    2015-01-01

    We study the network of Colombian sovereign securities settlements. With data from the settlement market infrastructure we study financial institutions’ transactions from three different trading and registering individual networks that we combine into a multi-layer network. Examining this network of

  14. Argentina’s Sovereign Debt’s Crisis before Different Fora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Noeli Vazquez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On 10 September 2015, the United Nations general assembly voted on nine principles concerning the restructuring of sovereign debts. It has been largely related with the ongoing economic Greek crisis, however it is more accurate to consider this resolution as one of the latest outcomes of the long Argentinean debt crisis and its international repercussions.For over 20 years Argentina has been in the centre of international scene when talking about sovereign debt. It survived the 2001 crisis and its recovery, is one of the fewest in world history. However, its sovereign debt restructuration in 2006 ended up before courts all over the world. This produced an unthinkable effect: it showed us how much has international law developed over these last years in order to adapt itself to this new reality were States are no longer the only big players in the international arena. This paper pretends to focus on the Argentinean cases before International Courts. Having proved its value to the International Law field, this paper might be considered a small contribution in the tumultuous path to understand sovereign debt’s regulation.

  15. 22 CFR 213.3 - Loans, guarantees, sovereign and interagency claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loans, guarantees, sovereign and interagency claims. 213.3 Section 213.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION... thereof, or any public international organization; (d) Claims where the CFO determines that the...

  16. Financial Sector Linkages and the Dynamics of Bank and Sovereign Credit Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, René; Lando, David; Murgoci, Agatha

    We show that banks' foreign asset holdings are significant determinants of bank and sovereign CDS premia. Our analysis uses detailed data on the composition and risk of banks' foreign exposures. For the largest banks, a one standard deviation change in our foreign- exposure risk measure leads...

  17. Financial Sector Linkages and the Dynamics of Bank and Sovereign Credit Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Rene; Lando, David; Murgoci, Agatha

    2016-01-01

    We show that CDS premiums of sovereigns are significantly affected by the foreign exposures of their domestic banks. Our analysis uses a simple risk-weighted exposure measure which aggregates detailed data on the composition and risk of banks’ foreign exposures. A 1 basis point change in our risk...

  18. Sovereign wealth fund investments and the need to undertake socially responsible investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wei

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing consensus that, beyond financial returns, investors should also consider the environmental and social impacts of their business activities. Major institutional investors currently are entering the realm of socially responsible investment (SRI), which incorporates environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors into decision-making based on internationally recognized standards and principles. As influential institutional investors, sovereign wealth funds ...

  19. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance and sovereign bond spreads : an empirical analysis of OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle-Blancard, Gunther; Crifo, Patricia; Oueghlissi, Rim; Scholtens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    What are the determinants of borrowing cost in international capital markets? Apart from macroeconomic fundamentals, are there any qualitative factors that might capture sovereign bond spreads? In this paper we consider to what extent Environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance can affect

  20. Does the European financial stability bail out sovereigns or banks : An event study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2015-01-01

    On May 9, 2010 euro zone countries announced the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility. This paper investigates the impact of this announcement on bank share prices, bank credit default swap (CDS) spreads, and sovereign CDS spreads. The main private beneficiaries were bank creditors.

  1. Sovereign Wealth Funds and Socially Responsible Investing: Do’s and Don’ts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der E.L.

    2012-01-01

    A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) is a long-term investment fund owned by the state. The oldest is the Kuwait Investment Corporation, which was established in 1953. However, because most SWFs were established in 2004 or later, SWFs are, generally speaking, a fairly new phenomenon. Depending on the

  2. Understanding Emerging Market Sovereign Bond Yield Spread: Role of Default and Non-Default Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Surya Pratiwi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the fact that emerging market assets size has been expanding and trying to use sovereign debt market as part of capital market as main research focus. It is highlighting the distinction between default and non-default determinants and examining their significance in explaining emerging market sovereign bond yield spread. Using Cross-Sectional Fixed-Effect Panel Estimator, we found that both default (as proxied by Credit Rating and Outlook Index and non-default (as proxied by 3-month Fed Funds Futures determinants has significant explanatory power to sovereign bond yield spread. Extensively, we also found the significance to add volatility of 3-month Fed Funds Futures and Fed Target Rate basis and volatility of advanced stock markets as variables to stand for non-default determinants in the model. The significance of the latter model is strengthened by higher forecasting as well as indicates the significant role of US market to emerging market sovereign bond market.

  3. SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING SOVEREIGN DEBT AND THE RELATIVITY OF INDEBTEDNESS INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deceanu Liviu-Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For quite a while, the economic world was concerned more and more about sovereign debt. Taking a brief look at economic history, we see that we are not dealing with anything new. Episodes in which states have entered into default occurred, even centuries ago. Moments like the one where Edward III refused to pay the debt to Italian bankers, the Mexican default of August 1982 or the Argentine one back in 2001, aiming at nearly 100 billion dollars, are well known. The current discussion about sovereign debt started with the so-called sovereign debt crisis, which has in the foreground the problem of the Greek state. In 2010 it became acute, Greece being unable to honor its external obligations. It took a strong intervention, supported internationally mainly by the European Union (and also the IMF, but the situation is not resolved even today. This crisis, which we would put on the account of the governance inconsistency and errors, starting with the unprepared entry in the European Union and hasty adoption of the Euro, and continuing with the serious fiscal disorder in the economy, put in difficulty even the single European currency and the economic and monetary union.Shortly after the start of the Greek crisis, which had as a "catalyst" the violent and pro-cyclical reaction of rating agencies, we found that the problem is much deeper, some other countries (the so-called "PIIGS", for example being affected by massive indebtedness. In this context, the construction of indicators, of alert thresholds and “early warning” mechanisms is an important gain for policy-makers, as well as for the various economic operators. The study of sovereign debt can take many forms; on one hand, using data covering a long period, we may create models containing key indicators: sovereign debt, GDP, inflation, foreign trade, economic growth. Assumptions about the relationship between variables and their testing will be done as a second phase. On the other hand, the

  4. Problems of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telebaković Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has been going through the process of economical, political and cultural integration for a long time. At the end of the 20th century, the integration received a new meaning. In the world’s policy, sovereign countries were in conflict or collaborated earlier. A stricter hierarchy of economical and political power hubs is being established now. In such processes of globalization, differences in development, wealth and power arise, people are less safe, the sovereignity of national states is being violated. The story of equality remains in the sense of disappearance of cultural differences in floods of non-cultural culture. It is difficult to talk about democracy when the world’s power is getting stronger and stronger. Is it possible to have a globalization which would not affect human rights, and which would not prevent people from taking care of truth, freedom and happiness?

  5. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  6. Competence to stand trial evaluations of sovereign citizens: a case series and primer of odd political and legal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, George F

    2014-01-01

    Sovereign citizens hold a variety of beliefs that challenge the legitimacy of the United States government and criminal justice system. In criminal cases, sovereign citizens typically raise a variety of seemingly strange objections to the proceedings that can cause court participants to believe the defendant is not competent to stand trial. The author's case files were reviewed to identify all defendants who espoused sovereign citizen beliefs during a court-ordered competence-to-stand-trial evaluation. This case series consisted of nine evaluations completed between 2003 and 2012. A review of the outcomes in these cases showed that sovereign citizens typically have the capacity to understand criminal proceedings and assist an attorney. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Measuring the default risk of sovereign debt from the perspective of network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hongwei; Ho, Hwai-Chung

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in network research, especially in the fields of biology, computer science, and sociology. It is natural to address complex financial issues such as the European sovereign debt crisis from the perspective of network. In this article, we construct a network model according to the debt-credit relations instead of using the conventional methodology to measure the default risk. Based on the model, a risk index is examined using the quarterly report of consolidated foreign claims from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and debt/GDP ratios among these reporting countries. The empirical results show that this index can help the regulators and practitioners not only to determine the status of interconnectivity but also to point out the degree of the sovereign debt default risk. Our approach sheds new light on the investigation of quantifying the systemic risk.

  8. Limits to Arbitrage in Sovereign Bonds Price and Liquidity Discovery in High Frequency Quote Driven Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    The progressively stronger linkages across markets, due to faster access to information and trade execution, cause market liquidity to be rapidly transmitted across markets. In contrast to the resultant commonality of liquidity across markets that are affected by common market-wide factors...... between markets, and liquidity discovery, the transmission of liquidity shocks, through changes in the quotes posted by market makers and the reactions of arbitrageurs. Our analysis is in the context of the Italian sovereign bond cash and future markets, during the recent Euro-zone sovereign bond crisis...... discovery, the cash market leads the futures market in liquidity discovery, i.e., the willingness of the market makers to trade (measured by market depth as the key liquidity measure). More specifically, the liquidity in the cash market also has a significant impact on the changes in the basis (and...

  9. Sovereign Credit Risk and Stock Markets–Does the Markets’ Dependency Increase with Financial Distress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pereira da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between stock markets and credit default swaps (CDS markets. In particular, I aim to gauge if the co-movement between stock prices and sovereign CDS spreads increases with the deterioration of the credit quality of sovereign debt. The analysis of correlations, Granger causality, cointegration, and the results of an error-correction model represented in a state space form show a close link between these markets, but do not evidence that the co-movement increases in periods of financial distress. I also analyze the transmission of volatility between the two markets. The results do not support the hypothesis that volatility propagation surges during financial distress periods. On the contrary, for some cases, the data suggests that the lead-lag relationships between the two markets volatility are stronger during stable periods.

  10. The Secret, the Sovereign, and the Lie: Reading Derrida’s Last Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Barbour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes up the question of secrecy and sovereignty in Derrida’s final seminar on The Beast and the Sovereign. Focusing primarily on Derrida’s readings of Lacan and Celan in Volume I, it argues that, for Derrida, we should distinguish between the lie (or what Lacan calls ‘trickery’ or ‘feigning feint’, and the secret (or what Celan calls ‘the secret of an encounter’, and understand the sense in which the former implies an intentional and sovereign human subject, while the latter represents a limit to such a thing, and, arguably, to the concept of sovereignty as such. This explains, or helps explain, why, in his discussions of sovereignty, Derrida spends so much time examining the animal, on the one hand, and poetry, on the other. For, on his account, these both configure secrecy, and specifically what I refer to as the absolute secret.

  11. Rating agencies: role and influence of their sovereign credit risk assessment in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Credit ratings have a huge impact on the access to and costs of funding, regardless whether the rated entity is a private enterprise or a sovereign borrower. Since the beginning of the financial crisis there has been a vivid and controversial debate about methods, timing and procedures used by these agencies. In this compilation of five notes provided by members of the Monetary Expert Panel the role of the rating agencies and their influence on the euro area is discussed in more detail.

  12. Why borrowers pay premiums to larger lenders: Empirical evidence from sovereign syndicated loans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Issam

    2002-01-01

    All other terms being equal (e.g. seniority), syndicated loan contracts provide larger lending compensations (in percentage points) to institutions funding larger amounts. This paper explores empirically the motivation for such a price design on a sample of sovereign syndicated loans in the period 1990-1997. I find strong evidence that a larger premium is associated with higher renegotiation probability and information asymmetries. It hardly has any impact on the number of lenders though. Thi...

  13. Dealing with risk: Underwriting sovereign bond issues in London 1870-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Anders L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the records of several leading 19th century issuing houses, this paper analyses the transformation of underwriting practices in London's primary sovereign bond market from 1870 to 1914. It shows how underwriting risk developed from being a liability, which market intermediaries sought to avoid, to becoming a valuable financial commodity. The impetus for this development was increased competition in the loan business from the 1880s onwards, which weakened the negotiating position of issu...

  14. How has sovereign bond market liquidity changed? : an illiquidity spillover analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Michael; Lillo, Fabrizio; Pelizzon, Loriana

    2016-01-01

    Amid increasing regulation, structural changes of the market and Quantitative Easing as well as extremely low yields, concerns about the market liquidity of the Eurozone sovereign debt markets have been raised. We aim to quantify illiquidity risks, especially such related to liquidity dry-ups, and illiquidity spillover across maturities by examining the reaction to illiquidity shocks at high frequencies in two ways: a) the regular response to shocks using a variance decomposition and, b) the ...

