WorldWideScience

Sample records for global tb burden

  1. Integration of childhood TB into guidelines for the management of acute malnutrition in high burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, L N; Detjen, A K

    2017-06-21

    Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) and undernutrition are major global public health challenges. In 2015, although an estimated 1 million children aged malnutrition from 17 high TB burden countries were reviewed to gather information on TB symptom screening, exposure history, and treatment. Results: Seven (41%) countries recommend routine TB screening among children with acute malnutrition, and six (35%) recommend obtaining a TB exposure history. Conclusion: TB screening is not consistently included in guidelines for acute malnutrition in high TB burden countries. Routine TB risk assessment, especially history of TB exposure, among acutely malnourished children, combined with improved linkages with TB services, would help increase TB case finding and could impact outcomes. Operational research on how best to integrate services at different levels of the health care system is needed.

  2. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  3. Burden of tuberculosis in indigenous peoples globally: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, D; Bloss, E; Fanning, A; Redd, J T; Barker, K; McCray, E

    2013-09-01

    The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the estimated 370 million indigenous peoples worldwide is unknown. To conduct a literature review to summarize the TB burden in indigenous peoples, identify gaps in current knowledge, and provide the foundation for a research agenda prioritizing indigenous health within TB control. A systematic literature review identified articles published between January 1990 and November 2011 quantifying TB disease burden in indigenous populations worldwide. Among the 91 articles from 19 countries included in the review, only 56 were from outside Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. The majority of the studies showed higher TB rates among indigenous groups than non-indigenous groups. Studies from the Amazon generally reported the highest TB prevalence and incidence, but select populations from South-East Asia and Africa were found to have similarly high rates of TB. In North America, the Inuit had the highest reported TB incidence (156/100000), whereas the Metis of Canada and American Indians/Alaska Natives experienced rates of indigenous groups. Where data exist, indigenous peoples were generally found to have higher rates of TB disease than non-indigenous peoples; however, this burden varied greatly. The paucity of published information on TB burden among indigenous peoples highlights the need to implement and improve TB surveillance to better measure and understand global disparities in TB rates.

  4. The role of antiretroviral therapy in reducing TB incidence and mortality in high HIV-TB burden countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Harries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, all countries have committed to end the tuberculosis (TB epidemic by 2030, defined as dramatic reductions in TB incidence and mortality combined with zero TB-induced catastrophic costs for families. This paper explores how antiretroviral therapy (ART in high HIV-TB burden countries may help in reducing TB incidence and mortality and thus contribute to the ambitious goal of ending TB. ART in people living with HIV has a potent TB preventive effect, with this being most apparent in those with the most advanced immunodeficiency. Early ART also significantly reduces the risk of TB, and with new World Health Organization guidance released in 2015 about initiating ART in all persons living with HIV irrespective of CD4 count, there is the potential for enormous benefit at the population level. Already, several countries with high HIVTB burdens have seen dramatic declines in TB case notification rates since ART scale up started in 2004. In patients already diagnosed with HIV-associated TB, mortality can be significantly decreased by ART, especially if started within 2–8 weeks of anti-TB treatment. The benefits of ART on TB incidence and TB mortality can be further augmented respectively by the addition of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. These interventions must be effectively implemented and scaled up in order to end the TB epidemic by 2030.

  5. Global evidence directing regional preventive strategies in Southeast Asia for fighting TB/HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud; Paudel, Damodar; Jayathunge Ph, Mangalasiri; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Wangdi, Kinley; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Higuchi, Kazue

    2013-03-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemics form a huge burden of disease in the Southeast Asia region. Five out of eleven nations in this region are high TB/HIV burden countries: Myanmar, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Nepal. The trends of TB incidence in these countries have been rising in recent years, in contrast to a falling global trend. Experts in the field of TB control and health service providers have been perplexed by the association of TB and HIV infections which causes a mosaic clinical presentation, a unique course with poor treatment outcomes including death. We conducted a review of contemporary evidence relating to TB/HIV control with the aims of assisting integrated health system responses in Southeast Asia and demystifying current evidence to facilitate translating it into practice.

  6. The global burden of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  7. Interferon gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in HIV-infected individuals in a low TB burden country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cheallaigh, Clíona Ní

    2013-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Two IGRAs are commercially available: the Quantiferon TB Gold In Tube (QFT-IT) and the T-SPOT.TB. There is debate as to which test to use in HIV+ individuals. Previous publications from high TB burden countries have raised concerns that the sensitivity of the QFT-IT assay, but not the T-SPOT.TB, may be impaired in HIV+ individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts. We sought to compare the tests in a low TB burden setting.

  8. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and

  9. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  10. Coping with the economic burden of Diabetes, TB and co-prevalence: evidence from Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Matthias; Beran, David; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Batura, Neha; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Abdraimova, Aida; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2016-04-05

    The increasing number of patients co-affected with Diabetes and TB may place individuals with low socio-economic status at particular risk of persistent poverty. Kyrgyz health sector reforms aim at reducing this burden, with the provision of essential health services free at the point of use through a State-Guaranteed Benefit Package (SGBP). However, despite a declining trend in out-of-pocket expenditure, there is still a considerable funding gap in the SGBP. Using data from Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, this study aims to explore how households cope with the economic burden of Diabetes, TB and co-prevalence. This study uses cross-sectional data collected in 2010 from Diabetes and TB patients in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Quantitative questionnaires were administered to 309 individuals capturing information on patients' socioeconomic status and a range of coping strategies. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is used to generate socio-economically balanced patient groups. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression are used for data analysis. TB patients are much younger than Diabetes and co-affected patients. Old age affects not only the health of the patients, but also the patient's socio-economic context. TB patients are more likely to be employed and to have higher incomes while Diabetes patients are more likely to be retired. Co-affected patients, despite being in the same age group as Diabetes patients, are less likely to receive pensions but often earn income in informal arrangements. Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments are higher for Diabetes care than for TB care. Diabetes patients cope with the economic burden by using social welfare support. TB patients are most often in a position to draw on income or savings. Co-affected patients are less likely to receive social welfare support than Diabetes patients. Catastrophic health spending is more likely in Diabetes and co-affected patients than in TB patients. This study shows that while OOP are moderate for TB affected patients

  11. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. Evidence Review The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was us...

  12. The global burden of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease...... is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases......). The present report highlights the global burden of periodontal disease: the ultimate burden of periodontal disease (tooth loss), as well as signs of periodontal disease, are described from World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiological data. High prevalence rates of complete tooth loss are found in upper...

  13. The global burden of cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gullapalli N; Khanna, Rohit; Payal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    To review the previous year's literature related to prevalence of blindness in general, blindness due to cataract, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and cataract surgical rates (CSRs). Cataracts are the major cause of blindness and visual impairment in developing countries and contributes to more than 90% of the total disability adjusted life years. This review shows that coverage continues to be a problem in many countries, especially for the female population, those residing in rural areas and those who are illiterate. Although CSR is an indicator of the availability and acceptability of services, for measuring the impact of the program, we should look at combining CSR with CSC. This strategy would also enable us achieve our goal of eliminating avoidable blindness due to cataracts by the year 2020. Cataracts still continue- to be a major cause of blindness globally and with the rapidly aging population, it is a challenge to tackle. We need to plan a comprehensive strategy addressing issues related to availability, affordability, accessibility and acceptability of eye-care services.

  14. Antiretroviral Treatment Scale-Up and Tuberculosis Mortality in High TB/HIV Burden Countries: An Econometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Isabel; Bendavid, Eran; Korenromp, Eline L

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates. National coverage with ART, as proportion of HIV-infected people in need, was obtained from UNAIDS. We applied panel linear regressions controlling for HIV prevalence (5-year lagged), coverage of TB interventions (estimated by WHO and UNAIDS), gross domestic product per capita, health spending from domestic sources, urbanization, and country fixed effects. Models suggest that that increasing ART coverage was followed by reduced TB mortality, across multiple specifications. For death notifications at 2 to 5 years following a given ART scale-up, a 1% increase in ART coverage predicted 0.95% faster mortality rate decline (p = 0.002); resulting in 27% fewer TB deaths in 2011 alone than would have occurred without ART. Based on WHO death estimates, a 1% increase in ART predicted a 1.0% reduced TB death rate (peconometric analysis supports a substantial impact of ART on population-level TB mortality realized already within the first decade of ART scale-up, that is apparent despite variable-quality mortality data.

  15. The Global Burden of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Re-estimation Using Mathematical Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein M G J Houben

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existing estimate of the global burden of latent TB infection (LTBI as "one-third" of the world population is nearly 20 y old. Given the importance of controlling LTBI as part of the End TB Strategy for eliminating TB by 2050, changes in demography and scientific understanding, and progress in TB control, it is important to re-assess the global burden of LTBI.We constructed trends in annual risk in infection (ARI for countries between 1934 and 2014 using a combination of direct estimates of ARI from LTBI surveys (131 surveys from 1950 to 2011 and indirect estimates of ARI calculated from World Health Organisation (WHO estimates of smear positive TB prevalence from 1990 to 2014. Gaussian process regression was used to generate ARIs for country-years without data and to represent uncertainty. Estimated ARI time-series were applied to the demography in each country to calculate the number and proportions of individuals infected, recently infected (infected within 2 y, and recently infected with isoniazid (INH-resistant strains. Resulting estimates were aggregated by WHO region. We estimated the contribution of existing infections to TB incidence in 2035 and 2050. In 2014, the global burden of LTBI was 23.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 20.4%-26.4%, amounting to approximately 1.7 billion people. WHO South-East Asia, Western-Pacific, and Africa regions had the highest prevalence and accounted for around 80% of those with LTBI. Prevalence of recent infection was 0.8% (95% UI: 0.7%-0.9% of the global population, amounting to 55.5 (95% UI: 48.2-63.8 million individuals currently at high risk of TB disease, of which 10.9% (95% UI:10.2%-11.8% was isoniazid-resistant. Current LTBI alone, assuming no additional infections from 2015 onwards, would be expected to generate TB incidences in the region of 16.5 per 100,000 per year in 2035 and 8.3 per 100,000 per year in 2050. Limitations included the quantity and methodological heterogeneity of direct ARI

  16. The Global Burden of Occupational Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover. Results from these studies have shown in several countries and globally that, in spite of improvements in workplace technology, practices and exposures over the last decades, occupational hazards remain an important cause of ill health and mortality worldwide. Major data gaps have been identified particularly regarding exposure information. Reliable data on employment and disease are also lacking especially in developing countries. Burden of occupational disease estimates form an important part of decision-making processes.

  17. The global burden of alveolar echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is known to be common in certain rural communities in China whilst it is generally rare and sporadic elsewhere. The objective of this study was to provide a first estimate of the global incidence of this disease by country. The second objective was to estimate the global disease burden using age and gender stratified incidences and estimated life expectancy with the disease from previous results of survival analysis. Disability weights were suggested from previous burden studies on echinococcosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed review of published literature and data from other sources. We were unable to make a standardised systematic review as the quality of the data was highly variable from different countries and hence if we had used uniform inclusion criteria many endemic areas lacking data would not have been included. Therefore we used evidence based stochastic techniques to model uncertainty and other modelling and estimating techniques, particularly in regions where data quality was poor. We were able to make an estimate of the annual global incidence of disease and annual disease burden using standard techniques for calculation of DALYs. Our studies suggest that there are approximately 18,235 (CIs 11,900-28,200 new cases of AE per annum globally with 16,629 (91% occurring in China and 1,606 outside China. Most of these cases are in regions where there is little treatment available and therefore will be fatal cases. Based on using disability weights for hepatic carcinoma and estimated age and gender specific incidence we were able to calculate that AE results in a median of 666,434 DALYs per annum (CIs 331,000-1.3 million. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The global burden of AE is comparable to several diseases in the neglected tropical disease cluster and is likely to be one of the most important diseases in certain communities in rural China on the Tibetan plateau.

  18. Comparison of TST and IGRA in Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in a High TB-Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra K; Vashishtha, Richa; Chauhan, L S; Sreenivas, V; Seth, Divya

    2017-01-01

    There are currently two tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI); TST and IGRA. However, it is still unclear that which one of these tests performs better in high TB-burden settings. 1511 household contacts of pulmonary TB patients were enrolled to compare the performance of TST and IGRA for LTBI. At baseline all participant underwent testing for IGRA [QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) assay] and TST [2 tuberculin unit (TU), purified protein derivative (PPD), RT23, Staten Serum Institute (SSI), Copenhagen, Denmark]. All the household contacts were followed-up for two years for incident TB cases. Active TB was diagnosed in 76 household contacts at an incidence rate of 2.14 per 1000 person-years. Both, TST [Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.79, p = 0.57], as well as QFT-GIT assay (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 0.97-2.84, p = 0.06) results at baseline were not significantly associated with subsequent development of active TB among household contacts of pulmonary TB patients. Neither TST nor IGRA predicted subsequent development of active TB among household contacts of pulmonary TB patients during follow-up. However, keeping in view the cost, and other logistics, TST remains the most preferred method for LTBI diagnosis in resource-limited, high TB-burden settings.

  19. Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiology and Global Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a billion people—one-sixth of the world’s population, mostly in developing countries—are infected with one or more of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Several national and international programs (e.g., the World Health Organization’s Global NTD Programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Global NTD Program, the United States Global Health Initiative, the United States Agency for International Development’s NTD Program, and others are focusing on NTDs, and fighting to control or eliminate them. This review identifies the risk factors of major NTDs, and describes the global burden of the diseases in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs.

  20. Global Epidemiology and Burden of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlson, Fiona J; Ferrari, Alize J; Santomauro, Damian F

    2018-01-01

    countries. Method: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies reporting the prevalence, incidence, remission, and/or excess mortality associated with schizophrenia. Reported estimates which met our inclusion criteria were entered into a Bayesian meta-regression tool used in GBD 2016 to derive...... prevalence for 20 age groups, 7 super-regions, 21 regions, and 195 countries and territories. Burden of disease estimates were derived for acute and residual states of schizophrenia by multiplying the age-, sex-, year-, and location-specific prevalence by 2 disability weights representative of the disability......-standardized point prevalence rates did not vary widely across countries or regions. Globally, prevalent cases rose from 13.1 (95% UI: 11.6-14.8) million in 1990 to 20.9 (95% UI: 18.5-23.4) million cases in 2016. Schizophrenia contributes 13.4 (95% UI: 9.9-16.7) million years of life lived with disability to burden...

  1. QuantiFERON®-TB gold in-tube performance for diagnosing active tuberculosis in children and adults in a high burden setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Michala Vaaben; Kimaro, Godfather; Nissen, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) can contribute to the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in children in a high-burden setting and to assess the performance of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST) in a prospective cohort of TB suspect children compared to adults with confi......To determine whether QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) can contribute to the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in children in a high-burden setting and to assess the performance of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST) in a prospective cohort of TB suspect children compared to adults...

  2. The global burden of paediatric heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Ndidiamaka L; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Zheleva, Bistra

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 15 million children die or are crippled annually by treatable or preventable heart disease in low- and middle-income countries. Global efforts to reduce under-5 mortality have focused on reducing death from communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries with little...... to no attention focusing on paediatric CHD and acquired heart disease. Lack of awareness of CHD and acquired heart disease, access to care, poor healthcare infrastructure, competing health priorities, and a critical shortage of specialists are important reasons why paediatric heart disease has not been addressed...... in low resourced settings. Non-governmental organisations have taken the lead to address these challenges. This review describes the global burden of paediatric heart disease and strategies to improve the quality of care for paediatric heart disease. These strategies would improve outcomes for children...

  3. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015--optimizing allocations and the Global Fund's contribution: a scenario projections study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline L Korenromp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB, including antiretroviral treatment (ART during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need--an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8-12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa--with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and

  4. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p informal settlement households (β1 = 0.021, p = 0.136, R2 = 0.014). These analyses reveal that the set of characteristics identified by the Global Plan as defining key populations do not adequately predict

  5. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16

  6. Pathway to care for drug resistant tuberculosis cases identified during a retrospective study conducted in high TB burden wards in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Mistry, Nerges

    2018-05-10

    Background: Mumbai is witnessing a rising incidence of all forms of drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Methods: A population-based, retrospective study was conducted between April and July 2014, in 15 high TB burden wards in Mumbai, to capture the patient pathways to TB care. A total of 23 DR-TB patients were identified and their pathways to access DR-TB care were recorded using semi-structured interviews. Results: The total DR-TB pathway time of new patients (who did not report any past episode of TB) (180 days; IQR 123,346) was found to be more than twice that of retreatment patients (who reported a past episode of TB) (69 days; IQR 42,128). Conclusions: The unacceptable delay for diagnosis and treatment of DR-TB in Mumbai advocates for consistent implementation of early screening of patients using rapid gene-based technologies.

  7. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe public health impact of foodborne diseases globally is unknown. The WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases was launched out of the need to fill this data gap. It is anticipated that this effort will enable policy makers and other stakeholders to set...... appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...

  8. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzmaurice, C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Naghavi, M.R.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs),

  9. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Addressing the Global Burden of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.

  11. Choosing algorithms for TB screening: a modelling study to compare yield, predictive value and diagnostic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hoog, Anna H; Onozaki, Ikushi; Lonnroth, Knut

    2014-10-19

    To inform the choice of an appropriate screening and diagnostic algorithm for tuberculosis (TB) screening initiatives in different epidemiological settings, we compare algorithms composed of currently available methods. Of twelve algorithms composed of screening for symptoms (prolonged cough or any TB symptom) and/or chest radiography abnormalities, and either sputum-smear microscopy (SSM) or Xpert MTB/RIF (XP) as confirmatory test we model algorithm outcomes and summarize the yield, number needed to screen (NNS) and positive predictive value (PPV) for different levels of TB prevalence. Screening for prolonged cough has low yield, 22% if confirmatory testing is by SSM and 32% if XP, and a high NNS, exceeding 1000 if TB prevalence is ≤0.5%. Due to low specificity the PPV of screening for any TB symptom followed by SSM is less than 50%, even if TB prevalence is 2%. CXR screening for TB abnormalities followed by XP has the highest case detection (87%) and lowest NNS, but is resource intensive. CXR as a second screen for symptom screen positives improves efficiency. The ideal algorithm does not exist. The choice will be setting specific, for which this study provides guidance. Generally an algorithm composed of CXR screening followed by confirmatory testing with XP can achieve the lowest NNS and highest PPV, and is the least amenable to setting-specific variation. However resource requirements for tests and equipment may be prohibitive in some settings and a reason to opt for symptom screening and SSM. To better inform disease control programs we need empirical data to confirm the modeled yield, cost-effectiveness studies, transmission models and a better screening test.

  12. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë M McLaren

    (β1 = -0.048, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.084. Municipalities with more low-income households also have marginally higher TB testing rates, however, this association is not statistically significant (β1 = -0.025, p = 0.676, R2 = 0.001. There is no relationship between TB prevalence and the proportion of informal settlement households (β1 = 0.021, p = 0.136, R2 = 0.014.These analyses reveal that the set of characteristics identified by the Global Plan as defining key populations do not adequately predict populations with high TB burden. For example, we find that higher TB prevalence is correlated with more urbanized municipalities but not with informal settlements. We highlight several factors that are counter-intuitively those most associated with high TB burdens and which should therefore play a large role in any effective targeting strategy. Targeting active case finding to key populations at higher risk of infection or poor clinical outcomes may prove more cost effective than broad efforts. However, these results should increase caution in current targeting of active case finding interventions.

  13. Estimating Global Burden of Disease due to congenital anomaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Breidge; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the estimates of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to congenital anomaly for Europe by comparing infant mortality data collected by EUROCAT registries with the WHO Mortality Database, and by assessing the significance of stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal...... the burden of disease due to congenital anomaly, and thus declining YLL over time may obscure lack of progress in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention....

  14. Investing to end epidemics: the role of the Global Fund to control TB by 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Osamu; Yassin, Mohammed A; Wandwalo, Eliud

    2016-03-01

    The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria provides over three-quarters of all international financing towards TB programs with US$4.7 billion disbursed, supporting provision of treatment for 13.2 million patients with smear-positive TB and 210 000 patients with multidrug-resistant TB in over 100 countries since 2002. In 2013, the Global Fund launched a new funding model that, among others, is advancing strategic investments to maximize impact, addressing 'missing' TB cases, enhancing a synergistic response to TB/HIV dual epidemics, and building resilient and sustainable systems for health. A new Global Fund Strategy is under development through consultation with various stakeholders, with which the Global Fund will work to play a more catalytic role and foster innovations to end the TB epidemic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Implementing the global plan to stop TB, 2011-2015 - optimizing allocations and the global fund's contribution: A scenario projections study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); P. Glaziou (Philippe); C. Fitzpatrick (Christopher); K. Floyd (Katherine); M. Hosseini (Mehran); M.C. Raviglione (Mario); R. Atun (Rifat); B. Williams (Brian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments

  16. Pregnancy and the global disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Barbara J

    2017-12-14

    Pregnant women experience unique physiological changes pertinent to the effective prevention and treatment of common diseases that affect their health and the health of their developing fetuses. In this paper, the impact of major communicable (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, helminth infections, emerging epidemic viral infections) as well as non-communicable conditions (mental illness, substance abuse, gestational diabetes, eclampsia) on pregnancy is discussed. The current state of research involving pregnant women in these areas is also described, highlighting important knowledge gaps for the management of key illnesses that impact pregnancy globally.

  17. Double Standards in Global Health: Medicine, Human Rights Law and Multidrug-Resistant TB Treatment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Thomas; Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-06-01

    The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level.

  18. Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigin, Valery L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Krishnamurthi, Rita

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, no comprehensive and comparable assessment of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, and epidemiological trends has been estimated for most regions. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Ri...

  19. Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomon, Joshua A.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Davis, Adrian; de Noordhout, Charline Maertens; Polinder, Suzanne; Havelaar, Arie H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Cassini, Alessandro; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Speybroeck, Niko; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study assesses health losses from diseases, injuries, and risk factors using disability-adjusted life-years, which need a set of disability weights to quantify health levels associated with non-fatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to estimate

  20. Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomon, Joshua A; Haagsma, Juanita A; Davis, Adrian; de Noordhout, Charline Maertens; Polinder, Suzanne; Havelaar, Arie H; Cassini, Alessandro; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Kretzschmar, MEE; Speybroeck, Niko; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study assesses health losses from diseases, injuries, and risk factors using disability-adjusted life-years, which need a set of disability weights to quantify health levels associated with non-fatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to estimate

  1. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  2. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  3. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  4. QuantiFERON®-TB gold in-tube performance for diagnosing active tuberculosis in children and adults in a high burden setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michala V Rose

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine whether QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT can contribute to the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB in children in a high-burden setting and to assess the performance of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST in a prospective cohort of TB suspect children compared to adults with confirmed TB in Tanzania. METHODS: Sensitivity and specificity of QFT and TST for diagnosing active TB as well as indeterminate QFT rates and IFN-γ levels were assessed in 211 TB suspect children in a Tanzanian district hospital and contrasted in 90 adults with confirmed pulmonary TB. RESULTS: Sensitivity of QFT and TST in children with confirmed TB was 19% (5/27 and 6% (2/31 respectively. In adults sensitivity of QFT and TST was 84% (73/87 and 85% (63/74. The QFT indeterminate rate in children and adults was 27% and 3%. Median levels of IFN-γ were lower in children than adults, particularly children <2 years and HIV infected. An indeterminate result was associated with age <2 years but not malnutrition or HIV status. Overall childhood mortality was 19% and associated with an indeterminate QFT result at baseline. CONCLUSION: QFT and TST showed poor performance and a surprisingly low sensitivity in children. In contrast the performance in Tanzanian adults was good and comparable to performance in high-income countries. Indeterminate results in children were associated with young age and increased mortality. Neither test can be recommended for diagnosing active TB in children with immature or impaired immunity in a high-burden setting.

  5. The Global Burden of Disease assessments--WHO is responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD concept has been used by the World Health Organization (WHO for its reporting on health information for nearly 10 years. The GBD approach results in a single summary measure of morbidity, disability, and mortality, the so-called disability-adjusted life year (DALY. To ensure transparency and objectivity in the derivation of health information, WHO has been urged to use reference groups of external experts to estimate burden of disease. Under the leadership and coordination of WHO, expert groups have been appraising and abstracting burden of disease information. Examples include the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG, the Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (MERG, and the recently established Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG. The structure and functioning of and lessons learnt by these groups are described in this paper. External WHO expert groups have provided independent scientific health information while operating under considerable differences in structure and functioning. Although it is not appropriate to devise a single "best practice" model, the common thread described by all groups is the necessity of WHO's leadership and coordination to ensure the provision and dissemination of health information that is to be globally accepted and valued.

  6. Atlas of the Global Burden of Stroke (1990-2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigin, Valery L; Mensah, George A; Norrving, Bo

    2015-01-01

    for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in the world for 1990-2013. METHODOLOGY: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated following the general approach of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 with several important improvements in methods. Data were updated for mortality......BACKGROUND: World mapping is an important tool to visualize stroke burden and its trends in various regions and countries. OBJECTIVES: To show geographic patterns of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends...... estimates of global population. All estimates have been computed with 95% uncertainty intervals. RESULTS: Age-standardized incidence, mortality, prevalence and DALYs/YLDs declined over the period from 1990 to 2013. However, the absolute number of people affected by stroke has substantially increased across...

  7. The Global Burden of Potential Productivity Loss from Uncorrected Presbyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Kevin D; Joy, Susan M; Wilson, David A; Naidoo, Kovin S; Holden, Brien A

    2015-08-01

    The onset of presbyopia in middle adulthood results in potential losses in productivity among otherwise healthy adults if uncorrected or undercorrected. The economic burden could be significant in lower-income countries, where up to 94% of cases may be uncorrected or undercorrected. This study estimates the global burden of potential productivity lost because of uncorrected functional presbyopia. Population data from the US Census Bureau were combined with the estimated presbyopia prevalence, age of onset, employment rate, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in current US dollars, and near vision impairment disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study to estimate the global loss of productivity from uncorrected and undercorrected presbyopia in each country in 2011. To allow comparison with earlier work, we also calculated the loss with the conservative assumption that the contribution to productivity extends only up to 50 years of age. The economic modeling did not require the use of subjects. We estimated the number of cases of uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia in each country among the working-age population. The number of working-age cases was multiplied by the labor force participation rate, the employment rate, a disability weight, and the GDP per capita to estimate the potential loss of GDP due to presbyopia. The outcome being measured is the lost productivity in 2011 US dollars resulting from uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia. There were an estimated 1.272 billion cases of presbyopia worldwide in 2011. A total of 244 million cases, uncorrected or undercorrected among people aged productivity loss of US $11.023 billion (0.016% of global GDP). If all those people aged productive, the potential productivity loss would be US $25.367 billion or 0.037% of global GDP. Correcting presbyopia to the level achieved in Europe would reduce the burden to US $1.390 billion (0.002% of global GDP). Even with conservative assumptions

  8. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  9. The Global Burden of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders: An Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey A.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Feigin, Valery; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), estimated that a substantial proportion of the world’s disease burden came from mental, neurological and substance use disorders. In this paper, we used GBD 2010 data to investigate time, year, region and age specific trends in burden due to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. Method For each disorder, prevalence data were assembled from systematic literature reviews. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to model prevalence by country, region, age, sex and year. Prevalence data were combined with disability weights derived from survey data to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs). Years lost to premature mortality (YLLs) were estimated by multiplying deaths occurring as a result of a given disorder by the reference standard life expectancy at the age death occurred. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. Results In 2010, mental, neurological and substance use disorders accounted for 10.4% of global DALYs, 2.3% of global YLLs and, 28.5% of global YLDs, making them the leading cause of YLDs. Mental disorders accounted for the largest proportion of DALYs (56.7%), followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorders (14.7%). DALYs peaked in early adulthood for mental and substance use disorders but were more consistent across age for neurological disorders. Females accounted for more DALYs in all mental and neurological disorders, except for mental disorders occurring in childhood, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy where males accounted for more DALYs. Overall DALYs were highest in Eastern Europe/Central Asia and lowest in East Asia/the Pacific. Conclusion Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of disease burden. Health systems can respond by implementing established, cost effective interventions, or by supporting the

  10. The global burden of mental, neurological and substance use disorders: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey A; Ferrari, Alize J; Degenhardt, Louisa; Feigin, Valery; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), estimated that a substantial proportion of the world's disease burden came from mental, neurological and substance use disorders. In this paper, we used GBD 2010 data to investigate time, year, region and age specific trends in burden due to mental, neurological and substance use disorders. For each disorder, prevalence data were assembled from systematic literature reviews. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to model prevalence by country, region, age, sex and year. Prevalence data were combined with disability weights derived from survey data to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs). Years lost to premature mortality (YLLs) were estimated by multiplying deaths occurring as a result of a given disorder by the reference standard life expectancy at the age death occurred. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. In 2010, mental, neurological and substance use disorders accounted for 10.4% of global DALYs, 2.3% of global YLLs and, 28.5% of global YLDs, making them the leading cause of YLDs. Mental disorders accounted for the largest proportion of DALYs (56.7%), followed by neurological disorders (28.6%) and substance use disorders (14.7%). DALYs peaked in early adulthood for mental and substance use disorders but were more consistent across age for neurological disorders. Females accounted for more DALYs in all mental and neurological disorders, except for mental disorders occurring in childhood, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy where males accounted for more DALYs. Overall DALYs were highest in Eastern Europe/Central Asia and lowest in East Asia/the Pacific. Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of disease burden. Health systems can respond by implementing established, cost effective interventions, or by supporting the research necessary to develop better

  11. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Saveyn, Bert; Soria, Antonio; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Van Ierland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  12. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  13. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron J; Ross Anderson, H; Ostro, Bart; Pandey, Kiran Dev; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Gutschmidt, Kersten; Pope, Arden; Romieu, Isabelle; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, Kirk

    As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Comparative Risk Assessment, the burden of disease attributable to urban ambient air pollution was estimated in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Air pollution is associated with a broad spectrum of acute and chronic health effects, the nature of which may vary with the pollutant constituents. Particulate air pollution is consistently and independently related to the most serious effects, including lung cancer and other cardiopulmonary mortality. The analyses on which this report is based estimate that ambient air pollution, in terms of fine particulate air pollution (PM(2.5)), causes about 3% of mortality from cardiopulmonary disease, about 5% of mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung, and about 1% of mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 yr, worldwide. This amounts to about 0.8 million (1.2%) premature deaths and 6.4 million (0.5%) years of life lost (YLL). This burden occurs predominantly in developing countries; 65% in Asia alone. These estimates consider only the impact of air pollution on mortality (i.e., years of life lost) and not morbidity (i.e., years lived with disability), due to limitations in the epidemiologic database. If air pollution multiplies both incidence and mortality to the same extent (i.e., the same relative risk), then the DALYs for cardiopulmonary disease increase by 20% worldwide.

  14. Blood pressure and the global burden of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S

    1999-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is responsible for a large and increasing proportion of death and disability worldwide. Half of this burden occurs in Asia. This study assessed the possible effects of population-wide (2% lower DBP for all) and targeted (7% lower DBP for those with usual DBP > or = 95 mmHg) BP interventions in Asia, using data from surveys of blood pressure levels, the Global Burden of Disease Project, Eastern Asian cohort studies and randomised trials of blood pressure lowering. Overall each of the two interventions would be expected to avert about one million deaths per year throughout Asia in 2020. These benefits would be approximately additive. About half a million deaths might be averted annually by each intervention in China alone, with about four-fifths of this benefit due to averted stroke. The relative benefits of these two strategies are similar to estimates made for US and UK populations. However, the absolute benefits are many times greater due to the size of the predicted CVD burden in Asia.

  15. Pharmaceutical portfolio management: global disease burden and corporate performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rutger; Maes, Edith; Mehra, Maneesha; Carroll, Benjamin; Thomas, Adrian

    2014-09-01

    Biopharmaceutical companies face multiple external pressures. Shareholders demand a profitable company while governments, nongovernmental third parties, and the public at large expect a commitment to improving health in developed and, in particular, emerging economies. Current industry commercial models are inadequate for assessing opportunities in emerging economies where disease and market data are highly limited. The purpose of this article was to define a conceptual framework and build an analytic decision-making tool to assess and enhance a company's global portfolio while balancing its business needs with broader social expectations. Through a case-study methodology, we explore the relationship between business and social parameters associated with pharmaceutical innovation in three distinct disease areas. The global burden of disease-based theoretical framework using disability-adjusted life-years provides an overview of the burden associated with particular diseases. The social return on investment is expressed as disability-adjusted life-years averted as a result of the particular pharmaceutical innovation. Simultaneously, the business return on investment captures the research and development costs and projects revenues in terms of a profitability index. The proposed framework can assist companies as they strive to meet the medical needs of populations around the world for decades to come. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution : an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Aaron J; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Frostad, Joseph; Estep, Kara; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Feigin, Valery; Freedman, Greg; Hubbell, Bryan; Jobling, Amelia; Kan, Haidong; Knibbs, Luke; Liu, Yang|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411298119; Martin, Randall; Morawska, Lidia; Pope, C Arden; Shin, Hwashin; Straif, Kurt; Shaddick, Gavin; Thomas, Matthew; van Dingenen, Rita; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution increases morbidity and mortality, and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. We explored spatial and temporal trends in mortality and burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution from 1990 to 2015 at global, regional, and country

  17. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life year (DALY initially appeared attractive as a health metric in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD program, as it purports to be a comprehensive health assessment that encompassed premature mortality, morbidity, impairment, and disability. It was originally thought that the DALY would be useful in policy settings, reflecting normative valuations as a standardized unit of ill health. However, the design of the DALY and its use in policy estimates contain inherent flaws that result in systematic undervaluation of the importance of chronic diseases, such as many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, in world health. The conceptual design of the DALY comes out of a perspective largely focused on the individual risk rather than the ecology of disease, thus failing to acknowledge the implications of context on the burden of disease for the poor. It is nonrepresentative of the impact of poverty on disability, which results in the significant underestimation of disability weights for chronic diseases such as the NTDs. Finally, the application of the DALY in policy estimates does not account for the nonlinear effects of poverty in the cost-utility analysis of disease control, effectively discounting the utility of comprehensively treating NTDs. The present DALY framework needs to be substantially revised if the GBD is to become a valid and useful system for determining health priorities.

  18. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required.

  19. The High Burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a Large Zambian Prison: A Public Health Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M.; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R.; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B.; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Methods Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. Results A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Conclusion Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required. PMID

  20. Listening to Those at the Frontline: Patient and Healthcare Personnel Perspectives on Tuberculosis Treatment Barriers and Facilitators in High TB Burden Regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Iribarren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Argentina, tuberculosis (TB control measures have not achieved key treatment targets. The purpose of this study was to identify modes of treatment delivery and explore patient and healthcare personnel perceptions of barriers and facilitators to treatment success. Methods. We used semistructured group and individual interviews for this descriptive qualitative study. Eight high burden municipalities were purposively selected. Patients in treatment for active TB (n=16, multidisciplinary TB team members (n=26, and TB program directors (n=12 at local, municipal, regional, and national levels were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results. Modes of treatment delivery varied across municipalities and types of healthcare facility and were highly negotiated with patients. Self-administration of treatment was common in hospital-based and some community clinics. Barriers to TB treatment success were concentrated at the system level. This level relied heavily on individual personal commitment, and many system facilitators were operating in isolation or in limited settings. Conclusions. We outline experiences and perspectives of the facilitating and challenging factors at the individual, structural, social, and organizational levels. Establishing strong patient-healthcare personnel relationships, responding to patient needs, capitalizing on community resources, and maximizing established decentralized system could mitigate some of the barriers.

  1. A Clinical Update and Global Economic Burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Syed Ali; Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima E; Alam, Fahmida; Zarin, Nowshin; Bari, Mohammad T; Ashraf, Ghulam Md

    2018-02-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a predominant inflammatory autoimmune disorder. The incidence and prevalence of RA is increasing with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of RA has become clearer due to many significant research outputs during the last two decades. Many inflammatory cytokines involved in RA pathophysiology and the presence of autoantibodies are being used as potential biomarkers via the use of effective diagnostic techniques for the early diagnosis of RA. Currently, several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are being prescribed targeting RA pathophysiology, which have shown significant contributions in improving the disease outcomes. Even though innovations in treatment strategies and monitoring are helping the patients to achieve early and sustained clinical and radiographic remission, the high cost of drugs and limited health care budgets are restricting the easy access of RA treatment. Both direct and indirect high cost of treatment are creating economic burden for the patients and affecting their quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe the updated concept of RA pathophysiology and highlight current diagnostic tools used for the early detection as well as prognosis - targeting several biomarkers of RA. Additionally, we explored the updated treatment options with side effects besides discussing the global economic burden. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Plastic surgery and global health: how plastic surgery impacts the global burden of surgical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semer, Nadine B; Sullivan, Stephen R; Meara, John G

    2010-08-01

    The global burden of surgical disease is estimated as being 11% of the total global burden of disease. In this article we discuss the portion of this burden which could be ameliorated with plastic surgical expertise. Although not necessarily seen as a major player in issues related to global health, plastic surgeons are uniquely qualified to decrease the burden of surgical disease afflicting people in the developing world. Burns, traumatic injuries, and congenital anomalies are some of the areas where the presence of plastic surgical expertise can make a significant difference in patient outcomes and thereby decrease the years of life lost due to disability due to these highly treatable conditions. In light of the severe shortage of plastic surgeons throughout the developing world, it falls to those concentrated in the developed world to harness their skills and address the vast unmet needs of the developing world so as to enhance global health. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Flaxman, Abraham D; Naghavi, Mohsen; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Vos, Theo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Assadi, Reza; Bhala, Neeraj; Cowie, Benjamin; Forouzanfour, Mohammad H; Groeger, Justina; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; James, Spencer L; MacLachlan, Jennifer; Malekzadeh, Reza; Martin, Natasha K; Mokdad, Ali A; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L; Plass, Dietrich; Rana, Saleem; Rein, David B; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Sanabria, Juan; Saylan, Mete; Shahraz, Saeid; So, Samuel; Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wiersma, Steven T; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Cooke, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD’s cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda

  4. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize J Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease.Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs and disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8% of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%. Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2% of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%. There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8% to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7% of global DALYs.GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive disorders as a public-health priority and implementing

  5. Global burden, distribution, and interventions for infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP) disproportionately affect the poorest population in the world and contribute to a cycle of poverty as a result of decreased productivity ensuing from long-term illness, disability, and social stigma. In 2010, the global deaths from HIV/AIDS have increased to 1.5 million and malaria mortality rose to 1.17 million. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases rose to 152,000, while tuberculosis killed 1.2 million people that same year. Substantial regional variations exist in the distribution of these diseases as they are primarily concentrated in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with geographic overlap and high levels of co-infection. Evidence-based interventions exist to prevent and control these diseases, however, the coverage still remains low with an emerging challenge of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, community-based delivery platforms are increasingly being advocated to ensure sustainability and combat co-infections. Because of the high morbidity and mortality burden of these diseases, especially in resource-poor settings, it is imperative to conduct a systematic review to identify strategies to prevent and control these diseases. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of one of these strategies, that is community-based delivery for the prevention and treatment of IDoP. In this paper, we describe the burden, epidemiology, and potential interventions for IDoP. In subsequent papers of this series, we describe the analytical framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews, and report the findings and interpretations of our analyses of the impact of community-based strategies on individual IDoPs.