  15. Financial Contagion in the BRICS Stock Markets: An empirical analysis of the Lehman Brothers Collapse and European Sovereign Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIRCEU PEREIRA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes and extends the study of contagion for BRICS emerging stock markets in the context of the last two international financial crises: the Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy Crisis and the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. We investigate changes in the relationship and the co-movements between BRICS markets in response to international shocks that are originated in advanced markets like USA and Europe. Employing data of daily stock market indices of BRICS countries, this research tests for contagion, examining the interactions and characteristics of price movements of BRICS stock markets by applying cointegration, causality and VECM/Gonzalo-Granger statistic and variance decomposition methodology on stock returns as a measure of perceived country risk. The results exhibit that both long-run and short-run relationships patterns exist between BRICS stock markets and have drastically changed during turbulent periods compared with tranquil period, pointing towards the occurrence of contagion phenomenon among BRICS markets during the last two crises. These findings also indicate that changes in the USA and the Euro Zone indices affect BRICS stock markets in the short-run, acting as a leading indicator for investing in BRICS markets. Also imply an increasing degree of global market integration, bringing major implications for portfolio diversification and policy makers.

  16. Sovereign public debt crisis in Europe. A network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, David; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the evolving network structure of the quarterly public debt-to-GDP ratio from 2000 to 2014. By applying tools and concepts coming from complex systems we study the effects of the global financial crisis over public debt network connections and communities. Two main results arise from this analysis: firstly, countries public debts tend to synchronize their evolution, increasing global connectivity in the network and dramatically decreasing the number of communities. Secondly, a disruption in previous structure is observed at the time of the shock, emerging a more centralized and less diversify network topological organization which might be more prone to suffer contagion effects. This last fact is evidenced by an increasing tendency in countries of similar level of public debt to be connected between them, which we have quantified by the network assortativity.

  17. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  18. Air Force Strategy: Sovereign Options for Securing Global Stability and Prosperity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... competition for resources and influence. This strategic context demands that we retain our position of international political and military leadership because security and economic health closely intertwine with international political...

  19. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  20. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Following Hegel’s Sovereign Beast: An Excursus on the Right of Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Ben David Nichols

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In The Beast and the Sovereign, Derrida addresses an association that is as paradoxical as it is common. On the one hand, it seems as if the sovereign is, or at least should be, the furthest from the beast. And yet, as soon as we consult the various archives of political mythology––myth, theology, philosophy, art, etc.––we find them together, inseparable despite their distance. The seminar itself is a continuation of his previous explorations of the host concepts and figures that populate the political and philosophical history of sovereignty. The course takes him through a series of texts that stretches from Plato, Machiavelli, Hobbes and Rousseau, to Freud, Heidegger, Lacan and Schmitt, among others, but his engagement with Hegel is limited. The few times that Hegel’s name does appear, it is almost exclusively a reference or aside within other more substantial engagements (Lacan and Heidegger, in particular. This absence is at least somewhat curious given the extent of Derrida’s previous engagements with Hegel’s corpus. I am not suggesting that this absence constitutes some essential oversight; rather, it is an opportunity to set out on an excursion from the course of The Beast and the Sovereign without leaving its territory. After all, Hegel also has an account of the origins of law. He, too, has a character that is set apart by his (almost animal quality. This figure arrives on stage before history begins. His role––and indeed his “right”––is to found the most basic elements of the state. We are told that his “right” is absolute. He is no Lord. He is not driven by a desire for the recognition of the other. However, who confers this “absolute” right? If his actions are not bound by any measure or proportion, how do we distinguish between the hero and the criminal?

  2. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  3. "Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant ("ISIL" As A Threat To The World Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines illegal activities of ISIS. Territory of victorious monotheism is so-called by experts and proclaimed in June 2014 "Islamic state" with the original name of "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant", in other words "Caliphate" in a particular area of the modern states of Syria and Iraq. Founded illegally on the territory of the sovereign State of Iraq and Syria, "IS" with a sharia form of government, it is the first step of creating a global "caliphate", which do not recognize borders. Author notes that the creation of the "Islamic state", that poses a threat to the constitutional security of many countries of Asia, as well as the Russian Federation, both in terms of the "capture" of Islamic extremists and terrorists, and includes part of the territory of present Russia. Author concludes that: first, the creation of the world "Caliphate", no borders - the main goal of the Islamists, raising fears in the world, including the Russian Federation and the long term threaten to the country's sovereignty. Second, law enforcement authorities should be attentive to the problems that arose in the Russian Federation related to the Islamic radical organizations. Recruiters, Islamic radicals operate illegally in our country. Thirdly, important but insufficient measures taken, such as the steps to revive the Russian Islam the idea of a "single Russian muftiat", in particular to the Russian ummah was proposed "rigid vertical of power" and Sufism as a means of radicalism. Fourth, not enough attention is paid to the States to the Islamic States (IS in the Russian Federation and analysis of the problems associated with the radical Islam, which is no longer seen as a phenomenon inherent only in the Arab world. Fifth, there are opposing views on the "IS".

  4. What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Maj Ottosen, Katharina; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2015-01-01

    academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis...... also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science......Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement...

  5. Infectious diseases epidemic threats and mass gatherings: Refocusing global attention on the continuing spread of the Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumla, A. (Alimuddin); Alagaili, A.N. (Abdulaziz N.); Cotten, M. (Matthew); Azhar, E.I. (Esam I.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMedia and World Health Organization (WHO) attention on Zika virus transmission at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and the 2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa diverted the attention of global public health authorities from other lethal infectious diseases with epidemic potential. Mass

  6. Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution. Addressing the Triple Threat of the Global Financial Crisis, Energy Crisis, and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifkin, J.; Da Graca Carvalho, M.; Consoli, A.; Bonifacio, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are at a precarious point in history. We are facing the real prospect of an economic meltdown on the scale of the Great Depression. The credit crisis is compounded by the global energy crisis and the climate change crisis, creating a potential cataclysm for civilization. There is a way out: we need to radically overhaul the way we use energy in our society

  7. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza Manoel, Jr.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis, inflicts huge costs on banana producers, due to crop losses and expenses for disease control. The global banana export trade relies on Cavendish clones that are highly susceptible to P.

  8. Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution. Addressing the Triple Threat of the Global Financial Crisis, Energy Crisis, and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifkin, J.; Da Graca Carvalho, M.; Consoli, A.; Bonifacio, M.

    2008-12-15

    We are at a precarious point in history. We are facing the real prospect of an economic meltdown on the scale of the Great Depression. The credit crisis is compounded by the global energy crisis and the climate change crisis, creating a potential cataclysm for civilization. There is a way out: we need to radically overhaul the way we use energy in our society.

  9. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  10. Sovereign wealth funds as a new instrument of climate protection policy? A case study of Norway as a pioneer of ethical guidelines for investment policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut (AUB), Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Political Studies and Public Administration (PSPA), Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O.Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In 1990 a sovereign wealth fund was founded in Norway in which the country invests surpluses from oil and gas industry sales. The fund is designed to secure the state's ability to act in a post-petroleum era. At the end of the 1990's the voice of Norwegian civil society insisted that the sovereign wealth fund should not only ensure intergenerational justice, but should also contribute to the implementation of values and norms of the present country. At the end of 2004 the parliament finally agreed upon ethical regulations for the investment of the sovereign wealth fund. Now the second largest sovereign wealth fund in the world only invests in businesses that adhere to those ethical regulations. In the present paper, I seek to illustrate the emergence and outcomes of this new development in the Norwegian sovereign wealth fund. (author)

  11. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  12. Adulterated and Counterfeit Male Enhancement Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Pose a Real Threat to the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElAgouri, Ghada; Elnoweam, Ola; Aboelazayem, Samar; Farouk, ElMohanad; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2016-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction prevalence globally is noticeably high. This is accompanied by an increase in the use of nutraceuticals for male enhancement. However, the global market is invaded by counterfeit and adulterated nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a therapeutic claim. The objective of this article is to review male enhancement nutraceuticals worldwide with respect to claim, adulterants, and safety. The definition of such products is variable across countries. Thus, the registration procedures differ as well. This facilitates the manipulation of the process, which leads to widespread adulterated and counterfeit products without control. The tele-advertisement and Internet pharmacies aided the widespread sale of male enhancement nutraceuticals, unfortunately, the spurious ones. Finally, based on literature, most of these products were found to be adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and mislabeled as being natural. These products represent a major health hazard for consumers due to lack of clear regulations.

  13. Unemployment and sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone: A k-means- r analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João

    2017-09-01

    Some southern countries in Europe, together with Ireland, were particularly affected by the sovereign debt crises in the Eurozone and were obliged to implement tough corrective measures which proved to be very recessive in nature. As a result, not only GDP declined but unemployment jumped to very high levels as well. This paper uses a modified version of k-means (restricted k-means) to analyze the clustering of the Eurozone countries during the recent sovereign debt crisis, combining monthly data on unemployment and government bond yield rates. Our method shows that the separation of southern Europe from the other Eurozone is not necessarily a good characterization of this area before the crisis but the group of externally assisted countries plus Italy gains consistence as the crisis evolved, although there is no perfect homogeneity in this group, since the problems they faced, the type of response requested, the speed of reaction to the crisis and the lasting effects were not the same for all these countries.

  14. Overlapping consensus versus discourse in climate change policy: The case of Norway's Sovereign Wealth Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Heidi Rapp

    2010-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the mismatch between emission of greenhouse gases and effective mitigation policies. Science now calls for every tool to be considered in order for radical changes to mitigate the situation more effectively. This paper considers Norway's huge Sovereign Wealth Fund which, although withdrawing investment from firms causing severe environmental damage, does not categorize climate change as 'severe environmental damage'. The main reason is a basis of overlapping consensus, which also hinders argumentation for this practice. Overlapping consensus is part of the broader theory 'Justice as Fairness' as conceived by John Rawls. The consensus is with regard to having a socially just system. The word 'overlapping' refers to people having different reasons for supporting the system. However using overlapping consensus for investment-strategies represents an extension beyond its original intention, and moreover, removes mitigating climate change from the agenda. Removing the basis of overlapping consensus opens up scope for value-based discourse conceived by Habermas' communicative action and discourse ethics. The immense severity of climate change demands value-based and substantial arguments from powerful sovereign wealth funds, to consider the acceptability of their practice.

  15. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  16. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  17. Essays on globalization, monetary policy and financial crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on three interlinked topics. Chapter 2 studies the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads in Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain during the recent global financial crisis and European debt crisis. Chapter 3 introduces a model on the interactions between monetary policy

  18. The Crisis of the Existing Global Paradigm of Governance and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to underline the central challenges to world order that are outcomes of our current system of global, social, power and constitutional processes. The article outlines these major problems which it is suggested represent a crisis for the future trajectory of human survival and well-being. The paper then uses the problem of the emergence of transnational criminal activity in order to underline the limits of the current global paradigm of governance. In effect, in the criminal law context the jurisdiction of sovereign states to attack the problem of transnational crime is hedged with severe limitations. The most important of these limitations is the fact that the jurisdiction over crimes by sovereigns is limited by the territorial character of the definition of sovereignty. Thus a sovereign has a limited capacity to control and police criminal activity whose main locus of operation is generated outside of the territorial reach of the sovereign state. This essentially means that the element of global governance generates a juridical vacuum which permits organized crime to flourish outside of the boundaries of the state but at the same time, having the capacity to penetrate and corrupt the social, political and juridical processes of the sovereign state. The article explores the effort of the UN to provide some form of response to this crisis in the form of an international agreement.

  19. Realized (co)variances of eurozone sovereign yields during the crisis: The impact of news and the Securities Markets Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; de Jong, Frank; Giuliodori, M.; Widijanto, D.

    We use realized variances and covariances based on intraday data to measure the dependence structure of eurozone sovereign yields. Our analysis focuses on the impact of news, obtained from the Eurointelligence newsflash, on the dependence structure. More news tends to raise the volatility of yields

  20. Globalization and international trade in the twenty-first century: opportunities for and threats to the health sector in the south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, E; McLeod, K

    2000-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are important forces at the turn of the century. This article explores how freer international trade will affect developing countries that are net importers of health care goods and services. Four commodities are used as special cases for discussion: pharmaceuticals, health care technologies, pesticides, and tobacco and its related products. The authors discuss the role of international specialized agencies, such as the World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, and World Bank, that are concerned with international trade and its health and health care consequences, and argue that closer collaboration is required among these agencies if the negative effects of trade liberalization on developing countries are to be mitigated. The authors pose a number of research questions that could help in developing proactive policies for the South on the trade of goods and services with harmful effects on health as well as those with potential health and economic benefits.

  1. The effects of global change on the threat of exotic arthropods and arthropod-borne pathogens to livestock in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John E

    2008-12-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are an important part of the group of foreign animal diseases that command attention from federal, state, and local animal health authorities in the United States because of the potential for adverse local and regional animal health impacts and also because of possible losses of export markets. Diseases of concern are listed by the US Animal Health Association and also by the Office International des Epizooties. Global change is causing the emergence of newly recognized diseases and altering enzootic and epizootic circumstances for known disease problems. Selected examples of arthropod-borne diseases of importance are discussed in terms of their potential for introduction, spread, and impact on livestock and human health in the United States.

  2. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. Gender and climate change in the Indian Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities, and livelihood diversification at the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2015-08-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, livestock rearing, seasonal or long-term migration, and localized natural resource extraction. While warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios in general, we find that climate change is also undermining local communities' livelihood assets in gender-specific ways. In this paper, we present a case study from the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (Uttarakhand, India) that both outlines the implications of climate change for women farmers in the area and highlights the potential for ecotourism (as a form of livelihood diversification) to strengthen both key livelihood assets of women and local communities' adaptive capacity more broadly. The paper intentionally employs a categorical focus on women but also addresses issues of inter-group and gender diversity. With this special issue in mind, suggestions for related research are proposed for consideration by climate scientists and social systems and/or policy modelers seeking to support gender justice through socially transformative perspectives and frameworks.

  5. The Growing Global Threat of Cyber-crime given the Current Economic Crisis: A Study regarding Internet Malicious Activities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tuluc

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer crime, also referred as cyber-crime, is considered today one of the main leadingproblems in the ongoing global economic crisis and an impediment in the development of manycountries. Objectives of this work are: to determine the evolution of cyber-crime during the currenteconomic crisis, to emphasize the severity of this problem and the urgent need to limit its impactworldwide, to determine consumers perceptions regarding this phenomenon in Romania. Prior Workrelated to this issue was conducted by the Computer Security Institute in United States, InternationalComputer Protection Agency, Symantec and Ponemon Institute. In their studies, these institutionshave revealed many of cyber-crime features and proposed valuable solutions for decreasing itsimpact. The Approach used in this paper was a survey among Romanian consumers regarding cybercrime.A total number of 110 respondents participated in this survey. Results showed that almost80% of respondents were victims of cyber-crime at least once and more than 87% of respondentsnever reported these crimes to the police. As regards Implications, the study can offer support tospecialized institutions, while academics can use these findings for further research. The Value of thispaper consists of relevant findings regarding cyber-crime issue in Romania.

  6. A case of socialist cantonalism: the Asturias & León sovereign council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GUERRA SESMA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second year of Spanish Civil War, with the advance of francoists troops in the North, the Asturias region rested isolated. With the capital, Oviedo, occupied by the rebels, republican parties decided to keep the fight until the end. Anyway, the isolation with the Government of the Republic has provided a separation in fact that, with the creation of Sovereign Council, became in situation of right. Not all left parties shared the decision, because they wanted to keep the relation, although its difficulties, with central Government. Historically, the linkage between and nationalities question has been troubled and diverse, between the theoretical internationalism and the reality of some national facts clearly expressed. This is the case of a cantonal and separatist movement not involved by a nationalist party but just by several lefts who pleaded the international solidarity with its fight. The geographical conditions of Asturian region and the war’s way contributed firmly to this fact happens.

  7. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  8. Musculoskeletal Health Conditions Represent a Global Threat to Healthy Aging: A Report for the 2015 World Health Organization World Report on Ageing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Cross, Marita J; Hoy, Damian G; Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Blyth, Fiona M; Woolf, Anthony D; March, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Persistent pain, impaired mobility and function, and reduced quality of life and mental well-being are the most common experiences associated with musculoskeletal conditions, of which there are more than 150 types. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal conditions increase with aging. A profound burden of musculoskeletal disease exists in developed and developing nations. Notably, this burden far exceeds service capacity. Population growth, aging, and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will create a crisis for population health that requires a multisystem response with musculoskeletal health services as a critical component. Globally, there is an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle to reduce the impacts of obesity, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes in older people. Painful musculoskeletal conditions, however, profoundly limit the ability of people to make these lifestyle changes. A strong relationship exists between painful musculoskeletal conditions and a reduced capacity to engage in physical activity resulting in functional decline, frailty, reduced well-being, and loss of independence. Multilevel strategies and approaches to care that adopt a whole person approach are needed to address the impact of impaired musculoskeletal health and its sequelae. Effective strategies are available to address the impact of musculoskeletal conditions; some are of low cost (e.g., primary care-based interventions) but others are expensive and, as such, are usually only feasible for developed nations. In developing nations, it is crucial that any reform or development initiatives, including research, must adhere to the principles of development effectiveness to avoid doing harm to the health systems in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Deconstructing the Leviathan: Derrida’s The Beast and the Sovereign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques de Ville

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Derrida’s The Beast & the Sovereign, volume I, explores the contradictory appearance of animals in political discourse. Sometimes, as he points out, political man and the sovereign state appear in the form of an animal and, at other times, as superior to animals of which he is the master. In session two of the Seminar, the main focus of this essay, Derrida explores the ‘origin’ of this contradictory logic inter alia with reference to animal fables which he contends draw on unconscious forces in their invocation of images. They pretend to make known something that cannot be the object of knowledge. In the same vein, Derrida shows how Hobbes’s Leviathan and sovereignty itself are constructed and maintained through an uncanny fear, a fear not in the first place of one’s fellow man, but of the wolf within the self, i.e., the drive to self-destruction. It is the repression of this wolf, Derrida suggests, which leads to the further contradictory logic (in Hobbes of excluding both beast and God from the covenant whilst maintaining God as the model of sovereignty. God, in other words, ‘is’ the beast repressed and can therefore hardly serve as the foundation of sovereignty. The self, and ultimately sovereignty, it can be said in view of Derrida’s analysis, is never purely present to itself but instead arrives at itself by way of the ‘binding’ of unconscious forces. Sovereignty in this way ultimately shows itself to be divisible.

  10. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  11. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  12. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  13. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  14. Ratings of Sovereign Risk and the Macroeconomics Fundamentals of the countries: a Study Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cândido da Silva Filho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the consequences of asymmetric information, the sovereign risk ratings are instruments that constitute a key piece in the determination of credit market conditions, essential to the growth of developing countries like Brazil. In the present work we studied based on macroeconomics foundations, a classification to sovereign risk ratings realized by the ratings agencies finding the classification using Artificial Neural Networks. We observed homogeneity degree between the attributions of agencies and macroeconomics foundations in the countries of sample which four of foundations seem to be more directly connected with these attributions. After, in a comparative static exercise, we use the model to make simulations of scenarios of the credit external conditions for the Brazilian economy, changing the macroeconomics foundations which we noted that agencies expected for more per capita income increasing and decrease of public debt. (Full article in Portuguese only

  15. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The major cause of health concern that claims a large number of lives worldwide every year are the infectious diseases (Ministry of Health Report 1920). The advent of antibiotics and vaccines has lessened the impact of a number of infectious diseases but they are still the number one cause of mortality. These emerging ...

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a time when we will not have effective antibiotics to combat serious ... is unregulated and may be purchased in pharmacies or general stores with .... Using automated, susceptibility ... prescribing will later affect patient's ability to fight bacterial ...

  17. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  18. Global Mechanisms for Sustaining and Enhancing PES Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Josh; Aquino, Andre; Daniels, Amy; Moulaert, Azur; Lee, Dan; Krause, Abby

    2010-01-01

    An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to ent...

  19. Toxicological Threats of Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastics pose both physical (e.g., entanglement, gastrointestinal blockage, reef destruction) and chemical threats (e.g., bioaccumulation of the chemical ingredients of plastic or toxic chemicals sorbed to plastics) to wildlife and the marine ecosystem.

  20. Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    .... interests abroad, and against Western countries. But many believe that the Al Qaeda organization and its leadership are no longer as relevant to assessing the global Islamic terrorist threat as they were on September 11, 2001. Some believe U.S...

  1. Infant circumcision: the last stand for the dead dogma of parental (sovereignal) rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Howe, Robert S

    2013-07-01

    J S Mill used the term 'dead dogma' to describe a belief that has gone unquestioned for so long and to such a degree that people have little idea why they accept it or why they continue to believe it. When wives and children were considered chattel, it made sense for the head of a household to have a 'sovereignal right' to do as he wished with his property. Now that women and children are considered to have the full complement of human rights and slavery has been abolished, it is no longer acceptable for someone to have a 'right' to completely control the life of another human being. Revealingly, parental rights tend to be invoked only when parents want to do something that is arguably not in their child's best interest. Infant male circumcision is a case in point. Instead of parental rights, I claim that parents have an obligation to protect their children's rights as well as to preserve the future options of those children so far as possible. In this essay, it is argued that the notion that parents have a right to make decisions concerning their children's bodies and minds-irrespective of the child's best interests-is a dead dogma. The ramifications of this argument for the circumcision debate are then spelled out and discussed.

  2. Indigenous ExtrACTIVISM in Boreal Canada: Colonial Legacies, Contemporary Struggles and Sovereign Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Willow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches contemporary extractivism as an environmentally and socially destructive extension of an enduring colonial societal structure. Manifested in massive hydroelectric developments, clearcut logging, mining, and unconventional oil and gas production, extractivism removes natural resources from their points of origin and dislocates the emplaced benefits they provide. Because externally imposed resource extraction threatens Indigenous peoples’ land-based self-determination, industrial sites often become contested, politicized landscapes. Consequently, I also illuminate the struggles of those who strive to turn dreams for sovereign futures into reality through extrACTIVIST resistance to extractivist schemes. Presenting four case synopses—from across Canada’s boreal forest and spanning a broad range of extractive undertakings—that highlight both sides of the extractivism/ACTIVISM formulation, this article exposes the political roots of resource-related conflicts and contributes to an emerging comparative political ecology of settler colonialism. While extractivism’s environmental effects are immediate and arresting, these physical transformations have significant cultural consequences that are underlain by profound political inequities. I ultimately suggest that because extractivism is colonial in its causal logic, effective opposition cannot emerge from environmentalism alone, but will instead arise from movements that pose systemic challenges to conjoined processes of social, economic, and environmental injustice.

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF BANKING SUPERVISION ACROSS THE EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION, A SOVEREIGN DEBT CRISIS UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Elena IAGAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper analyses the latest measures taken by the main European governing bodies with regard to the banking supervision across the European Monetary Union (EMU following the ‘sovereign debt crisis’ phenomenon and its continuing effects throughout the Euro zone for the last five years. Officially preaching financial integration in order to ensure stability of the European banking system, most often the European governing bodies amplify the exact phenomena they expect to reduce doing more harm to both creditors and depositors and ultimately leading to a more fragile business banking environment. The importance of banks is acknowledged at European institutional level as main channel through which the monetary policy is triggered across EMU, therefore active measures have been taken in this regard. Questioning the extent to which these measures are legitimate and meet the purposes that they claim, constitutes the aim of the present paper. Another close linked purpose is a better understanding of what stability means, why it is important and what makes stability occur in a banking system. Having understood and set the theoretical grounds, it therefore follows easily to analyse through this glance the latest actions pursued by the European financial governing bodies focusing on the ones addressing supervision of the banking sector within EMU. The paper concludes and provides a set of recommendations by reminding the nature and role of banks for the real economy, the same objective the European financial governing bodies’ target, but which they consistently fail to meet.

  4. SOVEREIGN WEALTH FUNDS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: SCOPE AND METHODS OF FINANCIAL PENETRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wiśniewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central and Eastern European (CEE capital markets (of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and, to a limited extent, Belarus are gradually evolving towards increased breadth (diversity and depth (liquidity, however, they are still exposed to considerable cross-country volatility and interdependence spill-overs – especially in times of capital flight to more established asset classes (“safe havens”. Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have widely been censured for their undesirable political interference and chronic operational opacity. This paper demonstrates that in CEE, contrary to widespread perceptions attributable to developed markets, SWFs can act as natural and powerful risk mitigators (contributing to a more stable capital base and reduced systemic volatility. Such a proposition is premised on several factors specific to SWFs oriented to CEE. They comprise: strategic long-termism and patience in overcoming interim pricing deficiencies, commitments to elements of a broadly interpreted infrastructure, and absence of overt conflicts of interest with the CEE host economies. The paper, besides reviewing the utilitarianism of SWFs in the CEE’s risk mitigation context, highlights regulatory and technical barriers to more SWF funding for CEE. It also recommends policy measures to the CEE economies aimed at luring more host-friendly SWF investment into the region.