  6. Global burden of maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Sanin, Kazi Istiaque

    2012-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately half of the world's population. These conditions include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight, protein-energy malnutrition, chronic energy deficit of women, and micronutrient deficiencies. Although the rates of stunting or chronic protein-energy malnutrition are increasing in Africa, the absolute numbers of stunted children are much higher in Asia. The four common micronutrient deficiencies include those of iron, iodine, vitamin A, and zinc. All these conditions are responsible directly or indirectly for more than 50% of all under-5 deaths globally. According to more recent estimates, IUGR, stunting and severe wasting are responsible for one third of under-5 mortality. About 12% of deaths among under-5 children are attributed to the deficiency of the four common micronutrients. Despite tremendous progress in different disciplines and unprecedented improvement with many health indicators, persistently high undernutrition rates are a shame to the society. Human development is not possible without taking care to control undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Poverty, food insecurity, ignorance, lack of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices, heavy burden of infectious illnesses, and poor hygiene and sanitation are factors responsible for the high levels of maternal and child undernutrition in developing countries. These factors can be controlled or removed by scaling up direct nutrition interventions and eliminating the root conditions including female illiteracy, lack of livelihoods, lack of women's empowerment, and poor hygiene and sanitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Professional problems: the burden of producing the "global" Filipino nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga, Yasmin Y

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates the challenges faced by nursing schools within migrant-sending nations, where teachers and school administrators face the task of producing nurse labor, not only for domestic health needs but employers beyond national borders. I situate my research in the Philippines, one of the leading sources of migrant nurse labor in the world. Based on 58 interviews with nursing school instructors and administrators, conducted from 2010 to 2013, I argue that Philippine nursing schools are embedded within a global nursing care chain, where nations lower down the chain must supply nurse labor to wealthier countries higher up the chain. This paper shows how this process forces Filipino nurse educators to negotiate an overloaded curriculum, the influx of aspiring migrants into nursing programs, and erratic labor demand cycles overseas. These issues create problems in defining the professional knowledge needed by Filipino nurses; instilling professional values and standards; and maintaining proper job security. As such, these findings demonstrate how countries like the Philippines bear the burden of ensuring nurses' employability, where educational institutions constantly adjust curriculum and instruction for the benefit of employers within wealthier societies. My interviews reveal how such adjustments undermine the professional values and standards that define the nursing profession within the country. Such inequality is an outcome of nurse migration that current research has not fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  9. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey A; Degenhardt, Louisa; Rehm, Jürgen; Baxter, Amanda J; Ferrari, Alize J; Erskine, Holly E; Charlson, Fiona J; Norman, Rosana E; Flaxman, Abraham D; Johns, Nicole; Burstein, Roy; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-09

    We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs). For each of the 20 mental and substance use disorders included in GBD 2010, we systematically reviewed epidemiological data and used a Bayesian meta-regression tool, DisMod-MR, to model prevalence by age, sex, country, region, and year. We obtained disability weights from representative community surveys and an internet-based survey to calculate YLDs. We calculated premature mortality as YLLs from cause of death estimates for 1980-2010 for 20 age groups, both sexes, and 187 countries. We derived DALYs from the sum of YLDs and YLLs. We adjusted burden estimates for comorbidity and present them with 95% uncertainty intervals. In 2010, mental and substance use disorders accounted for 183·9 million DALYs (95% UI 153·5 million-216·7 million), or 7·4% (6·2-8·6) of all DALYs worldwide. Such disorders accounted for 8·6 million YLLs (6·5 million-12·1 million; 0·5% [0·4-0·7] of all YLLs) and 175·3 million YLDs (144·5 million-207·8 million; 22·9% [18·6-27·2] of all YLDs). Mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of YLDs worldwide. Depressive disorders accounted for 40·5% (31·7-49·2) of DALYs caused by mental and substance use disorders, with anxiety disorders accounting for 14·6% (11·2-18·4), illicit drug use disorders for 10·9% (8·9-13·2), alcohol use disorders for 9·6% (7·7-11·8), schizophrenia for 7·4% (5·0-9·8), bipolar disorder for 7·0% (4·4-10·3), pervasive developmental disorders for 4·2% (3·2-5·3), childhood behavioural disorders for 3·4% (2·2-4·7), and eating disorders for 1·2% (0·9-1·5). DALYs varied by age and sex, with the highest proportion of total DALYs occurring in people aged 10

  10. Global burden of disease--a race against time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    Low-income communities will within the next decades undergo rapid changes. The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardio-vascular disease and cancer, will comprise an increasing proportion of the total disease burden. The results of projections indicate that the already...... constrained health systems will face a double burden of disease, in which HIV/AIDS and other common infectious diseases will co-exist with the new NCDs. In order for preventive measures directed towards NCD to be cost-effective, these have to be implemented within the next 10-20 years....

  11. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong HY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Huey Yi Chong,1 Siew Li Teoh,1 David Bin-Chia Wu,1 Surachai Kotirum,1 Chiun-Fang Chiou,2 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,3–5 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Asia Pacific, Singapore; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 5School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Background: Schizophrenia is one of the top 25 leading causes of disability worldwide in 2013. Despite its low prevalence, its health, social, and economic burden has been tremendous, not only for patients but also for families, caregivers, and the wider society. The magnitude of disease burden investigated in an economic burden study is an important source to policymakers in decision making. This study aims to systematically identify studies focusing on the economic burden of schizophrenia, describe the methods and data sources used, and summarize the findings of economic burden of schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review was performed for economic burden studies in schizophrenia using four electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EconLit from inception to August 31, 2014. Results: A total of 56 articles were included in this review. More than 80% of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Most studies had undertaken a retrospective- and prevalence-based study design. The bottom-up approach was commonly employed to determine cost, while human capital method was used for indirect cost estimation. Database and literature were the most commonly used data sources in cost estimation in high-income countries, while chart review and interview were the main data sources in low and middle-income countries. Annual costs for the schizophrenia population in the country ranged from US$94

  12. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine; Lacey, Charles J; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Bruni, Laia; Vignat, Jerome; Ferlay, Jacques; Bray, Freddie; Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-11-20

    consistently declining by approximately 2% per annum. There is, however, a lack of information from low HDI countries where screening is less likely to have been successfully implemented. Estimates of the projected incidence of cervical cancer in 2030, based solely on demographic factors, indicate a 2% increase in the global burden of cervical cancer, i.e., in balance with the current rate of decline. Due to the relative small numbers involved, it is difficult to discern temporal trends for the other cancers associated with HPV infection. Genital warts represent a sexually transmitted benign condition caused by HPV infection, especially HPV6 and HPV11. Reliable surveillance figures are difficult to obtain but data from developed countries indicate an annual incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% with a peak occurring at teenage and young adult ages. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Colombara, Danny V.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Troeger, Christopher; Daoud, Farah; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Rao, Puja C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; El Razek, Mohammed Magdy Abd; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Akseer, Nadia; Alam, Khurshid; Alasfoor, Deena; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Awasthi, Ashish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Butt, Zahid A.; Danawi, Hadi; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Jahanmehr, Nader; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Koyanagi, Ai; Lal, Aparna; Latif, Asma Abdul Abdul; Lunevicius, Raimundas; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mehari, Alem; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Misganaw, Awoke; Mohamed, Layla Abdalla Ibrahim; Nachega, Jean B.; Le Nguyen, Quyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Platts-Mills, James A.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Ur Rahman, Sajjad; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Riddle, Mark; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sawhney, Monika; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Westerman, Ronny; Wubshet, Mamo; Yenesew, Muluken A.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0–1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245–763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520–989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540–65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden. PMID:27928080

  14. Burden of gout in the Nordic region, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadaliri, A A; Uhlig, T; Englund, M

    2018-01-29

    To explore the burden of gout in the Nordic region, with a population around 27 million in 2015 distributed across six countries. We used the findings of the 2015 Global Burden of Diseases study to report prevalence and disability associated with gout in the Nordic region. From 1990 to 2015, the number of prevalent gout cases rose by 30% to 252 967 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 223 478‒287 288] in the Nordic region. In 2015, gout contributed to 7982 (95% UI 5431‒10 800) years lived with disability (YLDs) in the region, an increase of 29% (95% UI 24‒35%) from 1990. While the crude YLD rate of gout increased by 12.9% (95% UI 7.8‒18.1%) between 1990 and 2015, the age-standardized YLD rate remained stable. Gout was ranked as the 63rd leading cause of total YLDs in the region in 2015, with the highest rank in men aged 55-59 years (38th leading cause of YLDs). The corresponding rank at the global level was 94. Of 195 countries studied, four Nordic countries [Greenland (2nd), Iceland (12th), Finland (14th), and Sweden (15th)] were among the top 15 countries with the highest age-standardized YLD rate of gout. The burden of gout is rising in the Nordic region. Gout's contribution to the total burden of diseases in the region is more significant than the global average. Expected increases in gout burden owing to population growth and ageing call for stronger preventive and therapeutic strategies for gout management in Nordic countries.

  15. The burden of leishmaniasis in Iran, acquired from the global burden of disease during 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Badirzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report and measure the burden of leishmaniasis in Iran using the global burden of disease (GBD results, conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation for the years 1990 to 2010, and provide some recommendations for reaching better conclusions about the burden of disease. Methods: GBD burden and fatality rates of leishmaniasis were compared with the findings registered by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME. Data obtained from the GBD for the years 1990 to 2010 were used to estimate the disability-adjusted life-years and fatality rates of leishmaniasis in Iran. Results: The GBD estimated 229 714 disability-adjusted life-years due to leishmaniasis in Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. The number of deaths caused by visceral leishmaniasis (VL had decreased significantly in recent years. MOHME registered data on fewer than 30 deaths in Iran from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: The underreporting of VL deaths is always more pronounced. Findings indicate that the GBD estimation of mortality rates was surprisingly higher than MOHME’s data. The burden of leishmaniasis decreased significantly between the years 1990 and 2010 in both data sources. The possible explanation for this decrease has been discovered through the establishment of a VL surveillance system in various parts of Iran, particularly in endemic areas.

  16. Methodological framework for World Health Organization estimates of the global burden of foodborne disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Devleesschauwer (Brecht); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); F.J. Angulo (Frederick); D.C. Bellinger (David); D. Cole (Dana); D. Döpfer (Dörte); A. Fazil (Aamir); E.M. Fèvre (Eric); H.J. Gibb (Herman); T. Hald (Tine); M.D. Kirk (Martyn); R.J. Lake (Robin); C. Maertens De Noordhout (Charline); C. Mathers (Colin); S.A. McDonald (Scott); S.M. Pires (Sara); N. Speybroeck (Niko); M.K. Thomas (Kate); D. Torgerson; F. Wu (Felicia); A.H. Havelaar (Arie); N. Praet (Nicolas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This paper describes the methodological framework developed by FERG's Computational Task Force

  17. Global Burden of Leptospirosis: Estimated in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Hagan, José E.; Costa, Federico; Calcagno, Juan; Kane, Michael; Martinez-Silveira, Martha S.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Stein, Claudia; Ko, Albert I.; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonosis, occurs in diverse epidemiological settings and affects vulnerable populations, such as rural subsistence farmers and urban slum dwellers. Although leptospirosis can cause life-threatening disease, there is no global burden of disease estimate in

  18. Global Burden Of Disease Studies: Implications For Mental And Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey; Ferrari, Alize; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-06-01

    Global Burden of Disease studies have highlighted mental and substance use disorders as the leading cause of disability globally. Using the studies' findings for policy and planning requires an understanding of how estimates are generated, the required epidemiological data are gathered, disability and premature mortality are defined and counted, and comparative risk assessment for risk-factor analysis is undertaken. The high burden of mental and substance use disorders has increased their priority on the global health agenda, but not enough to prompt concerted action by governments and international agencies. Using Global Burden of Disease estimates in health policy and planning requires combining them with other information such as evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the disorders' burden. Concerted action is required by mental health advocates and policy makers to assemble this evidence, taking into account the health, social, and economic challenges facing each country. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: response to authors’ reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil AL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Neil,1 Vaughan J Carr2,3 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, The University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 2Research Unit for Schizophrenia Epidemiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaFor clarification, we undertook bottom-up costing using individual participant data from the Low Prevalence Disorders Study in our costing study.1 We did not use the data reported in the study by Carr et al2 as asserted by Chong et al.3 Chong et al have thus misunderstood and thus misrepresented our methodology in both their systematic review4 and their response to our letter.5 Authors' reply  Huey Yi Chong,1 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1–41School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; 4School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia We thank Dr Neil and Professor Carr for their clarification on the data source used in their study.1 In this regard, we would like to highlight one of the most common challenges when conducting any systematic review, for example economic burden of schizophrenia in this case – the marked diversity in reporting among the included studies, which increases the likelihood of any potential misinterpretation. In convergence with a number of published systematic reviews of economic burden studies,2–5 there has been a consistent call for a more explicit reporting in various aspects of an economic burden study, thus readability and transparency can be enhanced. However, a standardized guide/checklist for conducting and reporting economic burden is yet to be available. On the final note, we strongly urge for the development of such a guidance document

  20. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria; in the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyaki, Musa Baba; Garbati, Musa Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the tenets of globalization and how its elements have spread to sub-Saharan Africa, and Nigeria in particular. It assesses the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nigeria and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on NCDs in Nigeria. It assesses the Nigerian dimension of the relationship between the risk factors of NCDs and globalization. Appropriate recommendations on tackling the burden of NCDs in Nigeria based on cost-effective, culturally sensitive, and evidence-based interventions are highlighted.

  1. Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Gregory A; Johnson, Catherine; Abajobir, Amanuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. OBJECTIVES: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden......-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0...... be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD....

  2. The global nutrition transition: trends, disease burdens and policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Wu, Jason Hy; Singh, Gitanjali M

    2018-03-06

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased dramatically in developed and developing countries. Unhealthy diet is one of the major factors contributing to NCD development. Recent evidence has identified deterioration in aspects of dietary quality across many world regions, including low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Most burdens of disease attributable to poor diet can be prevented or delayed as they occur prematurely. Therefore, it is important to identify and target unhealthy dietary behaviours in order to have the greatest impact. National dietary-related programmes have traditionally focused on micronutrient deficiency and food security and failed to acknowledge unhealthy dietary intakes as a risk factor that contributes to the development of NCD. Inadequate intakes of healthy foods and nutrients and excess intakes of unhealthy ones are commonly observed across the world, and efforts to reduce the double burden of micronutrient deficiency and unhealthy diets should be a particular focus for LMIC. Interventions and policies targeting whole populations are likely to be the most effective and sustainable, and should be prioritized. Population-based approaches such as health information and communication campaigns, fiscal measures such as taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, direct restrictions and mandates, reformulation and improving the nutrient profile of food products, and standards regulating marketing to children can have significant and large impacts to improve diets and reduce the incidence of NCD. There is a need for more countries to implement population-based effective approaches to improve current diets.

  3. Methodological Framework for World Health Organization Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devleesschauwer

    Full Text Available The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs. This paper describes the methodological framework developed by FERG's Computational Task Force to transform epidemiological information into FBD burden estimates.The global and regional burden of 31 FBDs was quantified, along with limited estimates for 5 other FBDs, using Disability-Adjusted Life Years in a hazard- and incidence-based approach. To accomplish this task, the following workflow was defined: outline of disease models and collection of epidemiological data; design and completion of a database template; development of an imputation model; identification of disability weights; probabilistic burden assessment; and estimating the proportion of the disease burden by each hazard that is attributable to exposure by food (i.e., source attribution. All computations were performed in R and the different functions were compiled in the R package 'FERG'. Traceability and transparency were ensured by sharing results and methods in an interactive way with all FERG members throughout the process.We developed a comprehensive framework for estimating the global burden of FBDs, in which methodological simplicity and transparency were key elements. All the tools developed have been made available and can be translated into a user-friendly national toolkit for studying and monitoring food safety at the local level.

  4. The Global Burden of Road Injury: Its Relevance to the Emergency Physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Chekijian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Road traffic crash fatalities in the United States are at the lowest level since 1950. The reduction in crash injury burden is attributed to several factors: public education and prevention programs, traffic safety policies and enforcement, improvements in vehicle design, and prehospital services coupled with emergency and acute trauma care. Globally, the disease burden of road traffic injuries is rising. In 1990, road traffic injuries ranked ninth in the ten leading causes of the global burden of disease. By 2030, estimates show that road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading causes of death in the world. Historically, emergency medicine has played a pivotal role in contributing to the success of the local, regional, and national traffic safety activities focused on crash and injury prevention. Objective. We report on the projected trend of the global burden of road traffic injuries and fatalities and describe ongoing global initiatives to reduce road traffic morbidity and mortality. Discussion. We present key domains where emergency medicine can contribute through international collaboration to address global road traffic-related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion. International collaborative programs and research offer important opportunities for emergency medicine physicians to make a meaningful impact on the global burden of disease.

  5. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis: a review of the epidemiology and estimation of the global burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lauren R; Estívariz, Concepción F; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is a rare adverse event associated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This review summarizes the epidemiology and provides a global burden estimate. A literature review was conducted to abstract the epidemiology and calculate the risk of VAPP. A bootstrap method was applied to calculate global VAPP burden estimates. Trends in VAPP epidemiology varied by country income level. In the low-income country, the majority of cases occurred in individuals who had received >3 doses of OPV (63%), whereas in middle and high-income countries, most cases occurred in recipients after their first OPV dose or unvaccinated contacts (81%). Using all risk estimates, VAPP risk was 4.7 cases per million births (range, 2.4-9.7), leading to a global annual burden estimate of 498 cases (range, 255-1018). If the analysis is limited to estimates from countries that currently use OPV, the VAPP risk is 3.8 cases per million births (range, 2.9-4.7) and a burden of 399 cases (range, 306-490). Because many high-income countries have replaced OPV with inactivated poliovirus vaccine, the VAPP burden is concentrated in lower-income countries. The planned universal introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine is likely to substantially decrease the global VAPP burden by 80%-90%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely...... aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. METHODS: We estimated global and country......-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological...

  7. The global burden of conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly E; Ferrari, Alize J; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Moffitt, Terrie E; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; Scott, James G

    2014-04-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) is the first to include conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for burden quantification. A previous systematic review pooled the available epidemiological data for CD and ADHD, and predicted prevalence by country, region, age and sex for each disorder. Prevalence was then multiplied by a disability weight to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs). As no evidence of deaths resulting directly from either CD or ADHD was found, no years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated. Therefore, the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was equal to that of YLDs. Globally, CD was responsible for 5.75 million YLDs/DALYs with ADHD responsible for a further 491,500. Collectively, CD and ADHD accounted for 0.80% of total global YLDs and 0.25% of total global DALYs. In terms of global DALYs, CD was the 72nd leading contributor and among the 15 leading causes in children aged 5-19 years. Between 1990 and 2010, global DALYs attributable to CD and ADHD remained stable after accounting for population growth and ageing. The global burden of CD and ADHD is significant, particularly in male children. Appropriate allocation of resources to address the high morbidity associated with CD and ADHD is necessary to reduce global burden. However, burden estimation was limited by data lacking for all four epidemiological parameters and by methodological challenges in quantifying disability. Future studies need to address these limitations in order to increase the accuracy of burden quantification. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. The prevalence and burden of mental and substance use disorders in Australia: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Liliana G; Ferrari, Alize J; Erskine, Holly E; Santomauro, Damian F; Charlson, Fiona J; Leung, Janni; Amare, Azmeraw T; Olagunju, Andrew T; Whiteford, Harvey A; Baune, Bernhard T

    2018-05-01

    Timely and accurate assessments of disease burden are essential for developing effective national health policies. We used the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 to examine burden due to mental and substance use disorders in Australia. For each of the 20 mental and substance use disorders included in Global Burden of Disease Study 2015, systematic reviews of epidemiological data were conducted, and data modelled using a Bayesian meta-regression tool to produce prevalence estimates by age, sex, geography and year. Prevalence for each disorder was then combined with a disorder-specific disability weight to give years lived with disability, as a measure of non-fatal burden. Fatal burden was measured as years of life lost due to premature mortality which were calculated by combining the number of deaths due to a disorder with the life expectancy remaining at the time of death. Disability-adjusted life years were calculated by summing years lived with disability and years of life lost to give a measure of total burden. Uncertainty was calculated around all burden estimates. Mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of non-fatal burden in Australia in 2015, explaining 24.3% of total years lived with disability, and were the second leading cause of total burden, accounting for 14.6% of total disability-adjusted life years. There was no significant change in the age-standardised disability-adjusted life year rates for mental and substance use disorders from 1990 to 2015. Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 found that mental and substance use disorders were leading contributors to disease burden in Australia. Despite several decades of national reform, the burden of mental and substance use disorders remained largely unchanged between 1990 and 2015. To reduce this burden, effective population-level preventions strategies are required in addition to effective interventions of sufficient duration and coverage.

  9. Global epidemiological trends and variations in the burden of gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Chandrakanth; Ahmad, Humera; Ravipati, Advaitaa; Croo, Darren; Clarey, Dillon; Smith, Lynette; Price, Ray R; Butte, Jean M; Gupta, Sameer; Chaturvedi, Arun; Chowdhury, Sanjib

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the trends and variations in the global burden of gallbladder cancer (GBC) with an emphasis on geographic variations and female gender. Data (2012-2030) relating to GBC was extracted from GLOBOCAN 2012 database and analyzed. The results of our study document a rising global burden of GBC with geographic and gender variations. The highest burden was noted in the WPRO region (based on WHO regions), Asia (based on continents) and India, Chile, and China (based on countries). The less developed regions of the world account for the majority of the global burden of GBC. The geographic variations are also present within individual countries such as in India and Chile. Females are afflicted at a much higher rate with GBC and this predilection is exaggerated in countries with higher incidence such as India and Chile. In females, people of certain ethnic groups and lower socio-economic standing are at a higher risk. Our study demonstrates a rising global burden of GBC with some specific data on geographic and gender-based variations which can be used to develop strategies at the global as well as the high-risk individual country level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Child Prostitution: Global Health Burden, Research Needs, and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Brian M.; Levy, Barry S.

    2002-01-01

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other form...

  11. Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodgers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness.For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median.Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to produce substantial reductions in disease burden.

  12. Burden of ischemic heart diseases in Iran, 1990-2010: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Maracy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are viewed worldwide as one of the main causes of death.This study aims to report the burden of ischemic heart diseases (IHDs in Iran by using data of the global burden of disease (GBD study, 1990-2010. Materials and Methods: The GBD study 2010 was a systematic effort to provide comprehensive data to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs for diseases and injuries in the world. Years of life lost (YLLs due to premature mortality were computed on the basis of cause-of-death estimates, using Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm. Years lived with disability (YLDs were assessed by the multiplication of prevalence, the disability weight for a sequel, and the duration of symptoms. A systematic review of published and unpublished data was performed to evaluate the distribution of diseases, and consequently prevalence estimates were calculated with a Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR. Data from population-based surveys were used for producing disability weights. Uncertainty from all inputs into the calculations of DALYs was disseminated by Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results: The age-standardized IHDs DALY specified rate decreased 31.25% over 20 years from 1990 to 2010 [from 4720 (95% uncertainty interval (UI: 4,341-5,099 to 3,245 (95% UI: 2,810-3,529 person-years per 100,000]. The decrease were 38.14% among women and 26.87% among men. The age-standardized IHDs death specefied rate decreased by 21.17% [from 222 95% UI: 207-243 (to 175 (95% UI:152-190 person-years per 100,000] in both the sexes. The age-standardized YLL and YLD rates decreased 32.05% and 4.28%, respectively, in the above period. Conclusion: Despite decreasing age-standardized IHD of mortality, YLL, YLD, and DALY rates from 1990 to 2010, population growth and aging increased the global burden of IHD. YLL has decreased more than IHD deaths and YLD since 1990 but IHD mortality remains the greatest contributor to disease burden.

  13. Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron J; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Frostad, Joseph; Estep, Kara; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Brunekreef, Bert; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Feigin, Valery; Freedman, Greg; Hubbell, Bryan; Jobling, Amelia; Kan, Haidong; Knibbs, Luke; Liu, Yang; Martin, Randall; Morawska, Lidia; Pope, C Arden; Shin, Hwashin; Straif, Kurt; Shaddick, Gavin; Thomas, Matthew; van Dingenen, Rita; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H

    2017-05-13

    Exposure to ambient air pollution increases morbidity and mortality, and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. We explored spatial and temporal trends in mortality and burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution from 1990 to 2015 at global, regional, and country levels. We estimated global population-weighted mean concentrations of particle mass with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM 2·5 ) and ozone at an approximate 11 km × 11 km resolution with satellite-based estimates, chemical transport models, and ground-level measurements. Using integrated exposure-response functions for each cause of death, we estimated the relative risk of mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and lower respiratory infections from epidemiological studies using non-linear exposure-response functions spanning the global range of exposure. Ambient PM 2·5 was the fifth-ranking mortality risk factor in 2015. Exposure to PM 2·5 caused 4·2 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·7 million to 4·8 million) deaths and 103·1 million (90·8 million 115·1 million) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2015, representing 7·6% of total global deaths and 4·2% of global DALYs, 59% of these in east and south Asia. Deaths attributable to ambient PM 2·5 increased from 3·5 million (95% UI 3·0 million to 4·0 million) in 1990 to 4·2 million (3·7 million to 4·8 million) in 2015. Exposure to ozone caused an additional 254 000 (95% UI 97 000-422 000) deaths and a loss of 4·1 million (1·6 million to 6·8 million) DALYs from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2015. Ambient air pollution contributed substantially to the global burden of disease in 2015, which increased over the past 25 years, due to population ageing, changes in non-communicable disease rates, and increasing air pollution in low-income and middle-income countries. Modest reductions in burden will

  14. Estimating the global clinical burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of malaria makes surveillance-based methods of estimating its disease burden problematic. Cartographic approaches have provided alternative malaria burden estimates, but there remains widespread misunderstanding about their derivation and fidelity. The aims of this study are to present a new cartographic technique and its application for deriving global clinical burden estimates of Plasmodium falciparum malaria for 2007, and to compare these estimates and their likely precision with those derived under existing surveillance-based approaches.In seven of the 87 countries endemic for P. falciparum malaria, the health reporting infrastructure was deemed sufficiently rigorous for case reports to be used verbatim. In the remaining countries, the mapped extent of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria transmission was first determined. Estimates of the plausible incidence range of clinical cases were then calculated within the spatial limits of unstable transmission. A modelled relationship between clinical incidence and prevalence was used, together with new maps of P. falciparum malaria endemicity, to estimate incidence in areas of stable transmission, and geostatistical joint simulation was used to quantify uncertainty in these estimates at national, regional, and global scales. Combining these estimates for all areas of transmission risk resulted in 451 million (95% credible interval 349-552 million clinical cases of P. falciparum malaria in 2007. Almost all of this burden of morbidity occurred in areas of stable transmission. More than half of all estimated P. falciparum clinical cases and associated uncertainty occurred in India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and Myanmar (Burma, where 1.405 billion people are at risk. Recent surveillance-based methods of burden estimation were then reviewed and discrepancies in national estimates explored. When these cartographically derived national estimates were ranked

  15. Global Burden of Leptospirosis: Estimated in Terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonosis, occurs in diverse epidemiological settings and affects vulnerable populations, such as rural subsistence farmers and urban slum dwellers. Although leptospirosis can cause life-threatening disease, there is no global burden of disease estimate in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs available.We utilised the results of a parallel publication that reported global estimates of morbidity and mortality due to leptospirosis. We estimated Years of Life Lost (YLLs from age and gender stratified mortality rates. Years of Life with Disability (YLDs were developed from a simple disease model indicating likely sequelae. DALYs were estimated from the sum of YLLs and YLDs. The study suggested that globally approximately 2.90 million DALYs are lost per annum (UIs 1.25-4.54 million from the approximately annual 1.03 million cases reported previously. Males are predominantly affected with an estimated 2.33 million DALYs (UIs 0.98-3.69 or approximately 80% of the total burden. For comparison, this is over 70% of the global burden of cholera estimated by GBD 2010. Tropical regions of South and South-east Asia, Western Pacific, Central and South America, and Africa had the highest estimated leptospirosis disease burden.Leptospirosis imparts a significant health burden worldwide, which approach or exceed those encountered for a number of other zoonotic and neglected tropical diseases. The study findings indicate that highest burden estimates occur in resource-poor tropical countries, which include regions of Africa where the burden of leptospirosis has been under-appreciated and possibly misallocated to other febrile illnesses such as malaria.

  16. Global burden of trauma: Need for effective fracture therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic trauma care and fracture management have advanced significantly over the last 50 years. New developments in the biology and biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, fixation devices, and soft tissue management have greatly influenced our ability to care for musculoskeletal injuries. Many therapies and treatment modalities have the potential to transform future orthopedic treatment by decreasing invasive procedures and providing shorter healing times. Promising results in experimental models have led to an increase in clinical application of these therapies in human subjects. However, for many modalities, precise clinical indications, timing, dosage, and mode of action still need to be clearly defined. In order to further develop fracture management strategies, predict outcomes and improve clinical application of newer technologies, further research studies are needed. Together with evolving new therapies, the strategies to improve fracture care should focus on cost effectiveness. This is a great opportunity for the global orthopedic community, in association with other stakeholders, to address the many barriers to the delivery of safe, timely, and effective care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries in developing countries.

  17. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.

  18. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids.

  19. Global burden of oral diseases: emerging concepts, management and interplay with systemic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L J; Lamster, I B; Greenspan, J S; Pitts, N B; Scully, C; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the global burden of major oral diseases with an exegetical commentary on their current profiles, the critical issues in oral healthcare and future perspectives. A narrative overview of current literature was undertaken to synthesise the contexts with critical elaboration and commentary. Oral disease is one of the most common public health issues worldwide with significant socio-economic impacts, and yet it is frequently neglected in public health policy. The oral data extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010 (Murray et al, 2012) show that caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, oral cancer and cleft lip/palate collectively accounted for 18 814 000 disability-adjusted life-years; and the global burden of periodontal disease, oral cancer and caries increased markedly by an average of 45.6% from 1990 to 2010 in parallel with the major non-communicable diseases like diabetes by 69.0%. Oral diseases and non-communicable diseases are closely interlinked through sharing common risk factors (e.g. excess sugar consumption and tobacco use) and underlying infection/inflammatory pathways. Oral disease remains a major public health burden worldwide. It is of great importance to integrate oral health into global health agenda via the common risk factor approach. The long-term sustainable strategy for global oral health should focus on health promotion and disease prevention through effective multidisciplinary teamwork. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Forecasting and Analyzing the Disease Burden of Aged Population in China, Based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhen Bao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting the disease burden of the elderly will contribute to make a comprehensive assessment about physical and mental status of the elderly in China and provide a basis for reducing the negative consequences of aging society to a minimum. Methods: This study collected data from a public database online provided by Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Grey model GM (1, 1 was used to forecast all-cause and disease-specific rates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs in 2015 and 2020. Results: After cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, we found that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were still the greatest threats in the elderly, followed by injuries. As for 136 predicted causes, more than half of NCDs increased obviously with age, less than a quarter of communicable, material, neonatal, and nutritional disorders or injuries had uptrend. Conclusions: The findings display the health condition of the Chinese elderly in the future, which will provide critical information for scientific and sociological researches on preventing and reducing the risks of aging society.

  1. Global burden of human mycetoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W J van de Sande

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of the subcutaneous tissue with a high morbidity. This disease has been reported from countries between 30°N and 15°S since 1840 but the exact burden of disease is not known. It is currently unknown what the incidence, prevalence and the number of reported cases per year per country is. In order to estimate what the global burden of mycetoma is, a meta-analysis was performed. In total 50 studies were included, which resulted in a total of 8763 mycetoma cases. Most cases were found in men between 11 and 40 years of age. The foot was most commonly affected. Most cases were reported from Mexico, Sudan and India. Madurella mycetomatis was the most prevalent causative agent world-wide, followed by Actinomadura madurae, Streptomyces somaliensis, Actinomadura pelletieri, Nocardia brasiliensis and Nocardia asteroides. Although this study represents a first indication of the global burden on mycetoma, the actual burden is probably much higher. In this study only cases reported to literature could be used and most of these cases were found by searching archives from a single hospital in a single city of that country. By erecting (international surveillance programs a more accurate estimation of the global burden on mycetoma can be obtained.

  2. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than......Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established...... different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain...

  4. The burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 1990-2015: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Mental disorders are among the leading causes of nonfatal burden of disease globally. We used the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2015 to examine the burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). We defined mental disorders according to criteria proposed in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV and the 10th International Classification of Diseases. Mental disorders contributed to 4.7% (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 3.7-5.6%) of total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), ranking as the ninth leading cause of disease burden. Depressive disorders and anxiety disorders were the third and ninth leading causes of nonfatal burden, respectively. Almost all countries in the EMR had higher age-standardized mental disorder DALYs rates compared to the global level, and in half of the EMR countries, observed mental disorder rates exceeded the expected values. The burden of mental disorders in the EMR is higher than global levels, particularly for women. To properly address this burden, EMR governments should implement nationwide quality epidemiological surveillance of mental disorders and provide adequate prevention and treatment services.

  5. The global burden of mental disorders : An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about

  6. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne

  7. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so...... it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...

  8. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Smith, Jennifer L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Brooker, Simon J

    2014-01-21

    Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 - 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 - 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations at risk however, the burden

  9. The epidemiological modelling of dysthymia: application for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona J; Ferrari, Alize J; Flaxman, Abraham D; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-10-01

    In order to capture the differences in burden between the subtypes of depression, the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study for the first time estimated the burden of dysthymia and major depressive disorder separately from the previously used umbrella term 'unipolar depression'. A global summary of epidemiological parameters are necessary inputs in burden of disease calculations for 21 world regions, males and females and for the year 1990, 2005 and 2010. This paper reports findings from a systematic review of global epidemiological data and the subsequent development of an internally consistent epidemiological model of dysthymia. A systematic search was conducted to identify data sources for the prevalence, incidence, remission and excess-mortality of dysthymia using Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to check the epidemiological parameters for internal consistency and to predict estimates for world regions with no or few data. The systematic review identified 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria which provided 147 data points for 30 countries in 13 of 21 world regions. Prevalence increases in the early ages, peaking at around 50 years. Females have higher prevalence of dysthymia than males. Global pooled prevalence remained constant across time points at 1.55% (95%CI 1.50-1.60). There was very little regional variation in prevalence estimates. There were eight GBD world regions for which we found no data for which DisMod-MR had to impute estimates. The addition of internally consistent epidemiological estimates by world region, age, sex and year for dysthymia contributed to a more comprehensive estimate of mental health burden in GBD 2010. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative quantification of alcohol exposure as risk factor for global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Klotsche, Jens; Patra, Jayadeep

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol has been identified as one of the most important risk factors in the burden experienced as a result of disease. The objective of the present contribution is to establish a framework to comparatively quantify alcohol exposure as it is relevant for burden of disease. Different key indicators are combined to derive this quantification. First, adult per capita consumption, composed of recorded and unrecorded consumption, yields the best overall estimate of alcohol exposure for a country or region. Second, survey information is used to allocate the per capita consumption into sex and age groups. Third, an index for detrimental patterns of drinking is used to determine the additional impact on injury and cardiovascular burden. The methodology is applied to estimate global alcohol exposure for the year 2002. Finally, assumptions and potential problems of the approach are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.L. Murray (Christopher); K.F. Ortblad (Katrina F); C. Guinovart (Caterina); S.S. Lim (Stephen); T.M. Wolock (Timothy M); D.A. Roberts (D Allen); E.A. Dansereau (Emily A); N. Graetz (Nicholas); R.M. Barber (Ryan); J.C. Brown (Jonathan C); H. Wang (Haidong); H.C. Duber (Herbert C); M. Naghavi (Morteza); D. Dicker (Daniel); L. Dandona (Lalit); J.A. Salomon (Joshua); K.R. Heuton (Kyle R); K. Foreman (Kyle); D.E. Phillips (David E); T.D. Fleming (Thomas D); A.D. Flaxman (Abraham D); B.K. Phillips (Bryan K); E.M. Johnson (Elizabeth); M.S. Coggeshall (Megan S); F. Abd-Allah (Foad); S.F. Abera (Semaw Ferede); J.P. Abraham (Jerry); I. Abubakar (Ibrahim); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J); N.M. Abu-Rmeileh (Niveen Me); T. Achoki (Tom); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); A.K. Adou (Arsène Kouablan); J.C. Adsuar (José C); E.E. Agardh (Emilie Elisabet); D. Akena (Dickens); M.J. Al Kahbouri (Mazin J); D. Alasfoor (Deena); M.I. Albittar (Mohammed I); G. Alcalá-Cerra (Gabriel); M.A. Alegretti (Miguel Angel); G. Alemu (Getnet ); R. Alfonso-Cristancho (Rafael); S. Alhabib (Samia); R. Ali (Raghib); F. Alla (Francois); P.J. Allen (Peter); U. Alsharif (Ubai); E. Alvarez (Elena); N. Alvis-Guzman (Nelson); A.A. Amankwaa (Adansi A); A.T. Amare (Azmeraw T); H. Amini (Hassan); K.A. Ammar; B.O. Anderson (Benjamin); C.A.T. Antonio (Carl Abelardo T); P. Anwari (Palwasha); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); V.S.A. Arsenijevic (Valentina S Arsic); A. Artaman (Ali); R.J. Asghar (Rana J); R. Assadi (Reza); L.S. Atkins (Lydia S); A.F. Badawi (Alaa); A. Banerjee (Amitava); S. Basu (Saonli); J. Beardsley (Justin); T. Bekele (Tolesa); M.L. Bell (Michelle Lee); E. Bernabe (Eduardo); T.J. Beyene (Tariku Jibat); N. Bhala (Neeraj); P.L. Bhalla (Pankaj); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); A.B. Abdulhak (Aref Bin); A. Binagwaho (Agnes); J.D. Blore (Jed D); D. Bose (Dipan); M. Brainin (Michael); N. Breitborde (Nicholas); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); F. Catalá-López (Ferrán); D. Chadha; J.-C. Chang (Jung-Chen); Y.T. Chiang; T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); M. Colomar (Mercedes); L.T. Cooper Jr. (Leslie Trumbull); C. Cooper (Charles); K.J. Courville (Karen J); M.R. Cowie (Martin R.); M. Criqui (Michael); R. Dandona (Rakhi); A. Dayama (Anand); D. de Leo (Diego); F. Degenhardt; B. Del Pozo-Cruz (Borja); K. Deribe (Kebede); D.C. Des Jarlais (Don C); M. Dessalegn (Muluken); S.D. Dharmaratne (Samath D); U. Dilmen (Uǧur); E.L. Ding (Eric); J.M. Driscoll; Z. Durrani; R.G. Ellenbogen (Richard G); S. Ermakov (Sergey); A. Esteghamati (Alireza); E.J.A. Faraon (Emerito Jose A); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); S.-M. Fereshtehnejad (Seyed-Mohammad); D.O. Fijabi (Daniel Obadare); M.H. Forouzanfar (Mohammad H); U. Fra.Paleo (Urbano); L. Gaffikin (Lynne); A. Gamkrelidze (Amiran); F.G. Gankpé (Fortuné Gbètoho); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); B.D. Gessner (Bradford D); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); I.A.M. Ginawi (Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed); E.L. Glaser (Elizabeth L); P. Gona (Philimon); A. Goto (Akimoto); H.N. Gouda (Hebe N); H.C. Gugnani (Harish Chander); R. Gupta (Rajeev); R. Gupta (Rajeev); N. Hafezi-Nejad (Nima); R.R. Hamadeh (Randah Ribhi); M. Hammami (Mouhanad); G.J. Hankey (Graeme); H.L. Harb (Hilda L); J.M. Haro (Josep Maria); R. Havmoeller (Rasmus); S.I. Hay (Simon I); M.T. Hedayati (Mohammad T); I.B.H. Pi (Ileana B Heredia); H.W. Hoek (Hans); J.C. Hornberger (John C); H.D. Hosgood (H Dean); P.J. Hotez (Peter); D.G. Hoy (Damian G); J. Huang (Jian); K.M. Iburg (Kim M); B.T. Idrisov (Bulat T); K. Innos (Kaire); K.H. Jacobsen (Kathryn H); P. Jeemon (Panniyammakal); P.N. Jensen (Paul N); V. Jha (Vivekanand); G. Jiang (Guohong); J.B. Jonas; K. Juel (Knud); H. Kan (Haidong); I. Kankindi (Ida); V. Karam (Vincent); F. Karch (Francois); C.K. Karema (Corine Kakizi); A. Kaul (Anil); N. Kawakami (Norito); D.S. Kazi (Dhruv S); A.H. Kemp (Andrew H); A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); A. Keren (Andre); M. Kereselidze (Maia); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); S.E.A.H. Khalifa (Shams Eldin Ali Hassan); E.A. Khan (Ejaz Ahmed); Y.-H. Khang (Young-Ho); I. Khonelidze (Irma); Y. Kinfu (Yohannes); J.M. Kinge (Jonas M); L. Knibbs (Luke); Y. Kokubo (Yoshihiro); S. Kosen (Soewarta); B.K. Defo (Barthelemy Kuate); V.S. Kulkarni (Veena S); C. Kulkarni (Chanda); K. Kumar (Kuldeep); R.B. Kumar (Ravi B); G.A. Kumar (G Anil); G.F. Kwan (Gene F); T. Lai (Taavi); A.L. Balaji (Arjun Lakshmana); H. Lam (Hilton); Q. Lan (Qing); V.C. Lansingh (Van C); H.J. Larson (Heidi J); A. Larsson (Anders); J.-T. Lee (Jong-Tae); P.N. Leigh (Nigel); M. Leinsalu (Mall); R. Leung (Ricky); Y. Li (Yichong); Y. Li (Yongmei); G.M.F. de Lima (Graça Maria Ferreira); H.-H. Lin (Hsien-Ho); S.E. Lipshultz (Steven); S. Liu (Simin); Y. Liu (Yang); B.K. Lloyd (Belinda K); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); V.M.P. Machado (Vasco Manuel Pedro); J.H. Maclachlan (Jennifer H); C. Magis-Rodriguez (Carlos); M. Majdan (Marek); C.C. Mapoma (Christopher Chabila); W. Marcenes (Wagner); M.B. Marzan (Melvin Barrientos); J.R. Masci (Joseph R); R. Mashal; A.J. Mason-Jones (Amanda J); B.M. Mayosi (Bongani); T.T. Mazorodze (Tasara T); M.J. Mckay (Michael); M.J. Meaney; M.M. Mehndiratta (Man Mohan); F. Mejia-Rodriguez (Fabiola); Y.A. Melaku (Yohannes Adama); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); W. Mendoza (Walter); T.R. Miller (Ted R); E.J. Mills (Edward J); K.A. Mohammad (Karzan Abdulmuhsin); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H); G.L. Mola (Glen Liddell); L. Monasta (Lorenzo); M. Montico (Marcella); A.R. Moore (Ami R); R. Mori (Riccardo); W.N. Moturi (Wilkister Nyaora); M. Mukaigawara (Mitsuru); A.C. Murthy (Adeline C.); A. Naheed (Aliya); K.S. Naidoo (Kovin S); L. Naldi; M. Nangia (Monika); K.M.V. Narayan (Venkat); J.H.E. Nash (John); C. Nejjari (Chakib); R.D. Nelson (Robert); S.P. Neupane (Sudan Prasad); C. Newton (Cameron); M. Ng (Marie); M.I. Nisar (Muhammad Imran); S. Nolte (Sandra); O.F. Norheim (Ole F); V. Nowaseb (Vincent); L. Nyakarahuka (Luke); I.-H. Oh (In-Hwan); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); B.O. Olusanya (Bolajoko O); S.B. Omer (Saad B); J.N. Opio (John Nelson); O.E. Orisakwe (Orish Ebere); N.G. Pandian (Natesa); C. Papachristou; M.S. Caicedo (Marco); J. Patten; V.K. Paul (Vinod K); B.I. Pavlin (Boris Igor); N. Pearce (Neil); D.M. Pereira (David M); Z. Pervaiz (Zahid); K. Pesudovs (Konrad); M. Petzold (Max); F. Pourmalek (Farshad); D. Qato (Dima); A.D. Quezada (Amado D); D.A. Quistberg (D Alex); A. Rafay (Anwar); K. Rahimi (Kazem); V. Rahimi-Movaghar (Vafa); S.U. Rahman (Sajjad Ur); M. Raju (Murugesan); S.M. Rana (Saleem M); H. Razavi (Homie); R.Q. Reilly (Robert Quentin); G. Remuzzi (Giuseppe); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); L. Ronfani (Luca); N. van Roy (Nadine); M.L. Sabin (Miriam Lewis); M.Y. Saeedi (Mohammad Yahya); M.A. Sahraian (Mohammad Ali); G.M.J. Samonte (Genesis May J); M.S. Sawhney (Monika); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); D.C. Schwebel (David C); S. Seedat (Soraya); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); E.E. Servan-Mori (Edson E); S. Sheikhbahaei (Sara); K. Shibuya (Kenji); H.H. Shin (Hwashin Hyun); I. Shiue (Ivy); R. Shivakoti (Rupak); I.D. Sigfusdottir (Inga Dora); D.H. Silberberg (Donald H); A.P. Silva (Andrea P); J. Simard (Jacques); J.A. Singh (Jasvinder); V. Skirbekk (Vegard); K. Sliwa (Karen); S. Soneji (Samir); S.S. Soshnikov (Sergey S); C.T. Sreeramareddy (Chandrashekhar T); V.K. Stathopoulou (Vasiliki Kalliopi); K. Stroumpoulis (Konstantinos); S. Swaminathan; B.C. Sykes (Bryan); K.M. Tabb (Karen M); R.T. Talongwa (Roberto Tchio); E.Y. Tenkorang (Eric Yeboah); A.S. Terkawi (Abdullah Sulieman); A.J. Thomson (Alan J); A.L. Thorne-Lyman (Andrew L); J.A. Towbin (Jeffrey A); J. Traebert (Jefferson); B.X. Tran (Bach X); Z.T. Dimbuene (Zacharie Tsala); M. Tsilimbaris (Miltiadis); U.S. Uchendu (Uche S); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); S.R. Vallely (Stephen); T.J. Vasankari (Tommi J); N. Venketasubramanian (Narayanaswamy); F.S. Violante (Francesco S); V.V. Vlassov (Vasiliy Victorovich); P. Waller (Patrick); M.T. Wallin (Mitchell T); L. Wang (Linhong); S.X. Wang; Y. Wang (Yanping); S. Weichenthal (Scott); E. Weiderpass (Elisabete); R.G. Weintraub (Robert G); R. Westerman (Ronny); R.G. White (Richard); J.D. Wilkinson (James D); T.N. Williams (Thomas Neil); S.M. Woldeyohannes (Solomon Meseret); J.B. Wong (John); G. Xu (Gelin); Y.C. Yang (Yang C); K.-I. Yano; P. Yip (Paul); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); S.-J. Yoon (Seok-Jun); M. Younis (Mustafa); C. Yu (Chuanhua); K.Y. Jin (Kim Yun); M. El Sayed Zaki (Maysaa); Y. Zhao (Yong); Y. Zheng (Yuhui); K. Balakrishnan (Kalpana); M. Zhou (Ming); J. Zhu (Jun); X.N. Zou (Xiao Nong); A.D. Lopez (Alan D); T. Vos (Theo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach

  12. TB Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sputum can also be used to do a culture. TB blood test – a test that uses a blood sample to find out if you are infected with TB bacteria. The test measures the response to TB proteins when they are mixed with a small amount of blood. Examples of these TB blood tests include QuantiFERON ® -TB ...