  5. Insular threat associations within taxa worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline

    2018-04-23

    The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.

  6. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration and the eurozone’s response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Regional governance systems may resolve the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the Eurozone is the most advanced attempt to do so. The Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition but the outcome finds the EU wanting. The first section places EMU in the broader context of

  7. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  8. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In 1945 the United Nations was founded with one major goal in mind, and I quote, 'to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.' The founders noted that twice in the 20th Century major wars had brought 'untold sorrow to mankind.' Since its founding, 191 nations have joined the UN. We have no other place where all nations can work together for peace, a place where we can use verbal conflict rather than armed conflict to solve problems. And often, the UN, with US support, has provided armed force to help ensure the peace. The entire planet now faces global challenges including ensuring bio-diversity and ending the destruction of thousands of species; reversing the depletion of fishing stocks; controlling ocean dumping; preventing ozone depletion; halting global warming; controlling and eliminating terrorism and weapons of mass destruction; fighting pandemic diseases; ending the tragedy of crushing poverty and lack of clean drinking water; and addressing crises arising from failed States. No nation or even a small group of nations can succeed in addressing these issues alone. The United Nations is based on political insights that have led to successful governance principles and enhanced the wealth of nations. These values include market freedoms, religious liberty, an independent judiciary, government transparency and accountability, democracy, and a high level of respect for civil liberties and human rights. They have evolved into nearly universal goals and norms. The countries that have adhered to these principles are the most secure and healthy. The United Nations is guided by such countries, and simultaneously provides the only viable forum for the expression of the aspirations of the poor and the weak. The establishment of international norms of conduct is where idealism informs realism. We are called to nothing less than moral leadership. When moral leadership is coupled with power, it galvanizes the world. Moral leadership requires living up to one

  9. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  10. School manuals for teaching geography at the Sovereign State of Santander: 1868-1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alejandro Aguirre Rueda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents at least three objectives. The irst of them:to evidence the legislative aspects of the Organic Decree of Public Primary Instruction –ODPPI– of 1870 in relation to the topic of school manuals, the school knowledge of geography and the way in which it was evaluated. Secondly, this paper presents an identiication and description of the content and dissemination of some of the geography school manuals that existed in the Sovereign State of Santander during the last three decades of the 19th century. Finally, we present the ways in which some teachers from Santander resisted the initiative to consolidate the printed text as the main reference for the dissemination of school knowledge. Based on the previous information, this article comprises four sections which deal with the aforementioned topics. Therefore, it was conirmed that ODPPI regulated the subject of school manuals, to the point of identifying some of the directly responsible agents of its achievement and monitoring. Likewise, geography, as school knowledge, was regulated within the curricula. Besides, evidence shows that geography school manuals did not include as much printed material as subjects like arithmetic or reading. Equally, geography was found to be taught under the following categories: Universal and Colombian and Regional. Finally, even though the State taught the importance of the print text, other voices emerged in defense of oral teaching methods, which made it possible to identify that the consolidation of printing as a diffusion system for culture was not an easy lineal task.

  11. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  12. Fluidics and heat generation of Alcon Infiniti and Legacy, Bausch & Lomb Millennium, and advanced medical optics sovereign phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Michael S; Valentine, Jeremy R; Olson, Randall J

    2006-09-01

    To study heat generation, vacuum, and flow characteristics of the Alcon Infiniti and Bausch & Lomb Millennium with results compared with the Alcon Legacy and advanced medical optics (AMO) Sovereign machines previously studied. Experimental study. Heat generation with continuous ultrasound was determined with and without a 200-g weight. Flow and vacuum were determined from 12 to 40-ml/min in 2-ml/min steps. The impact of a STAAR Cruise Control was also tested. Millennium created the most heat/20% of power (5.67 +/- 0.51 degrees C unweighted and 6.80 +/- 0.80 degrees C weighted), followed by Sovereign (4.59 +/- 0.70 degrees C unweighted and 5.65 +/- 0.72 degrees C weighted), Infiniti (2.79 +/- 0.62 degrees C unweighted and 3.96 +/- 0.31 degrees C weighted), and Legacy (1.99 +/- 0.49 degrees C unweighted and 4.27 +/- 0.76 degrees C weighted; P Infiniti vs Legacy, both weighted). Flow studies revealed that Millennium Peristaltic was 17% less than indicated (P < .0001 to all other machines), and all other machines were within 3.5% of indicated. Cruise Control decreased flow by 4.1% (P < .0001 for same machine without it). Millennium Venturi had the greatest vacuum (81% more than the least Sovereign; P < .0001), and Cruise Control increased vacuum in a peristaltic machine 35% more than the Venturi system (P < .0001). Percent power is not consistent in regard to heat generation, however, flow was accurate for all machines except Millennium Peristaltic. Restriction with Cruise Control elevates unoccluded vacuum to levels greater than the Venturi system tested.

  13. Greece – in the centre of sovereign debt crisis. Consequences on the evolution of Euro Zone economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bâlgăr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of economic and financial crisis in Greece. We will examine the effect of Hellenic crisis on deepening the sovereign debt crisis in Euro zone and the possible consequences across the entire European economy. The research also aims to present possible scenarios of evolution for the Greek crisis and their potential consequences for the stability and economic growth perspectives in European Union. Our research concludes by highlighting the consequences of economic measures imposed to Greece by the European Union for the consolidation and fiscal stabilization of Hellenic economy.

  14. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  15. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration, the eurozone, and the hellish road to the fabled gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Claes, D.H.; Knutsen, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Regional systems of governance may resolve some of the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the eurozone is among the most advanced examples of attempts to do so. This paper argues that the recent Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition, and the outcome leaves the EU

  16. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration, the eurozone, and the imaginary road to the fabled gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Regional systems of governance may resolve some of the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the eurozone is among the most advanced examples of attempts to do so. This paper argues that the recent Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition, and the outcome leaves the EU

  17. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ? Acting on opportunity Taking revenge for perceived injustice Making a statement Doing competitor s bidding Seeing themselves as a future competition INSIDER THREATS | Combating it! Darshan Lakha 7 5 January 2017 General Investigations...! Darshan Lakha 11 5 January 2017 Monitor user actions Use auditing to monitor access to files Examine cached Web files Monitor Web access at the firewall Monitor incoming and outgoing e-mail messages Control what software employees can install...

  18. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  19. Cybersecurity Public Sector Threats and Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Kim J

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks. An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around

  20. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  1. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  2. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  3. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. 'NRBC' threat: is this concept still valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    About 10 years ago, after the Sarin attack in Tokyo, the world discover that terrorists could use again radio-nuclear, chemical or biological agents to launch attacks, just to cause terror and disruption of western economies. This has forged the acronym 'NRBC'. In terms of likelihood, nuclear and radiological attacks could be considered among the most easy to prepare, and some possible acts are listed in this paper. A considerable amount of work has been prepared for the preparedness against radio-nuclear attacks, during the last 3 years, by World Health Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atomic Energy Agency (AEN) as well as by the International Commission of Radio Protection (ICRP). A series of documents have been issued from international cooperation. These documents shows specificities to the R/N threat in terms of health consequences, that make this threat less prone to international cooperative efforts than biological threats. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the G7 countries have created an 'Global Health Security Initiative' (GHSI) in 2002 to anticipate crisis such as the anthrax problem, or other possible NRBC threats

  5. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  6. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  7. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  8. Threats, protests greet conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-04

    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  9. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  10. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  11. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  12. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  13. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  14. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  15. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  16. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  17. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-12

    fungi . People more generally associate bioterrorism with outbreaks of human illness (e.g., anthrax or smallpox), rather than diseases affecting animals...world production was 42% for corn, 35% for soybeans, and 12% for wheat . Of global exports, the U.S. accounted for 65% for corn, 40% for soybeans...and 32% for wheat . If export markets were to decline following an agroterrorism event, U.S. markets could be severely disrupted since 21% of U.S

  18. Mankind under threat -- Vatican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, C

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations has noted that 250,000 people are added to the global population daily. Urgent steps must be taken to curb such growth and stabilize the size of the global population. Existing population consumes available resources at an unsustainable rate, littering the environment with its waste. Even the global climate is changing as a result of these unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development scheduled to be held in Cairo, September 5-13, will bring together delegates from countries around the world to discuss these issues and develop a plan to curb population growth and save the environment. Unlike the rest of the world, the Pope and the Vatican fail to see reason. Despite the pragmatic call to increase the practice of modern family planning, especially in developing countries, the Church has actually intensified its campaign against the conference and its objectives. The Pope argues that the conference will accelerate moral decline and charged that respect for the rights of the unborn and the importance of the family are contradicted by its proposals. He is especially up in arms over the UN proposition that women should be able to control their fertility through contraception and safe abortion. Approving only of natural family planning, the Pope believes that achieving world population goals by using contraception threatens mankind. Population experts, however, are urging the Vatican to face reality and help especially those women who feel their living conditions do not allow the practice of natural family planning.

  19. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  20. European Sovereign Bond-Backed Securities – a Proposal to Mitigate Risks Arisen from the Lack of an Euro Area Common Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “European Sovereign Bond-Backed Securities” explores the complexities of having a fiscal unionfor Euro Area. All measures taken for fiscal integration are elements that need cohesion in order tobreak the vicious circle of unsustainable public debt affecting the balance sheets of banks anddeepening the need for rescue, which signals a further deterioration in asset valuation and marketsshrinking, worsening further the economic conditions. The need for a synthetic bond obtained bysecuritization of Euro Area governments’ debts emerges as viable proposal to break this public debt– private debt circle. Furthermore, it explores the “impossible trinity” (Mundell-Flemming and thetranslation into the Euro Area. The conclusions point to the need for institutionalized and officialapproach of introducing such derivative products like European Sovereign Bond-Backed Securitiesin the quest for safe assets, aiming to break the circle of debt (effect by substituting the absence of acommon fiscal policy (cause.

  1. Do Economic Growth, Human Development and Political Stability favour sovereign Creditworthiness of a Country? A Cross Country Survey on Developed and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bundala, Ntogwa

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges face a country or firm when deciding to lend a foreign country or firm is how to appraise the creditworthiness of that firm or country? It is experienced and commonly use of credit ratings established by Credit Rating Agencies (Moody’s, Standard and Poor’s and Pitch) as the yardstick for sovereign creditworthiness appraisal, these will be the secondary or an appeal instrument for appraising creditworthiness. This study established local based factors that will ...

  2. The Euro area sovereign debt crisis: safe haven, credit rating agencies and the spread of the fever from Greece, Ireland and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the intensification of the crisis in September 2008, all euro area long-term government bond yields relative to the German Bund have been characterised by highly persistent processes with upward trends for countries with weaker fiscal fundamentals. Looking at the daily period 1 September 2008 - 4 August 2011, we find that three factors can explain the recorded developments in sovereign spreads: (i) an aggregate regional risk factor, (ii) the country-specific credit risk and (iii) the sp...

  3. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  4. Financial states of world financial and commodities markets around sovereign debt crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-11-01

    We applied a threshold method to construct a complex network from cross-correlations coefficients of 46 daily time series comprised of 23 global indices and 23 commodity futures from 2010 - 2014. We identify financial states of both global indices and commodity futures based on the change of the network structure. The trend of the average correlation is decreasing except sharp peak during crises during the study period. The threshold networks are generated at a threshold value of θ = 0.1 and the change of degrees of each node over time is used to identify the financial state for each index. We observe that commodity futures, such as EU CO2 emission, live cattle, natural gas as well as the financial indices of Jakarta and Indonesia stock exchange (JKSE) and Kuala Lumpur stock exchange (KLSE) change states frequently. By the average change in links we identify the indices which are more reactive to crises.