  13. Approaches to Refining Estimates of Global Burden and Economics of Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Guzmán, María G.; Halstead, Scott B.; Harris, Eva; Mudin, Rose Nani; Murray, Kristy O.; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Gubler, Duane J.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue presents a formidable and growing global economic and disease burden, with around half the world's population estimated to be at risk of infection. There is wide variation and substantial uncertainty in current estimates of dengue disease burden and, consequently, on economic burden estimates. Dengue disease varies across time, geography and persons affected. Variations in the transmission of four different viruses and interactions among vector density and host's immune status, age, pre-existing medical conditions, all contribute to the disease's complexity. This systematic review aims to identify and examine estimates of dengue disease burden and costs, discuss major sources of uncertainty, and suggest next steps to improve estimates. Economic analysis of dengue is mainly concerned with costs of illness, particularly in estimating total episodes of symptomatic dengue. However, national dengue disease reporting systems show a great diversity in design and implementation, hindering accurate global estimates of dengue episodes and country comparisons. A combination of immediate, short-, and long-term strategies could substantially improve estimates of disease and, consequently, of economic burden of dengue. Suggestions for immediate implementation include refining analysis of currently available data to adjust reported episodes and expanding data collection in empirical studies, such as documenting the number of ambulatory visits before and after hospitalization and including breakdowns by age. Short-term recommendations include merging multiple data sources, such as cohort and surveillance data to evaluate the accuracy of reporting rates (by health sector, treatment, severity, etc.), and using covariates to extrapolate dengue incidence to locations with no or limited reporting. Long-term efforts aim at strengthening capacity to document dengue transmission using serological methods to systematically analyze and relate to epidemiologic data. As promising tools

  14. Global Burden of Disease of Mercury Used in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Tobollik, Myriam; Plass, Dietrich; Hornberg, Claudia; Ericson, Bret; Fuller, Richard; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's largest anthropogenic source of mercury emission. Gold miners are highly exposed to metallic mercury and suffer occupational mercury intoxication. The global disease burden as a result of this exposure is largely unknown because the informal character of ASGM restricts the availability of reliable data. To estimate the prevalence of occupational mercury intoxication and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) among ASGM gold miners globally and in selected countries. Estimates of the number of artisanal small-scale gold (ASG) miners were extracted from reviews supplemented by a literature search. Prevalence of moderate CMMVI among miners was determined by compiling a dataset of available studies that assessed frequency of intoxication in gold miners using a standardized diagnostic tool and biomonitoring data on mercury in urine. Severe cases of CMMVI were not included because it was assumed that these persons can no longer be employed as miners. Cases in workers' families and communities were not considered. Years lived with disability as a result of CMMVI among ASG miners were quantified by multiplying the number of prevalent cases of CMMVI by the appropriate disability weight. No deaths are expected to result from CMMVI and therefore years of life lost were not calculated. Disease burden was calculated by multiplying the prevalence rate with the number of miners for each country and the disability weight. Sensitivity analyses were performed using different assumptions on the number of miners and the intoxication prevalence rate. Globally, 14-19 million workers are employed as ASG miners. Based on human biomonitoring data, between 25% and 33% of these miners-3.3-6.5 million miners globally-suffer from moderate CMMVI. The resulting global burden of disease is estimated to range from 1.22 (uncertainty interval [UI] 0.87-1.61) to 2.39 (UI 1

  15. Global, Regional, and National Burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David A; Johnson, Catherine O; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Beaton, Andrea; Bukhman, Gene; Forouzanfar, Mohammed H; Longenecker, Christopher T; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mensah, George A; Nascimento, Bruno R; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Sable, Craig A; Steer, Andrew C; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Roth, Gregory A

    2017-08-24

    Rheumatic heart disease remains an important preventable cause of cardiovascular death and disability, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. We estimated global, regional, and national trends in the prevalence of and mortality due to rheumatic heart disease as part of the 2015 Global Burden of Disease study. We systematically reviewed data on fatal and nonfatal rheumatic heart disease for the period from 1990 through 2015. Two Global Burden of Disease analytic tools, the Cause of Death Ensemble model and DisMod-MR 2.1, were used to produce estimates of mortality and prevalence, including estimates of uncertainty. We estimated that there were 319,400 (95% uncertainty interval, 297,300 to 337,300) deaths due to rheumatic heart disease in 2015. Global age-standardized mortality due to rheumatic heart disease decreased by 47.8% (95% uncertainty interval, 44.7 to 50.9) from 1990 to 2015, but large differences were observed across regions. In 2015, the highest age-standardized mortality due to and prevalence of rheumatic heart disease were observed in Oceania, South Asia, and central sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated that in 2015 there were 33.4 million (95% uncertainty interval, 29.7 million to 43.1 million) cases of rheumatic heart disease and 10.5 million (95% uncertainty interval, 9.6 million to 11.5 million) disability-adjusted life-years due to rheumatic heart disease globally. We estimated the global disease prevalence of and mortality due to rheumatic heart disease over a 25-year period. The health-related burden of rheumatic heart disease has declined worldwide, but high rates of disease persist in some of the poorest regions in the world. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Medtronic Foundation.).

  16. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Naghavi, Mohsen; Wulf, Sarah K.; Johns, Nicole; Lozano, Rafael; Regan, Mathilda; Weatherall, David; Chou, David P.; Eisele, Thomas P.; Flaxman, Seth R.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Brooker, Simon J.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of anemia epidemiology have been geographically limited with little detail about severity or etiology. Using publicly available data, we estimated mild, moderate, and severe anemia from 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries, both sexes, and 20 age groups. We then performed cause-specific attribution to 17 conditions using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors (GBD) 2010 Study. Global anemia prevalence in 2010 was 32.9%, causing 68.36 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 40.98 to 107.54) million years lived with disability (8.8% of total for all conditions [95% UI, 6.3% to 11.7%]). Prevalence dropped for both sexes from 1990 to 2010, although more for males. Prevalence in females was higher in most regions and age groups. South Asia and Central, West, and East sub-Saharan Africa had the highest burden, while East, Southeast, and South Asia saw the greatest reductions. Iron-deficiency anemia was the top cause globally, although 10 different conditions were among the top 3 in regional rankings. Malaria, schistosomiasis, and chronic kidney disease–related anemia were the only conditions to increase in prevalence. Hemoglobinopathies made significant contributions in most populations. Burden was highest in children under age 5, the only age groups with negative trends from 1990 to 2010. PMID:24297872

  17. Drinking and its burden in a global perspective: policy considerations and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Graham, Kathryn; Rehm, Jürgen; Jernigan, David; Monteiro, Maristela

    2003-10-01

    To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. Overall volume of consumption is the major factor in the prevalence of harms from drinking. Since consumption and associated problems tend to increase with economic development, policymakers in developing economies should be especially aware of the need to develop policies to minimize overall increases in alcohol consumption. Unrecorded consumption is also an important consideration for policy in many parts of the world, and poses difficulties for alcohol control policies. Drinking pattern is also an important contributing factor toward alcohol-related harm. Although some drinking patterns have been shown to produce beneficial health effects, because the net effect of alcohol on coronary disease is negative in most parts of the world, policies that promote abstinence or lower drinking overall may be the safest options. Moreover, sporadic intoxication is common in many parts of the world, and policies are unlikely to change this drinking pattern at least in the short to medium term. At the same time, because injuries comprise a large proportion of the burden of alcohol, it is appropriate to enhance these policies with targeted harm reduction strategies such as drinking and driving countermeasures and interventions focused on reducing alcohol-related violence in specific high-risk settings. Alcohol consumption is a major factor for the global burden of disease and should be considered a public health priority globally, regionally, and nationally for the vast majority of countries in the world. The need for alcohol policy is even stronger when it is taken into consideration that the burden of

  18. Tuberculosis among older adults in Zambia: burden and characteristics among a neglected group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Jenna; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Marais, Ben J; Kapata, Nathan; Zumla, Alimuddin; Negin, Joel

    2017-10-12

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates show that 57% of all TB deaths globally occurred among adults older than 50 years of age. Few studies document the TB burden among older adults in Southern Africa. We focused on adults older than 55 years to assess the relative TB burden and associated demographic factors. A cross sectional nationally representative TB prevalence survey conducted of Zambian residents aged 15 years and above from 66 clusters across all the 10 provinces of Zambia. Evaluation included testing for TB as well as an in-depth questionnaire. We compared survey data for those aged 55 and older to those aged 15-54 years. Survey results were also compared with 2013 routinely collected programmatic notification data to generate future hypotheses regarding active and passive case finding. Among older adults with TB, 30/ 54 (55.6%) were male, 3/27 (11.1%) were HIV infected and 35/54 (64.8%) lived in rural areas. TB prevalence was higher in those aged ≥55 (0.7%) than in the 15-54 age group (0.5%). Males had higher rates of TB across both age groups with 0.7% (15-54) and 1.0% (≥55) compared with females 0.4% (15-54) and 0.6% (≥55). In rural areas, the prevalence of TB was significantly higher among older than younger adults (0.7% vs 0.3%), while the HIV infection rate was among TB patients was lower (11.1% vs 30.8%). The prevalence survey detected TB in 54/7484 (0.7%) of older adults compared to 3619/723,000 (0.5%) reported in 2013 programmatic data. High TB rates among older adults in TB endemic areas justify consideration of active TB case finding and prevention strategies.

  19. Off-stage ecosystem service burdens: A blind spot for global sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Unai; Palomo, Ignacio; Adams, William M.; Chan, Kai M. A.; Daw, Tim M.; Garmendia, Eneko; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; de Groot, Rudolf S.; Mace, Georgina M.; Martín-López, Berta; Phelps, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The connected nature of social-ecological systems has never been more apparent than in today’s globalized world. The ecosystem service framework and associated ecosystem assessments aim to better inform the science-policy response to sustainability challenges. Such assessments, however, often overlook distant, diffuse and delayed impacts that are critical for global sustainability. Ecosystem-services science must better recognise the off-stage impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services of place-based ecosystem management, which we term ‘ecosystem service burdens’. These are particularly important since they are often negative, and have a potentially significant effect on ecosystem management decisions. Ecosystem-services research can better recognise these off-stage burdens through integration with other analytical approaches, such as life cycle analysis and risk-based approaches that better account for the uncertainties involved. We argue that off-stage ecosystem service burdens should be incorporated in ecosystem assessments such as those led by the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Taking better account of these off-stage burdens is essential to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cross-scale interactions, a pre-requisite for any sustainability transition.

  20. Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe H; Pinho, Christine; Wagner, Joseph A; Brown, Jonathan C; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Charlson, Fiona J; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Dandona, Lalit; Erskine, Holly E; Ferrari, Alize J; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Larson, Heidi J; Lim, Stephen S; Mokdad, Ali H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Odell, Shaun V; Roth, Gregory A; Serina, Peter T; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Misganaw, Awoke; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wolock, Timothy M; Wulf Hanson, Sarah; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Amare, Azmeraw T; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Artaman, Al; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barrero, Lope H; Benjet, Corina; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Brazinova, Alexandra; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Cooper, Cyrus; Crump, John A; Dandona, Rakhi; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Feigin, Valery L; Fürst, Thomas; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gibney, Katherine B; Goto, Atsushi; Gunnell, David; Hankey, Graeme J; Hay, Roderick J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jonas, Jost B; Karch, André; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kumar, G Anil; Larsson, Anders; Leasher, Janet L; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yongmei; Lipshultz, Steven E; Lopez, Alan D; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mashal, Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Murray, Joseph; Nolte, Sandra; Oh, In-Hwan; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Ortblad, Katrina F; Park, Eun-Kee; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J; Patten, Scott B; Patton, George C; Pereira, David M; Perico, Norberto; Piel, Frédéric B; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Quistberg, D Alex; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H; Sanabria, Juan; Santos, Itamar S; Schwebel, David C; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaheen, Amira; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stein, Dan J; Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wilkinson, James D; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D A; Yano, Yuichiro; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-03-01

    The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged infection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR 2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates. Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013, 6.28 million occurred among younger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections among younger children (905.059 deaths; 95% UI, 810,304-998,125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38,325 deaths; 95% UI, 30,365-47,678), and road injuries among adolescents (115,186 deaths; 95% UI, 105,185-124,870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among

  1. La carga global del cáncer (The Global Cancer Burden)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    Este podcast describe la carga global del cáncer y los esfuerzos de los CDC y otras entidades para reducir esa carga.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/13/2012.

  2. Road traffic accidents: Global Burden of Disease study, Brazil and federated units, 1990 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Morais, Otaliba Libânio de; Montenegro, Marli de Mesquita Silva; Soares, Adauto Martins; Vasconcelos, Cíntia Honório; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    To describe the global burden of disease due to road traffic accidents in Brazil and federated units in 1990 and 2015. This is an analysis of secondary data from the 2015 Global Burden of Disease study estimates. The following estimates were used: standardized mortality rates and years of life lost by death or disability, potential years of life lost due to premature death, and years of unhealthy living conditions. The Mortality Information System was the main source of death data. Underreporting and redistribution of ill-defined causes and nonspecific codes were corrected. Around 52,326 deaths due to road traffic accidents were estimated in Brazil in 2015. From 1990 to 2015, mortality rates decreased from 36.9 to 24.8/100 thousand people, a reduction of 32.8%. Tocantins and Piauí have the highest mortality risks among the federated units (FU), with 41.7/100 and 33.1/100 thousand people, respectively. They both present the highest rates of potential years of life lost due to premature deaths. Road traffic accidents are a public health problem. Using death- or disability-adjusted life years in studies of these causes is important because there are still no sources to know the magnitude of sequelae, as well as the weight of early deaths. Since its data are updated every year, the Global Burden of Disease study may provide evidence to formulate traffic security and health attention policies, which are guided to the needs of the federated units and of different groups of traffic users.

  3. The burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations: a systematic review and global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Moore, Suzanne P; Hassler, Sven; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie

    2014-01-01

    Stomach cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, especially in developing countries. Incidence has been associated with poverty and is also reported to disproportionately affect indigenous peoples, many of whom live in poor socioeconomic circumstances and experience lower standards of health. In this comprehensive assessment, we explore the burden of stomach cancer among indigenous peoples globally. The literature was searched systematically for studies on stomach cancer incidence, mortality and survival in indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, Maori in New Zealand, indigenous peoples from the circumpolar region, native Americans and Alaska natives in the USA, and the Mapuche peoples in Chile. Data from the New Zealand Health Information Service and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to estimate trends in incidence. Elevated rates of stomach cancer incidence and mortality were found in almost all indigenous peoples relative to corresponding non-indigenous populations in the same regions or countries. This was particularly evident among Inuit residing in the circumpolar region (standardised incidence ratios (SIR) males: 3.9, females: 3.6) and in Maori (SIR males: 2.2, females: 3.2). Increasing trends in incidence were found for some groups. We found a higher burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations globally, and rising incidence in some indigenous groups, in stark contrast to the decreasing global trends. This is of major public health concern requiring close surveillance and further research of potential risk factors. Given evidence that improving nutrition and housing sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes could reduce stomach cancer rates, policies which address these initiatives could reduce inequalities in stomach cancer burden for indigenous peoples.

  4. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015 : the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M.; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua; Larson, Heidi J.; Friedman, Joseph; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd El Razek, Mohamed Magdy; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed S.; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Ali, Raghib; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral

  5. Measuring the global burden of disease and epidemiological transitions: 2002-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A D; Mathers, C D

    2006-01-01

    Any planning process for health development ought to be based on a thorough understanding of the health needs of the population. This should be sufficiently comprehensive to include the causes of premature death and of disability, as well as the major risk factors that underlie disease and injury. To be truly useful to inform health-policy debates, such an assessment is needed across a large number of diseases, injuries and risk factors, in order to guide prioritization. The results of the original Global Burden of Disease Study and, particularly, those of its 2000-2002 update provide a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability: the disability-adjusted life-year (DALY). Globally, it appears that about 56 million deaths occur each year, 10.5 million (almost all in poor countries) in children. Of the child deaths, about one-fifth result from perinatal causes such as birth asphyxia and birth trauma, and only slightly less from lower respiratory infections. Annually, diarrhoeal diseases kill over 1.5 million children, and malaria, measles and HIV/AIDS each claim between 500,000 and 800,000 children. HIV/AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death world-wide (2.9 million deaths) and the leading cause in Africa. The top three causes of death globally are ischaemic heart disease (7.2 million deaths), stroke (5.5 million) and lower respiratory diseases (3.9 million). Chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD) cause almost as many deaths as HIV/AIDS (2.7 million). The leading causes of DALY, on the other hand, include causes that are common at young ages [perinatal conditions (7.1% of global DALY), lower respiratory infections (6.7%), and diarrhoeal diseases (4.7%)] as well as depression (4.1%). Ischaemic heart disease and stroke rank sixth and seventh, retrospectively, as causes of global disease burden, followed by road traffic accidents, malaria and tuberculosis

  6. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Colin D; Loncar, Dejan

    2006-11-01

    Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios-baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic-based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs reaches 80% by 2012. Under the optimistic scenario, which

  7. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios-baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic-based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs

  8. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Colin D; Loncar, Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Background Global and regional projections of mortality and burden of disease by cause for the years 2000, 2010, and 2030 were published by Murray and Lopez in 1996 as part of the Global Burden of Disease project. These projections, which are based on 1990 data, continue to be widely quoted, although they are substantially outdated; in particular, they substantially underestimated the spread of HIV/AIDS. To address the widespread demand for information on likely future trends in global health, and thereby to support international health policy and priority setting, we have prepared new projections of mortality and burden of disease to 2030 starting from World Health Organization estimates of mortality and burden of disease for 2002. This paper describes the methods, assumptions, input data, and results. Methods and Findings Relatively simple models were used to project future health trends under three scenarios—baseline, optimistic, and pessimistic—based largely on projections of economic and social development, and using the historically observed relationships of these with cause-specific mortality rates. Data inputs have been updated to take account of the greater availability of death registration data and the latest available projections for HIV/AIDS, income, human capital, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and other inputs. In all three scenarios there is a dramatic shift in the distribution of deaths from younger to older ages and from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes to noncommunicable disease causes. The risk of death for children younger than 5 y is projected to fall by nearly 50% in the baseline scenario between 2002 and 2030. The proportion of deaths due to noncommunicable disease is projected to rise from 59% in 2002 to 69% in 2030. Global HIV/AIDS deaths are projected to rise from 2.8 million in 2002 to 6.5 million in 2030 under the baseline scenario, which assumes coverage with antiretroviral drugs reaches 80% by 2012

  9. Global health development assistance remained steady in 2013 but did not align with recipients' disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Graves, Casey M; Templin, Tara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Baral, Ranju; Leach-Kemon, Katherine; Haakenstad, Annie M; Murray, Christopher J L

    2014-05-01

    Tracking development assistance for health for low- and middle-income countries gives policy makers information about spending patterns and potential improvements in resource allocation. We tracked the flows of development assistance and explored the relationship between national income, disease burden, and assistance. We estimated that development assistance for health reached US$31.3 billion in 2013. Increased assistance from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; the GAVI Alliance; and bilateral agencies in the United Kingdom helped raise funding to the highest level to date. The largest portion of health assistance targeted HIV/AIDS (25 percent); 20 percent targeted maternal, newborn, and child health. Disease burden and economic development were significantly associated with development assistance for health, but many countries received considerably more or less aid than these indicators predicted. Five countries received more than five times their expected amount of health aid, and seven others received less than one-fifth their expected funding. The lack of alignment between disease burden, income, and funding reveals the potential for improvement in resource allocation.

  10. The Burden Attributable to Mental and Substance Use Disorders as Risk Factors for Suicide: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alize J.; Norman, Rosana E.; Freedman, Greg; Baxter, Amanda J.; Pirkis, Jane E.; Harris, Meredith G.; Page, Andrew; Carnahan, Emily; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) identified mental and substance use disorders as the 5th leading contributor of burden in 2010, measured by disability adjusted life years (DALYs). This estimate was incomplete as it excluded burden resulting from the increased risk of suicide captured elsewhere in GBD 2010's mutually exclusive list of diseases and injuries. Here, we estimate suicide DALYs attributable to mental and substance use disorders. Methods Relative-risk estimates of suicide due to mental and substance use disorders and the global prevalence of each disorder were used to estimate population attributable fractions. These were adjusted for global differences in the proportion of suicide due to mental and substance use disorders compared to other causes then multiplied by suicide DALYs reported in GBD 2010 to estimate attributable DALYs (with 95% uncertainty). Results Mental and substance use disorders were responsible for 22.5 million (14.8–29.8 million) of the 36.2 million (26.5–44.3 million) DALYs allocated to suicide in 2010. Depression was responsible for the largest proportion of suicide DALYs (46.1% (28.0%–60.8%)) and anorexia nervosa the lowest (0.2% (0.02%–0.5%)). DALYs occurred throughout the lifespan, with the largest proportion found in Eastern Europe and Asia, and males aged 20–30 years. The inclusion of attributable suicide DALYs would have increased the overall burden of mental and substance use disorders (assigned to them in GBD 2010 as a direct cause) from 7.4% (6.2%–8.6%) to 8.3% (7.1%–9.6%) of global DALYs, and would have changed the global ranking from 5th to 3rd leading cause of burden. Conclusions Capturing the suicide burden attributable to mental and substance use disorders allows for more accurate estimates of burden. More consideration needs to be given to interventions targeted to populations with, or at risk for, mental and substance use disorders as an effective strategy for suicide

  11. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  12. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingham, Radha; Smith, Rachel M; Park, Benjamin J; Jarvis, Joseph N; Govender, Nelesh P; Chiller, Tom M; Denning, David W; Loyse, Angela; Boulware, David R

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. Methods We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. Estimates of CD4 less than 100 cells per µL, virological failure incidence, and loss to follow-up were from published multinational cohorts in low-income and middle-income countries. We calculated those at risk for cryptococcal infection, specifically those with CD4 less than 100 cells/µL not on ART, and those with CD4 less than 100 cells per µL on ART but lost to follow-up or with virological failure. Cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence by country was derived from 46 studies globally. Based on cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence in each country and region, we estimated the annual numbers of people who are developing and dying from cryptococcal meningitis. Findings We estimated an average global cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence of 6·0% (95% CI 5·8–6·2) among people with a CD4 cell count of less than 100 cells per µL, with 278 000 (95% CI 195 500–340 600) people positive for cryptococcal antigen globally and 223 100 (95% CI 150 600–282 400) incident cases of cryptococcal meningitis globally in 2014. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 73% of the estimated cryptococcal meningitis cases in 2014 (162 500 cases [95% CI 113 600–193 900]). Annual global deaths from cryptococcal meningitis were estimated at 181 100 (95% CI 119 400–234 300), with 135 900 (75%; [95% CI 93 900–163 900]) deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, cryptococcal meningitis was responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths (95% CI 10–19). Interpretation Our analysis highlights the substantial ongoing burden of HIV

  13. MO-FG-BRB-04: Panel discussion [Global burden of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyk, J. [Western University (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  14. Global Role and Burden of Influenza in Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations, 1982-2012: A Systematic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Lafond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to provide an estimate of influenza-associated hospitalizations among children worldwide.We aggregated data from a systematic review (n = 108 and surveillance platforms (n = 37 to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of samples collected from children hospitalized with respiratory illnesses and positive for influenza by age group (<6 mo, <1 y, <2 y, <5 y, 5-17 y, and <18 y. We applied this proportion to global estimates of acute lower respiratory infection hospitalizations among children aged <1 y and <5 y, to obtain the number and per capita rate of influenza-associated hospitalizations by geographic region and socio-economic status. Influenza was associated with 10% (95% CI 8%-11% of respiratory hospitalizations in children <18 y worldwide, ranging from 5% (95% CI 3%-7% among children <6 mo to 16% (95% CI 14%-20% among children 5-17 y. On average, we estimated that influenza results in approximately 374,000 (95% CI 264,000 to 539,000 hospitalizations in children <1 y-of which 228,000 (95% CI 150,000 to 344,000 occur in children <6 mo-and 870,000 (95% CI 610,000 to 1,237,000 hospitalizations in children <5 y annually. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates were more than three times higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries (150/100,000 children/year versus 48/100,000. However, differences in hospitalization practices between settings are an important limitation in interpreting these findings.Influenza is an important contributor to respiratory hospitalizations among young children worldwide. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among young

  15. Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigin, Valery L; Roth, Gregory A; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of stroke-related disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with potentially modifiable environmental, occupational, behavioural, physiological, and metabolic risk factors in different age and sex groups worldwide and in high-income countries and low......·2-73·5) and environmental factors (air pollution and lead exposure; 33·4%, 95% UI 32·4-34·3) were the second and third largest contributors to DALYs. Globally, 29·2% (95% UI 28·2-29·6) of the burden of stroke was attributed to air pollution. Although globally there were no significant differences between sexes......-income and middle-income countries, from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: We used data on stroke-related DALYs, risk factors, and PAF from the GBD 2013 Study to estimate the burden of stroke by age and sex (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UI]) in 188 countries, as measured with stroke-related DALYs in 1990...

  16. Causes of Death Data in the Global Burden of Disease Estimates for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Iversen, Helle K; Mensah, George A; Feigin, Valery L; Sposato, Luciano A; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Stroke mortality estimates in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study are based on routine mortality statistics and redistribution of ill-defined codes that cannot be a cause of death, the so-called 'garbage codes' (GCs). This study describes the contribution of these codes to stroke mortality estimates. All available mortality data were compiled and non-specific cause codes were redistributed based on literature review and statistical methods. Ill-defined codes were redistributed to their specific cause of disease by age, sex, country and year. The reassignment was done based on the International Classification of Diseases and the pathology behind each code by checking multiple causes of death and literature review. Unspecified stroke and primary and secondary hypertension are leading contributing 'GCs' to stroke mortality estimates for hemorrhagic stroke (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS). There were marked differences in the fraction of death assigned to IS and HS for unspecified stroke and hypertension between GBD regions and between age groups. A large proportion of stroke fatalities are derived from the redistribution of 'unspecified stroke' and 'hypertension' with marked regional differences. Future advancements in stroke certification, data collections and statistical analyses may improve the estimation of the global stroke burden. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in Brazil: Global Burden of Disease Study, 1990 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadiman, Cecília Silva Costa; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Melo, Ana Paula Souto

    2017-05-01

    Mental and substance use disorders (MD) are highly prevalent and have a high social and economic cost. To describe the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in Brazil and Federated Units in 1990 and 2015. Descriptive study of the burden of mental and substance use disorders, using age-standardized estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015: years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL); years lived with disability (YLD); and disability-adjusted life year (DALY=YLL+YLD). In Brazil, despite low mortality rates, there has been a high burden for mental and substance use disorders since 1990, with high YLD. In 2015, these disorders accounted for 9.5% of all DALY, ranking in the third and first position in DALY and YLD, respectively, with an emphasis on depressive and anxiety disorders. Drug use disorders had their highest increase in DALY rates between 1990 and 2015 (37.1%). The highest proportion of DALY occurred in adulthood and in females. There were no substantial differences in burden of mental and substance use disorders among Federated Units. Despite a low mortality rate, mental and substance use disorders are highly disabling, which indicates the need for preventive and protective actions, especially in primary health care. The generalization of estimates in all the Federated Units obtained from studies conducted mostly in the south and southeast regions probably does not reflect the reality of Brazil, indicating the need for studies in all regions of the country.

  18. Economic Valuation of the Global Burden of Cleft Disease Averted by a Large Cleft Charity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, Dan; Lin, Dan; Corlew, Scott

    2016-05-01

    This study attempts to quantify the burden of disease averted through the global surgical work of a large cleft charity, and estimate the economic impact of this effort over a 10-year period. Anonymized data of all primary cleft lip and cleft palate procedures in the Smile Train database were analyzed and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated using country-specific life expectancy tables, established disability weights, and estimated success of surgery and residual disability probabilities; multiple age weighting and discounting permutations were included. Averted DALYs were calculated and gross national income (GNI) per capita was then multiplied by averted DALYs to estimate economic gains. 548,147 primary cleft procedures were performed in 83 countries between 2001 and 2011. 547,769 records contained complete data available for the study; 58 % were cleft lip and 42 % cleft palate. Averted DALYs ranged between 1.46 and 4.95 M. The mean economic impact ranged between USD 5510 and 50,634 per person. This corresponded to a global economic impact of between USD 3.0B and 27.7B USD, depending on the DALY and GNI values used. The estimated cost of providing these procedures based on an average reimbursement rate was USD 197M (0.7-6.6 % of the estimated impact). The immense economic gain realized through procedures focused on a small proportion of the surgical burden of disease highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of surgical treatment globally. This methodology can be applied to evaluate interventions for other conditions, and for evidence-based health care resource allocation.

  19. Rationale, Design, and Methodological Aspects of the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL Study (Burden of Atherosclerotic Plaques Study in Twins-Genetic Loci and the Burden of Atherosclerotic Lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Tárnoki, Dávid L; Tárnoki, Ádám D; Horváth, Tamás; Jermendy, Ádám L; Kolossváry, Márton; Szilveszter, Bálint; Voros, Viktor; Kovács, Attila; Molnár, Andrea Á; Littvay, Levente; Lamb, Hildo J; Voros, Szilard; Jermendy, György; Merkely, Béla

    2015-12-01

    The heritability of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, coronary geometry, and phenotypes associated with increased cardiometabolic risk are largely unknown. The primary aim of the Burden of Atherosclerotic Plaques Study in Twins-Genetic Loci and the Burden of Atherosclerotic Lesions (BUDAPEST-GLOBAL) study is to evaluate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the burden of coronary artery disease. By design this is a prospective, single-center, classical twin study. In total, 202 twins (61 monozygotic pairs, 40 dizygotic same-sex pairs) were enrolled from the Hungarian Twin Registry database. All twins underwent non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for the detection and quantification of coronary artery calcium and for the measurement of epicardial fat volumes. In addition, a single non-contrast-enhanced image slice was acquired at the level of L3-L4 to assess abdominal fat distribution. Coronary CT angiography was used for the detection and quantification of plaque, stenosis, and overall coronary artery disease burden. For the primary analysis, we will assess the presence and volume of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, the 3-dimensional coronary geometry will be assessed based on the coronary CT angiography datasets. Additional phenotypic analyses will include per-patient epicardial and abdominal fat quantity measurements. Measurements obtained from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs will be compared to evaluate the genetic or environmental effects of the given phenotype. The BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study provides a unique framework to shed some light on the genetic and environmental influences of cardiometabolic disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Global burden of human brucellosis: a systematic review of disease frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This report presents a systematic review of scientific literature published between 1990-2010 relating to the frequency of human brucellosis, commissioned by WHO. The objectives were to identify high quality disease incidence data to complement existing knowledge of the global disease burden and, ultimately, to contribute towards the calculation of a Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY estimate for brucellosis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty three databases were searched, identifying 2,385 articles relating to human brucellosis. Based on strict screening criteria, 60 studies were selected for quality assessment, of which only 29 were of sufficient quality for data analysis. Data were only available from 15 countries in the regions of Northern Africa and Middle East, Western Europe, Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Central Asia. Half of the studies presented incidence data, six of which were longitudinal prospective studies, and half presented seroprevalence data which were converted to incidence rates. Brucellosis incidence varied widely between, and within, countries. Although study biases cannot be ruled out, demographic, occupational, and socioeconomic factors likely play a role. Aggregated data at national or regional levels do not capture these complexities of disease dynamics and, consequently, at-risk populations or areas may be overlooked. In many brucellosis-endemic countries, health systems are weak and passively-acquired official data underestimate the true disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: High quality research is essential for an accurate assessment of disease burden, particularly in Eastern Europe, the Asia-Pacific, Central and South America and Africa where data are lacking. Providing formal epidemiological and statistical training to researchers is essential for improving study quality. An integrated approach to disease surveillance involving both human health and veterinary services would allow a

  1. Health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Alize J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive revision of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD study is expected to be completed in 2012. This study utilizes a broad range of improved methods for assessing burden, including closer attention to empirically derived estimates of disability. The aim of this paper is to describe how GBD health states were derived for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These will be used in deriving health state-specific disability estimates. A literature review was first conducted to settle on a parsimonious set of health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A second review was conducted to investigate the proportion of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases experiencing these health states. These were pooled using a quality-effects model to estimate the overall proportion of cases in each state. The two schizophrenia health states were acute (predominantly positive symptoms and residual (predominantly negative symptoms. The three bipolar disorder health states were depressive, manic, and residual. Based on estimates from six studies, 63% (38%-82% of schizophrenia cases were in an acute state and 37% (18%-62% were in a residual state. Another six studies were identified from which 23% (10%-39% of bipolar disorder cases were in a manic state, 27% (11%-47% were in a depressive state, and 50% (30%-70% were in a residual state. This literature review revealed salient gaps in the literature that need to be addressed in future research. The pooled estimates are indicative only and more data are required to generate more definitive estimates. That said, rather than deriving burden estimates that fail to capture the changes in disability within schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the derived proportions and their wide uncertainty intervals will be used in deriving disability estimates.

  2. Relative and absolute addressability of global disease burden in maternal and perinatal health by investment in R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Nicholas M; McKee, Martin; Atun, Rifat

    2011-06-01

    Maternal and perinatal disease accounts for nearly 10% of the global burden of disease, with only modest progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Despite a favourable new global health landscape in research and development (R&D) to produce new drugs for neglected diseases, R&D investment in maternal/perinatal health remains small and non-strategic. Investment in obstetric R&D by industry or the not-for-profit sector has lagged behind other specialties, with the number of registered pipeline drugs only 1-5% that for other major disease areas. Using a Delphi exercise with maternal/perinatal experts in global and translational research, we estimate that equitable pharmaceutical R&D and public sector research funding over the next 10-20 years could avert 1.1% and 1.9% of the global disease burden, respectively. In contrast, optimal uptake of existing research would prevent 3.0%, justifying the current focus on health service provision. Although R&D predominantly occurs in high-income countries, more than 98% of the estimated reduction in disease burden in this field would be in developing countries. We conclude that better pharmaceutical and public sector R&D would prevent around 1/3 and 2/3, respectively, of the disease burden addressable by optimal uptake of existing research. Strengthening R&D may be an important complementary strategy to health service provision to address global maternal and perinatal disease burden. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990–2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Vollset, Stein Emil; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Afshin, Ashkan; Charara, Raghid; Khalil, Ibrahim; Higashi, Hideki; Abd El Razek, Mohamed Magdy; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Alam, Khurshid; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Ali, Raghib; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A; Atique, Suleman; Badawi, Alaa; Barrero, Lope H; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Danawi, Hadi; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Zannad, Faiez; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fischer, Florian; Gupta, Rahul; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Horino, Masako; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jonas, Jost B; Kasaeian, Amir; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kopec, Jacek A; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mate, Kedar; Mehari, Alem; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mohammed, Shafiu; Naheed, Aliya; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, Eun-Kee; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Shiri, Rahman; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rana, Saleem M; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shiue, Ivy; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Westerman, Ronny; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Lim, Stephen S; Wang, Haidong; Vos, Theo; Naghavi, Mohsen; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We used findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 to report the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Methods The burden of musculoskeletal disorders was calculated for the EMR's 22 countries between 1990 and 2013. A systematic analysis was performed on mortality and morbidity data to estimate prevalence, death, years of live lost, years lived with disability and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results For musculoskeletal disorders, the crude DALYs rate per 100 000 increased from 1297.1 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 924.3–1703.4) in 1990 to 1606.0 (95% UI 1141.2–2130.4) in 2013. During 1990–2013, the total DALYs of musculoskeletal disorders increased by 105.2% in the EMR compared with a 58.0% increase in the rest of the world. The burden of musculoskeletal disorders as a proportion of total DALYs increased from 2.4% (95% UI 1.7–3.0) in 1990 to 4.7% (95% UI 3.6–5.8) in 2013. The range of point prevalence (per 1000) among the EMR countries was 28.2–136.0 for low back pain, 27.3–49.7 for neck pain, 9.7–37.3 for osteoarthritis (OA), 0.6–2.2 for rheumatoid arthritis and 0.1–0.8 for gout. Low back pain and neck pain had the highest burden in EMR countries. Conclusions This study shows a high burden of musculoskeletal disorders, with a faster increase in EMR compared with the rest of the world. The reasons for this faster increase need to be explored. Our findings call for incorporating prevention and control programmes that should include improving health data, addressing risk factors, providing evidence-based care and community programmes to increase awareness. PMID:28209629

  4. Estimating Global Burden of Disease due to congenital anomaly: an analysis of European data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Breidge; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; de Walle, Hermien E K; Dias, Carlos Matias; Draper, Elizabeth; Gatt, Miriam; Garne, Ester; Haeusler, Martin; Källén, Karin; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O’Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Wreyford, Ben; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Dolk, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Objective To validate the estimates of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to congenital anomaly for Europe by comparing infant mortality data collected by EUROCAT registries with the WHO Mortality Database, and by assessing the significance of stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) in the interpretation of infant mortality statistics. Design, setting and outcome measures EUROCAT is a network of congenital anomaly registries collecting data on live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation and TOPFA. Data from 29 registries in 19 countries were analysed for 2005–2009, and infant mortality (deaths of live births at age congenital anomaly. In 11 EUROCAT countries, average infant mortality with congenital anomaly was 1.1 per 1000 births, with higher rates where TOPFA is illegal (Malta 3.0, Ireland 2.1). The rate of stillbirths with congenital anomaly was 0.6 per 1000. The average TOPFA prevalence was 4.6 per 1000, nearly three times more prevalent than stillbirths and infant deaths combined. TOPFA also impacted on the prevalence of postneonatal survivors with non-lethal congenital anomaly. Conclusions By excluding TOPFA and stillbirths from GBD years of life lost (YLL) estimates, GBD underestimates the burden of disease due to congenital anomaly, and thus declining YLL over time may obscure lack of progress in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. PMID:28667189

  5. Estimating Global Burden of Disease due to congenital anomaly: an analysis of European data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Breidge; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; de Walle, Hermien E K; Dias, Carlos Matias; Draper, Elizabeth; Gatt, Miriam; Garne, Ester; Haeusler, Martin; Källén, Karin; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Wahrendorf, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Wreyford, Ben; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Dolk, Helen

    2018-01-01

    To validate the estimates of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to congenital anomaly for Europe by comparing infant mortality data collected by EUROCAT registries with the WHO Mortality Database, and by assessing the significance of stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) in the interpretation of infant mortality statistics. EUROCAT is a network of congenital anomaly registries collecting data on live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks' gestation and TOPFA. Data from 29 registries in 19 countries were analysed for 2005-2009, and infant mortality (deaths of live births at age congenital anomaly. In 11 EUROCAT countries, average infant mortality with congenital anomaly was 1.1 per 1000 births, with higher rates where TOPFA is illegal (Malta 3.0, Ireland 2.1). The rate of stillbirths with congenital anomaly was 0.6 per 1000. The average TOPFA prevalence was 4.6 per 1000, nearly three times more prevalent than stillbirths and infant deaths combined. TOPFA also impacted on the prevalence of postneonatal survivors with non-lethal congenital anomaly. By excluding TOPFA and stillbirths from GBD years of life lost (YLL) estimates, GBD underestimates the burden of disease due to congenital anomaly, and thus declining YLL over time may obscure lack of progress in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Guinovart, Caterina; Lim, Stephen S.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Roberts, D. Allen; Dansereau, Emily A.; Graetz, Nicholas; Barber, Ryan M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Wang, Haidong; Duber, Herbert C.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Dicker, Daniel; Dandona, Lalit; Salomon, Joshua A.; Heuton, Kyle R.; Foreman, Kyle; Phillips, David E.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Phillips, Bryan K.; Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Achoki, Tom; Adeyemo, Austine Olufemi; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Angel Alegretti, Miguel; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allen, Peter J.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Binagwaho, Agnes; Blore, Jed D.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Brainin, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Courville, Karen J.; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dilmen, Ugur; Ding, Eric L.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Harb, Hilda L.; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia Pi, Ileana B.; Hoek, Hans W.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kankindi, Ida; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, S.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Ferreira De Lima, Graca Maria; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Pedro Machado, Vasco Manuel; Maclachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Barrieotos Marzan, Melvin; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mckay, Abigail Cecilia; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Mori, Rintaro; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Nowaseb, Vincent; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris Igor; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Ronfani, Luca; Roy, Nobhojit; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uzun, Selen Begum; Vallely, Andrew J.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wong, John Q.; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yong C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zou, Xiao Nong; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between

  7. Update on the Global Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigin, Valery L; Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Parmar, Priya

    2015-01-01

    (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) for 188 countries from 1990 to 2013. METHODOLOGY: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated using all available data on mortality and stroke incidence......BACKGROUND: Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardized rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past 2 decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, and live with the consequences of stroke or die from their stroke......, are increasing. Regular updates on the current level of stroke burden are important for advancing our knowledge on stroke epidemiology and facilitate organization and planning of evidence-based stroke care. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years...

  8. Supply chain management of health commodities for reducing global disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, Otuto Amarauche; Ezeanochikwa, Valentine Nnaemeka; Eya, Benedict Ejikeme

    Reducing global disease burden requires improving access to medicines, thus the need for efficient and effective supply chain management for medicines. The Nigerian government came up with new policies on Mega Drug Distribution Centres and National Drug Distribution Guidelines to improve access to quality medicines with pharmacists having a key role to play. However, pharmacists in Nigeria seem not to be aware and adequately equipped to handle the medicines supply chain. This article aimed at assessing the awareness and readiness of Nigerian pharmacists on supply chain management practices for improving access to medicines. Pharmacists in Nigeria's Capital were randomly sampled. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. 29.3%, 20.7% and 53.7% were not aware of supply chain management, National Drug Distribution Guidelines and Mega Drug Distribution Centres, respectively. 85.46% do not have a copy of the National Drug Distribution Guidelines. 78% were not aware that Mega Drug Distribution Centres are already operational. 35.4% have never been involved in any supply chain management practice. 69.5% often experience stock out of vital and essential medicines, of which 85.2% were in hospitals. 15.9% were successful in managing their facility's supply chains. 84.1% opined that pharmacists in Nigeria are not yet ready to handle the medicines supply chain. Findings showed limited awareness and readiness on supply chain management of medicines. This may be due to inadequate supply chain management skills and infrastructure, poor financing, lack of accountability and poor management. Tackling these as well as pharmacists showing more interest in the country's health policies and obtaining necessary postgraduate certifications will lead to improvements. This will improve access to quality medicines and thus help in the fight to reduce disease burden both

  9. Mortality from tetanus between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hmwe H. Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although preventable, tetanus still claims tens of thousands of deaths each year. The patterns and distribution of mortality from tetanus have not been well characterized. We identified the global, regional, and national levels and trends of mortality from neonatal and non-neonatal tetanus based on the results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Methods Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies and mortality surveillance data covering 12,534 site-years from 1980 to 2014 were used. Mortality from tetanus was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble modeling strategy. Results There were 56,743 (95% uncertainty interval (UI: 48,199 to 80,042 deaths due to tetanus in 2015; 19,937 (UI: 17,021 to 23,467 deaths occurred in neonates; and 36,806 (UI: 29,452 to 61,481 deaths occurred in older children and adults. Of the 19,937 neonatal tetanus deaths, 45% of deaths occurred in South Asia, and 44% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 36,806 deaths after the neonatal period, 47% of deaths occurred in South Asia, 36% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 12% in Southeast Asia. Between 1990 and 2015, the global mortality rate due to neonatal tetanus dropped by 90% and that due to non-neonatal tetanus dropped by 81%. However, tetanus mortality rates were still high in a number of countries in 2015. The highest rates of neonatal tetanus mortality (more than 1,000 deaths per 100,000 population were observed in Somalia, South Sudan, Afghanistan, and Kenya. The highest rates of mortality from tetanus after the neonatal period (more than 5 deaths per 100,000 population were observed in Somalia, South Sudan, and Kenya. Conclusions Though there have been tremendous strides globally in reducing the burden of tetanus, tens of thousands of unnecessary deaths from tetanus could be prevented each year by an already available inexpensive and effective vaccine. Availability of more high quality data could help narrow the uncertainty of tetanus

  10. Testing for TB Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adverse Events TB Treatment of Persons Living with HIV TB Treatment and Pregnancy TB Treatment for Children Drug-Resistant TB Research TB Epidemiologic Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study ...

  11. The association between alcohol use, alcohol use disorders and tuberculosis (TB. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Room Robin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, tuberculosis (TB was responsible for 2.5% of global mortality (among men 3.1%; among women 1.8% and 2.2% of global burden of disease (men 2.7%; women 1.7%. The present work portrays accumulated evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and TB with the aim to clarify the nature of the relationship. Methods A systematic review of existing scientific data on the association between alcohol consumption and TB, and on studies relevant for clarification of causality was undertaken. Results There is a strong association between heavy alcohol use/alcohol use disorders (AUD and TB. A meta-analysis on the risk of TB for these factors yielded a pooled relative risk of 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89-4.59. Numerous studies show pathogenic impact of alcohol on the immune system causing susceptibility to TB among heavy drinkers. In addition, there are potential social pathways linking AUD and TB. Heavy alcohol use strongly influences both the incidence and the outcome of the disease and was found to be linked to altered pharmacokinetics of medicines used in treatment of TB, social marginalization and drift, higher rate of re-infection, higher rate of treatment defaults and development of drug-resistant forms of TB. Based on the available data, about 10% of the TB cases globally were estimated to be attributable to alcohol. Conclusion The epidemiological and other evidence presented indicates that heavy alcohol use/AUD constitute a risk factor for incidence and re-infection of TB. Consequences for prevention and clinical interventions are discussed.

  12. Burden of Disease Attributable to Suboptimal Breastfeeding in Iran during 1990-2010; Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study uses data of the global burden of diseases (GBD study 2010 to report death, disability-adjusted life year (DALYs, years of life lived with disability (YLDs and years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs, attributed to suboptimal breastfeeding by age and gender during 1990 to 2010 in Iran. Materials and Methods:The GBD assessments were used, together with estimates of death and DALYs due to specific risk factors to calculate the attributed burden of each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. Uncertainties in the distribution of exposure, relative risks, and relevant outcomes were incorporated into estimates of mortality attributable and burden and were presented as 95 % uncertainty interval (UI. Results:In both genders, the age standardized DALYs rates and the age standardized death rate [(from 5 (95% UI: 2-8 to 1 (95% UI: 0-2 per 100,000 populations], attributed to breastfeeding, had a decreasing trends. The age standardized YLD rate increased from 7 (95% UI: 2-15 to 10 (95% UI: 3-23 per 100,000 populations in boys and, from 7(95% UI: 2-16 to 11(95% UI: 3-26 per 100,000 populations in girls. The YLD changes showed some variation according to age categories. For both genders, the age standardizes YLL rate decreased from 395 (95% UI: 185-681 per 100,000 populations to 111(95% UI: 42-213 per 100,000 populations. Conclusion: The burden attributed to suboptimal breastfeeding had a considerable reduction rate from 1990 to 2010. Additional studies on burden of exclusive breastfeeding with more accurate data are recommended for policies make decision.

  13. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  14. The double burden of neoliberalism? Noncommunicable disease policies and the global political economy of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sara; Schrecker, Ted

    2016-05-01

    The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of yoga on cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprod, Lisa K; Fernandez, Isabel D; Janelsins, Michelle C; Peppone, Luke J; Atkins, James N; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥60years of age), between 2months and 2years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (peffective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Burden of rheumatoid arthritis in the Nordic region, 1990-2015: a comparative analysis using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadaliri, A A; Kristensen, L-E; Englund, M

    2018-03-01

    To report mortality and disability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015. Using the results of GBD 2015, we present rates and trends in prevalence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability (YLD), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of RA in the Nordic region during 1990-2015. In 2015, the age-standardized prevalence of RA was higher in the Nordic region than the global level (0.44%, 95% uncertainty interval 0.40-0.48%, vs 0.35%, 0.32-0.38%). For women (men), DALYs increased by 2.4% (12.9%), from 29 263 (10 909) in 1990 to 29 966 (12 311) in 2015. The burden of RA as a proportion of total DALYs in women (men) increased from 0.90% (0.29%) in 1990 to 0.94% (0.36%) in 2015. Age-standardized DALY rates declined in all countries except Denmark and Greenland between 1990 and 2015. Of 315 conditions studied, RA was ranked as the 16th (37th) leading cause of YLD in women (men) in the region. Of 195 countries studied, Greenland, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland had the 7th, 11th, 28th, 38th, 48th, and 78th highest age-standardized YLD rates for RA, respectively. The prevalence of RA in the Nordic region is higher than the global average. Current trends in population growth and ageing suggest a potential increase in RA burden in the coming decades in the region that should be considered in healthcare resources allocation.

  17. The global burden of childhood coeliac disease: a neglected component of diarrhoeal mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Coeliac disease has emerged as an increasingly recognised public health problem over the last half-century, and is now coming to be seen as a global phenomenon, despite a profound lack of globally representative epidemiological data. Since children with coeliac disease commonly present with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition, diagnosis is often overlooked, particularly in poorer settings where children often fail to thrive and water-borne infectious diarrhoeas are common. This is the first attempt to make global estimates of the burden of coeliac disease in childhood. METHODS: We built a relatively crude model of childhood coeliac disease, incorporating estimates of population prevalence, probability of non-diagnosis, and likelihood of mortality among the undiagnosed across all countries from 1970 to 2010, based around the few available data. All our assumptions are stated in the paper and the model is available as a supplementary file. FINDINGS: Our model suggests that in 2010 there were around 2.2 million children under 5 years of age living with coeliac disease. Among these children there could be 42,000 deaths related to coeliac disease annually. In 2008, deaths related to coeliac disease probably accounted for approximately 4% of all childhood diarrhoeal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although coeliac disease may only account for a small proportion of diarrhoeal mortality, these deaths are not preventable by applying normal diarrhoea treatment guidelines, which may even involve gluten-based food supplements. As other causes of diarrhoeal mortality decline, coeliac disease will become a proportionately increasing problem unless consideration is given to trying gluten-free diets for children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.

  18. Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. Objective To determine levels and

  19. Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013 Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyu, Hmwe H.; Pinho, Christine; Wagner, Joseph A.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Charlson, Fiona J.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Dandona, Lalit; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D.; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Larson, Heidi J.; Lim, Stephen S.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Odell, Shaun V.; Roth, Gregory A.; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Misganaw, Awoke; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Artaman, Al; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barrero, Lope H.; Benjet, Corina; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Brazinova, Alexandra; Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Cooper, Cyrus; Crump, John A.

    IMPORTANCE The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. OBJECTIVE To determine levels and

  20. Global and national burden of diseases and injuries among children and adolescents between 1990 and 2013 findings from the global burden of disease 2013 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Vos (Theo); H.H. Kyu (Hmwe H.); C. Pinho (Christine); J.A. Wagner (Joseph A.); J.C. Brown (Jonathan C); A. Bertozzi-Villa (Amelia); F. Charlson (Fiona); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); L. Dandona (Lalit); H. Erskine (Holly); A. Ferrari (Andrea); C. Fitzmaurice (Christina); T.D. Fleming (Thomas D); M.H. Forouzanfar (Mohammad H); N. Graetz (Nicholas); C. Guinovart (Caterina); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); H. Higashi (Hideki); N.J. Kassebaum (Nicholas J.); H.J. Larson (Heidi J.); S.S. Lim (Stephen); A.H. Mokdad (Ali H); M. Moradi-Lakeh (Maziar); S.V. Odell (Shaun V.); G.A. Roth (Gregory A.); P.T. Serina (Peter T.); J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); A. Misganaw (Awoke); H.A. Whiteford (Harvey A.); T.M. Wolock (Timothy M); S.W. Hanson (Sarah Wulf); F. Abd-Allah (Foad); S.F. Abera (Semaw Ferede); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J); F.S. Al Buhairan (Fadia S.); A.T. Amare (Azmeraw T); C.A.T. Antonio (Carl Abelardo T); A. Artaman (Al); S. Barker-Collo (Suzanne); L.H. Barrero (Lope); C. Benjet (Corina); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); B. Bikbov (Boris); A. Brazinova (Alexandra); I. Campos-Nonato (Ismael); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); F. Catalá-López (Ferrán); R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); C. Cooper (Charles); J.A. Crump (John A.); R. Dandona (Rakhi); F. Degenhardt; R.P. Dellavalle (Robert P.); S.D. Dharmaratne (Samath D); E.J.A. Faraon (Emerito Jose A); V.L. Feigin (V.); A. Fürst (Alois); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); B.D. Gessner (Bradford D); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); A. Goto (Atsushi); D. Gunnell (David); G.J. Hankey (Graeme); R.J. Hay (Roderick J.); J.C. Hornberger (John C); H.D. Hosgood (H Dean); G. Hu (Guoqing); K.H. Jacobsen (Kathryn H); S.P. Jayaraman (Sudha P.); P. Jeemon (Panniyammakal); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); F. Karch (Francois); D. Kim (Daniel); S. Kim (Sungroul); Y. Kokubo (Yoshihiro); B.K. Defo (Barthelemy Kuate); B.K. Bicer (Burcu Kucuk); G.A. Kumar (G Anil); A. Larsson (Anders); J.L. Leasher (Janet); R. Leung (Ricky); Y. Li (Yongmei); S.E. Lipshultz (Steven); A.D. Lopez (Alan D); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); R. Lunevicius (Raimundas); R.A. Lyons (Ronan); M. Majdan (Marek); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); T. Mashal (Taufiq); A.J. Mason-Jones (Amanda J); Y.A. Melaku (Yohannes Adama); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); W. Mendoza (Walter); T.R. Miller (Ted R.); C.N. Mock (Charles N.); J. Murray (Joseph); S. Nolte (Sandra); I.-H. Oh (In-Hwan); B.O. Olusanya (Bolajoko O); K.F. Ortblad (Katrina F.); E.-K. Park (Eun-Kee); A.J.P. Caicedo (Angel J. Paternina); J. Patten; G.C. Patton (George C.); D.M. Pereira (David M.); N. Perico (Norberto); F.B. Piel (Frédéric B.); S. Polinder (Suzanne); S. Popova (Svetlana); F. Pourmalek (Farshad); D.A. Quistberg (D Alex); G. Remuzzi (Giuseppe); A. Rodriguez (Alina); D. Rojas-Rueda (David); D. Rothenbacher (Dietrich); D.H. Rothstein (David H.); J. Sanabria (Juan); I.S. Santos (Itamar S); D.C. Schwebel (David C); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); A. Shaheen (Amira); R. Shiri (Rahman); I. Shiue (Ivy); V. Skirbekk (Vegard); K. Sliwa (Karen); C.T. Sreeramareddy (Chandrashekhar T); D.J. Stein (Dan); T.J. Steiner (Timothy J.); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); B.L. Sykes (Bryan L.); K.M. Tabb (Karen M); A.S. Terkawi (Abdullah Sulieman); A.J. Thomson (Alan J); A.L. Thorne-Lyman (Andrew L); J.A. Towbin (Jeffrey A); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); T. Vasankari (Tommi); N. Venketasubramanian (Narayanaswamy); V.V. Vlassov (Vasiliy Victorovich); S.E. Vollset (Stein Emil); E. Weiderpass (Elisabete); R.G. Weintraub (Robert G); A. Werdecker (Andrea); J.D. Wilkinson (James D.); S.M. Woldeyohannes (Solomon Meseret); C.D.A. Wolfe (Charles D.A.); Y. Yano (Yuichiro); P. Yip (Paul); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); S.-J. Yoon (Seok-Jun); M. Younis (Mustafa); C. Yu (Chuanhua); M. El Sayed Zaki (Maysaa); M. Naghavi (Morteza); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine

  1. Tackling Africa's chronic disease burden: from the local to the global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Catherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Africa faces a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. While infectious diseases still account for at least 69% of deaths on the continent, age specific mortality rates from chronic diseases as a whole are actually higher in sub Saharan Africa than in virtually all other regions of the world, in both men and women. Over the next ten years the continent is projected to experience the largest increase in death rates from cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes. African health systems are weak and national investments in healthcare training and service delivery continue to prioritise infectious and parasitic diseases. There is a strong consensus that Africa faces significant challenges in chronic disease research, practice and policy. This editorial reviews eight original papers submitted to a Globalization and Health special issue themed: "Africa's chronic disease burden: local and global perspectives". The papers offer new empirical evidence and comprehensive reviews on diabetes in Tanzania, sickle cell disease in Nigeria, chronic mental illness in rural Ghana, HIV/AIDS care-giving among children in Kenya and chronic disease interventions in Ghana and Cameroon. Regional and international reviews are offered on cardiovascular risk in Africa, comorbidity between infectious and chronic diseases and cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe. We discuss insights from these papers within the contexts of medical, psychological, community and policy dimensions of chronic disease. There is an urgent need for primary and secondary interventions and for African health policymakers and governments to prioritise the development and implementation of chronic disease policies. Two gaps need critical attention. The first gap concerns the need for multidisciplinary models of research to properly inform the design of interventions. The second

  2. Burden of Hemoglobinopathies (Thalassemia, Sickle Cell Disorders and G6PD Deficiency) in Iran, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nazila; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Gohari, Kimia; Zareiy, Saeid; Sobhani, Sahar; Modirian, Mitra; Kompani, Farzad

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are known as the most common genetic disorders in Iran. The paper aims to provide global estimates of deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) due to hemoglobinopathies in Iran by sex and age during 1990 to 2010 and describe the challenges due to limitations of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010). GBD 2010 estimates of the numbers of deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm). Years of life lost due to disability (YLDs) were computed by multiplication of prevalence, the disability weight for occurrence of sequelae, and the duration of symptoms. Prevalence was estimated through a systematic search of published and available unpublished data sources, with a Bayesian meta-regression model developed for GBD 2010. Disability weights were produced using collected data from population-based surveys. Uncertainty from all inputs was incorporated into the computations of DALYs using simulation methods. We aim to prepare and criticize the results of GBD 2010 and provide some recommendations for reaching better conclusions about the burden of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Between 1990 and 2010, the overall deaths attributed to hemoglobinopathies decreased from 0.51% to 0.36% of total deaths, with the corresponding burden declining from 1% to 0.82% of total DALYs. There was a reduction in deaths and DALYs rates for all ages and the rates attributed to all ages followed the same pattern in Iranian men and women. The highest DALYs for hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia, sickle cell disorder, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD-D) were found in those aged less than 5 years. The collective burden of all of these hemoglobin disorder was lower in 2010 than in 1990. Although the screening programs in Iran have been very successful in reducing the number of thalassemia patients between 1990 to 2010, in order to provide a better estimation of the

  3. The role of surgery in global health: analysis of United States inpatient procedure frequency by condition using the Global Burden of Disease 2010 framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rose

    Full Text Available The role of surgical care in promoting global health is the subject of much debate. The Global Burden of Disease 2010 study (GBD 2010 offers a new opportunity to consider where surgery fits amongst global health priorities. The GBD 2010 reinforces the DALY as the preferred methodology for determining the relative contribution of disease categories to overall global burden of disease without reference to the likelihood of each category requiring surgery. As such, we hypothesize that the GBD framework underestimates the role of surgery in addressing the global burden of disease.We compiled International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, codes from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2010. Using the primary diagnosis code for each hospital admission, we aggregated admissions into GBD 2010 disease sub-categories. We queried each hospitalization for a major operation to determine the frequency of admitted patients whose care required surgery. Major operation was defined according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ. In 2010, 10 million major inpatient operations were performed in the United States, associated with 28.6% of all admissions. Major operations were performed in every GBD disease subcategory (range 0.2%-84.0%. The highest frequencies of operation were in the subcategories of Musculoskeletal (84.0%, Neoplasm (61.4%, and Transport Injuries (43.2%. There was no disease subcategory that always required an operation; nor was there any disease subcategory that never required an operation.Surgical care cuts across the entire spectrum of GBD disease categories, challenging dichotomous traditional classifications of 'surgical' versus 'nonsurgical' diseases. Current methods of measuring global burden of disease do not reflect the fundamental role operative intervention plays in the delivery of healthcare services. Novel methodologies should be aimed at understanding the integration of surgical services into

  4. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010 : A Data Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Frederick J; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first

  5. Tuberculosis 2015: burden, challenges and strategy for control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Raviglione

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for about 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths annually. The poorest and socially excluded groups carry the largest burden of disease, which makes it essential to properly address the social determinants of health through poverty reduction measures and targeted interventions on high-risk populations. The spread of multidrug-resistance TB requires special attention and highlights the need to foster research on TB diagnostics, new drugs and vaccines. Although many advances have been made in the fight against TB over the last twenty years, a lot is still needed to achieve global elimination. The new end-TB strategy that was first launched in 2014 by the World Health Organization, is fully in line with the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals that came into effect since January 2016 and sets ambitious goals for the post-2015 agenda. A 90% reduction in TB-related mortality and an 80% decline in TB incidence within 2030 as well as the abolition of catastrophic expenditures for TB-affected people are the main targets of this strategy. Strong government commitment and adequate financing from all countries together with community engagement and appropriate investments in research are necessary in order to reach these objectives.

  6. Cybercare 2.0: meeting the challenge of the global burden of disease in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Joseph M; Kun, Luis; Mosher, Robyn E; Grigg, Elliott; Merrell, Ronald C; Macedonia, Christian; Klaudt-Moreau, Julien; Price-Smith, Andrew; Geiling, James

    In this paper, we propose to advance and transform today's healthcare system using a model of networked health care called Cybercare. Cybercare means "health care in cyberspace" - for example, doctors consulting with patients via videoconferencing across a distributed network; or patients receiving care locally - in neighborhoods, "minute clinics," and homes - using information technologies such as telemedicine, smartphones, and wearable sensors to link to tertiary medical specialists. This model contrasts with traditional health care, in which patients travel (often a great distance) to receive care from providers in a central hospital. The Cybercare model shifts health care provision from hospital to home; from specialist to generalist; and from treatment to prevention. Cybercare employs advanced technology to deliver services efficiently across the distributed network - for example, using telemedicine, wearable sensors and cell phones to link patients to specialists and upload their medical data in near-real time; using information technology (IT) to rapidly detect, track, and contain the spread of a global pandemic; or using cell phones to manage medical care in a disaster situation. Cybercare uses seven "pillars" of technology to provide medical care: genomics; telemedicine; robotics; simulation, including virtual and augmented reality; artificial intelligence (AI), including intelligent agents; the electronic medical record (EMR); and smartphones. All these technologies are evolving and blending. The technologies are integrated functionally because they underlie the Cybercare network, and/or form part of the care for patients using that distributed network. Moving health care provision to a networked, distributed model will save money, improve outcomes, facilitate access, improve security, increase patient and provider satisfaction, and may mitigate the international global burden of disease. In this paper we discuss how Cybercare is being implemented now

  7. Global burden, distribution and prevention of β-thalassemias and hemoglobin E disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colah, Roshan; Gorakshakar, Ajit; Nadkarni, Anita

    2010-02-01

    The β-thalassemias, including the hemoglobin E disorders, are not only common in the Mediterranean region, South-East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East but have now become a global problem, spreading to much of Europe, the Americas and Australia owing to migration of people from these regions. Approximately 1.5% of the global population are heterozygotes or carriers of the β-thalassemias. While the overall frequencies of carriers of these disorders are known in most countries, there have been few attempts at micromapping and wherever this has been done, significant variations are seen even within small geographic regions. Thus, the figures for the estimated numbers of births each year of homozygous β-thalassemia and the severe compound states involving other hemoglobin disorders may be an underestimate. Screening strategies have varied from premarital to antenatal in different countries depending on socio-cultural and religious customs in different populations. Prenatal diagnosis programs are ongoing in many countries and the knowledge of the distribution of mutations has facilitated the establishment of successful control programs. Many of these were through North-South partnerships and networking. Yet, there are many countries in Asia where they are lacking, and South-South partnerships are now being developed in South-East Asia and the Indian subcontinent to link centers with expertise to centers where expertise needs to be developed. Although the carrier frequencies will remain unaltered, this will eventually help to bring down the burden of the birth of affected children with β-thalassemias and hemoglobin E disorders in Asia.

  8. The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradhani Kasturiratne

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global problem, we developed a new method to estimate the disease burden due to snakebites. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The global estimates were based on regional estimates that were, in turn, derived from data available for countries within a defined region. Three main strategies were used to obtain primary data: electronic searching for publications on snakebite, extraction of relevant country-specific mortality data from databases maintained by United Nations organizations, and identification of grey literature by discussion with key informants. Countries were grouped into 21 distinct geographic regions that are as epidemiologically homogenous as possible, in line with the Global Burden of Disease 2005 study (Global Burden Project of the World Bank. Incidence rates for envenoming were extracted from publications and used to estimate the number of envenomings for individual countries; if no data were available for a particular country, the lowest incidence rate within a neighbouring country was used. Where death registration data were reliable, reported deaths from snakebite were used; in other countries, deaths were estimated on the basis of observed mortality rates and the at-risk population. We estimate that, globally, at least 421,000 envenomings and 20,000 deaths occur each year due to snakebite. These figures may be as high as 1,841,000 envenomings and 94,000 deaths. Based on the fact that envenoming occurs in about one in every four snakebites, between 1.2 million and 5.5 million snakebites could occur annually. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The

  9. Drinking-Water Nitrate, Methemoglobinemia, and Global Burden of Disease: A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Lorna

    2004-01-01

    On behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO), I have undertaken a series of literature-based investigations examining the global burden of disease related to a number of environmental risk factors associated with drinking water. In this article I outline the investigation of drinking-water nitrate concentration and methemoglobinemia. The exposure assessment was based on levels of nitrate in drinking water greater than the WHO guideline value of 50 mg/L. No exposure–response relationship, however, could be identified that related drinking-water nitrate level to methemoglobinemia. Indeed, although it has previously been accepted that consumption of drinking water high in nitrates causes methemoglobinemia in infants, it appears now that nitrate may be one of a number of co-factors that play a sometimes complex role in causing the disease. I conclude that, given the apparently low incidence of possible water-related methemoglobinemia, the complex nature of the role of nitrates, and that of individual behavior, it is currently inappropriate to attempt to link illness rates with drinking-water nitrate levels. PMID:15471727

  10. Contribution of occupational risk factors to the global burden of disease - a summary of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, M.; Driscoll, T.; Nelson, D.I.; Concha-Barrientos, M.; Punnett, L.; Pruss-Ustin, A.; Steenland, K.; Leigh, J.; Corvalan, C. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The World Health Organization conducted a comparative risk assessment to ascertain the contributions of 26 risk factors to the global burden of disease. Five occupational risk factors accounted for an estimated 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% of asthma, 9% of lung cancer, 8% of injuries, and 2% of leukemia worldwide. Virtually all cases of silicosis, asbestosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis were work-related. Contaminated sharps injuries accounted for 40% of hepatitis B, 40% of hepatitis C, and 4% of HIV/AlDS infections among health care workers. Data limitations, primarily in developing countries, prevented the inclusion of other major occupational risk factors. These selected occupational risks accounted for about 850,000 deaths and 24 million years of healthy life lost each year. The deaths due to these selected occupational risk factors constitute only 43% of the International Labour Organization's estimate of 2 million deaths worldwide due to work-related risks.

  11. Economic support to patients in HIV and TB grants in rounds 7 and 10 from the global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M Richter

    Full Text Available People with TB and/or HIV frequently experience severe economic barriers to health care, including out-of-pocket expenses related to diagnosis and treatment, as well as indirect costs due to loss of income. These barriers can both aggravate economic hardship and prevent or delay diagnosis, treatment and successful outcome, leading to increased transmission, morbidity and mortality. WHO, UNAIDS and the ILO argue that economic support of various kinds is essential to enable vulnerable people to protect themselves from infection, avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, overcome barriers to adherence, and avert destitution. This paper analyses successful country proposals to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria that include economic support in Rounds 7 and 10; 36 and 20 HIV and TB grants in Round 7 and 32 and 26, respectively, in Round 10. Of these, up to 84 percent included direct or indirect economic support for beneficiaries, although the amount constituted a very small proportion of the total grant. In TB grants, the objectives of economic support were generally clearly stated, and focused on mechanisms to improve treatment uptake and adherence, and the case was most clearly made for MDR-TB patients. In HIV grants, the objectives were much broader in scope, including mitigation of adverse economic and social effects of HIV and its treatment on both patients and families. The analysis shows that economic support is on the radar for countries developing Global Fund proposals, and a wide range of economic support activities are in place. In order to move forward in this area, the wealth of country experience that exists needs to be collated, assessed and disseminated. In addition to trials, operational research and programme evaluations, more precise guidance to countries is needed to inform evidence-based decision about activities that are cost-effective, affordable and feasible.

  12. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, H. W.; van Boven, Job; Postma, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations

  13. Theological foundations for an effective Christian response to the global disease burden in resource-constrained regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. O’Neill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the global disease burden and resource disparity that exists in the world and the globalization of Christianity, Christians are in a critical position to effect radical change in individuals, communities and systems for human flourishing. This paper describes the theological basis of seven key elements that the Church can contribute to sustainable development, global health equity, and universal access as an expanding movement: defining health, speaking truth, providing care, making peace, cooperating, setting priorities, and mobilizing resources for maximum stewardship in low resource settings.

  14. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.S.; Vos, T.; Flaxman, A.D.; Danaei, G.; Shibuya, K.; Adair-Rohani, H.; Amann, M.; Anderson, H.R.; Andrews, K.G.; Aryee, M.; Atkinson, C.; Bacchus, L.J.; Bahalim, A.N.; Balakrishnan, K.; Balmes, J.; Barker-Collo, S.; Baxter, A.; Bell, M.L.; Blore, J.D.; Blyth, F.; Bonner, C.; Borges, G.; Bourne, R.; Boussinesq, M.; Brauer, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149157X; Brooks, P.; Bruce, N.G.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Bryan-Hancock, C.; Bucello, C.; Buchbinder, R.; Bull, F.; Burnett, R.T.; Byers, T.E.; Calabria, B.; Carapetis, J.; Carnahan, E.; Chafe, Z.; Charlson, F.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.S.; Cheng, A.T.; Child, J.C.; Cohen, A.; Colson, K.E.; Cowie, B.C.; Darby, S.; Darling, S.; Davis, A.; Degenhardt, L.; Dentener, F.; Des Jarlais, D.C.; Devries, K.; Dherani, M.; Ding, E.L.; Dorsey, E.R.; Driscoll, T.; Edmond, K.; Ali, S.E.; Engell, R.E.; Erwin, P.J.; Fahimi, S.; Falder, G.; Farzadfar, F.; Ferrari, A.; Finucane, M.M.; Flaxman, S.; Fowkes, F.G.R.; Freedman, G.; Freeman, M.K.; Gakidou, E.; Ghosh, S.; Giovannucci, E.; Gmel, G.; Graham, K.; Grainger, R.; Grant, B.; Gunnell, D.; Gutierrez, H.R.; Hall, W.; Hoek, H.W.; Hogan, A.; Hosgood, H.D.; Hoy, D.; Hu, H.; Hubbell, B.J.; Hutchings, S.J.; Ibeanusi, S.E.; Jacklyn, G.L.; Jasrasaria, R.; Jonas, J.B.; Kan, H.; Kanis, J.A.; Kassebaum, N.; Kawakami, N.; Khang, Y-H.; Khatibzadeh, S.; Khoo, J-P.; de Kok, C.; Laden, F.; Lalloo, R.; Lan, Q.; Lathlean, T.; Leasher, J.L.; Leigh, J.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.K.; Lipshultz, S.E.; London, S.; Lozano, R.; Lu, Y.; Mak, J.; Malekzadeh, R.; Mallinger, L.; Marcenes, W.; March, L.; Marks, R.; Martin, R.; McGale, P.; McGrath, J.; Mehta, S.; Mensah, G.A.; Merriman, T.R.; Micha, R.; Michaud, C.; Mishra, V.; Hanafiah, K.M.; Mokdad, A.A.; Morawska, L.; Mozaffarian, D.; Murphy, T.; Naghavi, M.; Neal, B.; Nelson, P.K.; Nolla, J.M.; Norman, R.; Olives, C.; Omer, S. B; Orchard, J.; Osborne, R.; Ostro, B.; Page, A.; Pandey, K.D.; Parry, C.D.H.; Passmore, E.; Patra, J.; Pearce, N.; Pelizzari, P.M.; Petzold, M.; Phillips, M.R.; Pope, D.; Pope, C.A.; Powles, J.; Rao, M.; Razavi, H.; Rehfuess, E.A.; Rehm, J.T.; Ritz, B.; Rivara, F.P.; Roberts, T.; Robinson, C.; Rodriguez-Portales, J.A.; Romieu, I.; Room, R.; Rosenfeld, L.C.; Roy, A.; Rushton, L.; Salomon, J.A.; Sampson, U.; Sanchez-Riera, L.; Sanman, E.; Sapkota, A.; Seedat, S.; Shi, P.; Shield, K.; Shivakoti, R.; Singh, G.M.; Sleet, D.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, K.R.; Stapelberg, N.J.C.; Steenland, K.; Stöckl, H.; Stovner, L.J.; Straif, K.; Straney, L.; Thurston, G.D.; Tran, J.H.; van Dingenen, R.; van Donkelaar, A.; Veerman, J.L.; Vijayakumar, L.; Weintraub, R.; Weissman, M.M.; White, R.A.; Whiteford, H.; Wiersma, S.T.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Williams, H.C.; Williams, W.; Wilson, N.; Woolf, A.D.; Yip, P.; Zielinski, J.M.; Lopez, A.D.; Murray, C.J.L.; Ezzati, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk

  15. Estimating the tuberculosis burden in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassili, A; Al-Hammadi, A; Al-Absi, A; Glaziou, P; Seita, A; Abubakar, I; Bierrenbach, A L; van Hest, N A

    2013-04-01

    The lack of applicable population-based methods to measure tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates directly at country level emphasises the global need to generate robust TB surveillance data to ascertain trends in disease burden and to assess the performance of TB control programmes in the context of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals and World Health Organization targets for TB control. To estimate the incidence of TB cases (all forms) and sputum smear-positive disease, and the level of under-reporting of TB in Yemen in 2010. Record-linkage and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data collected through active prospective longitudinal surveillance within the public and private non-National Tuberculosis Programme sector in twelve Yemeni governorates, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. For all TB cases, the estimated ratio of notified to incident cases and completeness of case ascertainment after record linkage, i.e., the ratio of detected to incident cases, was respectively 71% (95%CI 64-80) and 75% (95%CI 68-85). For sputum smear-positive TB cases, these ratios were respectively 67% (95%CI 58-75) and 76% (95%CI 66-84). We estimate that there were 13 082 (95%CI 11 610-14 513) TB cases in Yemen in 2010. Under-reporting of TB in Yemen is estimated at 29% (95%CI 20-36).

  16. Balancing the benefits and risks of public-private partnerships to address the global double burden of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Harrigan, Paige B; Lawrence, Mark; Harrison, Paul J; Jackson, Michaela A; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-03-01

    Transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies, and their corporate foundations, may be potential collaborators to help address complex public health nutrition challenges. While UN system guidelines are available for private-sector engagement, non-governmental organizations (NGO) have limited guidelines to navigate diverse opportunities and challenges presented by partnering with these companies through public-private partnerships (PPP) to address the global double burden of malnutrition. We conducted a search of electronic databases, UN system websites and grey literature to identify resources about partnerships used to address the global double burden of malnutrition. A narrative summary provides a synthesis of the interdisciplinary literature identified. We describe partnership opportunities, benefits and challenges; and tools and approaches to help NGO engage with the private sector to address global public health nutrition challenges. PPP benefits include: raising the visibility of nutrition and health on policy agendas; mobilizing funds and advocating for research; strengthening food-system processes and delivery systems; facilitating technology transfer; and expanding access to medications, vaccines, healthy food and beverage products, and nutrition assistance during humanitarian crises. PPP challenges include: balancing private commercial interests with public health interests; managing conflicts of interest; ensuring that co-branded activities support healthy products and healthy eating environments; complying with ethical codes of conduct; assessing partnership compatibility; and evaluating partnership outcomes. NGO should adopt a systematic and transparent approach using available tools and processes to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnering with transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies to effectively target the global double burden of malnutrition.

  17. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995-2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Charlson

    Full Text Available A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies.In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas-development assistance for health (in US Dollars per DALY.DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH, while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%. DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden-approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY.Combining estimates of disease burden and development assistance for health

  18. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995-2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, F J; Dieleman, J; Singh, L; Whiteford, H A

    2017-01-01

    A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH) in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year) as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies. In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars) and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs) produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas-development assistance for health (in US Dollars) per DALY. DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH), while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%). DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden-approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY. Combining estimates of disease burden and development assistance for health provides

  19. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Jeanne M; Galindo, Claudia; Jenkins, David; Taylor, Sylvia M

    2013-01-01

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  20. Visualization of Global Disease Burden for the Optimization of Patient Management and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Schlee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe assessment and treatment of complex disorders is challenged by the multiple domains and instruments used to evaluate clinical outcome. With the large number of assessment tools typically used in complex disorders comes the challenge of obtaining an integrative view of disease status to further evaluate treatment outcome both at the individual level and at the group level. Radar plots appear as an attractive visual tool to display multivariate data on a two-dimensional graphical illustration. Here, we describe the use of radar plots for the visualization of disease characteristics applied in the context of tinnitus, a complex and heterogeneous condition, the treatment of which has shown mixed success.MethodsData from two different cohorts, the Swedish Tinnitus Outreach Project (STOP and the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI database, were used. STOP is a population-based cohort where cross-sectional data from 1,223 non-tinnitus and 933 tinnitus subjects were analyzed. By contrast, the TRI contained data from 571 patients who underwent various treatments and whose Clinical Global Impression (CGI score was accessible to infer treatment outcome. In the latter, 34,560 permutations were tested to evaluate whether a particular ordering of the instruments could reflect better the treatment outcome measured with the CGI.ResultsRadar plots confirmed that tinnitus subtypes such as occasional and chronic tinnitus from the STOP cohort could be strikingly different, and helped appreciate a gender bias in tinnitus severity. Radar plots with greater surface areas were consistent with greater burden, and enabled a rapid appreciation of the global distress associated with tinnitus in patients categorized according to tinnitus severity. Permutations in the arrangement of instruments allowed to identify a configuration with minimal variance and maximized surface difference between CGI groups from the TRI database, thus affording a means of optimally

  1. Heightened vulnerability to MDR-TB epidemics after controlling drug-susceptible TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Bishai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior infection with one strain TB has been linked with diminished likelihood of re-infection by a new strain. This paper attempts to determine the role of declining prevalence of drug-susceptible TB in enabling future epidemics of MDR-TB.A computer simulation of MDR-TB epidemics was developed using an agent-based model platform programmed in NetLogo (See http://mdr.tbtools.org/. Eighty-one scenarios were created, varying levels of treatment quality, diagnostic accuracy, microbial fitness cost, and the degree of immunogenicity elicited by drug-susceptible TB. Outcome measures were the number of independent MDR-TB cases per trial and the proportion of trials resulting in MDR-TB epidemics for a 500 year period after drug therapy for TB is introduced.MDR-TB epidemics propagated more extensively after TB prevalence had fallen. At a case detection rate of 75%, improving therapeutic compliance from 50% to 75% can reduce the probability of an epidemic from 45% to 15%. Paradoxically, improving the case-detection rate from 50% to 75% when compliance with DOT is constant at 75% increases the probability of MDR-TB epidemics from 3% to 45%.The ability of MDR-TB to spread depends on the prevalence of drug-susceptible TB. Immunologic protection conferred by exposure to drug-susceptible TB can be a crucial factor that prevents MDR-TB epidemics when TB treatment is poor. Any single population that successfully reduces its burden of drug-susceptible TB will have reduced herd immunity to externally or internally introduced strains of MDR-TB and can experience heightened vulnerability to an epidemic. Since countries with good TB control may be more vulnerable, their self interest dictates greater promotion of case detection and DOTS implementation in countries with poor control to control their risk of MDR-TB.