  5. Assessing the Biological Threat Posed by Suicide Bombers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    the test by about 350’, it is clear some aerosol particles “ surfed ” the shockwave from the blast and were carried a distance upwind. Had the sampling...projectiles implantation in victims of suicide bombings and implications for health and emergency care provideres: the 7/7 experience, Ann R Coll Surg Engl...Ebola in East Africa and Implications for Global Health and Security, Global Policy 2013. (8) Ustun, C.; Ozgurler, O., Ebola: A Significant Threat as

  6. Currency crises with the threat of an interest rate defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, T.R.; Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    While virtually all currency crisis models recognise that the decision to abandon a peg depends on how tenaciously policy makers defend it, this is seldom modelled explicitly. We add the threat of an interest rate defence to the global game model of Morris and Shin (American Economic Review 88,

  7. Threat bias, not negativity bias, underpins differences in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    Although disparities in political ideology are rooted partly in dispositional differences, Hibbing et al.'s analysis paints with an overly broad brush. Research on the personality correlates of liberal-conservative differences points not to global differences in negativity bias, but to differences in threat bias, probably emanating from differences in fearfulness. This distinction bears implications for etiological research and persuasion efforts.

  8. The BMD threat: when and how to intercept - Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouquet, F.

    2007-01-01

    NATO and the US are involved in developing Ballistic missile defense (BMD) capabilities that must provide protection against various threats, which has received global attention. One needs to carefully consider the consequences of employing the defensive missiles. It is assumed that there will be no

  9. Globalisation of water: opportunities and threats of virtual water trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Where the river basin is generally seen as the appropriate unit for analyzing freshwater availability and use, it becomes increasingly important to put freshwater issues in a global context. The book analyses the opportunities and threats of international virtual water trade in the context of

  10. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  11. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  12. Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    ADAM) system . This ground based system protects 7 soldiers against rocket threats and utilizes a 10 kW laser with an effective range out to...early warning systems for response to hypersonic threats . The integration of directed energy defensive systems with Space Based Infrared Sensors (SBIRS...and early warning radars already in operation will save costs. By capitalizing on Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system capabilities

  13. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  14. Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, O. D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

  15. Internationalization by State-owned Enterprises (SOEs and Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs after the 2008 Crisis. Looking for Generalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to detect (post crisis tendencies in the international activities of state-owned enterprises (SOE and sovereign wealth funds (SWF and identify the main challenges posed in exploring this topic. In doing so it draws on the inductive approach and qualitative method and discusses available studies on recent internalization trends in SOEs and SWFs. The number of SWFs worldwide has been rising since 2008, despite the 2008 crisis which brought heavy losses and negative publicity that caused a rerouting of funds towards domestic purposes. The long-term perspective adopted by SWFs is expected to make less vulnerable to financial market volatility, which should stimulate FDI. SOTNCs are a minority among SOEs in general, i.e. only a fraction of SOEs worldwide can be labeled as state-owned transnational companies; and no exceptional impact of the 2008 crisis is apparent in their functioning The review of selected literature and UNCTAD survey reports is the basis for our conclusions and suggestions for future research avenues.

  16. Threat and Guilt Aspects of Internalized Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.

    2009-01-01

    Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…

  17. Global financial reform since 2008: Achievements and shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis that started in the U.S. had an immediate spillover to the rest of the world financial markets. Next, a decrease in real economic output throughout the developed world occurred simultaneously with high bailout costs for the salvaging of banks and other financial institutions. This vicious combination was at the core of the bank-sovereign interdependence and the sovereign debt crisis of the eurozone. As early as 2008, the G20 announced a thorough global reform agenda with an aim to tackle the root causes of the crises and to transform the system of global financial regulation. Some important reform steps have been made; still, more than six years on, the job is not finished. Where are we in terms of global financial reform, and are we close to creating a more secure global financial system significantly less prone to crisis and bailouts with taxpayers’ money? [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179005: Risks of Financial Institutions and Markets in Serbia - A Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Approach

  18. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  19. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  20. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  1. Global Insurgency: A Prescription for Imposing Strategic Paralysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katka, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    .... Some argue that this threat constitutes a global insurgency. This Strategy Research Project examines the nature of this 21st century threat and analyzes the option of "strategic paralysis" to counter...

  2. Global Health Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter G N; Buyx, Alena

    2017-07-01

    For much of the 20th century, vulnerability to deprivations of health has often been defined by geographical and economic factors. Those in wealthy, usually 'Northern' and 'Western', parts of the world have benefited from infrastructures, and accidents of geography and climate, which insulate them from many serious threats to health. Conversely, poorer people are typically exposed to more threats to health, and have lesser access to the infrastructures needed to safeguard them against the worst consequences of such exposure. However, in recent years the increasingly globalized nature of the world's economy, society and culture, combined with anthropogenic climate change and the evolution of antibiotic resistance, has begun to shift the boundaries that previously defined the categories of person threatened by many exogenous threats to health. In doing so, these factors expose both new and forgotten similarities between persons, and highlight the need for global cooperative responses to the existential threats posed by climate change and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. In this article, we argue that these emerging health threats, in demonstrating the similarities that exist between even distant persons, provides a catalyst for global solidarity, which justifies, and provides motivation for, the establishment of solidaristic, cooperative global health infrastructures.

  3. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  4. Sovereign Adaptive Risk Modeling and Implications for the Eurozone GREXIT Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Escalera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Financial Stability Board (FSB and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS created a list of systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs with the intention of determining which financial institutions were important enough to the global market that their failure would result in systemic collapse. In this work, we create a model that modifies the BCBS’s five indicators of size, interconnectedness, cross-jurisdictional activities, complexity, and substitutability and apply these measures of systemic stress to governments. Although the cross-jurisdictional activities and size were almost identical to the SIFI calculations, the others had to be adapted to mirror the intent of the BCBS. Interconnectedness is calculated by simulation of what would happen to nearby countries if a country defaulted. Substitutability is estimated by the number of services that would no longer be provided if the government ceased to exist. Complexity is market-based and is derived from credit default swap (CDS spreads. The original application of the model was to track the systemic interdependence of the Eurozone, with particular emphasis on the case of Greece. We anticipate that this model can be used in regional fiscal situations beyond the Eurozone.

  5. Simulation of sovereign CDS market based on interaction between market participant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Kim, Kyungwon

    2017-08-01

    A research for distributional property of financial asset is the subject of intense interest not only for financial theory but also for practitioner. Such respect is no exception to CDS market. The CDS market, which began to receive attention since the global financial debacle, is not well researched despite of the importance of research necessity. This research introduces creation of CDS market and use Ising system utilizing occurrence characteristics (to shift risk) as an important factor. Therefore the results of this paper would be of great assistance to both financial theory and practice. From this study, not only distributional property of the CDS market but also various statistics like multifractal characteristics could promote understanding about the market. A salient point in this study is that countries are mainly clustering into 2 groups and it might be because of market situation and geographical characteristics of each country. This paper suggested 2 simulation parameters representing this market based on understanding such CDS market situation. The estimated parameters are suitable for high and low risk event of CDS market respectively and these two parameters are complementary and can cover not only basic statistics but also multifractal properties of most countries. Therefore these estimated parameters can be used in researches preparing for a certain event (high or low risk). Finally this research will serve as a momentum double-checking indirectly the performance of Ising system based on these results.

  6. Nuclear Smuggling and Threats to Lithuanian Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murauskaitė Eglė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores threats related to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and dual-use goods applicable in state level nuclear programs, actualizing the global trends for the Baltic region. The article points to Eastern Europe’s changing risk profile in this respect, as increasing penetration of Russian criminal groups inside Ukraine and the destabilized situations in neighboring countries create an environment where the risk of nuclear smuggling is on the rise. Criminal entities can be seen forming new bonds, with trafficking routes intersecting and zones of influence shifting - consequently, an unusual level of criminal involvement in nuclear smuggling is observed, alongside a geographic shift of smuggling patterns. In addition, states seeking materials and technologies for their military programs have taken a notable interest in this region as a way of circumventing international transit regulations. The article looks at the likely implications of these new nuclear smuggling trends for the security of the Baltic states. It suggests that Lithuania may soon be facing a relatively new threat, and one that it is ill-prepared to counter. The article discusses the risk factors and indicators to watch before that risk becomes reality, and offers ways for Lithuania to contribute to addressing these increasingly acute problems on a regional level.

  7. The nuclear threat. 6. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, G.

    1993-01-01

    This is the sixth edition of 'The last days and end of time', augmented by a foreword, which was first published in 1972. The reflections it contains cannot become outdated because their object: the risk of global catastrophe, persists. But it continues to exist not only because we can never now hope to efface what knowledge we have of self-annihilation methods, but also because we have become frighteningly used to the fact of being threatened. What we fight is not this or that adversary who attacks, or might be got rid of, by nuclear means, but the nuclear situation as such. Since this enemy is the enemy of all human beings, those who up to now have considered each other as adversaries should rally as allies against the common threat. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Unemployment in Greece: Econometric Evidence after the Athens 2004 Olympics and before the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Rodokanakis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the probability of employment in Greece and focuses on 2006, namely, well after the Athens 2004 Olympics and its fiscal stimulus and before the eruption of the global financial crisis of 2007–2009 that transformed into an economic and sovereign debt crisis with unprecedented consequences in the country's postwar economic history. Based on microdata from the Labour Force Survey, the analysis depicts the impact of gender, age, marital status, area of residence, level of ...

  9. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  10. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  11. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  12. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  13. The threat of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, I.N.; Tsanis, I.K.; Koutroulis, A.; Kourgialas, N.N.; Varouchakis, A.E.; Karatzas, G.P.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinisation is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring in Europe. The effects of salinisation can be observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Drivers of salinisation can be detected both in the natural and man-made environment, with climate and

  14. Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    this challenge. CMU/SEI-2012-TR-007 | 2 2 The Components of the ITSRA Figure 2 shows the four layers of the ITSRA. The Business Security layer......organizations improve their level of preparedness to address the insider threat. Business Security Architecture Data Security Architecture

  15. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  16. The role of lenders' trust in determining borrowing conditions for sovereign debt: An analysis of one-period government bonds with default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanling

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author considers the sovereign debt in the form of one-period government bonds with default risk, which can be purchased by and traded among domestic and foreign investors. She shows that the weight assigned to the lenders' interest by the borrowing government at the time of debt repayment, which captures the lenders' trust in the government's propensity to repay the debt and is denoted as », also determines the default risk: a higher » means a lower default risk ceteris pa...

  17. Think Globally, Act Locally -- Global Maritime Partnership Initiative and the Necessity for Cooperation and Coalition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reller, Jason S

    2008-01-01

    ... to "police the global commons and suppress common threats." The Global Maritime Partnership Initiative, or GMPI, is intended to play a major role in this effort as one embodiment of the cooperation envisioned...

  18. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  19. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  20. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RECENT THREATS TO CLOUD COMPUTING DATA AND ITS PREVENTION MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Neware*

    2017-01-01

    As the cloud computing is expanding day by day due to its benefits like Cost, Speed Global Scale, Productivity, Performance, Reliability etc. Everyone, like Business vendors, governments etc are using the cloud computing to grow fast. Although Cloud Computing has above mentioned and other benefits but security of cloud is problems and due to this security problem adoption of cloud computing is not growing. This paper gives information about recent threats to the cloud computing data and its p...

  2. Supply Chain Risk Management: An Introduction to the Credible Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    van.poindexter@dau.mil. Figure 3. Trusted Suppliers Source: “ Managing Information Communications Technology Global Supply Chain Risk Awareness...Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 18 Supply Chain Risk Management An Introduction to the Credible Threat Heath Ferry n Van Poindexter 19...cybersecurity breach. This article examines the elements of supply chain risk management , the national security risks associated with exploitation, and

  3. PORT SECURITY-Threats and Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kusi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to identify the threats and the vulnerabilities concerning Takoradi port, and finally recommend measure to overcome the identified threats and vul-nerabilities. Various categories of potential threats and vulnerabilities have been studied throughout the literature review. However, because each port presents a unique sets of threats and vulnerabilities, there was a need to look critically into how Takoradi port operations are being conducted in other to ide...