  2. Effect of Pregnancy on Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Detection of Latent TB Infection Among HIV-Infected Women in a High Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Cranmer, Lisa M; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Horne, David J; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-05-01

    Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. HIV-infected women were serially tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay [QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFT)] in pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage. Incidence of test conversion at 6 weeks postpartum was evaluated in baseline TST-/QFT- women. Among 100 HIV-infected women, median age was 26 years, median CD4 was 555 cells per cubic millimeter, and 88% were on antiretrovirals. More women were QFT+ than TST+ in both pregnancy (35.4% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.001) and postpartum (29.6% vs. 14.8%, P pregnancy vs. postpartum, and specifically among persistently QFT+ women (Mtb-Ag: 3.46 vs. 4.48 IU/mL, P = 0.007). QFT indeterminate rate was higher in pregnancy (16%) compared with postpartum (0%) because of lower mitogen response. QFT identified >2-fold more women with LTBI compared with TST in pregnancy and postpartum. Lower QFT Mtb-Ag and mitogen responses in pregnancy compared with postpartum suggest that pregnancy-associated immunologic changes may influence LTBI test performance.

  3. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; El-Khatib, Ziad; Laflamme, Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1-14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index) from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000). Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  4. The global burden of child burn injuries in light of country level economic development and income inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Sengoelge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1–14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved. Then we examined the relationship between country level gross domestic product per capita from the World Bank and income inequality (Gini Index from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database and child burn mortality using Spearman coefficient correlations. Worldwide, the burden of child burn deaths is 2.5 per 100,000 across 103 countries with the largest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (4.5 per 100,000. Thirty-four thousand lives could be saved yearly if all countries in the world had the same rates as the best performing group of high-income countries; the majority in low-income countries. There was a negative graded association between economic level and child burns for all countries aggregated and at regional level, but no consistent pattern existed for income inequality at regional level. The burden of child burn mortality varies by region and income level with prevention efforts needed most urgently in middle-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment in safe living conditions and access to medical care are paramount to achieving further reductions in the global burden of preventable child burn deaths.

  5. Serious and life-threatening pregnancy-related infections: opportunities to reduce the global burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A Gravett

    Full Text Available Michael Gravett and colleagues review the burden of pregnancy-related infections, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and offer suggestions for a more effective intervention strategy.

  6. National mortality burden due to communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Haregu, Tilahun N; Deribe, Kebede; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribew, Amare; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Gedefaw, Molla; Dessalegn, Muluken; Lakew, Yihunie; Bekele, Tolesa; Mohammed, Mesoud; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Krohn, Kristopher J; Achoki, Tom; Blore, Jed; Assefa, Yibeltal; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries. We report numbers of deaths and rates of years of life lost (YLL) for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disorders, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and injuries with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) for Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015. CMNN causes of death have declined by 65% in the last two-and-a-half decades. Injury-related causes of death have also decreased by 70%. Deaths due to NCDs declined by 37% during the same period. Ethiopia showed a faster decline in the burden of four out of the five leading causes of age-standardized premature mortality rates when compared to the overall sub-Saharan African region and the Eastern sub-Saharan African region: lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and diarrheal diseases; however, the same could not be said for ischemic heart disease and other NCDs. Non-communicable diseases, together, were the leading causes of age-standardized mortality rates, whereas CMNN diseases were leading causes of premature mortality in 2015. Although lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and diarrheal disease were the leading causes of age-standardized death rates, they showed major declines from 1990 to 2015. Neonatal encephalopathy, iron-deficiency anemia, protein-energy malnutrition, and preterm birth complications also showed more than a 50% reduction in burden. HIV/AIDS-related deaths have also decreased by 70% since 2005. Ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke were among the top causes of premature mortality and age

  7. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995—2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, J.; Singh, L.; Whiteford, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH) in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year) as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies. Methods In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars) and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs) produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas—development assistance for health (in US Dollars) per DALY. Findings DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH), while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%). DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden—approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY. Interpretation Combining estimates of disease burden

  8. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000–2013: a systematic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000–2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Design Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Setting and participants Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000–2013. Main outcome measures Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Results We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded—the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Conclusions Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies

  9. Global estimates of the burden of injury and illness at work in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Jukka; Hämäläinen, Päivi; Saarela, Kaija Leena; Yun, Loke Yoke; Manickam, Kathiresan; Jin, Tan Wee; Heng, Peggy; Tjong, Caleb; Kheng, Lim Guan; Lim, Samuel; Lin, Gan Siok

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the present indicators, trends, and recent solutions and strategies to tackle major global and country problems in safety and health at work. The article is based on the Yant Award Lecture of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) at its 2013 Congress. We reviewed employment figures, mortality rates, occupational burden of disease and injuries, reported accidents, surveys on self-reported occupational illnesses and injuries, attributable fractions, national economic cost estimates of work-related injuries and ill health, and the most recent information on the problems from published papers, documents, and electronic data sources of international and regional organizations, in particular the International Labor Organization (ILO), World Health Organization (WHO), and European Union (EU), institutions, agencies, and public websites. We identified and analyzed successful solutions, programs, and strategies to reduce the work-related negative outcomes at various levels. Work-related illnesses that have a long latency period and are linked to ageing are clearly on the increase, while the number of occupational injuries has gone down in industrialized countries thanks to both better prevention and structural changes. We have estimated that globally there are 2.3 million deaths annually for reasons attributed to work. The biggest component is linked to work-related diseases, 2.0 million, and 0.3 million linked to occupational injuries. However, the division of these two factors varies depending on the level of development. In industrialized countries the share of deaths caused by occupational injuries and work-related communicable diseases is very low while non-communicable diseases are the overwhelming causes in those countries. Economic costs of work-related injury and illness vary between 1.8 and 6.0% of GDP in country estimates, the average being 4% according to the ILO. Singapore's economic costs were estimated to be equivalent to 3

  10. The impact of dietary risk factors on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia : findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Sahle, Berhe W.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Bekele, Tolesa; Lemma, Ferew; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Seid, Oumer; Endris, Kedir; Hiruye, Abiy; Worku, Amare; Adams, Robert; Taylor, Anne W.; Gill, Tiffany K.; Shi, Zumin; Afshin, Ashkan; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. The contribution of dietary behaviours to the NCD burden in Ethiopia has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, aimed to assess diet-related burden of disease in Ethiopia

  11. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adamu, Abdu Abdullahi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon W.; Assadi, Reza; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele; Atre, Sachin R.; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Saleem, Huda Omer Ba; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Bannick, Marlena S.; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Baernighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Battista, Bob; Battle, Katherine E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benson, Jennifer; Berhane, Adugnaw; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Birungi, Charles; Biryukov, Stan; Bisanzio, Donal; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Boneya, Dube Jara; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto; Bumgarner, Blair R.; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cameron, Ewan; Car, Mate; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Carter, Austin; Carvalho, Felix; Casey, Daniel C.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castle, Chris D.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Colombara, Danny; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, Jose; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; de Courten, Barbora; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dey, Subhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet Kaur; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Huyen Phuc Do,; Dorsey, E. Ray; Bender dos Santos, Kadine Priscila; Douwes-Schultz, Dirk; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Ellerstrand, Jerisha; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Futran, Neal D.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ganji, Morsaleh; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Geleto, Ayele; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Ghajar, Alireza; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergay; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Gold, Audra L.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goto, Atsushi; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Griswold, Max; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Maria Haro, Josep; Harvey, James; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hawley, Caitlin; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Huynh, Chantal; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Igumbor, Ehimario Uche; Ikeda, Chad; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; John, Denny; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah Charlotte; Jonas, Jost B.; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassaw, Nigussie Assefa; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kastor, Anshul; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Pauline; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kumar, Sanjiv; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Lee, Paul H.; Leigh, James; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Leung, Janni; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Li Kappe, Darya; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S.; Linn, Shai; Liu, Angela; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Low, Nicola; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Timothy C. D.; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manguerra, Helena; Manhertz, Treh; Mantilla, Ana; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Martopullo, Ira; Maerz, Winfried; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGaughey, Madeline; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McNellan, Claire; Mehata, Suresh; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistie, Mubarek Abera; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Micha, Renata; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Kedir Endris; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohanty, Sanjay K.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mollenkopf, Sarah K.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Mori, Rintaro; Morozoff, Chloe; Morrison, Shane D.; Moses, Mark; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mruts, Kalayu Birhane; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Muller, Kate; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negasa, Dumessa Edessa; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles R.; Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Minh; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nolte, Sandra; Vuong Minh Nong,; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; O'Donnell, Martin J.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Osman, Majdi; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pacella, Rosana E.; Pana, Adrian; Panda, Basant Kumar; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paulson, Katherine; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pigott, David M.; Pillay, Julian David; Pinho, Christine; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Narayan; Prasad, Noela M.; Purcell, Carrie; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quansah, Reginald; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rankin, Zane; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Rao, Puja C.; Rawaf, Salman; Ray, Sarah E.; Reiner, Robert C.; Reinig, Nikolas; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaei, Satar; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saadat, Soheil; Sadat, Nafis; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Salama, Joseph; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schoettker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Shi, Peilin; Shields, Chloe; Shigematsu, Mika; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shirude, Shreya; Shishani, Kawkab; Shrime, Mark G.; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Silva, Joao Pedro; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sligar, Amber; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H. A.; Sobngwi, Eugene; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Moraes Sousa, Tatiane Cristina; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Srinivasan, Vinay; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J.; Steinke, Sabine; Stokes, Mark Andrew; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Strub, Bryan; Subart, Michelle; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Taffere, Getachew Redae; Takala, Jukka S.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taveira, Nuno; Taylor, Hugh R.; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Shifa, Girma Temam; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfaye, Dawit Jember; Tesssema, Belay; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Thomas, Katie E.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tiruye, Tenaw Yimer; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tollanes, Mette C.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Bach Xuan Tran,; Tripathi, Suryakant; Troeger, Christopher; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsoi, Derrick; Tuem, Kald Beshir; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; van Boven, Job F. M.; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi; Venkatesh, S.; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vidavalur, Ramesh; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wadilo, Fiseha; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weaver, Marcia; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Woolf, Anthony D.; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Xueying; Zhou, Maigeng; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive

  12. Tackling Africa's chronic disease burden: from the local to the global

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Unwin, Nigel; Agyemang, Charles; Allotey, Pascale; Campbell, Catherine; Arhinful, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Africa faces a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. While infectious diseases still account for at least 69% of deaths on the continent, age specific mortality rates from chronic diseases as a whole are actually higher in sub Saharan Africa than in virtually all other regions

  13. Global Burden of Human Mycetoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of the subcutaneous tissue with a high morbidity. This disease has been reported from countries between 30°N and 15°S since 1840 but the exact burden of disease is not known. It is currently unknown what the incidence, prevalence and the number of

  14. Atlas of the Global Burden of Stroke (1990-2013): The GBD 2013 Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feigin, V.L.; Mensah, G.A.; Norrving, B.; Murray, C.J.; Roth, G.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: World mapping is an important tool to visualize stroke burden and its trends in various regions and countries. Objectives: To show geographic patterns of incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for

  15. UK health performance: findings of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Richards, Michael A; Newton, John N; Fenton, Kevin A; Anderson, H Ross; Atkinson, Charles; Bennett, Derrick; Bernabé, Eduardo; Blencowe, Hannah; Bourne, Rupert; Braithwaite, Tasanee; Brayne, Carol; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Burney, Peter; Dherani, Mukesh; Dolk, Helen; Edmond, Karen; Ezzati, Majid; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Tom D; Freedman, Greg; Gunnell, David; Hay, Roderick J; Hutchings, Sally J; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Lozano, Rafael; Lyons, Ronan A; Marcenes, Wagner; Naghavi, Mohsen; Newton, Charles R; Pearce, Neil; Pope, Dan; Rushton, Lesley; Salomon, Joshua A; Shibuya, Kenji; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Williams, Hywel C; Woolf, Anthony D; Lopez, Alan D; Davis, Adrian

    2013-03-23

    The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to examine the patterns of health loss in the UK, the leading preventable risks that explain some of these patterns, and how UK outcomes compare with a set of comparable countries in the European Union and elsewhere in 1990 and 2010. We used results of GBD 2010 for 1990 and 2010 for the UK and 18 other comparator nations (the original 15 members of the European Union, Australia, Canada, Norway, and the USA; henceforth EU15+). We present analyses of trends and relative performance for mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We present results for 259 diseases and injuries and for 67 risk factors or clusters of risk factors relevant to the UK. We assessed the UK's rank for age-standardised YLLs and DALYs for their leading causes compared with EU15+ in 1990 and 2010. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all measures. For both mortality and disability, overall health has improved substantially in absolute terms in the UK from 1990 to 2010. Life expectancy in the UK increased by 4·2 years (95% UI 4·2-4·3) from 1990 to 2010. However, the UK performed significantly worse than the EU15+ for age-standardised death rates, age-standardised YLL rates, and life expectancy in 1990, and its relative position had worsened by 2010. Although in most age groups, there have been reductions in age-specific mortality, for men aged 30-34 years, mortality rates have hardly changed (reduction of 3·7%, 95% UI 2·7-4·9). In terms of premature

  16. Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Children and Youth Aged 0-19 Years: Data from the Global and Regional Burden of Stroke 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnamurthi, R.V.; deVeber, G.; Feigin, V.L.; Barker-Collo, S.; Fullerton, H.; Mackay, M.T.; O'Callahan, F.; Lindsay, M.P.; Kolk, A.; Lo, W.; Shah, P.; Linds, A.; Jones, K.; Parmar, P.; Taylor, S.; Norrving, B.; Mensah, G.A.; Moran, A.E.; Naghavi, M.R.; Forouzanfar, M.H.; Nguyen, G.; Johnson, C.; Vos, T.; Murray, C.J.; Roth, G.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of stroke as an important contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality. Current estimates of global childhood stroke burden and its temporal trends are sparse. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of childhood stroke burden are important for planning

  17. Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths: improving service supply and community demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Haws, Rachel A; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lawn, Joy E

    2009-01-01

    impact of the wide-scale implementation of these strategies on stillbirth rates. Strategies to improve quality of care by upgrading the skills of community cadres have shown demonstrable impact on perinatal mortality, particularly in conjunction with health systems strengthening and facilitation of referrals. Neonatal resuscitation training for physicians and other health workers shows potential to prevent many neonatal deaths currently misclassified as stillbirths. Perinatal audit systems, which aim to improve quality of care by identifying deficiencies in care, are a quality improvement measure that shows some evidence of benefit for changes in clinical practice that prevent stillbirths, and are strongly recommended wherever practical, whether as hospital case review or as confidential enquiry at district or national level. Conclusion Delivering interventions to reduce the global burden of stillbirths requires action at all levels of the health system. Packages of interventions should be tailored to local conditions, including local levels and causes of stillbirth, accessibility of care and health system resources and provider skill. Antenatal care can potentially serve as a platform to deliver interventions to improve maternal nutrition, promote behaviour change to reduce harmful exposures and risk of infections, screen for and treat risk factors, and encourage skilled attendance at birth. Following the example of high-income countries, improving intrapartum monitoring for fetal distress and access to Caesarean section in low-/middle-income countries appears to be key to reducing intrapartum stillbirth. In remote or low-resource settings, families and communities can be galvanised to demand and seek quality care through financial incentives and health promotion efforts of local cadres of health workers, though these interventions often require simultaneous health systems strengthening. Perinatal audit can aid in the development of better standards of care, improving

  18. Global and regional trends in particulate air pollution and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, E. W.; Turnock, S. T.; Rigby, R.; Reddington, C. L.; Yoshioka, M.; Johnson, J. S.; Regayre, L. A.; Pringle, K. J.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of air quality has changed rapidly. Here we used the HadGEM3-UKCA coupled chemistry-climate model, integrated exposure-response relationships, demographic and background disease data to provide the first estimate of the changes in global and regional ambient PM2.5 concentrations and attributable health burdens over the period 1960 to 2009. Over this period, global mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations increased by 38%, dominated by increases in China and India. Global attributable deaths increased by 89% to 124% over the period 1960 to 2009, dominated by large increases in China and India. Population growth and ageing contributed mostly to the increases in attributable deaths in China and India, highlighting the importance of demographic trends. In contrast, decreasing PM2.5 concentrations and background disease dominated the reduction in attributable health burden in Europe and the United States. Our results shed light on how future projected trends in demographics and uncertainty in the exposure-response relationship may provide challenges for future air quality policy in Asia.

  19. Mortality due to noncommunicable diseases in Brazil, 1990 to 2015, according to estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are the leading health problem globally and generate high numbers of premature deaths and loss of quality of life. The aim here was to describe the major groups of causes of death due to NCDs and the ranking of the leading causes of premature death between 1990 and 2015, according to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2015 study estimates for Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study covering Brazil and its 27 federal states. METHODS: This was a descriptive study on rates of mortality due to NCDs, with corrections for garbage codes and underreporting of deaths. RESULTS: This study shows the epidemiological transition in Brazil between 1990 and 2015, with increasing proportional mortality due to NCDs, followed by violence, and decreasing mortality due to communicable, maternal and neonatal causes within the global burden of diseases. NCDs had the highest mortality rates over the whole period, but with reductions in cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Diabetes increased over this period. NCDs were the leading causes of premature death (30 to 69 years: ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases, followed by interpersonal violence, traffic injuries and HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The decline in mortality due to NCDs confirms that improvements in disease control have been achieved in Brazil. Nonetheless, the high mortality due to violence is a warning sign. Through maintaining the current decline in NCDs, Brazil should meet the target of 25% reduction proposed by the World Health Organization by 2025.

  20. Tackling Africa's chronic disease burden: from the local to the global

    OpenAIRE

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Unwin, Nigel; Agyemang, Charles; Allotey, Pascale; Campbell, Catherine; Arhinful, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Africa faces a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. While infectious diseases still account for at least 69% of deaths on the continent, age specific mortality rates from chronic diseases as a whole are actually higher in sub Saharan Africa than in virtually all other regions of the world, in both men and women. Over the next ten years the continent is projected to experience the largest increase in death rates from cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and...

  1. Rotavirus epidemiology and vaccine demand: considering Bangladesh chapter through the book of global disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud-Al-Rafat, Abdullah; Muktadir, Abdul; Muktadir, Hasneen; Karim, Mahbubul; Maheshwari, Arpan; Ahasan, Mohammad Mainul

    2018-02-01

    Rotavirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children throughout the world. Every year, a large number of children aged rotavirus-related diarrhoeal diseases. Though these infections are vaccine-preventable, the vast majority of children in low-income countries suffer from the infection. The situation leads to severe economic loss and constitutes a major public health problem. We searched electronic databases including PubMed and Google scholar using the following words: "features of rotavirus," "epidemiology of rotavirus," "rotavirus serotypes," "rotavirus in Bangladesh," "disease burden of rotavirus," "rotavirus vaccine," "low efficacy of rotavirus vaccine," "inactivated rotavirus vaccine". Publications until July 2017 have been considered for this work. Currently, two live attenuated vaccines are available throughout the world. Many countries have included rotavirus vaccines in national immunization program to reduce the disease burden. However, due to low efficacy of the available vaccines, satisfactory outcome has not yet been achieved in developing countries such as Bangladesh. Poor economic, public health, treatment, and sanitation status of the low-income countries necessitate the need for the most effective rotavirus vaccines. Therefore, the present scenario demands the development of a highly effective rotavirus vaccine. In this regard, inactivated rotavirus vaccine concept holds much promise for reducing the current disease burden. Recent advancements in developing an inactivated rotavirus vaccine indicate a significant progress towards disease prophylaxis and control.

  2. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980–2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all......Summary Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage......-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution all assumptions used in each step are internally consistent. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and death with GBD versions of the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and Spectrum software...

  3. Update on the Global Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in 1990-2013: The GBD 2013 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery L; Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Parmar, Priya; Norrving, Bo; Mensah, George A; Bennett, Derrick A; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Moran, Andrew E; Sacco, Ralph L; Truelsen, Thomas; Davis, Stephen; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Nguyen, Grant; Johnson, Catherine O; Vos, Theo; Meretoja, Atte; Murray, Christopher J L; Roth, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardized rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past 2 decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, and live with the consequences of stroke or die from their stroke, are increasing. Regular updates on the current level of stroke burden are important for advancing our knowledge on stroke epidemiology and facilitate organization and planning of evidence-based stroke care. This study aims to estimate incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) and their trends for ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) for 188 countries from 1990 to 2013. Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, DALYs and YLDs were estimated using all available data on mortality and stroke incidence, prevalence and excess mortality. Statistical models and country-level covariate data were employed, and all rates were age-standardized to a global population. All estimates were produced with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). In 2013, there were globally almost 25.7 million stroke survivors (71% with IS), 6.5 million deaths from stroke (51% died from IS), 113 million DALYs due to stroke (58% due to IS) and 10.3 million new strokes (67% IS). Over the 1990-2013 period, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of DALYs due to IS, and of deaths from IS and HS, survivors and incident events for both IS and HS. The preponderance of the burden of stroke continued to reside in developing countries, comprising 75.2% of deaths from stroke and 81.0% of stroke-related DALYs. Globally, the proportional contribution of stroke-related DALYs and deaths due to stroke compared to all diseases increased from 1990 (3.54% (95% UI 3.11-4.00) and 9.66% (95% UI 8.47-10.70), respectively) to 2013 (4.62% (95% UI 4.01-5.30) and 11.75% (95% UI 10.45-13.31), respectively), but there was a diverging trend in developed and developing

  4. National Studies as a Component of the World Health Organization Initiative to Estimate the Global and Regional Burden of Foodborne Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Lake

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases established the Foodborne Diseases Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG in 2007. In addition to global and regional estimates, the initiative sought to promote actions at a national level. This involved capacity building through national foodborne disease burden studies, and encouragement of the use of burden information in setting evidence-informed policies. To address these objectives a FERG Country Studies Task Force was established and has developed a suite of tools and resources to facilitate national burden of foodborne disease studies. This paper describes the process and lessons learned during the conduct of pilot country studies under the WHO FERG initiative.Pilot country studies were initiated in Albania, Japan and Thailand in 2011 and in Uganda in 2012. A brief description of each study is provided. The major scientific issue is a lack of data, particularly in relation to disease etiology, and attribution of disease burden to foodborne transmission. Situation analysis, knowledge translation, and risk communication to achieve evidence-informed policies require specialist expertise and resources.The FERG global and regional burden estimates will greatly enhance the ability of individual countries to fill data gaps and generate national estimates to support efforts to reduce the burden of foodborne disease.

  5. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adverse Events TB Treatment of Persons Living with HIV TB Treatment and Pregnancy TB Treatment for Children Drug-Resistant TB Research TB Epidemiologic Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study ...

  6. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  7. Predictors of tuberculosis (TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) medication non-adherence in public primary care patients in South Africa: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pamela; Peltzer, Karl; Louw, Julia; Matseke, Gladys; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-04-26

    Despite the downward trend in the absolute number of tuberculosis (TB) cases since 2006 and the fall in the incidence rates since 2001, the burden of disease caused by TB remains a global health challenge. The co-infection between TB and HIV adds to this disease burden. TB is completely curable through the intake of a strict anti-TB drug treatment regimen which requires an extremely high and consistent level of adherence.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with adherence to anti-TB and HIV treatment drugs. A cross-sectional survey method was used. Three study districts (14 primary health care facilities in each) were selected on the basis of the highest TB caseload per clinic. All new TB and new TB retreatment patients were consecutively screened within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample comprised of 3107 TB patients who had been on treatment for at least three weeks and a sub-sample of the total sample were on both anti-TB treatment and anti-retro-viral therapy(ART) (N = 757). Data collection tools included: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire; a Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder (PTSD) Screen; a Psychological Distress Scale; the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT); and self-report measures of tobacco use, perceived health status and adherence to anti-TB drugs and ART. The majority of the participants (N = 3107) were new TB cases with a 55.9% HIV co-infection rate in this adult male and female sample 18 years and older. Significant predictors of non-adherence common to both anti-TB drugs and to dual therapy (ART and anti-TB drugs) included poverty, having one or more co-morbid health condition, being a high risk for alcohol mis-use and a partner who is HIV positive. An additional predictor for non-adherence to anti-TB drugs was tobacco use. A comprehensive treatment programme addressing poverty, alcohol mis-use, tobacco use and psycho-social counseling is indicated for TB patients (with and without HIV

  8. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (ptoxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more

  9. Toxoplasmosis--a global threat. Correlation of latent toxoplasmosis with specific disease burden in a set of 88 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Prevalence data published between 1995-2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (ptoxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves much more attention and financial support both in everyday medical practice and

  10. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: Principles and recommendations from the Global Campaign against Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most of all, these recommendations seek to encourage collaborations between specialists in headache disorders and epidemiologists. The focus is on migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache, but they are not intended to be exclusive to these. The burdens arising from secondary headaches are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey instruments. PMID:24467862

  11. Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Liu, Patrick; Roth, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Elevated systolic blood (SBP) pressure is a leading global health risk. Quantifying the levels of SBP is important to guide prevention policies and interventions. Objective: To estimate the association between SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg and SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher and the bur......Importance: Elevated systolic blood (SBP) pressure is a leading global health risk. Quantifying the levels of SBP is important to guide prevention policies and interventions. Objective: To estimate the association between SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg and SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher...... and the burden of different causes of death and disability by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015. Design: A comparative risk assessment of health loss related to SBP. Estimated distribution of SBP was based on 844 studies from 154 countries (published 1980-2015) of 8.69 million participants...... in the primary analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean SBP level, cause-specific deaths, and health burden related to SBP (≥110-115 mm Hg and also ≥140 mm Hg) by age, sex, country, and year. Results: Between 1990-2015, the rate of SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg increased from 73 119 (95% uncertainty...

  12. The evolution of the Global Burden of Disease framework for disease, injury and risk factor quantification: developing the evidence base for national, regional and global public health action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Alan D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented and of uncertain reliability and comparability. Lack of a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and failure to systematically evaluate data quality have impeded comparative analyses of the true public health importance of various conditions and risk factors. As a consequence the impact of major conditions and hazards on population health has been poorly appreciated, often leading to a lack of public health investment. Global disease and risk factor quantification improved dramatically in the early 1990s with the completion of the first Global Burden of Disease Study. For the first time, the comparative importance of over 100 diseases and injuries, and ten major risk factors, for global and regional health status could be assessed using a common metric (Disability-Adjusted Life Years which simultaneously accounted for both premature mortality and the prevalence, duration and severity of the non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. As a consequence, mental health conditions and injuries, for which non-fatal outcomes are of particular significance, were identified as being among the leading causes of disease/injury burden worldwide, with clear implications for policy, particularly prevention. A major achievement of the Study was the complete global descriptive epidemiology, including incidence, prevalence and mortality, by age, sex and Region, of over 100 diseases and injuries. National applications, further methodological research and an increase in data availability have led to improved national, regional and global estimates

  13. Epidemiological modelling of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly E; Ferrari, Alize J; Nelson, Paul; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Flaxman, Abraham D; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; Scott, James G

    2013-12-01

    The most recent Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD 2010) is the first to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) for burden quantification. We present the epidemiological profiles of ADHD and CD across three time periods for 21 world regions. A systematic review of global epidemiology was conducted for each disorder (based on a literature search of the Medline, PsycInfo and EMBASE databases). A Bayesian metaregression tool was used to derive prevalence estimates by age and sex in three time periods (1990, 2005 and 2010) for 21 world regions including those with little or no data. Prior expert knowledge and covariates were applied to each model to adjust suboptimal data. Final prevalence output for ADHD were adjusted to reflect an equivalent value if studies had measured point prevalence using multiple informants while final prevalence output for CD were adjusted to reflect a value equivalent to CD only. Prevalence was pooled for males and females aged 5-19 years with no difference found in global prevalence between the three time periods. Male prevalence of ADHD in 2010 was 2.2% (2.0-2.3) while female prevalence was 0.7% (0.6-0.7). Male prevalence of CD in 2010 was 3.6% (3.3-4.0) while female prevalence was 1.5% (1.4-1.7). ADHD and CD were estimated to be present worldwide with ADHD prevalence showing some regional variation while CD prevalence remained relatively consistent worldwide. We present the first prevalence estimates of both ADHD and CD globally and for all world regions. Data were sparse with large parts of the world having no estimates of either disorder. Epidemiological studies are urgently needed in certain parts of the world. Our findings directly informed burden quantification for GBD 2010. As mental disorders gained increased recognition after the first GBD study in 1990, the inclusion of ADHD and CD in GBD 2010 ensures their importance will be recognized alongside other childhood disorders. © 2013 The

  14. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990—2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J L Murray, Christopher; F Ortblad, Katrina; Guinovart, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between...... with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data...... and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble...

  15. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Afshin, Ashkan; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Komal; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Ansari, Hossein; Antó, Josep M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Arian, Nicholas; Ärnlöv, Johan; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Bärnighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Batis, Carolina; Battle, Katherine E.; Baumgarner, Blair R.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Michelle L; Bennett, Derrick A; Bennett, James R.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhansali, Anil; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Bikbov, Boris; Birungi, Charles; Biryukov, Stan; Blosser, Christopher D.; Boneya, Dube Jara; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.; Brauer, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Brenner, Hermann; Brugha, Traolach S; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cercy, Kelly; Chang, Hsing Yi; Charlson, Fiona J; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J; Comfort, Haley; Cooper, Cyrus; Coresh, Josef; Cornaby, Leslie; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Criqui, Michael H; Crump, John A; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, José; Davey, Gail; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Davletov, Kairat; de Courten, Barbora; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Ding, Eric L; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Huyen Phuc; Dokova, Klara; Doku, David Teye; Donkelaar, Aaron van; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Duncan, Sarah; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa; Faro, André; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Kairsten; Feigin, Valery L; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, João C.; Ferrari, Alize J; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Frostad, Joseph J; Fullman, Nancy; Fürst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ganji, Morsaleh; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Geleto, Ayele; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Ghajar, Alireza; Gibney, Katherine B; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gillum, Richard F; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Gona, Philimon N.; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guo, Jingwen; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hachinski, Vladimir; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Harb, Hilda L; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hawley, Caitlin; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hendrie, Delia; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Hoek, Hans W; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J; Huang, Hsiang; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Ikeda, Chad; Inoue, Manami; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jackson, Maria Delores; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Johansson, Lars R.K.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost B; Jürisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kastor, Anshul; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kelbore, Sefonias Getachew; Kemmer, Laura; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Jun Y.; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Kumar, G Anil; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Paul H.; Lee, Alexander; Leigh, James; Leung, Janni; Levi, Miriam; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S; Linn, Shai; Liu, Patrick; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katherine J.; Lopez, Alan D; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manguerra, Helena; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Martin, Randall V; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Mathur, Manu Raj; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGrath, John W; Mehata, Suresh; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Meier, Toni; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Mensah, George A; Mensink, Gert B.M.; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Micha, Renata; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R; Minnig, Shawn; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Kedir Endris; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohan, Murali B.V.; Mokdad, Ali H; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Morrison, Shane D.; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mullany, Erin C; Muller, Kate; Murray, Christopher J L; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nangia, Vinay; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Negoi, Ionut; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nguyen, Trang Huyen; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Minh Hao; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nomura, Marika; Nong, Vuong Minh; Norheim, Ole F; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; PA, Mahesh; Pacella, Rosana E.; Pana, Adrian; Panda, Basant Kumar; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Patten, Scott B; Patton, George C.; Pereira, David M; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pillay, Julian David; Piradov, Michael A.; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Narayan; Purcell, Carrie; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Rawaf, Salman; Rehm, Colin D.; Rehm, Jürgen; Reiner, Robert C.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M.N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Rezaei, Satar; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Rivera, Juan A.; Roba, Kedir Teji; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roman, Yesenia; Room, Robin; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rubagotti, Enrico; Rushton, Lesley; Sadat, Nafis; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Salama, Joseph; Salomon, Joshua A; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Itamar S; Santric Milicevic, Milena M.; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schneider, Ione J C; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C; Schwendicke, Falk; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Shen, Jiabin; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shields, Chloe; Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shishani, Kawkab; Shoman, Haitham; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Pedro; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singh, Virendra; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H.A.; Sobngwi, Eugene; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J.D.; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Srinivasan, Vinay; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steinke, Sabine; Stokes, Mark Andrew; Strub, Bryan; Subart, Michelle; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L; Szoeke, Cassandra E.I.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Takahashi, Ken; Takala, Jukka S.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanner, Marcel; Tarekegn, Yihunie L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesssema, Belay; Thakur, J. S.; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Theis, Andrew M.; Thomas, Matthew Lloyd; Thomson, Alan J.; Thrift, Amanda G; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tobollik, Myriam; Tollanes, Mette C.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Torre, Anna; Tortajada, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Tran, Bach Xuan; Truelsen, Thomas; Tuem, Kald Beshir; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Boven, Job F.M.; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi J; Veerman, Lennert J; Venkateswaran, Vidhya; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wadilo, Fiseha; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wang, Yuan Pang; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Weiss, Daniel J.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyes, Belete Getahun; Wolfe, Charles D A; Woodbrook, Rachel; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zavala-Arciniega, Luis; Zhang, Xueying; Zimsen, Stephanie Raman M.; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health

  16. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background
    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to

  17. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Afshin, Ashkan; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Komal; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Ansari, Hossein; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Hoek, Hans W.; van Boven, Job F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health

  18. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Afshin, Ashkan; Alexander, Lily T.; Anderson, H. Ross; Bhutta, Zulficiar A.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Cercy, Kelly; Charlson, Fiona J.; Cohen, Aaron J.; Dandona, Lalit; Estep, Kara; Ferrari, Alize J.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Godwin, William W.; Griswold, Max; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Marczak, Laurie; Mensah, George A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Neal, Bruce; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Roth, Gregory A.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sur, Patrick J.; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wang, Haidong; Zhao, Yi; Zhou, Maigeng; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform

  19. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Afshin, Ashkan; Alexander, Lily T.; Ross Anderson, H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, M.; Burnett, Richard; Cercy, Kelly; Charlson, Fiona J.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform

  20. A framework for strategic investments in research to reduce the global burden of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Michael G; Rubens, Craig E

    2012-11-01

    Preterm birth and stillbirth are among the greatest health burdens associated with pregnancy and childbirth. Fifteen million babies are born preterm each year, causing about 1 million deaths annually and lifelong problems for many survivors; 3 million stillbirths also occur annually. Worldwide, the number of women and children who die during pregnancy and childbirth exceeds the total number of births in the United States. New approaches could provide a greater understanding of prematurity, stillbirth, and maternal complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Integrated multidisciplinary investigations of the mother, fetus, and newborn in different contexts and populations could elucidate the biological pathways that result in adverse outcomes and how to prevent them. Descriptive research can determine the burden of disease, while more mechanistic discovery research could explore the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy and childbirth. Together, this research can lead to the development and delivery of new and much more effective interventions, even in low-resource settings. Recent surveys of researchers and funders reveal a striking lack of consensus regarding priority areas for research and the development of interventions. While researchers enumerate unanswered questions about pregnancy and childbirth, they lack consensus on priorities. Funders are equally uncertain about research and development projects that need to be undertaken, and many are hard-pressed to support research on the complex problems of pregnancy and childbirth given competing priorities. This lack of consensus provides an opportunity to engage with funders and researchers to recognize the importance of understanding healthy pregnancies and the consequences of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A strategic alliance of funders, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and others could organize a set of grand challenges centered on pregnancy and childbirth that could yield a

  1. The global burden of listeriosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Noordhout (Charline Maertens); B. Devleesschauwer (Brecht); F.J. Angulo (Frederick); G. Verbeke (Geert); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); M. Kirk (Martyn); A.H. Havelaar (Arie); N. Speybroeck (Niko)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is an important foodborne disease that can be difficult to control and commonly results in severe clinical outcomes. We aimed to provide the first estimates of global numbers of illnesses, deaths, and disability-adjusted

  2. Global burden of Shigella infections : implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotloff, KL; Winickoff, JP; Ivanoff, B; Clemens, JD; Swerdlow, DL; Sansonetti, PJ; Adak, GK; Levine, MM

    1999-01-01

    Few studies provide data on the global morbidity and mortality caused by infection with Shigella spp.; such estimates are needed, however, to plan strategies of prevention and treatment. Here we report the results of a review of the literature published between 1966 and 1997 on Shigella infection.

  3. Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on treatment outcome. Keywords: Patient satisfaction, TB care clinical consultations, cross sectional study. ... Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global ... Measurement of outcome: Variables considered were; how long the ... Key: ART= Antiretroviral Therapy. Characteristic. Parameter n (%). Sex. Female.

  4. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010:a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas Clement

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden...... with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new....... In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional...

  5. The global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides 2006-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mew, Emma J.; Padmanathan, Prianka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    110,000 pesticide self-poisoning deaths each year from 2010 to 2014, comprising 13.7% of all global suicides. A sensitivity analysis accounting for under-reporting of suicides in India resulted in an increased estimate of 168,000 pesticide self-poisoning deaths annually, that is, 19.7% of global...... suicides. The proportion of suicides due to pesticide self-poisoning varies considerably between regions, from 0.9% in low- and middle-income countries in the European region to 48.3% in low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific region. Limitations: High quality method-specific suicide data...... were unavailable for a number of the most populous countries, particularly in the African and Eastern Mediterranean regions. It is likely we have underestimated incidence in these regions. Conclusion: There appears to have been a substantial decline in fatal pesticide self-poisoning in recent years...

  6. Deciphering emerging Zika and dengue viral epidemics: Implications for global maternal–child health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda and control and eradication efforts have aimed at its vectors (Aedes mosquitoes in Latin America in the 1950s, an absolute neglect of Zika programs and interventions has been documented in Aedes endemic and epidemic-prone countries. The current unprecedented Zika viral epidemics and rapid spread in the Western hemisphere pose a substantial global threat, with associated anxiety and consequences. The lack of safe and effective drugs and vaccines against Zika or dengue epidemics further buttresses the realization from the West Africa Ebola outbreak that most emerging disease-prone countries are still poorly prepared for an emergency response. This paper examines knowledge gaps in both emerging and neglected arthropod-borne flavivirus infectious diseases associated with poverty and their implications for fostering local, national and regional emerging disease preparedness, effective and robust surveillance–response systems, sustained control and eventual elimination. Strengthening the regional and Global Health Flavivirus Surveillance-Response Network (GHFV-SRN with other models of socio-economic, climatic, environmental and ecological mitigation and adaptation strategies will be necessary to improve evidence-based national and global maternal–child health agenda and action plans. Keywords: Zika virus, Epidemics, Health, Preparedness, Surveillance, Maternal–child

  7. Global and regional trends in particulate air quality and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Edward W.; Turnock, Steven T.; Rigby, Richard; Reddington, Carly L.; Yoshioka, Masaru; Johnson, Jill S.; Regayre, Leighton A.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Mann, Graham W.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of population-weighted PM2.5 increased by 37% to 48% dominated by large increases over China (53% to 66%) and India (70% to 116%). We find that global attributable mortality due to long-term PM2.5 exposure increased by 124% to 147% between 1960 and 2009, substantially more than the increase in PM2.5 concentrations over the same period. This increase is dominated by India and China and is driven by population growth and an ageing population combined with increased PM2.5 concentrations. Our results show that PM2.5 concentrations in China and India will need to be reduced substantially to slow the increasing attributable health burdens that are being driven by population growth and an older population.

  8. THE INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR-POLLUTION CONTINUUM AND THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR IMPROVING GLOBAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    Current understanding of the association between household air-pollution (HAP) and cardiovascular disease is primarily derived from outdoor air-pollution studies. The lack of accurate information on the contribution of HAP to cardiovascular events has prevented inclusion of such data in global burden of disease estimates with consequences in terms of health care allocation and national/international priorities. Understanding the health risks, exposure characterization, epidemiology and economics of the association between HAP and cardiovascular disease represents a pivotal unmet public health need. Interventions to reduce exposure to air-pollution in general, and HAP in particular are likely to yield large benefits and may represent a cost-effective and economically sustainable solution for many parts of the world. A multi-disciplinary effort that provides economically feasible technologic solutions in conjunction with experts that can assess the health, economic impact and sustainability are urgently required to tackle this problem.

  9. Evolution of the global burden of viral infections from unsafe medical injections, 2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pépin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2000, the World Health Organization estimated that, in developing and transitional countries, unsafe injections accounted for respectively 5%, 32% and 40% of new infections with HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Safe injection campaigns were organized worldwide. The present study sought to measure the progress in reducing the transmission of these viruses through unsafe injections over the subsequent decade. METHODS: A mass action model was updated, to recalculate the number of injection-related HIV, HCV and HBV infections acquired in 2000 and provide estimates for 2010. Data about the annual number of unsafe injections were updated. HIV prevalence in various regions in 2000 and 2010 were calculated from UNAIDS data. The ratio of HIV prevalence in healthcare settings compared to the general population was estimated from a literature review. Improved regional estimates of the prevalence of HCV seropositivity, HBsAg and HBeAg antigenemia were used for 2000 and 2010. For HIV and HCV, revised estimates of the probability of transmission per episode of unsafe injection were used, with low and high values allowing sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Despite a 13% population growth, there was a reduction of respectively 87% and 83% in the absolute numbers of HIV and HCV infections transmitted through injections. For HBV, the reduction was more marked (91% due to the additional impact of vaccination. While injections-related cases had accounted for 4.6%-9.1% of newly acquired HIV infections in 2000, this proportion decreased to 0.7%-1.3% in 2010, when unsafe injections caused between 16,939 and 33,877 HIV infections, between 157,592 and 315,120 HCV infections, and 1,679,745 HBV infections. CONCLUSION: From 2000 to 2010, substantial progress was made in reducing the burden of HIV, HCV and HBV infections transmitted through injections. In some regions, their elimination might become a reasonable public health goal.

  10. Estimating the global burden of thalassogenic diseases: human infectious diseases caused by wastewater pollution of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Hillel

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary attempt at obtaining an order-of-magnitude estimate of the global burden of disease (GBD) of human infectious diseases associated with swimming/bathing in coastal waters polluted by wastewater, and eating raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish harvested from such waters. Such diseases will be termed thalassogenic--caused by the sea. Until recently these human health effects have been viewed primarily as local phenomena, not generally included in the world agenda of marine scientists dealing with global marine pollution problems. The massive global scale of the problem can be visualized when one considers that the wastewater and human body wastes of a significant portion of the world's population who reside along the coastline or in the vicinity of the sea are discharged daily, directly or indirectly, into the marine coastal waters, much of it with little or no treatment. Every cubic metre of raw domestic wastewater discharged into the sea can carry millions of infectious doses of pathogenic microorganisms. It is estimated that globally, foreign and local tourists together spend some 2 billion man-days annually at coastal recreational resorts and many are often exposed there to coastal waters polluted by wastewater. Annually some 800 million meals of potentially contaminated filter-feeding shellfish/bivalves and other sea foods, harvested in polluted waters are consumed, much of it raw or lightly steamed. A number of scientific studies have shown that swimmers swallow significant amounts of polluted seawater and can become ill with gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases from the pathogens they ingest. Based on risk assessments from the World Health Organization (WHO) and academic research sources the present study has made an estimate that globally, each year, there are in excess of 120 million cases of gastrointestinal disease and in excess of 50 million cases of more severe respiratory diseases caused by swimming and

  11. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food.Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981. These included reports from national surveillance systems, journal articles, and national estimates of foodborne diseases. These data were used to estimate the number of infections, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs, by age and region for 2010. These parasitic diseases, resulted in 48.4 million cases (95% Uncertainty intervals [UI] of 43.4-79.0 million and 59,724 (95% UI 48,017-83,616 deaths annually resulting in 8.78 million (95% UI 7.62-12.51 million DALYs. We estimated that 48% (95% UI 38%-56% of cases of these parasitic diseases were foodborne, resulting in 76% (95% UI 65%-81% of the DALYs attributable to these diseases. Overall, foodborne parasitic disease, excluding enteric protozoa, caused an estimated 23.2 million (95% UI 18.2-38.1 million cases and 45,927 (95% UI 34,763-59,933 deaths annually resulting in an estimated 6.64 million (95% UI 5.61-8.41 million DALYs. Foodborne Ascaris infection (12.3 million cases, 95% UI 8.29-22.0 million and foodborne toxoplasmosis (10.3 million cases, 95% UI 7.40-14.9 million were the most common foodborne parasitic diseases. Human cysticercosis with 2.78 million DALYs (95% UI 2.14-3.61 million, foodborne trematodosis with 2.02 million DALYs (95% UI 1.65-2.48 million and foodborne

  12. Global, regional, and national deaths, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years, and years lived with disability for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano, Joan B.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Agrawal, Anurag; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Ansha, Mustafa Geleto; Anto, Josep M.; Asayesh, Hamid; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Barac, Aleksandra; Basu, Sanjay; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biryukov, Stan; Boneya, Dube Jara; Brauer, Michael; Carpenter, David O.; Casey, Daniel; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Huyen Phuc Do,; Fischer, Florian; Geleto, Ayele; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gupta, Vipin; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo (Michael) B.; van Boven, Job F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. Here, we present methods and disease and risk estimates for COPD and asthma from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2015 study. The GBD

  13. TB epidemiology: where are the young women? Know your tuberculosis epidemic, know your response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Rubeshan; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Padayatchi, Nesri

    2018-03-27

    The global predominance of tuberculosis in men has received significant attention. However, epidemiological studies now demonstrate that there is an increased representation of young women with tuberculosis, especially in high HIV burden settings where young women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. The role of the HIV epidemic, as well as changes in behavioural, biological, and structural risk factors are explored as potential explanations for the increasing burden of tuberculosis in young women. As young women are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, it is unsurprising that the TB epidemic in this setting has become increasingly feminised. This age-sex trend of TB in South Africa is similar to WHO estimates for other countries with a high HIV prevalence where there are more female than male cases notified up to the age of 25 years. The high prevalence of anaemia of chronic disease in young women with HIV is an additional potential reason for their increased TB risk. The widespread use of injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception, which has been shown to possess selective glucocorticoid effect and oestrogen suppression, in young women may be an important emerging biological risk factor for tuberculosis in young women. Behavioural factors such as alcohol use and tobacco smoking patterns are further factors which may be responsible for the narrowing of the sex gap in TB epidemiology. In comparison to the significantly higher alcohol consumption rates in men globally, there is a narrowing gap in alcohol consumption between the sexes in South Africa with alarming rates of alcohol abuse in young women. There is a similar narrowing of the tobacco smoking gap between the sexes in South Africa, with increasing smoking prevalence in young women. With nearly 70% of all TB patients being co-infected with HIV in our setting, it is not surprising that the age and sex distribution of TB is increasingly resembling the distribution of HIV

  14. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  15. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  16. The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease: Results from the GBD 2010 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize J.; Calabria, Bianca; Hall, Wayne D.; Norman, Rosana E.; McGrath, John; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Freedman, Greg D.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Vos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Aims Estimate the prevalence of cannabis dependence and its contribution to the global burden of disease. Methods Systematic reviews of epidemiological data on cannabis dependence (1990-2008) were conducted in line with PRISMA and meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Culling and data extraction followed protocols, with cross-checking and consistency checks. DisMod-MR, the latest version of generic disease modelling system, redesigned as a Bayesian meta-regression tool, imputed prevalence by age, year and sex for 187 countries and 21 regions. The disability weight associated with cannabis dependence was estimated through population surveys and multiplied by prevalence data to calculate the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). YLDs and DALYs attributed to regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia were also estimated. Results There were an estimated 13.1 million cannabis dependent people globally in 2010 (point prevalence0.19% (95% uncertainty: 0.17-0.21%)). Prevalence peaked between 20-24 yrs, was higher in males (0.23% (0.2-0.27%)) than females (0.14% (0.12-0.16%)) and in high income regions. Cannabis dependence accounted for 2 million DALYs globally (0.08%; 0.05-0.12%) in 2010; a 22% increase in crude DALYs since 1990 largely due to population growth. Countries with statistically higher age-standardised DALY rates included the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Western European countries such as the United Kingdom; those with lower DALY rates were from Sub-Saharan Africa-West and Latin America. Regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia accounted for an estimated 7,000 DALYs globally. Conclusion Cannabis dependence is a disorder primarily experienced by young adults, especially in higher income countries. It has not been shown to increase mortality as opioid and other forms of illicit drug dependence do. Our estimates suggest that

  17. Pharmacodynamics and Systems Pharmacology Approaches to Repurposing Drugs in the Wake of Global Health Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jane P F

    2016-10-01

    There are emergent needs for cost-effective treatment worldwide, for which repurposing to develop a drug with existing marketing approval of disease(s) for new disease(s) is a valid option. Although strategic mining of electronic health records has produced real-world evidences to inform drug repurposing, using omics data (drug and disease), knowledge base of protein interactions, and database of transcription factors have been explored. Structured integration of all the existing data under the framework of drug repurposing will facilitate decision making. The ability to foresee the need to integrate new data types produced by emergent technologies and to enable data connectivity in the context of human biology and targeted diseases, as well as to use the existing crucial quality data of all approved drugs will catapult the number of drugs being successfully repurposed. However, translational pharmacodynamics databases for modeling information across human biology in the context of host factors are lacking and are critically needed for drug repurposing to improve global public health, especially for the efforts to combat neglected tropic diseases as well as emergent infectious diseases such as Zika or Ebola virus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Biryukov, Stan; Bolliger, Ian; Charlson, Fiona; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dicker, Daniel; Duan, Leilei; Erskine, Holly; Feigin, Valery L.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Heuton, Kyle R.; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe; Laurie, Evan; Liang, Xiofeng; Lofgren, Katherine; Lozano, Rafael; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Odell, Shaun; Ortblad, Katrina; Roberts, David Allen; Roth, Gregory A.; Sandar, Logan; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Thomas, Bernadette; Vollset, Stein Emil; Whiteford, Harvey; Wolock, Timothy M.; Ye, Pengpeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Avila, Marco A.; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Hoek, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities

  19. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Hoek, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries

  20. Global healthcare use by immigrants in Spain according to morbidity burden, area of origin, and length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Diaz, Esperanza; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Macipe-Costa, Rosa; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2016-05-27

    The healthcare of immigrants is an important aspect of equity of care provision. Understanding how immigrants use the healthcare services based on their needs is crucial to establish effective health policy. This retrospective, observational study included the total population of Aragon, Spain (1,251,540 individuals, of whom 11.9 % were immigrants). Patient-level data on the use of primary, specialised, hospital, and emergency care as well as prescription drug use in 2011 were extracted from the EpiChron Cohort and compared between immigrants and nationals. Multivariable standard or zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were generated, adjusting for age, sex, length of stay, and morbidity burden. The annual visit rates of immigrants were lower than those of nationals for primary care (3.3 vs 6.4), specialised care (1.3 vs 2.7), planned hospital admissions/100 individuals (1.6 vs 3.8), unplanned hospital admissions/100 individuals (2.7 vs 4.7), and emergency room visits/10 individuals (2.3 vs 2.8). Annual prescription drug costs were also lower for immigrants (€47 vs €318). These differences were only partially attenuated after adjusting for age, sex and morbidity burden. In a universal coverage health system offering broad legal access to immigrants, the global use of healthcare services was lower for immigrants than for nationals. These differences may be explained in part by the healthy migration effect, but also reveal possible inequalities in healthcare provision that warrant further investigation.

  1. Behaviour change strategies for reducing blood pressure-related disease burden: findings from a global implementation research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, David; Thompson, Simon R; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Goudge, Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Kamano, Jemima Hoine; Irazola, Vilma; Johnson, Claire; Kengne, Andre P; Keat, Ng Kien; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Mukasa, Barbara; Ng, Eleanor; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Praveen, Devarsetty; Salam, Abdul; Thorogood, Margaret; Thrift, Amanda G; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Waddy, Salina P; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Yusoff, Khalid

    2015-11-09

    The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases comprises the majority of the world's public research funding agencies. It is focussed on implementation research to tackle the burden of chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries and amongst vulnerable populations in high-income countries. In its inaugural research call, 15 projects were funded, focussing on lowering blood pressure-related disease burden. In this study, we describe a reflexive mapping exercise to identify the behaviour change strategies undertaken in each of these projects. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, each team rated the capability, opportunity and motivation of the various actors who were integral to each project (e.g. community members, non-physician health workers and doctors in projects focussed on service delivery). Teams then mapped the interventions they were implementing and determined the principal policy categories in which those interventions were operating. Guidance was provided on the use of Behaviour Change Wheel to support consistency in responses across teams. Ratings were iteratively discussed and refined at several group meetings. There was marked variation in the perceived capabilities, opportunities and motivation of the various actors who were being targeted for behaviour change strategies. Despite this variation, there was a high degree of synergy in interventions functions with most teams utilising complex interventions involving education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and persuasion oriented strategies. Similar policy categories were also targeted across teams particularly in the areas of guidelines, communication/marketing and service provision with few teams focussing on fiscal measures, regulation and legislation. The large variation in preparedness to change behaviour amongst the principal actors across these projects suggests that the interventions themselves will be variably taken up, despite the similarity in approaches taken

  2. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries : A baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Stephen S.; Allen, Kate; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Hay, Simon I.; Holmberg, Mollie; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kutz, Michael J.; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; McNellan, Claire R.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Olsen, Helen E.; Pigott, David M.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Achoki, Tom; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases,

  3. Heart and/or soul : reality and fiction in the association between the two strongest contributors to the global burden of disease - ischemic heart disease and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter

    Depression and heart disease are the strongest contributors to the global burden of disease and are often intertwined: depression is a risk factor for heart disease and vice versa. Moreover, depression in patients with established heart disease is associated with cardiovascular disease progression.

  4. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010 : A Data Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Caipo, Marisa; Crump, John A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Döpfer, Dörte; Fazil, Aamir; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Hald, Tine; Hall, Aron J; Keddy, Karen H; Lake, Robin J; Lanata, Claudio F; Torgerson, Paul R; Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We

  5. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Martyn D.; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. We synthesized data on the number of ...

  6. Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    In this podcast, Dr. Sundari Mase, Medical Team Lead in the Field Services and Evaluation Branch in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day and the 2014 theme.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  7. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: challenges of a global emergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comolet, T

    2015-10-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis, in particular Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR-TB) is an increasing global concern and a major burden for some developing countries, especially the BRICS. It is assumed that every year roughly 350 000 new MDR-TB cases occur in the world, on average in 20.5% of TB patients that have been previously treated but also in 3.5% of persons that have never been on TB treatment before. The global distribution of cases is very heterogeneous and is now better understood thanks to a growing number of specific surveys and routine surveillance systems: incidence is much higher in southern Africa and in all countries formerly part of the USSR. Countries with weak health systems and previously inefficient TB control programs are highly vulnerable to MDR epidemics because program failures do help creating, maintaining and spreading resistances. Global response is slowly rolled out and diagnosis capacities are on the rise (mostly with genotypic methods) but adequate and successful treatment and care is still limited to a minority of global cases. From a public health perspective the MDR-TB growing epidemics will not be controlled merely by the introduction of few new antibiotics because it is also linked to patient's compliance and adequate case management supported by efficient TB program. In depth quality improvement will only be achieved after previous errors are thoroughly analyzed and boldly corrected.

  8. The economic burden of tuberculosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Hafidz, F; Mustikawati, D

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and is one of the 22 countries with the highest TB burdens in the world. To understand the economic burden of TB in Indonesia. TB data for 2015 were combined with cost data using a simple type of cost-benefit analysis in a decision tree model to show the economic burden under different scenarios. In Indonesia, there were an estimated 1 017 378 new active TB cases in 2015, including multidrug-resistant TB. It is estimated that 417 976 of these cases would be treated and cured, 160 830 would be unsuccessfully treated and would die, 131 571 would be untreated and would achieve cure spontaneously, and 307 000 would be untreated and would die. The total economic burden related to treated and untreated cases would be approximately US$6.9 billion. Loss of productivity due to premature death would be by far the largest element, comprising US$6.0 billion (discounted), which represents 86.6% of the total cost. Loss of productivity due to illness would be US$700 million (10.1%), provider medical costs US$156 million (2.2%), and direct non-medical costs incurred by patients and their households US$74 million (1.1%). The economic burden of TB in Indonesia is extremely high. Detecting and treating more cases would result not only in major reductions in suffering but also in economic savings to society.

  9. Global burden of mortalities due to chronic exposure to ambient PM2.5 from open combustion of domestic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodros, John K.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Ford, Bonne; Cucinotta, Rachel; Gan, Ryan; Magzamen, Sheryl; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-12-01

    Uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste has been observed in many countries, creating concerns for air quality; however, the health implications have not yet been quantified. We incorporate the Wiedinmyer et al (2014 Environ. Sci. Technol. 48 9523-30) emissions inventory into the global chemical-transport model, GEOS-Chem, and provide a first estimate of premature adult mortalities from chronic exposure to ambient PM2.5 from uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste. Using the concentration-response functions (CRFs) of Burnett et al (2014 Environ. Health Perspect. 122 397-403), we estimate that waste-combustion emissions result in 270 000 (5th-95th: 213 000-328 000) premature adult mortalities per year. The confidence interval results only from uncertainty in the CRFs and assumes equal toxicity of waste-combustion PM2.5 to all other PM2.5 sources. We acknowledge that this result is likely sensitive to choice of chemical-transport model, CRFs, and emission inventories. Our central estimate equates to 9% of adult mortalities from exposure to ambient PM2.5 reported in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Exposure to PM2.5 from waste combustion increases the risk of premature mortality by more than 0.5% for greater than 50% of the population. We consider sensitivity simulations to uncertainty in waste-combustion emission mass, the removal of waste-combustion emissions, and model resolution. A factor-of-2 uncertainty in waste-combustion PM2.5 leads to central estimates ranging from 138 000 to 518 000 mortalities per year for factors-of-2 reductions and increases, respectively. Complete removal of waste combustion would only avoid 191 000 (5th-95th: 151 000-224 000) mortalities per year (smaller than the total contributed premature mortalities due to nonlinear CRFs). Decreasing model resolution from 2° × 2.5° to 4° × 5° results in 16% fewer mortalities attributed to waste-combustion PM2.5, and over Asia, decreasing resolution from 0.5° × 0.666° to 2° × 2

  10. A review of co-morbidity between infectious and chronic disease in Sub Saharan Africa: TB and diabetes mellitus, HIV and metabolic syndrome, and the impact of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Fiona; Critchley, Julia A; Johnstone, Lucy K; Unwin, Nigel C

    2009-09-14

    Africa is facing a rapidly growing chronic non-communicable disease burden whilst at the same time experiencing continual high rates of infectious disease. It is well known that some infections increase the risk of certain chronic diseases and the converse. With an increasing dual burden of disease in Sub Saharan Africa the associations between diseases and our understanding of them will become of increased public health importance. In this review we explore the relationships reported between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus, its treatment and metabolic risk. We aimed to address the important issues surrounding these associations within a Sub Saharan African setting and to describe the impact of globalization upon them. Diabetes has been associated with a 3-fold incident risk of tuberculosis and it is hypothesised that tuberculosis may also increase the risk of developing diabetes. During co-morbid presentation of tuberculosis and diabetes both tuberculosis and diabetes outcomes are reported to worsen. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has been associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and HIV has been linked with an increased risk of developing both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Globalization is clearly related to an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It may be exerting other negative and positive impacts upon infectious and chronic non-communicable disease associations but at present reporting upon these is sparse. The impact of these co-morbidities in Sub Saharan Africa is likely to be large. An increasing prevalence of diabetes may hinder efforts at tuberculosis control, increasing the number of susceptible individuals in populations where tuberculosis is endemic, and making successful treatment harder. Roll out of anti-retroviral treatment coverage within Sub Saharan Africa is an essential response to the HIV epidemic however it is likely to lead to a growing number of individuals

  11. Global alcohol exposure estimates by country, territory and region for 2005--a contribution to the Comparative Risk Assessment for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rylett, Margaret; Gmel, Gerhard; Gmel, Gerrit; Kehoe-Chan, Tara A K; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of life-time abstainers, former drinkers and current drinkers, adult per-capita consumption of alcohol and pattern of drinking scores, by country and Global Burden of Disease region for 2005, and to forecast these indicators for 2010. Statistical modelling based on survey data and routine statistics. A total of 241 countries and territories. Per-capita consumption data were obtained with the help of the World Health Organization's Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Drinking status data were obtained from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study, the STEPwise approach to Surveillance study, the World Health Survey/Multi-Country Study and other surveys. Consumption and drinking status data were triangulated to estimate alcohol consumption across multiple categories. In 2005 adult per-capita annual consumption of alcohol was 6.1 litres, with 1.7 litres stemming from unrecorded consumption; 17.1 litres of alcohol were consumed per drinker, 45.8% of all adults were life-time abstainers, 13.6% were former drinkers and 40.6% were current drinkers. Life-time abstention was most prevalent in North Africa/Middle East and South Asia. Eastern Europe and Southern sub-Saharan Africa had the most detrimental pattern of drinking scores, while drinkers in Europe (Eastern and Central) and sub-Saharan Africa (Southern and West) consumed the most alcohol. Just over 40% of the world's adult population consumes alcohol and the average consumption per drinker is 17.1 litres per year. However, the prevalence of abstention, level of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking vary widely across regions of the world. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Liu, Patrick; Roth, Gregory A; Ng, Marie; Biryukov, Stan; Marczak, Laurie; Alexander, Lily; Estep, Kara; Hassen Abate, Kalkidan; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Ali, Raghib; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Azzopardi, Peter; Banerjee, Amitava; Bärnighausen, Till; Basu, Arindam; Bekele, Tolesa; Bennett, Derrick A; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Feigin, Valery L; Fernandes, Joao C; Fischer, Florian; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Gona, Philimon; Gupta, Rajeev; Hankey, Graeme J; Jonas, Jost B; Judd, Suzanne E; Khang, Young-Ho; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Lopez, Alan; Lotufo, Paulo A; Malekzadeh, Reza; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Mensah, George A; Misganaw, Awoke; Mokdad, Ali H; Moran, Andrew E; Nawaz, Haseeb; Neal, Bruce; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rafay, Anwar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rojas-Rueda, David; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Santos, Itamar S; Sawhney, Monika; Schutte, Aletta E; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shifa, Girma Temam; Shiue, Ivy; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Thrift, Amanda G; Tonelli, Marcello; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uthman, Olalekan A; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vos, Theo; Westerman, Ronny; Yan, Lijing L; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Murray, Christopher J L

    2017-01-10

    Elevated systolic blood (SBP) pressure is a leading global health risk. Quantifying the levels of SBP is important to guide prevention policies and interventions. To estimate the association between SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg and SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher and the burden of different causes of death and disability by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015. A comparative risk assessment of health loss related to SBP. Estimated distribution of SBP was based on 844 studies from 154 countries (published 1980-2015) of 8.69 million participants. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression was used to generate estimates of mean SBP and adjusted variance for each age, sex, country, and year. Diseases with sufficient evidence for a causal relationship with high SBP (eg, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke) were included in the primary analysis. Mean SBP level, cause-specific deaths, and health burden related to SBP (≥110-115 mm Hg and also ≥140 mm Hg) by age, sex, country, and year. Between 1990-2015, the rate of SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg increased from 73 119 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 67 949-78 241) to 81 373 (95% UI, 76 814-85 770) per 100 000, and SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher increased from 17 307 (95% UI, 17 117-17 492) to 20 526 (95% UI, 20 283-20 746) per 100 000. The estimated annual death rate per 100 000 associated with SBP of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg increased from 135.6 (95% UI, 122.4-148.1) to 145.2 (95% UI 130.3-159.9) and the rate for SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher increased from 97.9 (95% UI, 87.5-108.1) to 106.3 (95% UI, 94.6-118.1). For loss of DALYs associated with systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher, the loss increased from 95.9 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 87.0-104.9 million) to 143.0 million (95% UI, 130.2-157.0 million) [corrected], and for SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher, the loss increased from 5.2 million (95% UI, 4.6-5.7 million) to 7

  13. Child and Adolescent Mortality Across Malaysia's Epidemiological Transition: A Systematic Analysis of Global Burden of Disease Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razak, Suraya; Azzopardi, Peter S; Patton, George C; Mokdad, Ali H; Sawyer, Susan M

    2017-10-01

    A rapid epidemiological transition in developing countries in Southeast Asia has been accompanied by major shifts in the health status of children and adolescents. In this article, mortality estimates in Malaysian children and adolescents from 1990 to 2013 are used to illustrate these changes. All-cause and cause-specific mortality estimates were obtained from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. Data were extracted from 1990 to 2013 for the developmental age range from 1 to 24 years, for both sexes. Trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality for the major epidemiological causes were estimated. From 1990 to 2013, all-cause mortality decreased in all age groups. Reduction of all-cause mortality was greatest in 1- to 4-year-olds (2.4% per year reduction) and least in 20- to 24-year-olds (.9% per year reduction). Accordingly, in 2013, all-cause mortality was highest in 20- to 24-year-old males (129 per 100,000 per year). In 1990, the principal cause of death for 1- to 9-year boys and girls was vaccine preventable diseases. By 2013, neoplasms had become the major cause of death in 1-9 year olds of both sexes. The major cause of death in 10- to 24-year-old females was typhoid in 1990 and neoplasms in 2013, whereas the major cause of death in 10- to 24-year-old males remained road traffic injuries. The reduction in mortality across the epidemiological transition in Malaysia has been much less pronounced for adolescents than younger children. The contribution of injuries and noncommunicable diseases to adolescent mortality suggests where public health strategies should focus. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycobacteria and TB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaufmann, S. H. E. (Stephan H. E.); Hahn, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    .... Scientists investigating the epidemiology, immunology and molecular biology of TB or engaged in vaccine and drug development as well as physicians and social workers treating TB patients will benefit...

  15. WHO GLOBAL TUBERCULOSIS REPORTS: COMPILATION AND INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vаsilyevа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to inform national specialists involved in tuberculosis control about methods for compilation of WHO global tuberculosis statistics, which are used when developing strategies and programmes for tuberculosis control and evaluation of their efficiency.  The article explains in detail the notions of main WHO epidemiological rates, used in the international publications on tuberculosis along with the data on their registered values, new approaches to making the list of country with the highest burden of tuberculosis, drug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis with concurrent HIV infection. The article compares the rates in the Russian Federation with global data as well as data from countries within WHO European Regions and countries with highest TB burden. It presents materials on the achievement of Global goals in tuberculosis control and main provisions of WHO End TB Strategy for 2015-2035 adopted as a part of UNO Sustainable Development Goals.  

  16. END TB – THE NEW WHO STRATEGY IN THE SDG ERA* , AND THE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Raviglione

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is written to update tuberculosis (TB experts in the Russian Federation about the most recent data on the global TB situation, the progress in global TB care and control efforts, the challenges ahead, and the response expected by all countries. In particular, the article will detail the new End TB Strategy that the World Health Organization (WHO is promoting for the new era of the Sustainable Development Goals 2016-2030 after the World Health Assembly approved it in a resolution during its 2014 meeting. The Russian Federation, with its extraordinary resources and knowledge needs to contribute to the roll-out of the new Strategy, both nationally and internationally. For this, the Ministerial Conference called by the Russian Federation Government to be held in Moscow on 16-17 November 2017 will play a crucial role in calling for the political attention necessary at the highest governmental levels in all high-burden countries, with an ultimate aim to raise the struggle against TB in the heads-of-state agenda.

  17. The epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors 2010 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Chugh, Sumeet; Feigin, Valery; Mensah, George

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is unique among world regions, with about half of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to causes other than atherosclerosis. CVD epidemiology data are sparse and of uneven quality in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the available data, the Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors, and Injuries (GBD) 2010 Study estimated CVD mortality and burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990 and 2010. The leading CVD cause of death and disability in 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa was stroke; the largest relative increases in CVD burden between 1990 and 2010 were in atrial fibrillation and peripheral arterial disease. CVD deaths constituted only 8.8% of all deaths and 3.5% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in sub-Sahara Africa, less than a quarter of the proportion of deaths and burden attributed to CVD in high income regions. However, CVD deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur at younger ages on average than in the rest of the world. It remains uncertain if increased urbanization and life expectancy in some parts of sub-Saharan African nations will transition the region to higher CVD burden in future years. © 2013.

  18. The Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors 2010 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Chugh, Sumeet; Feigin, Valery; Mensah, George

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is unique among world regions, with about half of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to causes other than atherosclerosis. CVD epidemiology data are sparse and of uneven quality in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the available data, the Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors, and Injuries (GBD) 2010 Study estimated CVD mortality and burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990 and 2010. The leading CVD cause of death and disability in 2010 in sub-Saharan Africa was stroke; the largest relative increases in CVD burden between 1990 and 2010 were in atrial fibrillation and peripheral arterial disease. CVD deaths constituted only 8.8% of all deaths and 3.5% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in sub-Sahara Africa, less than a quarter of the proportion of deaths and burden attributed to CVD in high income regions. However, CVD deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur at younger ages on average than in the rest of the world. It remains uncertain if increased urbanization and life expectancy in some parts of sub-Saharan African nations will transition the region to higher CVD burden in future years. PMID:24267430

  19. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  20. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Kc, Astha; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Ruvalcaba, Carolina Batis; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A Bin; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Başara, Berrak Bora; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas Kd; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; de Cosio, Teresita Gonzalez; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838993; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Roseline, Sidibe S Kany; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Ku, Tiffany; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Hernandez, Julio C Montañez; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, Km Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for

  1. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H. Ross; Bachman, Victoria F.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M.; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J.; Astha, K. C.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Al Lami, Faris H.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for

  2. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H. Ross; Bachman, Victoria F.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M.; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J.; Astha, K. C.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Aburto, Tania C.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K.; Adsuar, José C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Al Lami, Faris H.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K.; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Bora Başara, Berrak; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Broday, David M.; Brooks, Peter M.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N.; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G. J.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Campuzano, Julio C.; Cantoral, Alejandra J.; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas K. D.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Contreras, Alejandra G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E. Filipa; de la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; de Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Devries, Karen M.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigin, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; García-Guerra, Francisco A.; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim A. M.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez de Cosio, Teresita; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Gugnani, Harish C.; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Hubbell, Bryan J.; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jansen, Henrica A.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kany Roseline, Sidibe S.; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K.; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kissela, Brett M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M. Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lai, Taavi; Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O.; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M. P.; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C.; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Martin, Randall V.; Marzan, Melvin B.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McKay, Abigail C.; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C.; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nogueira, José R.; Nolla, Joan M.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S.; Pedroza, Andrea; Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A. L.; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D.; Pope, C. Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qato, Dima M.; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex A.; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G.; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E.; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I.; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H.; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stapelberg, Nicolas J. C.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; te Ao, Braden J.; Teixeira, Carolina M.; Téllez Rojo, Martha M.; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uzun, Selen B.; van de Vijver, Steven; van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H.; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N.; Vavilala, Monica S.; Veerman, Lennert J.; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S.; Watts, Charlotte H.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Thomas N.; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wong, John Q.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for

  3. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Coates, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249

  4. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Pullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Margaret; Lozano, Rafael; Marquez, Neal; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.; Singh, Abhishek; Tura, Abera Kenay

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes

  5. Holistic actions are essential to combat the global public health burden of non-viral sexually transmitted infections: challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant international public health burden. These infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality and economic costs globally, and require more attention and resources internationally. This special focus issue of Expert Review of Anti Infective Therapy invited key opinion leaders to review and discuss the challenges associated with the diagnosis and treatment of non-viral STIs. The issue also elucidates the future perspectives, ways forward and holistic actions imperative to effectively combat these STIs.

  6. Trade liberalization and tuberculosis incidence: a longitudinal multi-level analysis in 22 high burden countries between 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Trade liberalization is promoted by the World Trade Organization (WTO) through a complex architecture of binding trade agreements. This type of trade, however, has the potential to modify the upstream and proximate determinants of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We aimed to analyse the association between trade liberalization and TB incidence in 22 high-burden TB countries between 1990 and 2010. and findings A longitudinal multi-level linear regression analysis was performed using five different measures of trade liberalization as exposure [WTO membership, duration of membership, trade as % of gross domestic product, and components of both the Economic Freedom of the World Index (EFI4) and the KOF Index of Globalization (KOF1)]. We adjusted for a wide range of factors, including differences in human development index (HDI), income inequality, debts, polity patterns, conflict, overcrowding, population stage transition, health system financing, case detection rates and HIV prevalence. None of the five trade indicators was significantly associated with TB incidence in the crude analysis. Any positive effect of EFI4 on (Log-) TB incidence over time was confounded by differences in socio-economic development (HDI), HIV prevalence and health financing indicators. The adjusted TB incidence rate ratio of WTO member countries was significantly higher [RR: 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-2.29] when compared with non-member countries. We found no association between specific aggregate indicators of trade liberalization and TB incidence. Our analyses provide evidence of a significant association between WTO membership and higher TB incidence, which suggests a possible conflict between the architecture of WTO agreements and TB-related Millennium Development Goals. Further research is needed, particularly on the relation between the aggregate trade indices used in this study and the hypothesized mediators and also on sector-specific indices, specific trade agreements and

  7. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephen S; Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Danaei, Goodarz; Shibuya, Kenji; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus; Anderson, H Ross; Andrews, Kathryn G; Aryee, Martin; Atkinson, Charles; Bacchus, Loraine J; Bahalim, Adil N; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Baxter, Amanda; Bell, Michelle L; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona; Bonner, Carissa; Borges, Guilherme; Bourne, Rupert; Boussinesq, Michel; Brauer, Michael; Brooks, Peter; Bruce, Nigel G; Brunekreef, Bert; Bryan-Hancock, Claire; Bucello, Chiara; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bull, Fiona; Burnett, Richard T; Byers, Tim E; Calabria, Bianca; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carnahan, Emily; Chafe, Zoe; Charlson, Fiona; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jian Shen; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann; Child, Jennifer Christine; Cohen, Aaron; Colson, K Ellicott; Cowie, Benjamin C; Darby, Sarah; Darling, Susan; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dentener, Frank; Des Jarlais, Don C; Devries, Karen; Dherani, Mukesh; Ding, Eric L; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim; Edmond, Karen; Ali, Suad Eltahir; Engell, Rebecca E; Erwin, Patricia J; Fahimi, Saman; Falder, Gail; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ferrari, Alize; Finucane, Mariel M; Flaxman, Seth; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R; Freedman, Greg; Freeman, Michael K; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ghosh, Santu; Giovannucci, Edward; Gmel, Gerhard; Graham, Kathryn; Grainger, Rebecca; Grant, Bridget; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Hialy R; Hall, Wayne; Hoek, Hans W; Hogan, Anthony; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian; Hu, Howard; Hubbell, Bryan J; Hutchings, Sally J; Ibeanusi, Sydney E; Jacklyn, Gemma L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Jonas, Jost B; Kan, Haidong; Kanis, John A; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kawakami, Norito; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khoo, Jon-Paul; Kok, Cindy; Laden, Francine; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lan, Qing; Lathlean, Tim; Leasher, Janet L; Leigh, James; Li, Yang; Lin, John Kent; Lipshultz, Steven E; London, Stephanie; Lozano, Rafael; Lu, Yuan; Mak, Joelle; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mallinger, Leslie; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn; Marks, Robin; Martin, Randall; McGale, Paul; McGrath, John; Mehta, Sumi; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Micha, Renata; Michaud, Catherine; Mishra, Vinod; Mohd Hanafiah, Khayriyyah; Mokdad, Ali A; Morawska, Lidia; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Murphy, Tasha; Naghavi, Mohsen; Neal, Bruce; Nelson, Paul K; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Norman, Rosana; Olives, Casey; Omer, Saad B; Orchard, Jessica; Osborne, Richard; Ostro, Bart; Page, Andrew; Pandey, Kiran D; Parry, Charles D H; Passmore, Erin; Patra, Jayadeep; Pearce, Neil; Pelizzari, Pamela M; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Pope, Dan; Pope, C Arden; Powles, John; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rehm, Jürgen T; Ritz, Beate; Rivara, Frederick P; Roberts, Thomas; Robinson, Carolyn; Rodriguez-Portales, Jose A; Romieu, Isabelle; Room, Robin; Rosenfeld, Lisa C; Roy, Ananya; Rushton, Lesley; Salomon, Joshua A; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sanman, Ella; Sapkota, Amir; Seedat, Soraya; Shi, Peilin; Shield, Kevin; Shivakoti, Rupak; Singh, Gitanjali M; Sleet, David A; Smith, Emma; Smith, Kirk R; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Steenland, Kyle; Stöckl, Heidi; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Straif, Kurt; Straney, Lahn; Thurston, George D; Tran, Jimmy H; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Veerman, J Lennert; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Weintraub, Robert; Weissman, Myrna M; White, Richard A; Whiteford, Harvey; Wiersma, Steven T; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Warwick; Wilson, Nicholas; Woolf, Anthony D; Yip, Paul; Zielinski, Jan M; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L; Ezzati, Majid; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Memish, Ziad A

    2012-12-15

    Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time. We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. We estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specific deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden. In 2010, the three leading risk factors for global disease burden were high blood pressure (7·0% [95% uncertainty interval 6·2-7·7] of global DALYs), tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·3% [5·5-7·0]), and alcohol use (5·5% [5·0-5·9]). In 1990, the leading risks were childhood underweight (7·9% [6·8-9·4]), household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP; 7·0% [5·6-8·3]), and tobacco smoking including second-hand smoke (6·1% [5·4-6·8]). Dietary risk factors and physical inactivity collectively accounted for 10·0% (95% UI 9·2-10·8) of global DALYs in 2010, with the most prominent dietary risks being diets low in fruits and those high in sodium. Several risks that primarily affect childhood communicable diseases, including unimproved

  8. EAMJ Jan. Burden.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... developed world where the burden of disease is accurately determined. ... Projections indicate an expected yearly incidence of 15 to 20 million new .... of global mortality and burden of diseases from 2002 to 2030. Plos. Med.

  9. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-16

    Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality

  10. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortblad, Katrina F; Guinovart, Caterina; Lim, Stephen S; Wolock, Timothy M; Roberts, D Allen; Dansereau, Emily A; Graetz, Nicholas; Barber, Ryan M; Brown, Jonathan C; Wang, Haidong; Duber, Herbert C; Naghavi, Mohsen; Dicker, Daniel; Dandona, Lalit; Salomon, Joshua A; Heuton, Kyle R; Foreman, Kyle; Phillips, David E; Fleming, Thomas D; Flaxman, Abraham D; Phillips, Bryan K; Johnson, Elizabeth K; Coggeshall, Megan S; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ferede, Semaw; Abraham, Jerry P; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Achoki, Tom; Adeyemo, Austine Olufemi; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Adsuar, José C; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Abdulhak, Aref Bin; Binagwaho, Agnes; Blore, Jed D; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Brainin, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Courville, Karen J; Cowie, Benjamin C; Criqui, Michael H; Dandona, Rakhi; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Driscoll, Tim R; Durrani, Adnan M; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Paleo, Urbano Fra.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gibney, Katherine B; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Glaser, Elizabeth L; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Harb, Hilda L; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Pi, Ileana B Heredia; Hoek, Hans W; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hotez, Peter J; Hoy, Damian G; Huang, John J; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Innos, Kaire; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kankindi, Ida; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Khonelidze, Irma; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, S; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; De Lima, Graça Maria Ferreira; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Lotufo, Paulo A; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; Maclachlan, Jennifer H; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; Mckay, Abigail Cecilia; Meaney, Peter A; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Mori, Rintaro; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newton, Charles R; Ng, Marie; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Nowaseb, Vincent; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Papachristou, Christina; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris Igor; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M; Razavi, Homie; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Ronfani, Luca; Roy, Nobhojit; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Samonte, Genesis May J; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J C; Schwebel, David C; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H; Silva, Andrea P; Simard, Edgar P; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen Begüm; Vallely, Andrew J; Vasankari, Tommi J; Venketasubramanian, N; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Waller, Stephen; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wong, John Q; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C; Yano, Yuichiro; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zou, Xiao Nong; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occurred since the Millennium Declaration. Methods To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010–13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets. Findings Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1·7 million to 2·1 million), 29·2 million prevalent HIV cases (28·1 to 31·7), and 1·3 million HIV deaths (1·3 to 1·5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1

  11. Global-scale projection and its sensitivity analysis of the health burden attributable to childhood undernutrition under the latest scenario framework for climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shota; Kanae, Shinjiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Shin, Yonghee; Tanaka, Akemi; Honda, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the health burden attributable to childhood underweight through 2050 focusing on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), by considering the latest scenarios for climate change studies (representative concentration pathways and shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs)) and conducting sensitivity analysis. A regression model for estimating DALYs attributable to childhood underweight (DAtU) was developed using the relationship between DAtU and childhood stunting. We combined a global computable general equilibrium model, a crop model, and two regression models to assess the future health burden. We found that (i) world total DAtU decreases from 2005 by 28 ∼ 63% in 2050 depending on the socioeconomic scenarios. Per capita DAtU also decreases in all regions under either scenario in 2050, but the decreases vary significantly by regions and scenarios. (ii) The impact of climate change is relatively small in the framework of this study but, on the other hand, socioeconomic conditions have a great impact on the future health burden. (iii) Parameter uncertainty of the regression models is the second largest factor on uncertainty of the result following the changes in socioeconomic condition, and uncertainty derived from the difference in global circulation models is the smallest in the framework of this study. (letters)

  12. Tuberculosis DALY-Gap: Spatial and Quantitative Comparison of Disease Burden Across Urban Slum and Non-slum Census Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Mariel A; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Sales, Carolina Maia Martins; Gomes, Teresa; Snyder, Robert E; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Riley, Lee W

    2015-08-01

    To quantitatively assess disease burden due to tuberculosis between populations residing in and outside of urban informal settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we compared disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), or "DALY-gap." Using the 2010 Brazilian census definition of informal settlements as aglomerados subnormais (AGSN), we allocated tuberculosis (TB) DALYs to AGSN vs non-AGSN census tracts based on geocoded addresses of TB cases reported to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases in 2005 and 2010. DALYs were calculated based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease methodology. DALY-gap was calculated as the difference between age-adjusted DALYs/100,000 population between AGSN and non-AGSN. Total TB DALY in Rio in 2010 was 16,731 (266 DALYs/100,000). DALYs were higher in AGSN census tracts (306 vs 236 DALYs/100,000), yielding a DALY-gap of 70 DALYs/100,000. Attributable DALY fraction for living in an AGSN was 25.4%. DALY-gap was highest for males 40-59 years of age (501 DALYs/100,000) and in census tracts with <60% electricity (12,327 DALYs/100,000). DALY-gap comparison revealed spatial and quantitative differences in TB burden between slum vs non-slum census tracts that were not apparent using traditional measures of incidence and mortality. This metric could be applied to compare TB burden or burden for other diseases in mega-cities with large informal settlements for more targeted resource allocation and evaluation of intervention programs.