  4. Threats without Threateners? Exploring Intersections of Threats to the Global Commons and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    contamination and might facilitate natural spread of diseases. Cholera , for instance, is linked to unsafe water.3 Migration is a key connection among...3 For links between cholera outbreaks and scarcity of safe water, see, Dasgupta (2010) and Holmner and others 2010, and for modeling of the spread...example, the Chiapas, Mexico , conflict in the 1990s was certainly sharpened by scarcity (Chassang and i Miquel, 2008; Homer-Dixon, 2001). One of the

  5. Lashkar-e-Taiba: A Global Threat Today, a Threat to Pakistan Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    Ahl-i-Hadith followers are essentially the South Asia version of the Salafist movement originating out of Egypt or the Wahhabis of Saudi Arabia.29...training apparatus produces what might be likened to a pyramid scheme with the system constantly rejuvenating itself.68 Multiple foiled attacks against

  6. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  7. Situating globality : African agency in the appropriation of global culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The papers in this volume were earlier presented at the conference 'Globalization and new questions of ownership', which was held in Leiden, The Netherlands, from 26-27 April 2002. The volume challenges the dominant view that globalization is a primary threat to African societies. Instead, it

  8. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  9. Improving Visual Threat Detection: Research to Validate the Threat Detection Skills Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    26 Threat Detection and Mitigation Strategies...quicker when identifying threats in relevant locations. This task utilized the Flicker paradigm (Rensink, O’Regan, & Clark, 1997; Scholl, 2000...the meaning and implication of threats, why cues were relevant, strategies used to detect and mitigate threats, and challenges when attempting to

  10. Middle East respiratory syndrome: A new global threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS is reported from Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus. Camels are considered as a source for MERS transmission in humans, although the exact source is unknown. Human-to-human transmission is reported in the community with droplet and contact spread being the possible modes. Most patients without any underlying diseases remain asymptomatic or develop mild clinical disease, but some patients require critical care for mechanical ventilation, dialysis and other organ support. MERS is a disease with pandemic potential and awareness, and surveillance can prevent such further outbreaks.

  11. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; Vries, de Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Lee, van der Theo A.J.; Wit, de Pierre J.G.M.; Zapater, Marie Françoise; Zwiers, Lute Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires

  12. The Military Response to Pandemic: The New Global Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-28

    creeping things and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.’ —Genesis 6, 71 In the last years, the appearance of incurable diseases...these diseases came from other species, smallpox probably from dogs and cattle , tuberculosis from cattle and birds, AIDS probably from African...biological levels there is astounding parallel between the visible world of the “macrobes”, where some animals feed themselves with others, and the

  13. Globalization of Chikungunya Virus: Threat to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 2004, Kenyan health authorities and partners identified chikungunya virus as the cause of the febrile epidemic in a coastal island city. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in tropical Africa and Asia; the fever is rarely fatal but can incapacitate for weeks. Control was delayed,...

  14. Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  15. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  17. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  18. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  20. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  1. Chronic illness in the workplace: stigma, identity threat and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2014-10-01

    Chronic illness affects a large and growing number of workers in the United States and globally. Stigmatization (devaluation) at work based on chronic illness may be stressful for individuals and therefore may lead to negative psychological consequences (i.e. strains). In order to better understand stressful experiences of stigma for workers with chronic illnesses, a model of stigma-related identity threat (perceptions that one is at risk of being treated negatively at work because of chronic illness) was tested on a sample of 203 working adults with chronic illnesses. The following variables related to workers' perceptions of chronic illness-related identity threat: workers' boundary flexibility (flexibility in managing their work and life), their meta-perceptions of devaluation (perceptions of others' devaluation of them based on illness) and their job self-efficacy (feelings of confidence related to performing their job). In turn, perceptions of identity threat related to both feelings of psychological strain and (lower levels of) perceived work ability. Surprisingly, neither stigma centrality (how fundamental illness is to one's identity) nor supervisor support related to workers' identity threat perceptions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  3. Insider Threat to Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Rebecca Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    After completing this session, you should be able to: Describe the Insider Threat; Characterize the cyber insider threat; Describe preventive measures against the insider threat; Describe protective measures against the insider threat.

  4. VIRTUAL REALITY: U.S. INFORMATION SECURITY THREATS CONCEPT AND ITS INTERNATIONAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Vladimirovna Batueva

    2014-01-01

    The development of ICT and the formation of the global information space changed the agenda of national and international security. Such key characteristics of cyberspace as openness, accessibility, anonymity, and identification complexity determined the rise of actors in cyber space and increased the level of cyber threats. Based on the analyses of the U.S. agencies' approach, the author defines three major groups of threats: use of ICT by states, criminals and terrorists. This concept is sh...

  5. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  6. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  7. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  8. Canada’s Foreign Direct Investment Challenge: Reducing Barriers and Ensuring a Level Playing Field in the Face of Sovereign Wealth Funds and State-Owned Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Krzepkowski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent takeovers – and attempted takeovers – of strategic resource companies have renewed concerns that some of Canada’s prized corporate players are falling into foreign hands. However, data shows that Canada has not been a significant attractor of multinational investment, lagging behind a number of developed and developing nations. Indeed, since the mid-1990s, Canada has been a net exporter of capital in world markets, as foreign direct investment by Canadian companies far outpaced the inflow of foreign capital. Rather than being hollowed out, we are hollowing out other countries. As a general policy, Canada should reduce barriers to foreign direct investment and welcome our growing role in international markets. As many studies have shown, foreign direct investment brings significant net benefits to the Canadian economy, including knowledge transfers, new management, better wages and productivity. Only in limited circumstances, such as in the case of protecting Canada’s national security, should Canada block foreign takeovers of Canadian companies. In the interest of neutrality and minimizing economic distortions, takeovers of Canadian companies by foreign sovereign wealth funds or state-owned enterprises should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. When state-owned enterprises have similar commercial objectives and operate on a level-playing field without financial support by state owners, they could also provide net benefits to the Canadian economy. One important area that requires further consideration is with respect to the tax-exempt status of sovereign wealth funds and state-owned companies. Canadian tax treaties should be reviewed to ensure that Canadian withholding taxes maintain an even playing field among private and state-owned businesses operating in Canada.

  9. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  10. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Real threat of nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Woessner, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a 'flying squad' with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs

  13. Lab-to-Lab Cooperative Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2017-11-01

    It is difficult to imagine today how dramatically global nuclear risks changed 25 years ago as the Soviet Union disintegrated. Instead of the threat of mutual nuclear annihilation, the world became concerned that Russia and the other 14 former Soviet states would lose control of their huge nuclear assets - tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, more than a million kilograms of fissile materials, hundreds of thousands of nuclear workers, and a huge nuclear complex. I will describe how scientists and engineers at the DOE laboratories, with a focus on Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore and Sandia national laboratories, joined forces with those at the Russian nuclear weapon institutes for more than 20 years to avoid what looked like the perfect nuclear storm - a story told in the two-volume book Doomed to Cooperate1 published in 2016. Due to an internal processing error, an incorrect version of this article was published on 15 November 2017 that omitted the footnotes. AIP Publishing apologizes for this error. An updated version of this article, including the missing footnotes, was published on 21 November 2017.

  14. Contraband and threat material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A pressing threat in modern society is the effective use of improvised explosive devices or IED's. One of the commonly used techniques to detect explosives is radiography. A primary drawback of this method is that humans are required in order to examine the image of each target. This requires trained personnel, who are subject to fatigue if many targets are being examined in rapid succession. Other trace element techniques generally require collection of samples from or near the surface of suspect targets. The signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) technology has been developed to counter this threat. This technology can result in automated systems, requiring minimal operator involvement, that can rapidly identify IEDs from standoff. Preliminary research indicates that explosive samples of 5-10 kg or greater hidden in various targets can be detected from standoffs of more than a meter, with high sensitivity and high specificity. Many common explosives have similar concentrations of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (HCNO). As neutrons interact with HCNO materials, unique signatures are created based on the specific composition of the material. We collect signatures from the HCNO prompt and inelastically scattered gamma rays and from scattered neutrons. Two neutron detectors (one bare and one cadmium-covered) are used in order to provide some measure of the back-scattered neutron spectrum. A library of signature templates, based on signatures detected from known targets containing known explosives in various configurations, is created. Similar signatures can be collected for suspect targets. Then a template-matching technique is used to construct two figure-of-merit metrics. The values of these metrics can be used to differentiate between safe targets and IEDs. Laboratory tests have been conducted using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and two europium-doped lithium-iodide neutron detectors (one bare and one covered with cadmium) are used to

  15. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  16. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Dhakal, N.; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  18. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  19. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  20. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  1. Information security practices emerging threats and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ahmed; Woungang, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces novel research targeting technical aspects of protecting information security and establishing trust in the digital space. New paradigms, and emerging threats and solutions are presented in topics such as application security and threat management; modern authentication paradigms; digital fraud detection; social engineering and insider threats; cyber threat intelligence; intrusion detection; behavioral biometrics recognition; hardware security analysis. The book presents both the important core and the specialized issues in the areas of protection, assurance, and trust in information security practice. It is intended to be a valuable resource and reference for researchers, instructors, students, scientists, engineers, managers, and industry practitioners. .

  2. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  3. Nuclear theft and sabotage. Priorities for reducing new threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Matthew; Bunn, George

    2001-01-01

    The appalling attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States make clear that the threat of large, well-organized global terrorist groups bent on causing mass destruction is not hypothetical but real. The attackers achieved horrifying destruction with box-cutters. The results could have been even more horrific if the attackers would have had access to, and used, weapons of mass destruction. Ensuring that technologies and materials for weapons of mass destruction - especially weapons-usable nuclear materials, whose acquisition is the most difficult part of making a nuclear bomb - do not fall into the hands of terrorist groups or hostile States must be a central element of the coming global effort to prevent catastrophic terrorism. At the same time, nuclear facilities and materials - along with a wide range of other especially hazardous facilities and materials must be protected from mass-consequence sabotage. Securing these materials and facilities must be a top priority on the international agenda - pursued at every opportunity, at every level of authority, until the job is done. At the same time, the threats against which we must defend have to be fundamentally reconsidered. On 11 September, the threat revealed itself to be bigger, smarter, better organized, and more deadly than the threats most of the world's security systems were designed to defend against. We must ensure that our defensive response is every bit as intelligent and capable as the September attackers. And we may have to rethink some of the approaches to nuclear energy that the world has been pursuing or contemplating. Every reasonable effort must be made to ensure that nuclear materials and facilities are effectively secured. In the past, many scenarios with enormously high consequences were dismissed as too unlikely to contribute much to overall risk - but now many of these probability estimates will have to be revised. A far-reaching new effort is needed to strengthen security for nuclear

  4. Inclusion of Premeditated Threats in the Safety Methodology for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanon, I.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the global effort to prevent terrorism or to mitigate its harm, if prevention fails, has increased. The nuclear power community was involved in this effort trying to prevent terrorist attacks on NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). A natural extension of terror restraining is the prevention of any premeditated damage to the plant, including acts of state. The pre-feasibility study of an Israeli NPP, conducted by the Ministry of National Infrastructures, has identified the risk of hostile damage to the NPP as a major obstacle to the establishment of nuclear power in Israel, second only to the refusal of nuclear exporting nations to sell an NPP to Israelv. The General Director of the Ministry and the Head of the IAEC (Israeli Atomic Energy Commission) have approved continuation of the pre-feasibility study. This synopsis presents a study, regarding premeditated threats to NPPs, commissioned by the Ministry of National Infrastructures as part of the continuation. It focuses on the safety aspect of premeditated threats originating outside the plant, although a significant part of the analysis can be extended to other subjects such as theft or diversion of strategic materials. The study deals only with methodology and does not encompass specific threats or protection measures. Conclusions and recommendations and marked by bold italics Arial font. The theory of nuclear safety regarding non-premeditated safety events (equipment failures, human errors, natural events, etc.) is well developed. The study refers to these events and the theory attached to them as c lassical , distinguishing them from premeditated events. The study defines two postulates, related to premeditated threats: Correspondence – We should adopt the classical methodology whenever possible. Regulation – The safety of an NPP from premeditated threats requires examination, approval and inspection by a regulator. Key issues of the methodology with substantial differences from the

  5. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay R. Malcolm; Canran Liu; Ronald P. Neilson; Lara Hansen; Lee. Hannah

    2006-01-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-C02 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of...