  13. Global burden of disease attributable to diabetes mellitus in Brazil Carga global de doença devida e atribuível ao diabetes mellitus no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Ferreira de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes mellitus accounts for 90% of all cases of diabetes, and its inclusion in health evaluation has shown that its complications have a considerable impact on the population's quality of life. The current article presents the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study in Brazil for the year 1998, with an emphasis on diabetes mellitus and its complications. The indicator used was disability-adjusted life years (DALY, using a discount rate of 3%. In Brazil, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes accounted for 14.7% of total lost DALYs. Brazil showed a higher proportion of years lived with disability (YLDs among total DALYs for diabetes as compared to other countries. Retinopathy and neuropathy were the complications that contributed most to YLDs. According to forecasts, diabetes mellitus will have an increasing impact on years of life lost due to premature death and disability in the world, shifting from the 11th to 7th cause of death by 2030. It is thus urgent to implement effective measures for prevention, early diagnosis, counseling, and adequate follow-up of patients with diabetes mellitus.O diabetes mellitus tipo II é responsável por 90% de todos os casos de diabetes, e sua inclusão na avaliação de saúde evidencia que as suas complicações têm um considerável impacto na qualidade de vida de uma população. O presente artigo apresenta os resultados do Estudo de Carga Global de Doença, realizado no Brasil para o ano de 1998, com ênfase no diabetes mellitus e suas complicações. O indicador utilizado foi o disability-adjusted life years (DALY, ao qual aplicou-se a taxa de desconto de 3%. No Brasil, doenças isquêmicas do coração, doenças cardiovasculares e diabetes contribuíram com 14,7% do total de DALY. Observou-se uma maior participação do years lived with disability (YLD no total de DALY para o diabetes quando comparado a outros países. As complicações retinopatias e neuropatias foram as que mais

  14. The global dynamics of diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of migration and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Girardi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The convergence between tuberculosis (TB and diabetes mellitus (DM will represent a major public health challenge in the near future. DM increases the risk of developing TB by two to three times and also increases the risk of TB treatment failure, relapse, and death. The global prevalence of DM is predicted to rise significantly in the next two decades, particularly in some of the low- and middle-income countries with the highest TB burden. Migration may add further complexity to the effort to control the impact on TB of the growing DM pandemic. Migration may increase the risk of DM, although the magnitude of this association varies according to country of origin and ethnic group, due to genetic factors and lifestyle differences. Migrants with TB may have an increased prevalence of DM compared to the native population, and the risk of TB among persons with DM may be higher in migrants than in autochthonous populations. Screening for DM among migrants, screening migrants with DM for active and latent TB, and improving access to DM care, could contribute to mitigate the effects of DM on TB.

  15. Rising global burden of breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications for regional development: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azubuike, Samuel O; Muirhead, Colin; Hayes, Louise; McNally, Richard

    2018-03-22

    Despite mortality from breast cancer in Africa being higher than in high income countries, breast cancer has not been extensively studied in the region. The aim of this paper was to highlight the rising burden of breast cancer with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa as well as trends, characteristics, controversies and their implications for regional development. A review of published studies and documents was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Pubmed and Google using combinations of key words-breast neoplasm, breast cancer, cancer, incidence, mortality, Africa, Nigeria. Graphical and frequency analyses were carried out on some of the incidence and mortality figures retrieved from published papers and the GLOBOCAN website. Globally, about 25% and 15% of all new cancer cases and cancer deaths respectively among females were due to breast cancer. Africa currently had the highest age-standardized breast cancer mortality rate globally, with the highest incidence rates being recorded within the sub-Saharan African sub-region. Incidence trends such as inherently aggressive tumour and younger age profile had been subject to controversies. Certain factors such as westernized diet, urbanization and possibly increasing awareness had been implicated, though their specific contributions were yet to be fully established. Unless urgent action is taken, breast cancer will compound sub-Saharan Africa's disease burden, increase poverty and gender inequality as well as reverse the current global gains against maternal and neonatal mortality.

  16. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simon I; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Ackerman, Ilana N; Adedeji, Isaac A; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expec...

  17. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Introduction Testing and Treatment TB Disease Glossary Introduction Introduction What is TB? Why is TB still ... chest x-ray is made by exposing a film to x-rays that pass through the chest. ...

  18. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  19. Mitigating Financial Burden of Tuberculosis through Active Case Finding Targeting Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Fukushi; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Eang, Mao Tan; Saint, Saly; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF) targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF). We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia. In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups. The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5-594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6-813.4], p = 0.104). The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5-25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4-70.8], pCambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs incurred particularly before treatment. Social protection schemes that can replace lost income are critically needed to compensate for the most devastating costs in TB. An occurrence of selling household property can be a useful proxy for catastrophic cost in Cambodia.

  20. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated incidence...... and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up...... of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis...

  1. Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular and Diabetes Mortality in South Asia: Analysis From the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Mohammad Y; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Singh, Gitanjali M; Shi, Peilin; Ahsan, Habibul; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Chen, Yu; Afshin, Ashkan; Fahimi, Saman; Danaei, Goodarz; Powles, John W; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-12-01

    To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths. Suboptimal diet was the leading cause of cardiometabolic mortality in 4 of 5 countries, with population-attributable fractions from 40.7% (95% uncertainty interval = 37.4, 44.1) in Bangladesh to 56.9% (95% uncertainty interval = 52.4, 61.5) in Pakistan. High systolic blood pressure was the second leading cause, except in Bangladesh, where it superseded suboptimal diet. This was followed in all nations by high fasting plasma glucose, low fruit intake, and low whole grain intake. Other prominent burdens were more variable, such as low intake of vegetables, low omega-3 fats, and high sodium intake in India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Important similarities and differences are evident in cardiometabolic mortality burdens of modifiable dietary and metabolic risks across these countries, informing health policy and program priorities.

  2. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Caipo, Marisa; Crump, John A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Döpfer, Dörte; Fazil, Aamir; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Hald, Tine; Hall, Aron J; Keddy, Karen H; Lake, Robin J; Lanata, Claudio F; Torgerson, Paul R; Havelaar, Arie H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. We synthesized data on the number of foodborne illnesses, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), for all diseases with sufficient data to support global and regional estimates, by age and region. The data sources included varied by pathogen and included systematic reviews, cohort studies, surveillance studies and other burden of disease assessments. We sought relevant data circa 2010, and included sources from 1990-2012. The number of studies per pathogen ranged from as few as 5 studies for bacterial intoxications through to 494 studies for diarrheal pathogens. To estimate mortality for Mycobacterium bovis infections and morbidity and mortality for invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections, we excluded cases attributed to HIV infection. We excluded stillbirths in our estimates. We estimate that the 22 diseases included in our study resulted in two billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-2.9 billion) cases, over one million (95% UI 0.89-1.4 million) deaths, and 78.7 million (95% UI 65.0-97.7 million) DALYs in 2010. To estimate the burden due to contaminated food, we then applied proportions of infections that were estimated to be foodborne from a global expert elicitation. Waterborne transmission of disease was not included. We estimate that 29% (95% UI 23-36%) of cases caused by diseases in our study, or 582 million (95% UI 401-922 million), were transmitted by contaminated food, resulting in 25.2 million (95% UI 17.5-37.0 million) DALYs. Norovirus was the leading cause of foodborne illness causing 125 million (95% UI 70-251 million) cases, while Campylobacter spp. caused 96 million (95% UI 52-177 million) foodborne illnesses. Of all foodborne diseases, diarrheal and

  3. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn D Kirk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases.We synthesized data on the number of foodborne illnesses, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs, for all diseases with sufficient data to support global and regional estimates, by age and region. The data sources included varied by pathogen and included systematic reviews, cohort studies, surveillance studies and other burden of disease assessments. We sought relevant data circa 2010, and included sources from 1990-2012. The number of studies per pathogen ranged from as few as 5 studies for bacterial intoxications through to 494 studies for diarrheal pathogens. To estimate mortality for Mycobacterium bovis infections and morbidity and mortality for invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections, we excluded cases attributed to HIV infection. We excluded stillbirths in our estimates. We estimate that the 22 diseases included in our study resulted in two billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-2.9 billion cases, over one million (95% UI 0.89-1.4 million deaths, and 78.7 million (95% UI 65.0-97.7 million DALYs in 2010. To estimate the burden due to contaminated food, we then applied proportions of infections that were estimated to be foodborne from a global expert elicitation. Waterborne transmission of disease was not included. We estimate that 29% (95% UI 23-36% of cases caused by diseases in our study, or 582 million (95% UI 401-922 million, were transmitted by contaminated food, resulting in 25.2 million (95% UI 17.5-37.0 million DALYs. Norovirus was the leading cause of foodborne illness causing 125 million (95% UI 70-251 million cases, while Campylobacter spp. caused 96 million (95% UI 52-177 million foodborne illnesses. Of all foodborne diseases, diarrheal

  4. Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence among Males and Females in 195 Countries: Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, Boris; Perico, Norberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2018-05-23

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes a substantial burden on health care systems. There are some especially vulnerable groups with a high CKD burden, one of which is women. We performed an analysis of gender disparities in the prevalence of all CKD stages and renal replacement therapy (defined as impaired kidney function [IKF]) in 195 countries. We used estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 revision using a Bayesian-regression analytic tool, DisMoD-MR 2.1. Data on gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity per capita (GDP PPP) was obtained via the World Bank International Comparison Program database. To estimate gender disparities, we calculated the male:female all-age prevalence rate ratio for each IKF condition. In 2016, the global number of individuals with IKF reached 752.7 million, including 417.0 million females and 335.7 million males. The most prevalent form of IKF in both groups was albuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. Geospatial analysis shows a very heterogeneous distribution of the male:female ratio for all IKF conditions, with the most prominent contrast found in kidney transplant patients. The median male:female ratio varies substantially according to GDP PPP quintiles; however, countries with different economic states could have similar male:female ratios. A strong correlation of GDP PPP with dialysis-to-transplant ratio was found. The GBD study highlights the prominent gender disparities in CKD prevalence among 195 countries. The nature of these disparities, however, is complex and must be interpreted cautiously taking into account all possible circumstances. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. On Thomas Pogge’s Theory of Global Justice. Why We Are Not Collectively Responsible for the Global Distribution of Benefits and Burdens between Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2012-01-01

    Thomas Pogge’s ingenious and influential Rawlsian theory of global justice asserts that principles of justice such as the difference principle or, alternatively, a universal criterion of human rights consisting of a subset of the principles of social justice apply to the global basic structure...

  6. Estimating alcohol-related premature mortality in san francisco: use of population-attributable fractions from the global burden of disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Randy B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, national and global mortality data have been characterized in terms of well-established risk factors. In this regard, alcohol consumption has been called the third leading "actual cause of death" (modifiable behavioral risk factor in the United States, after tobacco use and the combination of poor diet and physical inactivity. Globally and in various regions of the world, alcohol use has been established as a leading contributor to the overall burden of disease and as a major determinant of health disparities, but, to our knowledge, no one has characterized alcohol-related harm in such broad terms at the local level. We asked how alcohol-related premature mortality in San Francisco, measured in years of life lost (YLLs, compares with other well-known causes of premature mortality, such as ischemic heart disease or HIV/AIDS. Methods We applied sex- and cause-specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs of years of life lost (YLLs from the Global Burden of Disease Study to 17 comparable outcomes among San Francisco males and females during 2004-2007. We did this in three ways: Method 1 assumed that all San Franciscans drink like populations in developed economies. These estimates were limited to alcohol-related harm. Method 2 modified these estimates by including several beneficial effects. Method 3 assumed that Latino and Asian San Franciscans drink alcohol like populations in the global regions related to their ethnicity. Results By any of these three methods, alcohol-related premature mortality accounts for roughly a tenth of all YLLs among males. Alcohol-related YLLs among males are comparable to YLLs for leading causes such as ischemic heart disease and HIV/AIDS, in some instances exceeding them. Latino and black males bear a disproportionate burden of harm. Among females, for whom estimates differed more by method and were smaller than those for males, alcohol-related YLLs are comparable to leading

  7. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  8. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries : An analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fullman, Nancy; Barber, Ryan M.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Ansari, Hossein; Anwari, Palwasha; Arora, Megha; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Hoek, Hans W.; van Boven, Job F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of

  9. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: June 14, 2018 ...

  10. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  11. Update on the Global Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in 1990-2013: The GBD 2013 Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feigin, V.L.; Krishnamurthi, R.V.; Parmar, P.; Norrving, B.; Mensah, G.A.; Bennett, D.; Barker-Collo, S.; Moran, A.E.; Sacco, R.L.; Truelsen, T.; Davis, S.C.; Pandian, J.D.; Naghavi, M.R.; Forouzanfar, M.H.; Nguyen, G.; Johnson, C.; Vos, T.; Meretoja, A.; Murray, C.J.; Roth, G.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global stroke epidemiology is changing rapidly. Although age-standardized rates of stroke mortality have decreased worldwide in the past 2 decades, the absolute numbers of people who have a stroke every year, and live with the consequences of stroke or die from their stroke, are

  12. Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015: Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Zoeckler, Leo; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Thomas, Katie; Pinho, Christine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dandona, Lalit; Ferrari, Alize; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Hay, Simon I; Kinfu, Yohannes; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mokdad, Ali H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Patton, George C; Salomon, Joshua; Sartorius, Benn; Topor-Madry, Roman; Vollset, Stein Emil; Werdecker, Andrea; Whiteford, Harvey A; Abate, Kalkidan Hasen; Abbas, Kaja; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Altirkawi, Khalid; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Amare, Azmeraw T; Antonio, Carl A T; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Bacha, Umar; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Baye, Estifanos; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Brazinova, Alexandra; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Carter, Austin; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Charlson, Fiona J; Chitheer, Abdulaal A; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Ciobanu, Liliana G; Crump, John; Dandona, Rakhi; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribew, Amare; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Amanuel Yesuf; Erskine, Holly E; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao C; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J; Franklin, Richard C; Fraser, Maya S; Frostad, Joseph J; Fullman, Nancy; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gibney, Katherine B; Gidey Yihdego, Mahari; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gizachew, Tessema Assefa; Glaser, Elizabeth; Gold, Audra L; Goldberg, Ellen; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Jiang, Guohong; Gupta, Rajeev; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Hankey, Graeme J; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hijar, Martha; Horino, Masako; Hosgood, H Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jha, Vivekanand; Jibat, Tariku; Johnson, Catherine O; Jonas, Jost; Kasaeian, Amir; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter N; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D; Koyanagi, Ai; Krohn, Kristopher J; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kulikoff, Rachel; Kumar, G Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton Y; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Leung, Janni; Lim, Stephen S; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Lo, Warren D; Looker, Katharine J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Malekzadeh, Reza; Markos Shifti, Desalegn; Mazidi, Mohsen; Meaney, Peter A; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Mendoza, Walter; Abera Mengistie, Mubarek; Mengistu, Gebremichael Welday; Mensah, George A; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mueller, Ulrich; Nagata, Chie; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nsoesie, Elaine; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Ortiz, Alberto; Paudel, Deepak; Pereira, David M; Perico, Norberto; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Rankin, Zane; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M N; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Kedir Mohammed, Muktar Sano; Santos, Itamar S; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, June; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder; Silpakit, Naris; Smith, Alison; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Stein, Dan J; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M; Tadese, Fentaw; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Teeple, Stephanie; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Temam Shifa, Girma; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, Alan J; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uthman, Olalekan; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Weldemariam; Westerman, Ronny; Williams, Hywel C; Wolfe, Charles D A; Woodbrook, Rachel; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health. To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion. Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss. Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg

  13. TB truths : Patients’ experience with tuberculosis and healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    TB remains one of the most alarming global health threats of this age. Despite the often available TB medication for free, rates are not being significantly reduced or in some areas even going up. TB epidemiology have become more complex, due to the HIV epidemic and development of drug-resistance.

  14. The Global Burden of Journal Peer Review in the Biomedical Literature: Strong Imbalance in the Collective Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanis, Michail; Porcher, Raphaël; Ravaud, Philippe; Trinquart, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The growth in scientific production may threaten the capacity for the scientific community to handle the ever-increasing demand for peer review of scientific publications. There is little evidence regarding the sustainability of the peer-review system and how the scientific community copes with the burden it poses. We used mathematical modeling to estimate the overall quantitative annual demand for peer review and the supply in biomedical research. The modeling was informed by empirical data from various sources in the biomedical domain, including all articles indexed at MEDLINE. We found that for 2015, across a range of scenarios, the supply exceeded by 15% to 249% the demand for reviewers and reviews. However, 20% of the researchers performed 69% to 94% of the reviews. Among researchers actually contributing to peer review, 70% dedicated 1% or less of their research work-time to peer review while 5% dedicated 13% or more of it. An estimated 63.4 million hours were devoted to peer review in 2015, among which 18.9 million hours were provided by the top 5% contributing reviewers. Our results support that the system is sustainable in terms of volume but emphasizes a considerable imbalance in the distribution of the peer-review effort across the scientific community. Finally, various individual interactions between authors, editors and reviewers may reduce to some extent the number of reviewers who are available to editors at any point.

  15. Global burden of road traffic accidents in older adults: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Boon Hong; Chen, Won Sun; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the burden of road traffic accidents and death among older adults. A systematic literature review was conducted on 10 electronic databases for articles describing Road Traffic Accident(RTA) mortality in older adults until September 2016. A random-effects meta-regression analyses was conducted to estimate the pooled rates of road traffic accidents and death. A total 5018 studies were identified and 23 studies were included. Most of the reported older adults were aged between 60 and 74 years, with majority being male gender and sustained minor trauma due to Motor-Vehicle Collision (MVC). The overall pooled mortality rate was 14% (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 11%, 16%), with higher mortality rates in studies conducted in North America (15%, 95% CI: 12%, 18%) and older adults admitted to trauma centers (17%, 95% CI: 14%, 21%). Secondary analysis showed that the very elderly adults (aged >75years) and pedestrians had higher odds of mortality death (Odds Ratio, OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.38; OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63, 2.66, respectively). A new comprehensive trauma management guidelines tailored to older adults should be established in low and middle-income countries where such guidelines are still lacking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan's role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-11-25

    Factors contributing to Pakistan's poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan's GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence base, in some cases leading to the formulation of WHO guidelines, for which they should feel proud. Nevertheless, in order to improve the health of its own women and children, greater investments in human and health resources are required to facilitate the generation and use of policy-relevant knowledge. To accomplish this, fair incentives for research production need to be introduced, policy and decision-makers' capacity to demand and use evidence needs to be increased, and strong support from development partners and the global health community must be secured.

  17. Identifying gaps in research prioritization: The global burden of neglected tropical diseases as reflected in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Bhaumik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs impact disadvantaged populations in resource-scarce settings. Availability of synthesized evidence is paramount to end this disparity. The aim of the study was to determine whether NTD systematic reviews or protocols in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR reflect disease burden. Methods: Two authors independently searched the CDSR for reviews/protocols regarding the NTDs diseases. Each review or protocol was classified to a single NTD category. Any discrepancy was solved by consensus with third author. NTD systematic review or protocol from CDSR were matched with disability-adjusted life year (DALY metrics from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient and associated P values were used to assess for correlation between the number of systematic reviews and protocols and the %2010 DALY associated with each NTD. Results: Overall, there was poor correlation between CDSR representation and DALYs. Yellow fever, echinococcus, onchocerciasis, and schistosomiasis representation was well-aligned with DALY. Leprosy, trachoma, dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease representation was greater, while cysticercosis, human African trypanosomiasis, ascariasis, lymphatic filariasis, and hookworm representation was lower than DALY. Three of the 18 NTDs had reviews/protocols of diagnostic test accuracy. Conclusions: Our results indicate the need for increased prioritization of systematic reviews on NTDs, particularly diagnostic test accuracy reviews.

  18. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990-2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990-2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states.

  19. Unsustainable funding of high-burden tuberculosis control programmes: who is responsible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, V.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Velden, K. van der

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that crowding-out effects of government funding for health happen in low-income countries with a high HIV burden. In a survey, we investigated the hypothesis that domestic funding for TB control has fallen in 11 low-income, high-TB-burden countries in the context of changes

  20. Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990-2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-02

    18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016. Using all available data sources, the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative estimated burden (metrics were deaths, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs], prevalence, incidence, and life expectancy) from 333 disease conditions and injuries and 84 risk factors for each state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of GBD 2016. We divided the states of India into four epidemiological transition level (ETL) groups on the basis of the ratio of DALYs from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) to those from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries combined in 2016. We assessed variations in the burden of diseases and risk factors between ETL state groups and between states to inform a more specific health-system response in the states and for India as a whole. DALYs due to NCDs and injuries exceeded those due to CMNNDs in 2003 for India, but this transition had a range of 24 years for the four ETL state groups. The age-standardised DALY rate dropped by 36·2% in India from 1990 to 2016. The numbers of DALYs and DALY rates dropped substantially for most CMNNDs between 1990 and 2016 across all ETL groups, but rates of reduction for CMNNDs were slowest in the low ETL state group. By contrast, numbers of DALYs increased substantially for NCDs in all ETL state groups, and increased significantly for injuries in all ETL state groups except the highest. The all-age prevalence of most leading NCDs

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  2. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  3. Mitigating Financial Burden of Tuberculosis through Active Case Finding Targeting Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushi Morishita

    Full Text Available Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF. We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia.In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups.The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5-594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6-813.4], p = 0.104. The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5-25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4-70.8], p<0.001. Indirect costs constituted the largest portion of total costs (72.3% in ACF and 61.5% in PCF. Total costs were equivalent to 11.3% and 18.6% of annual household income in ACF and PCF, respectively. ACF patients were less likely to dissave to afford TB-related expenses. Costs as percentage of annual household income were significantly associated with an occurrence of selling property (p = 0.02 for ACF, p = 0.005 for PCF.TB-affected households face severe financial hardship in Cambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs incurred particularly before treatment

  4. Access to and affordability of healthcare for TB patients in China: issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenglan; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Hong; Chin, Daniel P

    2016-01-29

    This paper introduces the background, aim and objectives of the project entitled "China-the Gates Foundation Collaboration on TB Control in China" that has been underway for many years. It also summarizes the key findings of the nine papers included in this special issue, which used data from the baseline survey of Phase II of the project. Data were collected from the survey of TB and MDR-TB patients, from designated hospitals, health insurance agencies and the routine health information systems, as well as key informant interviews and focus group discussions with relevant key stakeholders. Key issues discussed in this series of papers include the uses of TB services and anti-TB medicines and their determining factors related to socio-economic and health systems development; expenditures on TB care and the financial burden incurred on TB patients; and the impact of health insurance schemes implemented in China on financial protection.

  5. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    OpenAIRE

    GBD Maternal Mortality Collaborators

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages ...

  6. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C J; Lopez, A D

    1997-05-10

    proportion of expected life span at birth lived with disability adjusted for severity, varies from about 8% in established market economies to 15% in sub-Saharan Africa, with little difference between men and women. In high-income regions, nearly 90% of expected disability is due to non-communicable diseases and most of the remainder to injuries. In poorer regions, almost half of expected disability is due to communicable diseases and injuries. The higher proportion of lifespan spent disabled in high-mortality populations is consistent with the compression of morbidity hypothesis. The threshold definition of disability used substantially affects the results of DFLE, DALE, which incorporates severity weights for disabilities, is a useful summary measure of the burden of disability and mortality.

  7. Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory tract infections in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2015 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and shows how the burden of LRI has changed in people of all ages. We estimated LRI mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study called the Cause of Death Ensemble model. We modelled LRI morbidity, including incidence and prevalence, using a meta-regression platform called DisMod-MR. We estimated aetiologies for LRI using two different counterfactual approaches, the first for viral pathogens, which incorporates the aetiology-specific risk of LRI and the prevalence of the aetiology in LRI episodes, and the second for bacterial pathogens, which uses a vaccine-probe approach. We used the Socio-demographic Index, which is a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility, to assess trends in LRI-related mortality. The two leading risk factors for LRI disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), childhood undernutrition and air pollution, were used in a decomposition analysis to establish the relative contribution of changes in LRI DALYs. In 2015, we estimated that LRIs caused 2·74 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2·50 million to 2·86 million) and 103·0 million DALYs (95% UI 96·1 million to 109·1 million). LRIs have a disproportionate effect on children younger than 5 years, responsible for 704 000 deaths (95% UI 651 000-763 000) and 60.6 million DALYs (95ÙI 56·0-65·6). Between 2005 and 2015, the number of deaths due to LRI decreased by 36·9% (95% UI 31·6 to 42·0) in children younger than 5 years, and by 3·2% (95% UI -0·4 to 6·9) in all ages. Pneumococcal pneumonia caused 55·4% of LRI deaths in all ages, totalling 1 517 388 deaths (95% UI 857 940

  8. National disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 257 diseases and injuries in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribew, Amare; Deribe, Kebede; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Dessalegn, Muluken; Lakew, Yihunie; Bekele, Tolesa; Haregu, Tilahun N; Amare, Azmeraw T; Gedefaw, Molla; Mohammed, Mesoud; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Achoki, Tom; Blore, Jed; Krohn, Kristopher J; Assefa, Yibeltal; Kifle, Mahlet; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) provide a summary measure of health and can be a critical input to guide health systems, investments, and priority-setting in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the leading causes of premature mortality and disability using DALYs and describe the relative burden of disease and injuries in Ethiopia. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for non-fatal disease burden, cause-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality to derive age-standardized DALYs by sex for Ethiopia for each year. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) for each age group and sex. Causes of death by age, sex, and year were measured mainly using Causes of Death Ensemble modeling. To estimate YLDs, a Bayesian meta-regression method was used. We reported DALY rates per 100,000 for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disorders, non-communicable diseases, and injuries, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) for Ethiopia. Non-communicable diseases caused 23,118.1 (95% UI, 17,124.4-30,579.6), CMNN disorders resulted in 20,200.7 (95% UI, 16,532.2-24,917.9), and injuries caused 3781 (95% UI, 2642.9-5500.6) age-standardized DALYs per 100,000 in Ethiopia in 2015. Lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, and tuberculosis were the top three leading causes of DALYs in 2015, accounting for 2998 (95% UI, 2173.7-4029), 2592.5 (95% UI, 1850.7-3495.1), and 2562.9 (95% UI, 1466.1-4220.7) DALYs per 100,000, respectively. Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were the fourth and fifth leading causes of age-standardized DALYs, with rates of 2535.7 (95% UI, 1603.7-3843.2) and 2159.9 (95% UI, 1369.7-3216.3) per 100,000, respectively. The following causes showed a reduction of 60% or more over the last 25 years: lower respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, neonatal encephalopathy

  9. The Most Prevalent Causes of Deaths, DALYs, and Geriatric Syndromes in Iranian Elderly People Between 1990 and 2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Sharifi, Farshad; Fadayevatan, Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Alireza; Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Naderimagham, Shohreh

    2015-08-01

    The substantial increase in life expectancy during recent decades has left all countries with a high number of elderly people that have particular health needs. Health policy-makers must be aware of the most prevalent causes of deaths and DALYs in this age group, as well as geriatric syndromes, in order to provide appropriate care and allocate resources in an equitable manner. The Global Burden of Disease study 2010 (GBD 2010), conducted by the institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation team, estimated the worldwide burden of diseases from 1990 to 2010. Its estimations were conducted on the basis of the proportion of deaths, the duration of symptoms and disability weights for sequelae, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to different diseases. In the present study, we extracted the data regarding the top five most prevalent causes of deaths, DALYs, and geriatric syndromes in the elderly based on the aforementioned GBD 2010, discussed the results using some tables and figures, reviewed the results, described the limitations of GBD 2010, and finally provided some recommendations as potential solutions. According to GBD 2010, the total number of deaths in Iran in 1990 was 321,627, of which 116,100 were in elderly people (those aged 60 years and above), meaning that 36.10% of all deaths occurred in the elderly. Among all diseases in this year, the first to third ranked causes of death were ischemic heart disease (IHD; 29.44%), neoplasms (13.52%), and stroke (7.24%). In comparison, the total number of deaths in Iran increased to 351,814 in 2010, with 213,116 of these occurring in the elderly (60.58% of deaths), but the most prevalent causes of death remained the same as in 1990. The highest 1990 DALYs rates were the result of IHD (21.56%), neoplasms (10.70%), and stroke (4.85%). IHD (22.77%), neoplasms (9.48%), and low back pain (LBP; 5.72%) were the most prevalent causes of DALYs in

  10. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990–2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990–2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Methods Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Results Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Conclusions Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states. PMID:29390002

  11. Progress and Impact of 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis on Reducing the Burden of Filarial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, K. D.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, with mass drug administration (MDA) as the core strategy of the programme. After completing 13 years of operations through 2012 and with MDA in place in 55 of 73 endemic countries, the impact of the MDA programme on microfilaraemia, hydrocele and lymphedema is in need of being assessed. Methodology/Principal findings During 2000–2012, the MDA programme made remarkable achievements – a total of 6.37 billion treatments were offered and an estimated 4.45 billion treatments were consumed by the population living in endemic areas. Using a model based on empirical observations of the effects of treatment on clinical manifestations, it is estimated that 96.71 million LF cases, including 79.20 million microfilaria carriers, 18.73 million hydrocele cases and a minimum of 5.49 million lymphedema cases have been prevented or cured during this period. Consequently, the global prevalence of LF is calculated to have fallen by 59%, from 3.55% to 1.47%. The fall was highest for microfilaraemia prevalence (68%), followed by 49% in hydrocele prevalence and 25% in lymphedema prevalence. It is estimated that, currently, i.e. after 13 years of the MDA programme, there are still an estimated 67.88 million LF cases that include 36.45 million microfilaria carriers, 19.43 million hydrocele cases and 16.68 million lymphedema cases. Conclusions/Significance The MDA programme has resulted in significant reduction of the LF burden. Extension of MDA to all at-risk countries and to all regions within those countries where MDA has not yet reached 100% geographic coverage is imperative to further reduce the number of microfilaraemia and chronic disease cases and to reach the global target of interrupting transmission of LF by 2020. PMID:25412180

  12. Projected Temperature-Related Years of Life Lost From Stroke Due To Global Warming in a Temperate Climate City, Asia: Disease Burden Caused by Future Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxing; Guo, Qun; Liu, Yang; Li, Yixue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Global warming has attracted worldwide attention. Numerous studies have indicated that stroke is associated with temperature; however, few studies are available on the projections of the burden of stroke attributable to future climate change. We aimed to investigate the future trends of stroke years of life lost (YLL) associated with global warming. We collected death records to examine YLL in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. We fitted a standard time-series Poisson regression model after controlling for trends, day of the week, relative humidity, and air pollution. We estimated temperature-YLL associations with a distributed lag nonlinear model. These models were then applied to the local climate projections to estimate temperature-related YLL in the 2050s and 2070s. We projected temperature-related YLL from stroke in Tianjin under 19 global-scale climate models and 3 different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The results showed a slight decrease in YLL with percent decreases of 0.85%, 0.97%, and 1.02% in the 2050s and 0.94%, 1.02%, and 0.91% in the 2070s for the 3 scenarios, respectively. The increases in heat-related annual YLL and the decreases in cold-related YLL under the high emission scenario were the strongest. The monthly analysis showed that the most significant increase occurred in the summer months, particularly in August, with percent changes >150% in the 2050s and up to 300% in the 2070s. Future changes in climate are likely to lead to an increase in heat-related YLL, and this increase will not be offset by adaptation under both medium emission and high emission scenarios. Health protections from hot weather will become increasingly necessary, and measures to reduce cold effects will also remain important. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Financing tuberculosis control: the role of a global financial monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Katherine; Pantoja, Andrea; Dye, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Control of tuberculosis (TB), like health care in general, costs money. To sustain TB control at current levels, and to make further progress so that global targets can be achieved, information about funding needs, sources of funding, funding gaps and expenditures is important at global, regional, national and sub-national levels. Such data can be used for resource mobilization efforts; to document how funding requirements and gaps are changing over time; to assess whether increases in funding can be translated into increased expenditures and whether increases in expenditure are producing improvements in programme performance; and to identify which countries or regions have the greatest needs and funding gaps. In this paper, we discuss a global system for financial monitoring of TB control that was established in WHO in 2002. By early 2007, this system had accounted for actual or planned expenditures of more than US$ 7 billion and was systematically reporting financial data for countries that carry more than 90% of the global burden of TB. We illustrate the value of this system by presenting major findings that have been produced for the period 2002-2007, including results that are relevant to the achievement of global targets for TB control set for 2005 and 2015. We also analyse the strengths and limitations of the system and its relevance to other health-care programmes.

  14. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate

  15. Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010-2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric B Piel

    Full Text Available The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions.First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400-398,800 in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500-657,600 in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900-106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500-200,600] and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600-48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100-70,500] will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700-59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900-64,700]. The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5,302,900 [CI: 3

  16. Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010-2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Hay, Simon I; Gupta, Sunetra; Weatherall, David J; Williams, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is set to rise as a consequence of improved survival in high-prevalence low- and middle-income countries and population migration to higher-income countries. The host of quantitative evidence documenting these changes has not been assembled at the global level. The purpose of this study is to estimate trends in the future number of newborns with SCA and the number of lives that could be saved in under-five children with SCA by the implementation of different levels of health interventions. First, we calculated projected numbers of newborns with SCA for each 5-y interval between 2010 and 2050 by combining estimates of national SCA frequencies with projected demographic data. We then accounted for under-five mortality (U5m) projections and tested different levels of excess mortality for children with SCA, reflecting the benefits of implementing specific health interventions for under-five patients in 2015, to assess the number of lives that could be saved with appropriate health care services. The estimated number of newborns with SCA globally will increase from 305,800 (confidence interval [CI]: 238,400-398,800) in 2010 to 404,200 (CI: 242,500-657,600) in 2050. It is likely that Nigeria (2010: 91,000 newborns with SCA [CI: 77,900-106,100]; 2050: 140,800 [CI: 95,500-200,600]) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010: 39,700 [CI: 32,600-48,800]; 2050: 44,700 [CI: 27,100-70,500]) will remain the countries most in need of policies for the prevention and management of SCA. We predict a decrease in the annual number of newborns with SCA in India (2010: 44,400 [CI: 33,700-59,100]; 2050: 33,900 [CI: 15,900-64,700]). The implementation of basic health interventions (e.g., prenatal diagnosis, penicillin prophylaxis, and vaccination) for SCA in 2015, leading to significant reductions in excess mortality among under-five children with SCA, could, by 2050, prolong the lives of 5,302,900 [CI: 3,174,800-6,699,100] newborns with

  17. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. We developed a metric that allows comparisons of exposure across risk factors-the summary exposure value. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk level, we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We decomposed trends in attributable burden into contributions from population growth, population age structure, risk exposure, and risk-deleted cause-specific DALY rates. We characterised risk exposure in relation to a Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Between 1990 and 2015, global exposure to unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, childhood underweight, childhood stunting, and smoking each decreased by more than 25%. Global exposure for several occupational risks, high body-mass index (BMI), and drug use increased by more than 25% over the same period. All risks jointly evaluated in 2015 accounted for 57·8% (95% CI 56

  18. Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Coggeshall, Megan S; Shackelford, Katya A; Steiner, Caitlyn; Heuton, Kyle R; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Barber, Ryan; Huynh, Chantal; Dicker, Daniel; Templin, Tara; Wolock, Timothy M; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Adsuar, José C; Agardh, Emilie E; Akena, Dickens; Alasfoor, Deena; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Al Kahbouri, Mazin J; Alla, François; Allen, Peter J; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl A T; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bernabe, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abdulhak, Aref Bin; Blore, Jed D; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bose, Dipan; Breitborde, Nicholas; Cárdenas, Rosario; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavlin, Alanur; Chang, Jung-Chen; Che, Xuan; Christophi, Costas A; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; da Costa Leite, Iuri; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Degenhardt, Louisa; De Leo, Diego; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Deribe, Kebede; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Dorrington, Rob E; Driscoll, Tim R; Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; de Lima, Graça Maria Ferreira; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; França, Elisabeth B; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Garcia, Ana C; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gibney, Katherine B; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; González-Castell, Dinorah; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Harb, Hilda L; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Heredia Pi, Ileana B; Hoek, Hans W; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Husseini, Abdullatif; Idrisov, Bulat T; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jahangir, Eiman; Jee, Sun Ha; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khang, Young-Ho; Knibbs, Luke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Kwan, Gene; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lansingh, Van C; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; London, Stephanie J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; Mainoo, Nana Kwaku; Majdan, Marek; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marcenes, Wagner; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; de la Cruz Monis, Jonathan; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Moore, Ami R; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newton, Charles R; Ng, Marie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Jae-Hyun; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris Igor; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, Dan; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qato, Dima; Quistberg, D Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M; Refaat, Amany; Ronfani, Luca; Roy, Nobhojit; Sánchez Pimienta, Tania Georgina; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Santos, Itamar S; Sawhney, Monika; Sayinzoga, Felix; Schneider, Ione J C; Schumacher, Austin; Schwebel, David C; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H; Silva, Andrea P; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soshnikov, Sergey S; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tan, Feng; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Tirschwell, David L; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Tran, Bach X; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Uzun, Selen Begüm; Vallely, Andrew J; van Gool, Coen H; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Venketasubramanian, N; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vos, Theo; Waller, Stephen; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wong, John Q; Wordofa, Muluemebet Abera; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C; Yano, Yuichiro; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; El SayedZaki, Maysaa; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zou, Xiao Nong; Lopez, Alan D; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J L; Lozano, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery. Methods We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990–2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values. Findings 292 982 (95% UI 261 017–327 792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376 034 (343 483–407 574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was −0·3% (−1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and −2·7% (−3·9 to −1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290–2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2–0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the

  19. The contribution of spatial analysis to understanding HIV/TB mortality in children: a structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustasius Musenge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa accounts for more than a sixth of the global population of people infected with HIV and TB, ranking her highest in HIV/TB co-infection worldwide. Remote areas often bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality, yet there are spatial differences within rural settings. Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate HIV/TB mortality determinants and their spatial distribution in the rural Agincourt sub-district for children aged 1–5 years in 2004. Our secondary aim was to model how the associated factors were interrelated as either underlying or proximate factors of child mortality using pathway analysis based on a Mosley-Chen conceptual framework. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis based on cross-sectional data collected in 2004 from the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeast South Africa. Child HIV/TB death was the outcome measure derived from physician assessed verbal autopsy. Modelling used multiple logit regression models with and without spatial household random effects. Structural equation models were used in modelling the complex relationships between multiple exposures and the outcome (child HIV/TB mortality as relayed on a conceptual framework. Results: Fifty-four of 6,692 children aged 1–5 years died of HIV/TB, from a total of 5,084 households. Maternal death had the greatest effect on child HIV/TB mortality (adjusted odds ratio=4.00; 95% confidence interval=1.01–15.80. A protective effect was found in households with better socio-economic status and when the child was older. Spatial models disclosed that the areas which experienced the greatest child HIV/TB mortality were those without any health facility. Conclusion: Low socio-economic status and maternal deaths impacted indirectly and directly on child mortality, respectively. These factors are major concerns locally and should be used in formulating interventions to reduce child mortality. Spatial prediction maps can guide policy

  20. Understanding Market Size and Reporting Gaps for Paediatric TB in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan: Supporting Improved Treatment of Childhood TB in the Advent of New Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Renia; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Amanullah, Farhana; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Triasih, Rina; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Sismanidis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand gaps in reporting childhood TB cases among public and private sector health facilities (dubbed "non-NTP" facilities) outside the network of national TB control programmes, and the resulting impact of under-reporting on estimates of paediatric disease burden and market demand for new medicines. Exploratory assessments were carried out in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan, reaching a range of facility types in two selected areas of each country. Record reviews and interviews of healthcare providers were carried out to assess numbers of unreported paediatric TB cases, diagnostic pathways followed and treatment regimens prescribed. A total of 985 unreported diagnosed paediatric TB cases were identified over a three month period in 2013 in Indonesia from 64 facilities, 463 in Pakistan from 35 facilities and 24 in Nigeria from 20 facilities. These represent an absolute additional annualised yield to 2013 notifications reported to WHO of 15% for Indonesia, 2% for Nigeria and 7% for Pakistan. Only 12% of all facilities provided age and sex-disaggregated data. Findings highlight the challenges of confirming childhood TB. Diagnosis patterns in Nigeria highlight a very low suspicion for childhood TB. Providers note the need for paediatric medicines aligned to WHO recommendations. This study emphasises the impact of incomplete reporting on the estimation of disease burden and potential market size of paediatric TB medicines. Further studies on "hubs" (facilities treating large numbers of childhood TB cases) will improve our understanding of the epidemic, support introduction efforts for new treatments and better measure markets for new paediatric medicines.

  1. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group......, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk...... pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood...

  2. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Burden: Evolving Knowledge of Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction and Stroke through Population-Based Research and Perspectives in Global Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO B.F. OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge and research perspectives on the top ranking causes of mortality worldwide, i.e., ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases have developed rapidly. In fact, until recently, it was considered that only half of the myocardial infarctions were due to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes. In addition, most of the available evidence of incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes, if not all of it, was derived from studies conducted in developed countries, which included lower proportion of female individuals and with low ethnic diversity. Recent reports by the WHO have provided striking public health information, i.e., the global burden of cardiovascular mortality for the next decades is expected to predominantly occur among developing countries. Therefore, multi-ethnic population-based research including prospective cohorts and, when appropriate, case-control studies, is warranted. These studies should be specifically designed to ascertain key public health measures such as geographic variations in noncommunicable diseases, diagnosis of traditional and potential newly discovered risk factors, causes of death and disability, and gaps for improvement in healthcare prevention (both primary and secondary and specific treatments. As an example, a multinational, multiethnic population-based cohort study is the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is the largest global initiative of 150,000 adults aged 35-70 yrs, looking at environmental, societal and biological influences on obesity and chronic health conditions such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and cancer among urban and rural communities in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with national, community, household and individual-level data. Implementation of population-based strategies is crucial to optimizing limited health system resources while improving care and cardiovascular morbidity

  4. Global burden of diarrheal disease attributable to the water supply and sanitation system in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Ferreira de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances have occurred in relation to the coverage of water supply and sanitation in Brazil, however inequalities are still observed in relation to the coverage of these services, reflecting the importance of diarrheal disease in the Brazilian epidemiological context. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of the water supply and sanitation system on diarrheal diseases among children aged under five. The global burden of diarrhea was calculated based on the attributable population fraction, using information on prevalence and relative risks from the 2000/2010 censuses and a study by Pruss et al. The north of the State of Minas Gerais, the Northeast and Jequitinhonha regions had the highest disability-adjusted life year (DALY rates and ratios. The fraction of diarrhea attributable to the water supply and sanitation system was 83%, decreasing to 78.3% where sanitation had 100% coverage. An inverse relationship was found between DALY rates and attributable fractions and per capita GDP. Broadening the scope and coverage of services and improving the quality of water available in homes is an urgent requirement. These measures will bring economic and social benefits related to the reduction of diarrheal diseases and consequent improvement of the quality of life of children aged under five.

  5. [What do adults die in Mexico? Impact on the economic and social development of the nation. The global burden of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Arizmendi-Uribe, Efraín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases have been established as a clear threat, not only to human health but also to the development and economic growth. Claiming 63% of all deaths, these diseases are currently the main murderer worldwide. The increase in the prevalence and importance of noncommunicable diseases specifically of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity is the result of a complex interplay between health, economic growth and development, which is strongly associated with universal trends such as the aging of the world population, rapid unplanned urbanization, and the globalization of unhealthy lifestyles.Cardiovascular disease refers to a group of diseases involving the heart, blood vessels, or the consequences of poor blood supply due to a vascular source ill. About 82% of the burden of mortality is caused by ischemic heart disease or coronary heart disease (IHD), Stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischemic), hypertensive heart disease or congestive heart failure (CHF). The Hospital de Cardiología of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, serves the call to improve through innovation and technological development this area of health the "tele cardiology" (regulatory center of myocardial code), with clear objectives in the short, medium and long term.

  6. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high-burden

  7. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-16

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124·1 million

  8. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-03-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  9. Disability weights from a household survey in a low socio-economic setting: how does it compare to the global burden of disease 2010 study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Neethling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of disease (GBD 2010 study used a universal set of disability weights to estimate disability adjusted life years (DALYs by country. However, it is not clear whether these weights can be applied universally in calculating DALYs to inform local decision-making. This study derived disability weights for a resource-constrained community in Cape Town, South Africa, and interrogated whether the GBD 2010 disability weights necessarily represent the preferences of economically disadvantaged communities. Design: A household survey was conducted in Lavender Hill, Cape Town, to assess the health state preferences of the general public. The responses from a paired comparison valuation method were assessed using a probit regression. The probit coefficients were anchored onto the 0 to 1 disability weight scale by running a lowess regression on the GBD 2010 disability weights and interpolating the coefficients between the upper and lower limit of the smoothed disability weights. Results: Heroin and opioid dependence had the highest disability weight of 0.630, whereas intellectual disability had the lowest (0.040. Untreated injuries ranked higher than severe mental disorders. There were some counterintuitive results, such as moderate (15th and severe vision impairment (16th ranking higher than blindness (20th. A moderate correlation between the disability weights of the local study and those of the GBD 2010 study was observed (R2=0.440, p<0.05. This indicates that there was a relationship, although some conditions, such as untreated fracture of the radius or ulna, showed large variability in disability weights (0.488 in local study and 0.043 in GBD 2010. Conclusions: Respondents seemed to value physical mobility higher than cognitive functioning, which is in contrast to the GBD 2010 study. This study shows that not all health state preferences are universal. Studies estimating DALYs need to derive local disability weights using

  10. Disability weights from a household survey in a low socio-economic setting: how does it compare to the global burden of disease 2010 study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, Ian; Jelsma, Jennifer; Ramma, Lebogang; Schneider, Helen; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of disease (GBD) 2010 study used a universal set of disability weights to estimate disability adjusted life years (DALYs) by country. However, it is not clear whether these weights can be applied universally in calculating DALYs to inform local decision-making. This study derived disability weights for a resource-constrained community in Cape Town, South Africa, and interrogated whether the GBD 2010 disability weights necessarily represent the preferences of economically disadvantaged communities. A household survey was conducted in Lavender Hill, Cape Town, to assess the health state preferences of the general public. The responses from a paired comparison valuation method were assessed using a probit regression. The probit coefficients were anchored onto the 0 to 1 disability weight scale by running a lowess regression on the GBD 2010 disability weights and interpolating the coefficients between the upper and lower limit of the smoothed disability weights. Heroin and opioid dependence had the highest disability weight of 0.630, whereas intellectual disability had the lowest (0.040). Untreated injuries ranked higher than severe mental disorders. There were some counterintuitive results, such as moderate (15th) and severe vision impairment (16th) ranking higher than blindness (20th). A moderate correlation between the disability weights of the local study and those of the GBD 2010 study was observed (R(2)=0.440, pdisability weights (0.488 in local study and 0.043 in GBD 2010). Respondents seemed to value physical mobility higher than cognitive functioning, which is in contrast to the GBD 2010 study. This study shows that not all health state preferences are universal. Studies estimating DALYs need to derive local disability weights using methods that are less cognitively demanding for respondents.

  11. The WHO's new End TB Strategy in the post-2015 era of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Knut; Raviglione, Mario

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's new End TB Strategy 2016-2035 has evolved from previous global strategies to respond to old and new challenges and take advantage of new opportunities. It frames the global fight against TB as a development, social justice and human rights issue, while re-emphasizing the public health and clinical fundaments of TB care and prevention. In this commentary, we outline how TB prevention, care and control will both benefit from and contribute to the achievement of the new Sustainable Development Goals that were recently adopted at the United Nations. © The author 2016. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  12. The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    100,000 cases in 1997, it still comprises two- thirds of the global cholera burden. TB is a growing problem regionwide, especially in Brazil, Peru ...deficiency anemia 39 15 Protein-energy malnutrition 37 16 War 8 17 Self-inflicted injuries 14 19 Violence 12 28 HIV 10 33 Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers...dollars in lost revenue. • Cholera in Peru . The outbreak of cholera in 1991 cost the Peruvian fishing industry an estimated $775 million in lost tourism

  13. Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Niebylski, Mark L; Nilsson, Peter M; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dr Mario Raviglione, director of the Stop TB Department World Health Organization. Interview by Christo Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviglione, Mario

    2012-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a very global disease; there are over 9 million new incidences of TB every year with the vast majority of cases emerging in the developing world. As one of three major diseases associated with poverty it affects the areas where poverty is most prevalent, notably Asia and Africa. While the incidence rate has been slowly declining in the developed world it continues to pose a major health threat to even the most developed nations. To demonstrate the global, and persistent, nature of TB we asked Dr Mario Raviglione, Director of the World Health Organization's Stop TB Department to provide an analysis on the current TB situation in the United Kingdom and comment on what measures should be taken to alleviate the issue of TB in one of the world's richest countries.

  15. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990-2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past...

  16. Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Lofgren, Katherine T; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Marcus, Jacob R; Levin-Rector, Alison; Levitz, Carly E; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L

    2012-12-15

    Estimation of the number and rate of deaths by age and sex is a key first stage for calculation of the burden of disease in order to constrain estimates of cause-specific mortality and to measure premature mortality in populations. We aimed to estimate life tables and annual numbers of deaths for 187 countries from 1970 to 2010. We estimated trends in under-5 mortality rate (children aged 0-4 years) and probability of adult death (15-59 years) for each country with all available data. Death registration data were available for more than 100 countries and we corrected for undercount with improved death distribution methods. We applied refined methods to survey data on sibling survival that correct for survivor, zero-sibling, and recall bias. We separately estimated mortality from natural disasters and wars. We generated final estimates of under-5 mortality and adult mortality from the data with Gaussian process regression. We used these results as input parameters in a relational model life table system. We developed a model to extrapolate mortality to 110 years of age. All death rates and numbers have been estimated with 95% uncertainty intervals (95% UIs). From 1970 to 2010, global male life expectancy at birth increased from 56·4 years (95% UI 55·5-57·2) to 67·5 years (66·9-68·1) and global female life expectancy at birth increased from 61·2 years (60·2-62·0) to 73·3 years (72·8-73·8). Life expectancy at birth rose by 3-4 years every decade from 1970, apart from during the 1990s (increase in male life expectancy of 1·4 years and in female life expectancy of 1·6 years). Substantial reductions in mortality occurred in eastern and southern sub-Saharan Africa since 2004, coinciding with increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy and preventive measures against malaria. Sex-specific changes in life expectancy from 1970 to 2010 ranged from gains of 23-29 years in the Maldives and Bhutan to declines of 1-7 years in Belarus, Lesotho, Ukraine, and Zimbabwe

  17. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw F; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013. We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm). For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1-4 years), post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI), diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders) accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962) and 48% (112,288/232,199) of the deaths due to diarrhea, LRI, and other common infections were

  18. Battling tuberculosis in an island context with a high burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases: epidemiology, progress, and lessons learned in Kiribati, 2000 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Hoy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: TB rates continue to increase in Kiribati and the 2015 goals for TB control are unlikely to be met. This is probably due to the complex mix of risk factors present in Kiribati, including smoking, diabetes, alcohol use, crowded living, and poverty. A comprehensive approach to address these risk factors is needed to mitigate the burden of TB in Kiribati.

  19. A public–private partnership model to reduce tuberculosis burden in Akwa Ibom State – Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Asuquo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Though the previous intervention might have helped to increase the knowledge of the respondents about TB in the community and helped to improve their care-seeking attitudes, sustaining active case finding through Public–Private Partnership can go a long way to reduce TB burden, especially in rural communities where health care systems are generally weak or inadequate.

  20. AtriplaR/anti-TB combination in TB/HIV patients. Drug in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua Hadija H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and several antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction. Method Pubmed and Google search following the key words tuberculosis, HIV, emtricitabine, tenofovir efavirenz, interaction were used to find relevant information on each drug of the fixed dose combination AtriplaR Results Information on generic name, trade name, pharmacokinetic parameter, metabolism and the pharmacokinetic interaction with Anti-TB drugs of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and efavirenz was obtained. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz (ATRIPLAR which has been approved by Food and Drug Administration shows promising results as far as safety and efficacy is concerned in TB/HIV co-infection patients, hence can be considered effective and safe antiretroviral drug in TB/HIV management for adult and children above 3 years of age.

  1. Team approach to manage difficult-to-treat TB cases: Experiences in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D’Ambrosio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, optimal management of MDR-TB cases can be ensured by a multi-speciality consultation body known as ‘TB Consilium’. This body usually includes different medical specialities, competences and perspectives (e.g., clinical expertise both for adults and children; surgical, radiological and public health expertise; psychological background and nursing experience, among others, thus lowering the risk of making mistakes – or managing the patients inappropriately, in order to improve their clinical outcomes.At present, several high MDR-TB burden countries in the different WHO regions (and beyond have introduced TB Consilium-like bodies at the national or subnational level to reach consensus on the best treatment approach for their patients affected by TB.In addition, in countries/settings where a formal system of consultation does not exist, specialized staff from MDR-TB reference centres or international organizations usually spend a considerable amount of their working time responding to phone or e-mail clinical queries on how to manage M/XDR-TB cases.The aim of this manuscript is to describe the different experiences with the TB Consilia both at the international level (European Respiratory Society – ERS/WHO TB Consilium and in some of the countries where this experience operates successfully in Europe and beyond. The Consilium experiences are described around the following topics: (1 history, aims and focus; (2 management and funding; (3 technical functioning and structure; (4 results achieved.In addition a comparative analysis of the TB Consilia in the different countries has been performed. Keywords: MDR-TB, XDR-TB, Clinical management, Drug resistance, Prevention, Consilium

  2. Estimation of the burden of chronic and allergic pulmonary aspergillosis in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    Full Text Available It would be of considerable interest to clinicians if the burden of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA in India were known. Herein, we estimate the burden of CPA following pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, and ABPA (and severe asthma with fungal sensitization [SAFS] complicating asthma.We used the population estimates for India from the 2011 census data. The burden of asthma was estimated using three different methods (Global Initiative against Asthma [GINA] report statement, World Health Survey [WHS] estimates, Indian study on the epidemiology of asthma and chronic bronchitis [INSEARCH]. Global and India-specific figures were used for calculating the prevalence of ABPA and SAFS. The World Health Organization estimates were used for calculating PTB rates while the frequency of CPA was assessed from a previously published scoping review. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the burden in various scenarios.The total Indian population in 2011 was 1.2 billion. The asthma prevalence in adults was estimated at about 27.6 (range, 17-30 million. The burden of ABPA ranged from 0.12-6.09 million with different assumptions (best estimate, 1.38 [range, 0.86-1.52] million. The prevalence of SAFS was approximated at about 0.52-1.21 million (best estimate, 0.96 [range, 0.6-1.06] million. The incident TB cases were about 2.1 million while the annual incidence of CPA varied 27,000-0.17 million cases, with different estimates. If the mortality of CPA is estimated as 15% annually, the 5-year prevalence of CPA was placed at 290,147 cases with 5-year prevalence rate being 24 per 100,000.There is a significant burden of ABPA, SAFS and CPA in India. Prospective community-based studies are required to accurately determine the prevalence of these disorders.

  3. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Astha, K C; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Bora Başara, Berrak; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas K D; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez de Cosio, Teresita; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kany Roseline, Sidibe S; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-12-05

    The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval

  4. Social, economic, and psychological impacts of MDR-TB treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M D; Quezada, L; Bhat, P; Moser, K; Smith, J; Perez, H; Laniado-Laborin, R; Estrada-Guzman, J; Rodwell, T C

    2013-07-01

    The State of Baja California, Mexico, had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. To understand the socio-economic burden of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program, Puentes de Esperanza (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes' role in 'saving their lives'. Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped alleviate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment.

  5. #Globalhealth Twitter Conversations on #Malaria, #HIV, #TB, #NCDS, and #NTDS: a Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Jackson, Ashley M; Ahweyevu, Jennifer O; Grizzle, Jordan H; Yin, Jingjing; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Liang, Hai; Sekandi, Juliet N; Fu, King-Wa

    Advocates use the hashtag #GlobalHealth on Twitter to draw users' attention to prominent themes on global health, to harness their support, and to advocate for change. We aimed to describe #GlobalHealth tweets pertinent to given major health issues. Tweets containing the hashtag #GlobalHealth (N = 157,951) from January 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, were purchased from GNIP Inc. We extracted 5 subcorpora of tweets, each with 1 of 5 co-occurring disease-specific hashtags (#Malaria, #HIV, #TB, #NCDS, and #NTDS) for further analysis. Unsupervised machine learning was applied to each subcorpus to categorize the tweets by their underlying topics and obtain the representative tweets of each topic. The topics were grouped into 1 of 4 themes (advocacy; epidemiological information; prevention, control, and treatment; societal impact) or miscellaneous. Manual categorization of most frequent users was performed. Time zones of users were analyzed. In the entire #GlobalHealth corpus (N = 157,951), there were 40,266 unique users, 85,168 retweets, and 13,107 unique co-occurring hashtags. Of the 13,087 tweets across the 5 subcorpora with co-occurring hashtag #malaria (n = 3640), #HIV (n = 3557), #NCDS (noncommunicable diseases; n = 2373), #TB (tuberculosis; n = 1781), and #NTDS (neglected tropical diseases; n = 1736), the most prevalent theme was prevention, control, and treatment (4339, 33.16%), followed by advocacy (3706, 28.32%), epidemiological information (1803, 13.78%), and societal impact (1617, 12.36%). Among the top 10 users who tweeted the highest number of tweets in the #GlobalHealth corpus, 5 were individual professionals, 3 were news media, and 2 were organizations advocating for global health. The most common users' time zone was Eastern Time (United States and Canada). This study highlighted the specific #GlobalHealth Twitter conversations pertinent to malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, noncommunicable diseases, and neglected tropical diseases. These

  6. XDR TB in South Africa - What lies ahead? | Thaver | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of XDR TB coupled with the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS has intensified the need to identify new treatment strategies and accelerate research into antibiotics against XDR TB before the world is faced with a global public health crisis. This article gives a short overview on the important health implications of ...

  7. The contribution of ocean-leaving DMS to the global atmospheric burdens of DMS, MSA, SO2, and NSS SO4=

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Himbergen-Gondwe, P.M.; Krol, M.; Gieskes, W.W C; Klaassen, W.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2003-01-01

    [1] The contribution of ocean-derived DMS to the atmospheric burdens of a variety of sulphur compounds (DMS, MSA, SO2, and nss SO4=) is quantified from season to season. Such quantification, especially for nss SO4= (the climate-relevant product of DMS oxidation), is essential for the quantification

  8. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker-Collo, S.; Bennett, D.; Krishnamurthi, R.V.; Parmar, P.; Feigin, V.L.; Naghavi, M.R.; Forouzanfar, M.H.; Johnson, C.; Nguyen, G.; Mensah, G.A.; Vos, T.; Murray, C.J.; Roth, G.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality

  9. Global, regional, and national deaths, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years, and years lived with disability for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. Here, we present methods and disease and risk estimates for COPD and asthma from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2015 study. The GBD study provides annual updates on estimates of deaths, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a summary measure of fatal and non-fatal disease outcomes, for over 300 diseases and injuries, for 188 countries from 1990 to the most recent year. We estimated numbers of deaths due to COPD and asthma using the GBD Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) tool. First, we analysed data from vital registration and verbal autopsy for the aggregate category of all chronic respiratory diseases. Subsequently, models were run for asthma and COPD relying on covariates to predict rates in countries that have incomplete or no vital registration data. Disease estimates for COPD and asthma were based on systematic reviews of published papers, unpublished reports, surveys, and health service encounter data from the USA. We used the Global Initiative of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease spirometry-based definition as the reference for COPD and a reported diagnosis of asthma with current wheeze as the definition of asthma. We used a Bayesian meta-regression tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, to derive estimates of prevalence and incidence. We estimated population-attributable fractions for risk factors for COPD and asthma from exposure data, relative risks, and a theoretical minimum exposure level. Results were stratified by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure of income per capita, mean years of education over the age of 15 years, and total fertility rate. In 2015, 3·2 million people (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1 million to 3·3 million) died from COPD worldwide, an increase of 11·6% (95% UI 5·3 to 19·8) compared with 1990. There was a decrease in age-standardised death rate of

  10. Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices. In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8-61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2-86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4-24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r 2 =0·88) and the MDG index (r 2 =0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r 2 =0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0-10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7-13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1-8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for

  11. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990–2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Deribew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990–2013. Methods We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI. Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm. For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Results Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1–4 years, post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI, diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962 and 48% (112,288/232,199 of the deaths due to

  12. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Dennis; Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities.In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. The content of this work is ©the authors or their employers. Design and branding are ©ERS 2016.

  13. Detectemos la TB. Tratemos la TB. Trabajemos juntos para eliminar la TB. (Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    Este podcast trata sobre el Día Mundial de la Tuberculosis y el tema de los CDC para el año 2014.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  14. Use of Xpert MTB/RIF in Decentralized Public Health Settings and Its Effect on Pulmonary TB and DR-TB Case Finding in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Raizada, Neeraj; Sreenivas, Achuthan; van't Hoog, Anna H.; van den Hof, Susan; Dewan, Puneet K.; Thakur, Rahul; Gupta, R. S.; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Vadera, Bhavin; Babre, Ameet; Gray, Christen; Parmar, Malik; Ghedia, Mayank; Ramachandran, Ranjani; Alavadi, Umesh; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Denkinger, Claudia; Boehme, Catharina; Paramasivan, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF, the first automated molecular test for tuberculosis, is transforming the diagnostic landscape in high-burden settings. This study assessed the impact of up-front Xpert MTB/RIF testing on detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and rifampicin-resistant PTB (DR-TB) cases in India.

  15. EDITORIAL Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A South African Health Systems Trust report indicated that despite a global ... less financial resources performed better. ... Healthcare providers need to be better trained at our various nursing colleges and medical schools on how to manage TB, with regular and intense follow-up in-service training sessions. In addition ...

  16. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health chal- lenge, with an estimated 1.4 .... completed treatment and who is smear negative at the end of 6th or 7th month of treat- ..... the course of management of the dual disease entity. Conclusion. This study ...

  17. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess treatment ...

  18. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  19. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum

  20. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  2. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17·2 billion, 95% uncertainty

  3. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  4. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies. PMID:27781000

  5. World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of four foodborne chemical toxins, 2010: a data synthesis [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Gibb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Chemical exposures have been associated with a variety of health effects; however, little is known about the global disease burden from foodborne chemicals. Food can be a major pathway for the general population’s exposure to chemicals, and for some chemicals, it accounts for almost 100% of exposure.  Methods and Findings Groups of foodborne chemicals, both natural and anthropogenic, were evaluated for their ability to contribute to the burden of disease.  The results of the analyses on four chemicals are presented here - cyanide in cassava, peanut allergen, aflatoxin, and dioxin.  Systematic reviews of the literature were conducted to develop age- and sex-specific disease incidence and mortality estimates due to these chemicals.  From these estimates, the numbers of cases, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs were calculated.  For these four chemicals combined, the total number of illnesses, deaths, and DALYs in 2010 is estimated to be 339,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 186,000-1,239,000; 20,000 (95% UI: 8,000-52,000; and 1,012,000 (95% UI: 562,000-2,822,000, respectively.  Both cyanide in cassava and aflatoxin are associated with diseases with high case-fatality ratios.  Virtually all human exposure to these four chemicals is through the food supply.  Conclusion Chemicals in the food supply, as evidenced by the results for only four chemicals, can have a significant impact on the global burden of disease. The case-fatality rates for these four chemicals range from low (e.g., peanut allergen to extremely high (aflatoxin and liver cancer.  The effects associated with these four chemicals are neurologic (cyanide in cassava, cancer (aflatoxin, allergic response (peanut allergen, endocrine (dioxin, and reproductive (dioxin.

  6. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation

  7. Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic disease burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity and smoking are among the most important lifestyle factors that influence global disease burden. In this thesis we investigate the relations of these factors with total disease burden in a large Dutch population, the EPIC-NL cohort. In this

  8. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  9. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  10. Hospital design to accommodate multi- and extensively drug-resistant TB patients

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of hospital design solutions to accommodate M(X)DR-TB patients and methodologies adopted to fast track the provision of much needed beds in the various high burden provinces in South Africa...

  11. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  12. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  13. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  14. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-16

    Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age

  15. Optimising molecular diagnostic capacity for effective control of tuberculosis in high-burden settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiiti, W; Mtafya, B; Kuchaka, D; Azam, K; Viegas, S; Mdolo, A; Farmer, E C W; Khonga, M; Evangelopoulos, D; Honeyborne, I; Rachow, A; Heinrich, N; Ntinginya, N E; Bhatt, N; Davies, G R; Jani, I V; McHugh, T D; Kibiki, G; Hoelscher, M; Gillespie, S H

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's 2035 vision is to reduce tuberculosis (TB) associated mortality by 95%. While low-burden, well-equipped industrialised economies can expect to see this goal achieved, it is challenging in the low- and middle-income countries that bear the highest burden of TB. Inadequate diagnosis leads to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. The roll-out of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay has demonstrated that molecular diagnostics can produce rapid diagnosis and treatment initiation. Strong molecular services are still limited to regional or national centres. The delay in implementation is due partly to resources, and partly to the suggestion that such techniques are too challenging for widespread implementation. We have successfully implemented a molecular tool for rapid monitoring of patient treatment response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in three high TB burden countries in Africa. We discuss here the challenges facing TB diagnosis and treatment monitoring, and draw from our experience in establishing molecular treatment monitoring platforms to provide practical insights into successful optimisation of molecular diagnostic capacity in resource-constrained, high TB burden settings. We recommend a holistic health system-wide approach for molecular diagnostic capacity development, addressing human resource training, institutional capacity development, streamlined procurement systems, and engagement with the public, policy makers and implementers of TB control programmes.

  16. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-16

    Dr. Charlotte Kvasnovsky, a surgery resident and Ph.D. candidate in biostatistics, discusses various types of drug resistance in TB patients in South Africa.  Created: 12/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/16/2016.

  17. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  18. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  19. Causes of death among children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe H; Stein, Claudia E; Boschi Pinto, Cynthia; Rakovac, Ivo; Weber, Martin W; Dannemann Purnat, Tina; Amuah, Joseph E; Glenn, Scott D; Cercy, Kelly; Biryukov, Stan; Gold, Audra L; Chew, Adrienne; Mooney, Meghan D; O'Rourke, Kevin F; Sligar, Amber; Murray, Christopher J L; Mokdad, Ali H; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. For children aged 5-9 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were estimated to be 46·3 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 45·1-47·5) in 1990 and 19·5 (18·1-20·9) in 2016, reflecting a 58·0% (54·7-61·1) decline. For children aged 10-14 years, all-cause mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were 37·9 (37·3-38·6) in 1990 and 20·1 (18·8-21·3) in 2016, reflecting a 47·1% (43·8-50·4) decline. In 2016, we estimated 10 740 deaths (95% UI 9970-11 542) in children aged 5-9 years and 10 279 deaths (9652-10 897) in those aged 10-14 years in the WHO European Region. Injuries (road injuries, drowning, and other injuries) caused 4163 deaths (3820-4540; 38·7% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 4468 deaths (4162-4812; 43·5% of total) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Neoplasms caused 2161 deaths (1872-2406; 20·1% of total deaths) in children aged 5-9 years and 1943 deaths (1749-2101; 18·9% of total deaths) in those aged 10-14 years in 2016. Notable differences existed in cause-specific mortality rates between the European subregions, from a two-times difference for leukaemia to a 20-times difference for lower respiratory infections between the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and EU15 (the 15 member states that had joined the European Union before May, 2004). Marked progress has been made in reducing the mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years over the past 26 years in the WHO European Region. More deaths could be prevented, especially in

  20. Alignment of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness with global burden-of-disease data: a bibliographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Hall, Alix; Williams, Christopher M; Skelton, Eliza; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Dellavalle, Robert P; Hilton, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-07-01

    Systematic reviews of high-quality evidence are used to inform policy and practice. To improve community health, the production of such reviews should align with burden of disease. This study aims to assess if the volume of research output from systematic reviews proportionally aligns with burden of disease assessed using percentages of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). A cross-sectional audit of reviews published between January 2012 and August 2013 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was undertaken. Percentages of mortality and DALYs were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Standardised residual differences (SRD) based on percentages of mortality and DALYs were calculated, where conditions with SRD of more than or less than three were considered overstudied or understudied, respectively. 1029 reviews from CDSR and 1928 reviews from DARE were examined. There was a significant correlation between percentage DALYs and systematic reviews published in CDSR and DARE databases (CDSR: r=0.68, p=0.001; DARE: r=0.60, psystematic reviews published in either database (CDSR: r=0.34, p=0.14; DARE: r=0.22, p=0.34). Relative to percentage of mortality, mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal conditions and other non-communicable diseases were overstudied. Maternal disorders were overstudied relative to percentages of mortality and DALYs in CDSR. The focus of systematic reviews is moderately correlated with DALYs. A number of conditions may be overstudied relative to percentage of mortality particularly in the context of health and medical reviews. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Convergence of a diabetes mellitus, protein energy malnutrition, and TB epidemic: the neglected elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sonia; Rossi, Rodolfo; Nshimyumukiza, Leon; Wusiman, Aibibula; Zdraveska, Natasha; Eldin, Manal Shams

    2016-07-26

    On a global scale, nearly two billion persons are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. From this vast reservoir of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, a substantial number will develop active TB during their lifetime, with some being able to transmit TB or Multi-drug- resistant (MDR) TB to others. There is clinical evidence pointing to a higher prevalence of infectious diseases including TB among individuals with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Furthermore, ageing and diabetes mellitus may further aggravate protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), which in turn impairs T-lymphocyte mediated immunologic defenses, thereby increasing the risk of developing active TB and compromising TB treatment. This article aims to a) highlight synergistic mechanisms associated with immunosenescence, DM and PEM in relation to the development of active TB and b) identify nutritional, clinical and epidemiological research gaps. To explore the synergistic relationship between ageing, DM, tuberculosis and PEM, a comprehensive review was undertaken. The MEDLINE and the Google Scholar databases were searched for articles published from 1990 to March 2015, using different MESH keywords in various combinations. Ageing and DM act synergistically to reduce levels of interferon gamma (IFN- γ), thereby increasing susceptibility to TB, for which cell mediated immunity (CMI) plays an instrumental role. These processes can set in motion a vicious nutritional cycle which can predispose to PEM, further impairing the CMI and consequently limiting host defenses. This ultimately transforms the latent TB infection into active disease. A clinical diagnostic algorithm and clinical guidelines need to be established for this population. Given the increase in ageing population with DM and PEM, especially in resource-poor settings, these synergistic tripartite interactions must be examined if a burgeoning TB epidemic is to be averted. Implementation of a comprehensive, all-encompassing approach to curb transmission

  2. Measurement of 160Tb and 161Tb in nuclear forensics samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.V.; Britton, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    160 Tb and 161 Tb are important radionuclides to measure when analysing a Nuclear Forensics sample. An analytical method for the measurement of both 160 Tb and 161 Tb was developed in this study. Terbium was separated and purified using exchange resin and TrisKem LN Resin. The purified fraction containing 160 Tb and 161 Tb was measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The counting efficiencies of 160 Tb and 161 Tb were determined using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method. The LSC count rate ratio, R160 Tb /R161 Tb , on the reference date was determined by sequential counting and calculated using a custom script based on their half-lives. (author)

  3. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan?s role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Factors contributing to Pakistan?s poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan?s GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence ...

  4. Prospective use of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor to screen TB co-infected with HIV patient among TB patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yudani Mardining Raras

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Plasma suPAR level of TB patients co-infected with HIV showed significantly difference from that of TB-AFB(+ patients suggested its potential to screen the TB/HIV among pulmonary TB-AFB(+ patients.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of TB – Its impact on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis control in China☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Results: In total, 238 bacteriologic confirmed pulmonary TB patients from DQ and 393 from GY diagnosed between 2008 and 2011 were recruited in the study. Of the 631 isolates, 220 (34.9% were resistant to at least one anti-TB drug, including 95 (15.1% simultaneously resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin or MDR, albeit with the similar distribution between DQ and GY (32/238 vs. 63/393; p, 0.378. The MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 35 isolates from DQ and 86 from GY exhibited 15 and 32 clustering patterns with four patterns shared between two counties. Compared with GY county, DQ had a significantly lower clustering proportion in MTB isolates susceptible to first-line drugs (25/167 vs. 46/198; p, 0.047 and total drug resistant TB isolates (12/71 vs. 44/149; p, 0.044, but a similar clustering proportion in MDR-TB isolates (8/32 vs. 18/63; p, 0.712. A significant higher clustering proportion was observed in the previously treated patients in both counties, but in the sputum smear-positive patients with cavitaries only in GY. Comparing the previously treated patients between the two counties, the proportion of MDR-TB and clustering proportion exhibited a similar distribution, while the average age of previously treated patients in DQ is significantly older than that in GY. Conclusions: A lower proportion of recent transmissions was observed in the county with long-term DOTS implementation. However, DOTS itself might not have worked enough on blocking the recent transmission of MDR-TB. This observation suggests the urgent needs of implementing the Stop-TB strategies; in particular, accelerating the use of rapid molecularbasedTBdiagnosisand drug susceptibility testing, providing active case findings in a high risk population of MDR-TB and enhancing infection control in high MDR-TB burden countries.

  6. Advocacy, partnership and political commitment for TB vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C

    2016-08-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  9. Cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in Brazil and states during 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth B. França

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data on cause of death (COD are fundamental for planning and resource allocation priorities. We used GBD 2015 estimates to examine levels and trends for the leading causes of death in Brazil from 1990 to 2015. Methods We describe the main analytical approaches focused on both overall and specific causes of death for Brazil and Brazilian states. Results There was an overall improvement in life expectancy at birth from 1990 to 2015, but with important heterogeneity among states. Reduced mortality due to diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and other infectious diseases contributed the most for increasing life expectancy in most states from the North and Northeast regions. Reduced mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was the highest contributor in the South, Southeast, and Center West regions. However, among men, intentional injuries reduced life expectancy in 17 out of 27 states. Although age-standardized rates due to ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular disease declined over time, these remained the leading CODs in the country and states. In contrast, leading causes of premature mortality changed substantially - e.g., diarrheal diseases moved from 1st to 13th and then the 36th position in 1990, 2005, and 2015, respectively, while violence moved from 7th to 1st and to 2nd. Overall, the total age-standardized years of life lost (YLL rate was reduced from 1990 to 2015, bringing the burden of premature deaths closer to expected rates given the country’s Socio-demographic Index (SDI. In 1990, IHD, stroke, diarrhea, neonatal preterm birth complications, road injury, and violence had ratios higher than the expected, while in 2015 only violence was higher, overall and in all states, according to the SDI. Conclusions A widespread reduction of mortality levels occurred in Brazil from 1990 to 2015, particularly among children under 5 years old. Major shifts in mortality rates took place among communicable

  10. TB control programmes: the challenges for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, T

    1996-11-01

    Governmental neglect of tuberculosis (TB), inadequately managed and inaccurately designed TB control programs, population growth, and the HIV epidemic account for the resurgence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization and the International Union against TB and Lung Disease have developed a TB control strategy that aims to reduce mortality, morbidity, and transmission of TB. It aims for an 85% cure rate among detected new cases of smear-positive TB and a 70% rate of detecting existing smear-positive TB cases. The strategy involves the provision of short-course chemotherapy (SCC) to all identified smear-positive TB cases through directly observed treatment (DOTS). SCC treatment regimens for smear-positive pulmonary TB recommended for sub-Saharan African countries are: initial phase = daily administration over 2 months of streptomycin, rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide; continuation phase = 3 doses over 4 months of isoniazid and rifampicin or daily administration of thiacetazone and isoniazid or of ethambutol and isoniazid. A TB control policy must be implemented to bring about effective TB control. The essential elements of this policy include political commitment, case detection through passive case-finding, SCC, a regular supply of essential drugs, and a monitoring and evaluation system. Political commitment involves establishing a National TB Control Program to be integrated into the existing health structure. Increased awareness of TB in the community and among health workers and a reference laboratory are needed to make case finding successful. A distribution and logistics system is needed to ensure uninterrupted intake of drugs throughout treatment. These regimens have been very successful and cost-effective but pose several disadvantages (e.g., heavy workload of recommended 3 sputum smear tests). A simplified approach involves 1 initial sputum smear for 6 months; 6-months, intermittent rifampicin-based therapy, 100% DOTS throughout

  11. Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  12. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, Simon I.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adedeji, Isaac A.; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Sutapa; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Maskari, Fatma; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Ampem, Yaw Amoako; Ansha, Mustafa Geleto; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arora, Megha; Al Artaman, Ali; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asgedom, Solomon W.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Awasthi, Shally; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Azzopardi, Peter; Babalola, Tesleem Kayode; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bannick, Marlena S.; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Battista, Robert; Battle, Katherine E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bennett, James R.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benson, Jennifer; Berhane, Adugnaw; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Birungi, Charles; Biryukov, Stan; Bisanzio, Donal; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Blyth, Fiona M.; Boneya, Dube Jara; Bose, Dipan; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Briant, Paul S.; Britton, Gabrielle; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto; Bumgarner, Blair; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cameron, Ewan; Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Carabin, Helene; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Carter, Austin; Carvalho, Felix; Casey, Daniel; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Castle, Chris D.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Chen, Honglei; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Colombara, Danny; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Cross, Marita; Crump, John A.; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dalal, Koustuv; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, Jose; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Davletov, Kairat; de Courten, Barbora; de Leo, Diego; De Steur, Hans; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dey, Subhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Dicker, Daniel; Djalalinia, Shirin; Huyen Phuc Do,; Dokova, Klara; Doku, David Teye; Dorsey, E. Ray; Bender dos Santos, Kadine Priscila; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebel, Beth E.; Echko, Michelle; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshetie, Setegn; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele; Farag, Tamer; Sofia, Carla; Farinha, Sa; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Feigin, Valery L.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Futran, Neal D.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebre, Teshome; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Geleto, Ayele; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Ghajar, Alireza; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Goel, Kashish; Goenka, Shifalika; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Gupta, Rahul; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hachinski, Vladimir; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Haro, Josep Maria; Harun, Kimani M.; Harvey, James; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hendrie, Delia; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huynh, Chantal; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Igumbor, Ehimario Uche; Ikeda, Chad; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; James, Peter; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; John, Denny; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah Charlotte; Jonas, Jost B.; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Kar, Chittaranjan; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimi, Seyed M.; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kassaw, Nigussie Assefa; Kastor, Anshul; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivimaki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lager, Anton Carl Jonas; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Paul H.; Leigh, James; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Leung, Janni; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S.; Linn, Shai; Liu, Angela; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Timothy C. D.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Maddison, Emilie R.; Abd el Razek, Hassan Magdy; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manguerra, Helena; Manhertz, Treh; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Mapoma, Chabila C.; March, Lyn M.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Henrique, Paulo; Martins, Viegas; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlndio; Martopullo, Ira; Marz, Winfried; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGaughey, Madeline; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; Mehata, Suresh; Meier, Toni; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Mengistie, Mubarek Abera; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Micha, Renata; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R.; Minnig, Shawn; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Kedir Endris; Mohammed, Muktar Sano Kedir; Mohan, Murali B. V.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mollenkopf, Sarah K.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Morrison, Shane D.; Moses, Mark; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mruts, Kalayu Birhane; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Muller, Kate; Mudoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Srinivas; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Nangia, Vinay; Nasher, Jamal T.; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negasa, Dumessa Edessa; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles R.; Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Grant Nguyen,; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Minh Nguyen, [No Value; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Vuong Minh Nong,; Norheim, Ole F.; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Nyandwi, Alypio; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; O'Donnell, Martin J.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osborne, Richard H.; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Osman, Majdi; Ota, Erika; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Pa, Mahesh; Pacella, Rosana E.; Panda, Basant Kumar; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paudel, Deepak; Paulson, Katherine; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perez, Krystle Marie; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Petri, William Arthur; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Phipps, Geoffrey; Pigott, David M.; Pillay, Julian David; Pinho, Christine; Piradov, Michael A.; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Narayan; Purcell, Carrie; Purwar, Manorama; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rangaswamy, Thara; Rankin, Zane; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Rao, Puja C.; Rawaf, Salman; Ray, Sarah E.; Reiner, Robert C.; Reinig, Nikolas; Reitsma, Marissa; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaei, Satar; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Robinson, Stephen R.; Rojas-Rueda, David; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saadat, Soheil; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salama, Joseph; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Joao Vasco; Santos, Itamar S.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Schelonka, Kathryn; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Ben Schottker,; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Sharma, Rajesh; Sharma, Jayendra; She, Jun; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shields, Chloe; Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shirude, Shreya; Shishani, Kawkab; Shoman, Haitham; Siabani, Soraya; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Joao Pedro; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Virendra; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Narinder Pal; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H. A.; Sobngwi, Eugene; Soljak, Michael; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Moraes Sousa, Tatiane Cristina; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylte, Dillon; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Taffere, Getachew Redae; Takala, Jukka S.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tarekegn, Yihunie L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taveira, Nuno; Taylor, Hugh R.; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Shifa, Girma Temam; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfaye, Dawit Jember; Tesssema, Belay; Thakur, J. S.; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Theadom, Alice M.; Theis, Andrew M.; Thomas, Katie E.; Thomas, Nihal; Thompson, Robert; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsoi, Derrick; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tymeson, Hayley; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; van Boven, Job F. M.; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi; Veerman, Lennert J.; Venkatesh, S.; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vidavalur, Ramesh; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Violante, Francesco S.; Vishnu, Abhishek; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wadilo, Fiseha; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyes, Belete Getahun; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Woolf, Anthony D.; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yihdego, Mahari Gidey; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Xueying; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zoeckler, Leo; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global

  13. Comparative Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Effectiveness in Children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccines from Different Sources, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Background Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. Methods/Findings We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Limitations Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. Conclusions/Significance All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by

  14. Comparative tuberculosis (TB prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Favorov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. METHODS/FINDINGS: We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan, the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. LIMITATIONS: Potential limitations included considerations that 1 the methodology used was retrospective, 2 multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3 most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4 small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness

  15. Comparative tuberculosis (TB) prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by manufacturer. When setting national immunization policy, consideration

  16. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.

  17. Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2018-01-01

    used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in s