  6. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Sovereign Challenge Conference (5th): Regional Issues--Global Implications held 8-11 March 2010 in Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Hudson River f. Plot out of the United Kingdom to attack the JFK Airport pipeline system using liquid explosives (Operation Overt) g. Plot to attack two...on the proposition that Al Qaeda and its franchises pose significant challenges to all nation states by seriously undermining their sovereignty. They

  8. Development and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the Third World and the protection of the environment are two major global problems interconnected by energy - the motor of economic growth and the main cause of deterioration of the global environment. They can no longer be separated. The threats of ozone, acid rain, and global warming are global in scope and solutions must involve energy consumption, conservations, and renewable resources. The precept that development should hinge on sound management of natural resources and the environment no longer has merely local or regional significance. It is a global concern and each person should feel a sense of ethical commitment as a world citizen

  9. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stere...

  10. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  11. Threats to the World's Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Riviere, J. W. Maurits

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)

  12. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  13. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  14. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  15. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  16. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  17. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  18. Prototyping of CBRN threat assessment system. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ina, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Maeno, Akihiro; Sakaue, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats, that is, CBRN threats have emerged. In order to support the Japan Self Defense Forces unit coping with the CBRN threats, it is important to take measures against these invisible threats. Our CBRN threat assessment system will make invisible CBRN threats visible. This report describes a prototyping of the CBRN threat assessment system (PHASE 1) carried out from fiscal year 2012-2014. (author)

  19. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  20. Cyber Threats for Organizations of Financial Market Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgievna Miloslavskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the global informatization era the reliable and efficient financial market infrastructure of the Russian Federation (RF FMI plays an important role in the financial system and economy of the country. New cyber risks have acquired the status of the FR FMI systemic risk’s components, the importance of which is constantly growing due to the increase in the possible consequences of their implementation. The article introduces the basic concepts of cyber security, cyber space and cyber threats for the RF FMI and analyzes the specific features of cyber attacks against the RF FMI organizations.

  1. Global Policing and the Case of Kim Dotcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Palmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies.  This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.

  2. Gender and globalization. A century in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkin, C

    2000-01-01

    In the past, power structures of the nation-State have been organized around patriarchal assumptions, granting men monopoly over power, authority, and wealth. A number of structures have been erected to achieve this imbalance, which have disguised its inequity by making it appear as natural and universal. However, with globalization, this centralization of power within the Sovereign State has been fragmented. Although globalization opens up new spaces by weakening the nation-State, subsequently making possible the undermining of traditional gender hierarchies and devising new bases for gender relations, the reality that the State is no longer the sole institution that can define identity and belonging within it has denied women the space to assert their own claims to gendered self-determination. In this regard, globalization has impacted upon gender relations in complex and contradictory ways. This paper discusses such impacts of globalization on gender relations. Overall, it has become apparent that forms of inequality still exist regardless of a State's prevailing political ideology. Their manifestations may differ, but the reality of women's subordination remains constant.

  3. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  4. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility, or...

  5. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Analytical Research to Determine the effects of the Components of ONGABO on the Viability of HepG2 Cancer Cells by Using the Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier Principle ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jun, Seung-Lyul; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun; Ahn, Seong-Hun

    2012-12-01

    This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle () to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. Single and mixed extracts of the component of ONGABO were prepared by lypohilizing powder of Red Ginseng (6-year root from Kanghwa), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen, Curcumae Tuber (from Omniherb Co., Ltd., Korea) at the laboratory of herbal medicine in Woosuk University and were eluted after being macerated with 100% ethanol for three days. The cell viability of HepG2 was determined by using an absorptiometric analysis with PrestoBlue (Invitrogen) reagent after the plate had been incubated for 48 hours. All of the experiments were repeated three times to obtain the average value and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was done and the correlation factor was obtained by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Origin 6.0 software. Although Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) and Schisandrae Fructus did not enhance the viability of HepG2 cells, they were shown to provide protection of those cells. On the other hand, Angelica Gigantis Radix decreased the viability of HepG2 cells significantly, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber had a small or no effect on the viability of HepG2 cells. In the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (), Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) corresponds to the sovereign component because it provides cell protection effects, Angelica Gigantis Radix corresponds to minister medicinal because it kills cells, Schisandrae Fructus corresponds to the assistant medicinal to help red ginseng having cell protect effects. Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber correspond to the courier medicinal having no effect in cell viability in HepG2. We hope this study provides motivation for advanced research

  7. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  8. Establishing 'design basis threat' in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.; Naadland, E.; Reistad, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: INFCIRC 225 (Rev. 4) assumes that a state's physical protection system should be based on the state's evaluation of the threat, and that this should be reflected in the relevant legislation. Other factors should also be considered, including the state's emergency response capabilities and the existing and relevant measures of the state's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. A design basis threat developed from an evaluation by the state of the threat of unauthorized removal of nuclear material and of sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities is an essential element of a state's system of physical protection. The state should continuously review the threat, and evaluate the implications of any changes in that threat for the required levels and the methods of physical protection. As part of a national design basis threat assessment, this paper evaluates the risk of nuclear or radiological terrorism and sabotage in Norway. Possible scenarios are presented and plausible consequences are discussed with a view to characterize the risks. The need for more stringent regulatory requirements will be discussed, together with the (positive) impact of improved systems and procedures of physical protection on nuclear emergency planning. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the design basis threat for different scenarios in order to systemize regulatory efforts to update the current legislation, requirement for operators' contingency planning, response efforts and the need for emergency exercises. (author)

  9. Globalization and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee

    2016-04-01

    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionospheric threats to the integrity of airborne GPS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has both revolutionized and entwined the worlds of aviation and atmospheric science. As the largest and most unpredictable source of GPS positioning error, the ionospheric layer of the atmosphere, if left unchecked, can endanger the safety, or "integrity," of the single frequency airborne user. An augmentation system is a differential-GPS-based navigation system that provides integrity through independent ionospheric monitoring by reference stations. However, the monitor stations are not in general colocated with the user's GPS receiver. The augmentation system must protect users from possible ionosphere density variations occurring between its measurements and the user's. This study analyzes observations from ionospherically active periods to identify what types of ionospheric disturbances may cause threats to user safety if left unmitigated. This work identifies when such disturbances may occur using a geomagnetic measure of activity and then considers two disturbances as case studies. The first case study indicates the need for a non-trivial threat model for the Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) that was not known prior to the work. The second case study uses ground- and space-based data to model an ionospheric disturbance of interest to the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This work is a step in the justification for, and possible future refinement of, one of the WAAS integrity algorithms. For both WAAS and LAAS, integrity threats are basically caused by events that may be occurring but are unobservable. Prior to the data available in this solar cycle, events of such magnitude were not known to be possible. This work serves as evidence that the ionospheric threat models developed for WARS and LAAS are warranted and that they are sufficiently conservative to maintain user integrity even under extreme ionospheric behavior.

  11. Security Requirements for New Threats at International Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to security requirements for new threats international airports, taking specifically into consideration current challenges within processing of passengers, in light of types of current major threats, in a way ensuring positive passenger experience within their journey. In addition, within the scope of this paper, presented initial outcome of study research among professional aviation stakeholder?s environment, on current threats in the area of security and protection of airport infrastructure. The airports are a very demanding environment: seasonal traffic, fluctuating passenger volumes and last minute changes mean there is a lot of flexibility required in order to meet specific needs of airport authorities and their clients or the passengers (Dolnik, 2009. Therefore, security in aviation sector has been a big issue for civil aviation authorities, as airports are susceptible targets for terrorist attacks. The list of incidents is extensive and gets longer every year despite strict security measures. Within decades, aviation has become the backbone of our global economy bringing people to business, tourists to vacation destinations and products to markets. Statistically flying remains the safest mode of travelling compared to other modes of transportation. However, simultaneously terrorists and criminals continue in their quest to explore new ways of disrupting air transportation and the challenge to secure airports and airline assets remain real. This calls for greater awareness of security concerns in the aviation sector. The key element, how to protects against terrorist modus operandi, is to stay ahead of recent threats, incidents and breaches occurring worldwide. It requires implementation of effective data sharing systems, in order to proactively monitor potential risks and vulnerabilities within different type of aviation ecosystems.

  12. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs

  13. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  14. Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  15. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Carels

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group and source (i.e., the self or others. This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method: 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64 years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5 kg/m2. Results: Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat. Conclusion: Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

  16. Catalunya a l'aldea global

    OpenAIRE

    Pes, Àngel

    1999-01-01

    Small societies must also adapt to an increasingly integrated world, econmmically, culturally and politically. Globalization is a polifaceted phenomenon transforming the world into a global village. Three examples of globalisation are the rapidly extended financial crisis, with the threat of global recession; the arrest of Pinochet in London on a Spanish warrant, marking the birth of a global public opinion; and the acceptance of differences as a way to solve conflicts both in Nor...

  17. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke

  18. Crowdsourcing for children : exploring threats and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.M.S.; Manojlovic, S.; Gavrilo, K.; Khan, J.V.; Hansson, K.; Aitamurto, T.; Ludwig, T.; Gupta, N.; Muller, M.

    2016-01-01

    Children are increasingly being engaged in product development, but they have yet to be introduced to the concept of crowdsourcing. Several opportunities and threats when designing a crowdsourcing platform specifically for children are proposed as topics for further discussion.

  19. 25 CFR 11.402 - Terroristic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.402 Terroristic threats. A person is guilty of a misdemeanor if he or she threatens to commit any crime of violence with purpose to terrorize another or to cause evacuation...

  20. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  1. Children's Threats: When Are They Serious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental illness, such as depression, mania, psychosis, or bipolar disorder use of alcohol or illicit drugs disciplinary problems ... mental health professional with experience evaluating children and adolescents. Evaluation of any serious threat must be done ...

  2. Terrorism: Current and Long Term Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Despite the high level of anxiety the American people are currently experiencing, we may still not fully comprehend the seriousness of the current and near-term threats we confront or the longer-term...

  3. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance About Antimicrobial Resistance Biggest Threats Emerging Drug ...

  4. Emerging viral infectious disease threat: Why Tanzania is not in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging diseases are global threat towards human existence. Every country is exposed to potentially emergence of infectious diseases. Several factor such as changes in ecology, climate and human demographics play different roles in a complex mechanism contributing to the occurrence of infectious diseases. Important ...

  5. NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  6. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  7. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  8. A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD 20855 UNITED STATES steinberg@cubrc.org A model is presented for situation and threat assessment...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Subject Matter Expert (SME) Calspan-UB Research Center ( CUBRC , Inc.) 8151 Needwood #T103 Derwood, MD...1 A Model for Situation and Threat Assessment Alan Steinberg CUBRC , Inc. steinberg@cubrc.org November, 2005 2 Objectives • Advance the state-of

  9. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  10. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  11. EU conference - 'The microbial threat'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mevius, D.J.; Sprenger, M.J.W.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1999-01-01

    and its compliance with guidelines. Keeping animals for food production involves the responsibility for their well being. This includes treatment of infections. However, the use of feed additive, growth-promoting antimicrobials related to therapeutics in human medicine, should be banned immediately......A global or European strategy should be developed to deal with increasing antimicrobial resistance. This strategy includes surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and monitoring of the use of antimicrobial agents in animals and humans. In animals, surveillance should be focussed on potential...... transfer of resistant, zoonotic, food-born pathogens and resistance genes to humans. In humans the surveillance should be clinically relevant. Guidelines for rational therapy should be implemented and 'antibiotic teams' should be installed in each hospital to evaluate the prescription of antibiotics...

  12. The Sickening Implications of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigher, Sharon M.; Lowery, Christine T.

    1998-01-01

    "We are all in this together..." begins this review of the threats of globalization. Topics discussed include malnutrition, infectious diseases, urbanization, border protection, poverty, "lifestyle" diseases, the risks of technology, and war. Alternatives to the present trend toward capitalist transformation, possible and practical reforms are…

  13. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  14. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  15. Global Financial Crisis – Policy Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakić Milojica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the outbreak of the financial crisis that had shaken the global financial system, experts and analysts all over the world continue discussing the effectiveness, scope and adequacy of mechanisms and measures implemented in the meantime, as well as the adequacy of the underlying theoretical concept. A global consent has been reached on ensuring financial stability through the interaction of monetary, fiscal and prudential policy to ensure the necessary macroprudential dimension of regulatory and supervisory frameworks. The USA crisis spilled over to Europe. Strong support of governments to bail out banks quickly resulted in sovereign debt crises in some peripheral EU Member States. Fiscal insolvency of these countries strongly shook the EU and increased doubts in the monetary union survival. The European Union stood united to defend the euro and responded strongly with a new complex and comprehensive financial stability framework. This supranational framework is a counterpart to the global financial stability framework created by the G20 member countries. Starting from the specific features of the monetary policy whose capacities are determined by euroisation, available instruments and resources for preventive supervisory activities, as well as the role of the government in crisis management, Montenegro created a framework for maintaining financial stability and prescribed fostering and maintaining financial stability as the main objective of the Central Bank of Montenegro.

  16. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  17. Major issues in threat analysis and resolving such problems: an addendum to the GAP analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of regions that warrant conservation attention is a top priority among global environmental concerns. Conventionally, this objective was achieved via recognizing natural landscapes based on the number of IUCN Red Listed species, percentage of endemism and species diversity. A recent innovation in conservation biology is the use of GIS-based threat analysis models to identify key areas of conservation importance. Compared with GAP Analysis, which only identifies biodiversity-rich unprotected lands, threat analysis serves as a rigorous tool in conservation planning which specifically recognizes threats and habitat suitability to different taxa based on a spatially-explicit analysis. Threat analysis is a highly flexible process which involves building up a model with multiple independent (without autocorrelations variables that both positively and negatively affect distribution and population persistence of a concerned species. Parameters include rate of land-use change, population density, population growth rate, land management regimes, protection status, habitat suitability and land stewardship. Threat analysis models can be used to understand the current status of a particular species (or a community and can be used to project future trends about the species under consideration. This publication provides an overview of uses of GIS-based threat analyses in conservation biology and provides insights on the limitations of these models and the directions that should be taken in future.

  18. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  19. Development of transnational corporations in the world: opportunities and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra NICULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transnational corporations (TNCs are incorporated or unincorporated enterprises comprising parent enterprises and their foreign affiliates. Transnational Corporations exert a great deal of power in the globalized world economy. Many corporations are richer and more powerful than the states that seek to regulate them. Through mergers and acquisitions corporations have been growing very rapidly and some of the largest TNCs now have annual profits exceeding the GDPs of many low and medium income countries. TNCs dominate the global economy and exert their influence over global policymaking. Worldwide companies start the trend in many domains having a big range of competitors. Trade is an important development tool. Trade between developing and industrialized countries has expanded and borrowing from rich countries to the poor areas of this world increased. The links between these differing groups of economies intensified subsequently and made these two groups increasingly dependent from each other. TNCs based their activity around this idea. In this paper, we try to emphasize the role of the TNCs in the worldwide economy, the advantages and disadvantages these corporations bring to the countries they activate in and even to the entire world and what effect they have on globalization. Some opportunities and threats of TNS activity are presented, exemplifying through some well known corporations which succeded in this competitive world. The authors wanted in this way to show the positive and negative aspects of their performance and give the reader the opportunity to develop the own opinion.

  20. AIDS: new threat to the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, L

    1988-01-01

    Acquired immuneodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) threatens to have a catastrophic historical impact on the 3rd world, undermining decades of progress toward improved health and sustained economic development. By 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate between 5 and 10 million people worldwide were carriers. By 1990, WHO projects 50 to 100 million may be infected, leaving 15 to 30 million dead by 1995. The extent of AIDS cases in LDCs is most likely underreported as these countries already have limited access to health care. The infection rate could be 100 times higher in African cities than in the US as a whole. With an estimated 2 million infected, Africa is the hardest hit region in the world; Asia is the least affected with Japan having the highest number of reported cases at 43. Overall rate of transmission is likely to remain higher in the 3rd world for numerous reasons including the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, lack of money to screen blood for transfusions, high number of sexual partners due to socio-economic conditions, chronic exposure to viral and parasitic infections, and unhygienic conditions. Unlike developed nations, LDCs do not have the health care budgets to care for the opportunistic infections of AIDS patients. Therefore they often are subject to triage, passed over in favor of patients with curable diseases. AIDS provides an even greater threat as a multiplier of existing but dormant diseases such as tuberculosis. AIDS will undermine the decades of progress in maternal and child health and may soon be significant factor in the mother/child survival quotient. Some African cities report that 8 to 14% of women attending prenatal clinics test positive. Since it strikes the most productive age group--those between 20 and 49-- AIDS threatens to undermine the economies of LDCs at a time when most LDCsa are already struggling. Meeting the global challenge of AIDS will requre unprecedented international cooperation. The fact that both

  1. Dogs That Haven't Barked: Towards an Understanding of the Absence of Expected Technological Threats Workshop Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roseman, Mallory [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zikry, Fareeda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security Research hosted a workshop to investigate why some consistently predicted threats from science and technology (S&T) have not manifested with the impacts to international security as forecasted. During the workshop, “Dogs That Haven’t Barked: Towards an Understanding of the Absence of Expected Technological Threats,” participants used two specific cases to focus the discussion: biotechnology and man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS).

  2. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  3. Nuclear security. IAEA: Working to build a global response to a global threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    The IAEA helps to ensure that measures are taken to control and protect nuclear and radioactive materials from falling into the wrong hands. The IAEA delivers training, technical assistance, and equipment to States, and provides international guidance on improving nuclear security. IAEA nuclear security activities include: · Risk reduction (such as repatriating research reactor fuel and strengthening border monitoring) · International legal instruments and supporting their implementation · Internationally accepted guidance and benchmarks for nuclear security · Information exchange · Human Resource Development programmes · Research and development

  4. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  5. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, N.

    1991-01-01

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  6. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  7. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE VS. NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina TUCA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis of 2007 highlighted the risks, threats and enormous costs of a global economy in the absence of a global government. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of global governance in a world in which states are facing the erosion of national sovereignty. The two concepts are being analyzed from various points of view, including current challenges and future scenarios. Despite the fact that states, especially major powers, are not prepared to accept some elements of global governance and the limits that they would put on their national sovereignty, recent developments seem to make global governance a key component of the international scene.

  8. Preventing radiological threat in the Republic of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Azerbaijan is a developing and transit country in the Caucasus, connecting East and West. In addition, Azerbaijan is neighboring countries with pronounced political instability, some of which have extensive nuclear infrastructure or try to develop nuclear infrastructure. Furthermore, in the recent past fundamentalist religious terrorism has taken roots in some of these countries. Therefore, in spite of the fact that the Republic of Azerbaijan has no nuclear facilities or nuclear materials in its own territory, it could be interesting for terrorist groups trying to develop a crude radiological dispersal device using radioactive sources that are widely used in everyday life especially in such areas as oil industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific researches. The issues of reduction and prevention of both radiological and nuclear terrorism threat are one of the main global challenges around the world. The Republic of Azerbaijan is a part of world community and so we are concerned that radioactive sources used for peaceful applications could be stolen by the terrorist groups and used in the development of radiological dispersal devices sometimes referred to as a 'dirty bomb'. It is obvious that using highly radioactive materials in radiological dispersal devices could be very disruptive to society, causing panic, environmental contamination, and large financial losses. One of the ways for reduction and prevention of radiological threat for the countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped nuclear security and radiation safety infrastructure is closely participation in the international cooperation programs. As an example of such cooperation, I would like to present the United States Department of Energy's International Radiological Threat Reduction (IRTR) Program. Good progress has made in the field of radiological security within the framework of this program that was started 2003. Actually, in comparison with any IAEA programs, the progress reached by

  9. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingshott, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  10. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  11. Key issues in body armour: threats, materials and design

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will examine the mechanics and materials of body armour in military, police and some security related applications to protect the wearer from penetrative threats. These threats will include battlefield threats such as shell fragments and high velocity bullets, and threats to law enforcement personnel such as handgun bullets and knives. Regardless of whether the threat is a high velocity bullet, or a knife, the essential requirements of body armour are the same; first an interacti...

  12. Polar marine ecosystems: major threats and future change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, A. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harris, C.M. [Environmental Research and Assessment, Grantchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This review of polar marine ecosystems covers both the Arctic and Antarctic, identifying the major threats and, where possible, predicting their possible state(s) in 2025. Although the two polar regions are similar in their extreme photoperiod, low temperatures, and in being heavily influenced by snow and ice, in almost all other respects they are very different. The Arctic Ocean is a basin surrounded by continental landmasses close to, and influenced by, large populations and industrial activities. In contrast, the Southern Ocean is contiguous with all the other great oceans and surrounds a single land mass; Antarctica is remote from major centres of population and sources of pollution. Marine environments in both Polar Regions have been highly disturbed by fishing activity, but, in terms of pollution, some areas remain among the most pristine in the world. There are, however, both local and global pressures. Over the 2025 time horizon, the greatest concern for the Arctic is probably the ecological implications of climate change, particularly insofar as sea ice extent and duration are likely to be affected. Such changes are not expected to be as pronounced in the Southern Ocean over this time period, and concerns are related more to direct threats from harvesting of marine living resources, and the ability to manage these fisheries sustainably. In both Polar Regions, the capacity of marine ecosystems to withstand the cumulative impact of a number of pressures, including climate change, pollution and overexploitation, acting synergistically is of greatest concern. (author)

  13. The Cooperative Threat Reduction Program and Russian-American Relations in the Late 1990s: Power vs. Institutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, Brent

    2000-01-01

    .... Despite the fact that Chechnya is geographically a part of sovereign Russia, the United States government stridently protests what it considers to be the wholesale slaughter and displacement of the Chechen people...

  14. Economic liberalization and globalization vs. India's poor

    OpenAIRE

    Oschinski, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Today, many in the national and international NGO community perceive globalization and economic liberalization as a threat claiming that it widens inequalities and increases overall poverty. While it is true that inequality is on the rise in a rapidly globalizing world the real culprit is not globalization itself but rather a lack of economic reforms and economic liberalization. This paper aims to show that many in the international NGO community confuse cause and effect. The root cause of po...

  15. Ionospheric Gradient Threat Mitigation in Future Dual Frequency GBAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Felux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS is a landing system for aircraft based on differential corrections for the signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as GPS or Galileo. The main impact on the availability of current single frequency systems results from the necessary protection against ionospheric gradients. With the introduction of Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites, a second frequency is available for aeronautical navigation. Dual frequency methods allow forming of ionospheric free combinations of the signals, eliminating a large part of the ionospheric threats to GBAS. However, the combination of several signals increases the noise in the position solution and in the calculation of error bounds. We, therefore, developed a method to base positioning algorithms on single frequency measurements and use the second frequency only for monitoring purposes. In this paper, we describe a detailed derivation of the monitoring scheme and discuss its implications for the use in an aviation context.

  16. Evolution of the perception of the threats to security in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grasa

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available security was internal, in other words, subversion and opposition to the regime. Public opinion, however, revealed that characteristics very different to those in the context of the western block existed, such as a void perception of the soviet threat as opposed to a marked antiamericanism for its support of the regime.This legacy of threats weighed heavily during the transition together with the existence of a cleavage between the armed forces, the political actors and public opinion regarding the real necessity of intergration into NATO. In the eighties there exists a clear differentiation between the threats perceived by public opinion and those considered by the political elites. With regard to the former,serious threats to Spain do not exist. only certain concerns when the subject of security took on importance in the field of public opinion, such as during the referendum campaign over NATO in 1986 which was mixed with the scarce perception of the soviet threat, theconstant danger represented by the United States and the slight rise in those who believed in the Moroccan threat, and the impact of the Gulf War in 1991 and the consequent increase of the threat represented by the arab countries. For the political actors, the mainthreat contemplated was the protection of territorial integrity on a stage closer to the western Mediterranean instead of a global threat to the western block something only considered at a theoretical level with the strategic concept of Spanish defence within the framework of participation in NATO.From 1992 onwards with the Defence Directive, the threat concept is replaced by that of risk and which recovers the importance given over to North Africa. It is argued in the belief that security is indivisible and must be shared not only with the European members. A greater convergence is also initiated in the nineties between the political actors and public opinion with respect to considering what are the risks in a global

  17. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  18. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  19. Portunes: analyzing multi-domain insider threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    The insider threat is an important problem in securing information systems. Skilful insiders use attack vectors that yield the greatest chance of success, and thus do not limit themselves to a restricted set of attacks. They may use access rights to the facility where the system of interest resides,

  20. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated