WorldWideScience

Sample records for global stride locality

  1. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  2. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  3. From Global to Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinslow, Andrew; Sadler, Troy; Friedrichsen, Patricia; Zangori, Laura; Peel, Amanda; Graham, Kerri

    2017-01-01

    The global scale of climate change may seem beyond many high school students' comprehension. To complicate matters, climate change has emerged as a political issue that pits candidates, neighbors, and sometimes teachers and students against each other (Kahan 2015). The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) call on…

  4. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  5. Globalization vs. localization: global food challenges and local sollutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Jongerden, J.P.; Essegbey, G.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of global-local interactions on food production and consumption in Ghana, and identify possible local solutions. Primary data were collected using a combination of quantitative-qualitative methods, which included focus group discussions and

  6. 'Think globally, act locally'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that citizen participation in environmental and climate policies has moved through four phases from the early 1960s until today. The most recent phase is characterised by a ‘reorientation towards the local’, a move which is increasingly supported by actors at both national...... and international levels. For local governments, the task of initiating or facilitating citizen action concerning climate change mitigation has generated the development of new policy instruments that increasingly target people’s everyday lives, homes and workplaces. Examples of the use of these new policy...

  7. Global Policies and Local Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    networks that are embedded in a wider global network, I argue that tighter couplings (within local networks) and looser couplings (between local networks) coexist. Second, I suggest that this coexistence of couplings enables MSIs to generate policy outcomes which address the conditions of a transnational...

  8. Global Policies and Local Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    networks that are embedded in a wider global network, I argue that tighter couplings (within local networks) and looser couplings (between local networks) coexist. Second, I suggest that this coexistence of couplings enables MSIs to generate policy outcomes which address the conditions of a transnational...

  9. Managing CSR Globally and Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Corporate Responsibility (CR) is today an essential component of corporate global strategy. CR can bolster the institutional context for market expansion (Porter and Kramer 2006); fill institutional voids (Tarun, et.al. 2005); or facilitate market entry as a component of non-market strategy (Baron...... 2006). Yet, in fulfilling these functions, CR may need to be highly sensitive to local contexts. How can transnational firms organize CR so as to maximize efficiencies from globalization and to minimize the fragmentation of corporate organizational cultures? Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) provide...... a framework for analyzing the way that corporations coordinate global and local functions. We build on this framework in a case study of Novo Nordisk and its approach to determining global and local CR policies and procedures with regard to its China and United States subsidiaries. Our findings suggest...

  10. Indigeneity: global and local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlan, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer.

  11. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the 'liberal democratic peace package' is received in post-conflict spaces. As such, it is part of a critical peace research agenda that raises critical questions concerning the quality of peace in many post-conflict societies. A close reading of the peace-building process...... in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local......' in peacebuilding and, through the lens of friction, we reveal the diverse and unequal encounters that produce new power relations. By foregrounding agency, we theorise different agentive subjects in the post-conflict setting, and map local agency from various segments of society that may localise, co-opt or reject...

  12. Global Drums and Local Masquerades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwhu Betiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available TV broadcasting has been in Nigeria for more than 50 years (1959-2009. Its development has brought about a series of local responses to global socioeconomic and political environments and “soft” stimuli. This conclusion is based on a critical, interpretive reading of the history, form, and content of television in Nigeria from Obafemi Awolowo’s Western Nigeria Television in Ibadan through the federal government’s reactive establishment of the national network: the Nigeria Television Authority, and later, states and private television stations. The ultimate deregulation of television broadcasting in 1992, perceived as Babangida’s “politically-correct” reaction to the pressures from the Bretton Woods institutions, opened up national media markets for global penetration, and fast-tracked media globalization and its effects in Nigeria. While television stations in Nigeria have multiplied in numerical terms, programming/content/form have followed the global market/technological determinism turning Nigerian TV into localized versions of commercialized western master-scripts with very little local ideological direction.

  13. [Medical globalization and local culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    Biomedical globalization is a reality in the presence of local worlds with growing human sufferance and inequalities. In this structural and cultural context, characterised by the new communication by Internet and social media, polarisation of medical and scientific debate is enhancing. Based on episodes related to public health issues like vaccines, the quest for better access of Italian professionals and public opinion to an open scientific debate on health research and practice is discussed.

  14. ISLAM: Local and Global Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, in maintaining their local values when faced with globalchallenges, Muslims, as a social entity, and Islam, as a set of dogma, havegiven birth to new phenomena, e.g. new interpretation of Islam withina new context. Additionally, this era of globalization has led religions,including Islam, to renew their gambit to cope reality, e.g. in the practicallife (sociological, political, economical and anthropological aspects,intellectual endeavors (philosophical and theological aspects, and in therenewal of dogmatic teachings (hermeneutical aspects.

  15. Global Challenges and Local Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the Korean and Malaysian unions were affected by the financial crisis from different structural and strategic positions, and were exposed to different national policies and corporate strategies of crisis management, the Korean unions and Malaysian unions generally followed, respectively, a more radical...... and militant and a more pragmatic and moderate strategy. In the global-local perspective we face two paradoxes. The first paradox is that in spite of the difference in union ideology, the outcome in terms of industrial relations (IR) institutions was rather similar in the sense that the auto industry contained......, which could impede their autonomy. Due to the strength of unions of the market leading firms a breakthrough did happen neither in Korea nor in Malaysia, although the Koreans were a step ahead of the Malaysians having established a federation of metalworkers unions, including the important autoworkers...

  16. Thinking Globally when Teaching Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reken, Ruth E.; Rushmore, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Advances in science and technology, globalization of trade, international competition for markets, ethnic conflicts, and the limits of the planet's ecosystem have brought global issues and the people of the world to doorsteps and classrooms. With the increasing interaction among peoples of the world, skills in cross-cultural communication,…

  17. Measurement of global and local resonance terms

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Calaga, R; Fischer, W; Franchi, A; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Recently, resonance driving terms were successfully measured in the CERN SPS and the BNL RHIC from the Fourier spectrum of beam position monitor (BPM) data. Based on these measurements a new analysis has been derived to extract truly local observables from BPM data. These local observables are called local resonance terms since they share some similarities with the global resonance terms. In this paper we derive these local terms analytically and present experimental measurements of sextupolar global and local resonance terms in RHIC. Nondestructive measurements of these terms using ac dipoles are also presented.

  18. Local Decisions and Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Impact of economic and urban planning on the natural environment can be studied through local situations: California conservation students realized the detrimental effects of a seemingly beneficial dam project. Students were inspired to initiate community-state action to correct damage to wildlife, sanitation, and farming. (AV)

  19. Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, Gabriel A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes

  20. Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse upshot: A Case Review of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Historically, the lack of highly skilled labour in South Africa has been linked to the legacy of ...

  1. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne

    2006-01-01

    Collection of papers produced by tutors involved in a master´s degree course for teacher in Ethiopia offers an important challenge to the dominant neo-liberal agenda that has taken over educational reform throughtout the world. The project was based on the practice of critical practitioner inquiry...... and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  2. Local smoothness for global optical flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    2012-01-01

    by this technique and work on local-global optical flow we propose a simple method for fusing optical flow estimates of different smoothness by evaluating interpolation quality locally by means of L1 block match on the corresponding set of gradient images. We illustrate the method in a setting where optical flows...

  3. Local Reasons to Give Globally: Identity Extension and Global Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Jeong, Sophia Soyoung; Ward, A K

    2017-11-14

    Recent political events across the world suggest a retrenchment from globalization and a possible increase in parochialism. This inward-looking threat from parochialism occurs just as the global community faces growing challenges that require trans-national cooperation. In this research, we question if strong identification with an in-group necessarily leads to parochialism and ultimately is detrimental to global cooperation. Building on research on global social identification, we explore whether strong local identification can expand in inclusiveness to global identification, and among whom this is likely to happen. The results of our global public goods study - conducted in South Korea and the United States - show that high levels of social identification with a local group can extend to the global collective, particularly for individuals who are also high in concern-for-others. Furthermore, this identification translates into behavior that benefits the global, anonymous group at a cost to oneself. These results shed light on how to avoid the trap of parochialism and instead engender cooperative behavior with the broader global community.

  4. Unconscious Local Motion Alters Global Image Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Sieu K.; Chung, Charles Y. L.; Lord, Stephanie; Pearson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed. PMID:25503603

  5. Managing Corporate Responsibility Globally and Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Responsibility (CR) is today an essential component of corporate global strategy. CR can bolster the institutional context for market expansion fill institutional voids or facilitate market entry as a component of non-market strategy. Yet, in fulfilling these functions, CR may need...... to be highly sensitive to local contexts. How can transnational firms organize CR so as to maximize efficiencies from globalization and to minimize the fragmentation of corporate organizational cultures? provide a framework for analyzing the way that corporations coordinate global and local functions. We build...... on this framework in a case study of Novo Nordisk and its approach to determining global and local CR policies and procedures with regard to its China and US subsidiaries. Our findings suggest that it is important for companies to define a common set of organizational norms. In addition, CR need to be sensitive...

  6. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Through an empirical case study this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems; cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...... controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...

  7. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties...... of the flow were measured across the pile groups. The pile group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  8. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...... across the pile groups. The pile-group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  9. Examination of the gait pattern based on adjusting and resulting components of the stride-to-stride variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessoe, Uffe; Jensen, Niels Martin Brix; Madeleine, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Stride-to-stride variability may be used as an indicator in the assessment of gait performance, but the evaluation of this parameter is not trivial. In the gait pattern, a deviation in one stride must be corrected within the next strides (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait (performance .......5 to 2 strides with 0.5 stride increments. The time lag values corresponded to the following contralateral stride, the following ipsilateral stride, the second following contralateral stride and the second following ipsilateral stride....

  10. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  11. Discourse Communities--Local and Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie

    1992-01-01

    Argues that rhetorical theory needs to keep alive competing concepts of discourse communities, so that alternatives exist in the description and analysis of discourse practices. Proposes distinguishing between two kinds of discourse communities--the local and the global--so that rhetorical analysis can achieve the necessary critical edge,…

  12. Local and global measures of shape dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Losert, Wolfgang; Fourkas, John T

    2011-01-01

    The shape and motion of cells can yield significant insights into the internal operation of a cell. We present a simple, yet versatile, framework that provides multiple metrics of cell shape and cell shape dynamics. Analysis of migrating Dictyostelium discoideum cells shows that global and local metrics highlight distinct cellular processes. For example, a global measure of shape shows rhythmic oscillations suggestive of contractions, whereas a local measure of shape shows wave-like dynamics indicative of protrusions. From a local measure of dynamic shape, or boundary motion, we extract the times and locations of protrusions and retractions. We find that protrusions zigzag, while retractions remain roughly stationary along the boundary. We do not observe any temporal relationship between protrusions and retractions. Our analysis framework also provides metrics of the boundary as whole. For example, as the cell speed increases, we find that the cell shape becomes more elongated. We also observe that while extensions and retractions have similar areas, their shapes differ

  13. Editorial: Global Opportunities and Local Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the first issue is very multi‐disciplinary. It links economics with management by exploring global opportunities through particular local businesses. The European Union, as all of Europe, is now facing grand global challenges that primarily relate to economic issues. As stipulated by H. Sirkin, J. Hemerling and A. Bhattacharya in their world‐famous book: Globality: Competing with Everyone from Everywhere for Everything, in the resent future the European, American and Japanese firms will compete not only with each, other but increasingly with very competitive Chinese, Indian, South American, and even African firms, which currently may seem farfetched (Kotler & Caslione, 2009, p. 29. We believe it is extremely important to recognise global opportunities, which have resulted from globalisation, internationalisation and Europeanisation processes (Wach, 2012, pp. 137‐150 and 298‐299.

  14. From local perception to global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Flavio; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent sociological studies show that over short time periods the large day-to-day, month-to-month or year-to-year variations in weather at a specific location can influence and potentially bias our perception of climate change, a more long-term and global phenomenon. By weighting local temperature anomalies with the number of people that experience them and considering longer time periods, we illustrate that the share of the world population exposed to warmer-than-normal temperatures has steadily increased during the past few decades. Therefore, warming is experienced by an increasing number of individuals, counter to what might be simply inferred from global mean temperature anomalies. This behaviour is well-captured by current climate models, offering an opportunity to increase confidence in future projections of climate change irrespective of the personal local perception of weather.

  15. Localizing women's role in a globalized world

    OpenAIRE

    Pesses , Abigaël

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Based on ethnographic data collected among Karen communities and indigenous associations of Chiang Mai province within the past 15 years, this presentation aims at questioning the opportunities and limits of women's empowerment through the strategies driven by development actors into the local arena. By integrating gender issues in the development discourse, the role and abilities assigned to indigenous women has been embedded into national and global political frames:...

  16. Efficient Topological Localization Using Global and Local Feature Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient vision-based global topological localization approach in which different image features are used in a coarse-to-fine matching framework. Orientation Adjacency Coherence Histogram (OACH, a novel image feature, is proposed to improve the coarse localization. The coarse localization results are taken as inputs for the fine localization which is carried out by matching Harris-Laplace interest points characterized by the SIFT descriptor. The computation of OACHs and interest points is efficient due to the fact that these features are computed in an integrated process. The matching of local features is improved by using approximate nearest neighbor searching technique. We have implemented and tested the localization system in real environments. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is efficient and reliable in both indoor and outdoor environments. This work has also been compared with previous works. The comparison results show that our approach has better performance with higher correct ratio and lower computational complexity.

  17. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Using the Local Environment to Explore Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that water pollution is a global problem and presents statistics indicating how much of the world's water is threatened. Presents three elementary school classroom activities on water quality and local water resources. Includes a figure describing the work of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. (CFR)

  18. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  19. Global Interconnectedness - Local Authorities and Transnational Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Krause Hansen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, in their continuous and proclaimed efforts at "modernizing" themselves, public sector organizations, also at the sub-national level, increasingly envision the new media as an object of policy making and intervention. At the same time, this focus on the new media facilitates transborder networking, taking the shape of globalizing webs that connect the actors internationally through pro- cesses af mediation and with implications for relations af authority and modes of governance. As such, these webs both constitute and facilitate a form of everyday political globalization which is on the rise. Empirically, our account is based on studies of two local authorities, the cities of Vina del Mar in Chile and Bremen in Germany, as two of the transnational networks that connect them.

  20. Systematic Planning of Globalizing Local Firms (SPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan BÜTÜNER

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. It is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments from different countries through international trade and investment. It allows a country to perform international trade and business to enjoy the expansion of market and trade links between various countries around the globe. The key issue for a local company in penetrating and enjoying maximum revenue in a host country is identified as studying the differences in political, economic, cultural, and business ethics between the home and host countries. The world consists of various dimensions of differences, and it is the organization’s responsibility to identify and understand them and match them with its vision. This paper outlines a systematic planning methodology for helping local businesses, which in some way have the potential to grow in the international market but feel insecure regarding the risks and threats involved, to grow globally, and will further create a sense of motivation and ambition. In here, we try to solve their issues using a systematic procedure by passing through six steps (orientation and collect key data, clarify vision, clarify environment and relate to vision, develop penetration plans, evaluate and accept the best plan, implementation and considering three fundamentals (vision, environmental analysis, and penetration strategy to further enhance their horizons with the relevant knowledge. Our main objective here is to boost the confidence of the local companies by introducing a systematic planning tool that they can use which helps them to give the chance to become global and compete in the international market.

  1. Localizing the Global and Globalizing the Local: Opportunities and Challenges in Bali Island Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Darma Putra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In September and October 2013, only one week apart,Bali hosted two global events in the upper class markettourism resort Nusa Dua. The first event was the MissWorld beauty pageant, and the other one was the APECSummit. Thousands of journalists from all over the worldcovered these events. From a tourism marketing point ofview, these two prestigious events helped Bali boost itspopularity through global mass media. Historically, sincethe early phase of its development, Bali’s tourism industryhas received many benefits from global forces initiallychanneled out through the Dutch colonial power in the firstdecade of the twentieth century and later through nationaland multinational corporations. The recent enlisting byUNESCO of Bali’s cultural landscape as a world heritagesite (2012 provides yet another great example of how Balicontinues to receive global endorsement by world institutions as a unique tourism destination. This paper discusesopportunities and challenges caused by globalizationand localization phenomena in the management of Bali’stourism island destination. Bali’s experiences provide aninteresting example of how global and local stakeholdersdevelop the island tourism in a sustainable manner whileat the same time continuing to preserve its local arts andculture as one of its main attractions. While there aremany examples how both forces contribute to numerousopportunities toward the development of Bali’s tourism,it is also true to state that impacts of globalization causesvarious forms of distraction for the island’s ability to takefull control of its vast move of development.

  2. Cluster-based global firms' use of local capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Despite growing interest in clusters role for the global competitiveness of firms, there has been little research into how globalization affects cluster-based firms’ (CBFs) use of local knowledge resources and the combination of local and global knowledge used. Using the cluster......’s knowledge base as a mediating variable, the purpose of this paper is to examine how globalization affected the studied firms’ use of local cluster-based knowledge, integration of local and global knowledge, and networking capabilities. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative case studies of nine firms...... in three clusters strongly affected by increasing global division of labour. Findings – The paper suggests that globalization has affected how firms use local resources and combine local and global knowledge. Unexpectedly, clustered firms with explicit procedures and established global fora for exchanging...

  3. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  4. Global and local level density models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Hilaire, S.; Goriely, S.

    2008-01-01

    Four different level density models, three phenomenological and one microscopic, are consistently parameterized using the same set of experimental observables. For each of the phenomenological models, the Constant Temperature Model, the Back-shifted Fermi gas Model and the Generalized Superfluid Model, a version without and with explicit collective enhancement is considered. Moreover, a recently published microscopic combinatorial model is compared with the phenomenological approaches and with the same set of experimental data. For each nuclide for which sufficient experimental data exists, a local level density parameterization is constructed for each model. Next, these local models have helped to construct global level density prescriptions, to be used for cases for which no experimental data exists. Altogether, this yields a collection of level density formulae and parameters that can be used with confidence in nuclear model calculations. To demonstrate this, a large-scale validation with experimental discrete level schemes and experimental cross sections and neutron emission spectra for various different reaction channels has been performed

  5. Interactive Cosegmentation Using Global and Local Energy Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Xingping Dong,; Jianbing Shen,; Shao, Ling; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel interactive cosegmentation method using global and local energy optimization. The global energy includes two terms: 1) the global scribbled energy and 2) the interimage energy. The first one utilizes the user scribbles to build the Gaussian mixture model and improve the cosegmentation performance. The second one is a global constraint, which attempts to match the histograms of common objects. To minimize the local energy, we apply the spline regression to learn the smoothne...

  6. Local Agenda 21 - from global idea to local action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    The article give a status of the Danish works with Local Agenda 21 and discusses Local Agenda 21 as a planning tool. It describes the idea of Local Agenda 21 as a large meeting, which everybody attends. This picture is elaborated and discussed form different angles: the items on the agenda...

  7. Environmental health: from global to local

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frumkin, Howard

    2010-01-01

    .... Also emphasizing a wide variety of issues of global interest, the thoroughly revised second edition contains updated information on such timely topics as toxicology, exposure assessment, climate...

  8. A unified approach to global and local beam position feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The global feedback system uses 40 BPMs and 40 correctors per plane. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix is used for closed orbit correction. The local feedback system uses two X-ray BPMS, two rf BPMS, and the four-magnet local bump to control the angle and displacement of the X-ray beam from a bending magnet or an insertion device. Both the global and local feedback systems are based on digital signal processing (DSP) running at 4-kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. In this paper, we will discuss resolution of the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error and decoupling of the global and local feedback systems to maximize correction efficiency. In this scheme, the global feedback system absorbs the local bump closure error and the local feedback systems compensate for the effect of global feedback on the local beamlines. The required data sharing between the global and local feedback systems is done through the fiber-optically networked reflective memory

  9. Think Globally, Act Locally (Focus on Teaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Joan F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project, carried out jointly between a business communication class and a local chamber of commerce, that brings students into partnership with international merchants in the local community. (SR)

  10. Knowledge Sharing Across Global-Local Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  11. LOCALIZATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN GLOBAL CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vershinina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the S. Sassen’s research and writing focuses on globalization (including social, economic and political dimensions, global cities, migration, the new networked technologies, and changes within the liberal state that result from current transnational conditions. The main features of the global cities are examined on examples. The global economy is far from being placeless, has and needs very specific territorial insertions, and that this need is sharpest in the case of highly globalized and electronic sectors such as finance. Large corporate firms needed access to a whole new mix of complex specialized services almost impossible to produce in-house as had been the practice. This new economic logic would generate high-level jobs and lowwage jobs; it would need far fewer middle-range jobs than traditional corporations. The transformation of the socio-economic systems at the global and national levels, the associated changes of urban communities life is considered.

  12. Local adaptations to global problems; Lokale tilpasninger til globale problemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, Nina

    2010-07-01

    Information booklet published by KS (The Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities) and show examples from several municipalities in Norway that have completed, or are in the process of adaptation measures. The release of the new information booklet is the first step in a work of KS to push climate change higher up the agenda in local government. (Author)

  13. Sustainable Cities : Local Solutions in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sustainable Cities : Local Solutions in the Global South. Couverture du livre Sustainable Cities: Local Solutions in the Global South. Directeur(s):. Mélanie Robertson. Maison(s) d'édition: Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 6 avril 2012. ISBN : 9781853397233. 178 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505366. Téléchargez le PDF.

  14. Local/regional policies: Acting globally by thinking locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from present levels will require changes in local and regional decision making as well as decisions made at national and multinational scales. A number of cities and states have taken action to reduce emissions either directly or as a byproduct of solving local problems such as air quality. These initiatives represent a potential resource to be mobilized in national policy. A series of case studies is under way to understand the decision making involved and its implications, and to identify ways that national policy might support and benefit from local efforts. Preliminary results from the first of these case studies indicate that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may be greater when set as a direct target than when resulting as a byproduct of other local problem solving

  15. Multiple-copy state discrimination: Thinking globally, acting locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, B. L.; Pryde, G. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.; Bartlett, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate schemes to discriminate between two nonorthogonal quantum states given multiple copies. We consider a number of state discrimination schemes as applied to nonorthogonal, mixed states of a qubit. In particular, we examine the difference that local and global optimization of local measurements makes to the probability of obtaining an erroneous result, in the regime of finite numbers of copies N, and in the asymptotic limit as N→∞. Five schemes are considered: optimal collective measurements over all copies, locally optimal local measurements in a fixed single-qubit measurement basis, globally optimal fixed local measurements, locally optimal adaptive local measurements, and globally optimal adaptive local measurements. Here an adaptive measurement is one in which the measurement basis can depend on prior measurement results. For each of these measurement schemes we determine the probability of error (for finite N) and the scaling of this error in the asymptotic limit. In the asymptotic limit, it is known analytically (and we verify numerically) that adaptive schemes have no advantage over the optimal fixed local scheme. Here we show moreover that, in this limit, the most naive scheme (locally optimal fixed local measurements) is as good as any noncollective scheme except for states with less than 2% mixture. For finite N, however, the most sophisticated local scheme (globally optimal adaptive local measurements) is better than any other noncollective scheme for any degree of mixture.

  16. Heating GLOBAL vs LOCAL Contamination. Problematic National

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Fernandez Rondon, Manuel; Meneses Ruiz, Elieza; Rivero Oliva, Jesus; Diaz Rivero, Norberto; Sanchez Gacita, Madeleine; Curbelo Garea, Lariza

    2007-01-01

    The tendency of growth year after year of the half temperature of the planet in correspondence with the increase of the concentrations of gases of greenhouse effect in the atmosphere, is an unequivocal sign that the greenhouse effect and its consequence, the one global heating, is a threat that hangs on the Earth. At national level and international conscience of this situation is won and the actions are increased directed to to mitigate it. The contribution of the energy sector to these emissions is considerable. The work it analyzes the contribution from Cuba to the global climatic change

  17. European Lung Foundation: from local to global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippa Powell

    2016-09-01

    To show how patient- and public-focussed initiatives and activities can be adapted and modified to be effective in local, national and international settings, and to provide specific examples of these from the European Lung Foundation.

  18. Global and local knowledge networks in innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    , of which global sources are considered most important to innovation, while the regional level basically provides a labour market. Firms are able to establish direct links to knowledge sources at all scales, and widely rely on ICT and their access to foreign customers. This questions the proximity...... hypothesis and the regional focus of industrial and regional innovation policies....

  19. In between the global and the local

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    The current processes of globalization and internationalization have represented both opportunities and hindrances for the different actors involved in mathematics education practices. Those processes – happening mainly outside the classroom– link practices at different levels in ways which are n......, shape the directions that reform intentions take in practice....

  20. Think global, act local: Preserving the global commons

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Hendriks, Achim; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Preserving global public goods, such as the planet’s ecosystem, depends on large-scale cooperation, which is difficult to achieve because the standard reciprocity mechanisms weaken in large groups. Here we demonstrate a method by which reciprocity can maintain cooperation in a large-scale public goods game (PGG). In a first experiment, participants in groups of on average 39 people play one round of a Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) with their two nearest neighbours on a cyclic network after each PGG...

  1. Galeria de partes, Cuerpos Globales, presas locales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Millan de Benavides.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the ways in which globalization has reconfigured patterns of migration. In addition to entire communities displaced within and outside of Colombia's borders, migratory patterns revolve around flight, exile or the movement of body parts, including legs, brains and reproductive organs. This text addresses distinct types of work and the bodily transactions that each entails when migration occurs; it then explores the consequent visibility or invisibility and resulting legalization or illegality of the re-location of different body parts and the creation of new spaces. Thus, while a prostitute will never receive a visa due to the danger that she represents, a football player will not only receive citizenship, but also a privileged place as raw material in the global marketplace.

  2. On the Local Constitution of Global Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This essay focuses on the relationship between public engagement with science and larger discussions of globalized and decentred democracy. In particular, it asks whether public engagement on very specific issues and in the form of carefully-planned exercises should be seen as a distraction (or......-wicked problems. There is a tendency for engagement initiatives to operate at the regional or national levels. But what happens when the issues are presented as crossing borders and boundaries, and when the traditional centres of power seem sidelined by the expressed requirement for ‘global’ governance? Going...... governance represent both a challenge when it comes to issues such as climate change and global food security but also an important focus for STS scholarship. Finally, and in the spirit of more grounded conclusions, I suggest six ‘red blooded’ principles for public engagement which can at least get us...

  3. In between the Global and the Local

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2007-01-01

    research and practices are to be committed to social equity and justice in the midst of globalization, then they need to address the ways in which they are implicated in the production of a particular social order. In order to do so, mathematics education research needs to open its scope and allow linking......Understanding recent globalization processes demands grasping the relationship between the social practices in micro-contexts and macro-contexts, in search of the mechanisms that have worsened the distribution of material, human and knowledge resources in the world. If mathematics education...... the classroom with other spheres of social action. In this way it is possible to gain a broader understanding of the multiple forces that constitute mathematics education, and particularly its reform. Based on a case of a Colombian school, the paper illustrates the way in which mathematics education is being...

  4. Local and global dynamical effects of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.

    Local expansion flows of galaxies were discovered by Lemaitre and Hubble in 1927-29 at distances of less than 25-30 Mpc. The global expansion of the Universe as a whole was predicted theoretically by Friedmann in 1922-24 and discovered in the 1990s in observations at truly cosmological distances of more than 1 000 Mpc. On all these spatial scales, the flows follow a (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. This similarity of local and global phenomena is due to the universal dark energy antigravity which dominates the cosmic dynamics on both local and global spatial scales.

  5. From local to global, and back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M.; Bannink, D.B.D.; Trommel, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of Vlisco, a Dutch textile printing company since 1846 that produces batik cloth for the West African consumer market. We focus on the changing status of batik cloth in West Africa and related shifts in the relations of Vlisco with its consumers and local trade partners over a

  6. Penser localement, agir globalement : Comment la recherche ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 avr. 2018 ... Les Prix Canada Gairdner reconnaissent les scientifiques du domaine biomédical les plus créatifs et accomplis du monde qui font progresser l'humanité et le monde. Joignez-vous au Dr Cesar Victora pour une discussion intéressante sur les liens entre la recherche locale et les politiques mondiales.

  7. Mobile Stride Length Estimation With Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannink, Julius; Kautz, Thomas; Pasluosta, Cristian F; Barth, Jens; Schulein, Samuel; GaBmann, Karl-Gunter; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2018-03-01

    Accurate estimation of spatial gait characteristics is critical to assess motor impairments resulting from neurological or musculoskeletal disease. Currently, however, methodological constraints limit clinical applicability of state-of-the-art double integration approaches to gait patterns with a clear zero-velocity phase. We describe a novel approach to stride length estimation that uses deep convolutional neural networks to map stride-specific inertial sensor data to the resulting stride length. The model is trained on a publicly available and clinically relevant benchmark dataset consisting of 1220 strides from 101 geriatric patients. Evaluation is done in a tenfold cross validation and for three different stride definitions. Even though best results are achieved with strides defined from midstance to midstance with average accuracy and precision of , performance does not strongly depend on stride definition. The achieved precision outperforms state-of-the-art methods evaluated on the same benchmark dataset by . Due to the independence of stride definition, the proposed method is not subject to the methodological constrains that limit applicability of state-of-the-art double integration methods. Furthermore, it was possible to improve precision on the benchmark dataset. With more precise mobile stride length estimation, new insights to the progression of neurological disease or early indications might be gained. Due to the independence of stride definition, previously uncharted diseases in terms of mobile gait analysis can now be investigated by retraining and applying the proposed method.

  8. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliocca, N R; Ellis, E C; Oates, T; Schmill, M

    2014-01-01

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment – a representativeness analysis – with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth

  9. Globalism, Localism and Neo-Zapatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Assies

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available – La otra frontera; identidades múltiples en el Chiapas poscolonial, by Rosalva Aída Hernández Castillo. México: CIESAS, Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2001. English edition: Histories and Stories from Chiapas; Border Identities in Southern Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press. – Mayan Visions; The Quest for Autonomy in an Age of Globalization, by June C. Nash. New York and London: Routledge, 2001. – ¡Zapata Lives!; Histories and Cultural Politics in Southern Mexico, by Lynn Stephen. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2002.

  10. Global/local methods for probabilistic structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, H. R.; Wu, Y.-T.

    1993-04-01

    A probabilistic global/local method is proposed to reduce the computational requirements of probabilistic structural analysis. A coarser global model is used for most of the computations with a local more refined model used only at key probabilistic conditions. The global model is used to establish the cumulative distribution function (cdf) and the Most Probable Point (MPP). The local model then uses the predicted MPP to adjust the cdf value. The global/local method is used within the advanced mean value probabilistic algorithm. The local model can be more refined with respect to the g1obal model in terms of finer mesh, smaller time step, tighter tolerances, etc. and can be used with linear or nonlinear models. The basis for this approach is described in terms of the correlation between the global and local models which can be estimated from the global and local MPPs. A numerical example is presented using the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis program with the finite element method used for the structural modeling. The results clearly indicate a significant computer savings with minimal loss in accuracy.

  11. Negatively correlated local and global stock externalities: tax or subsidy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zili Yang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion generates both CO 2 and SO 2 . CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas; SO 2 can cause serious local pollution. But it can alleviate the potential global warming because of negative radiative forcing. Such a phenomenon can be characterized as negatively correlated local and global stock externalities. In this paper, we set up an optimal control problem of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provision. The efficiency conditions for this problem are derived. These conditions modify the Samuelson rules for optimal provision of externalities. In addition, we examine several policy related scenarios of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provisions. Finally, we discuss policy implications and limitation of the theoretical results derived in this paper. We also indicate applications of the theoretical results here to empirical research, particularly to economic analysis of multiple-gas issues in climate change. (Author)

  12. Theory and Algorithms for Global/Local Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Layne T; Guerdal, Zafer; Haftka, Raphael T

    2005-01-01

    The motivating application for this research is the global/local optimal design of composite aircraft structures such as wings and fuselages, but the theory and algorithms are more widely applicable...

  13. Connecting Global to Local Parameters in Barred Galaxy Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Key words. Galaxies: barred—orbits—global and local parameters. .... series near the stable Lagrange point L1, which coincides with the origin. Doing so, .... Toomre, A. 1981, In: The Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies, (eds) S. M. Fall,.

  14. Engineering Amorphous Systems, Using Global-to-Local Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Radhika

    Emerging technologies are making it possible to assemble systems that incorporate myriad of information-processing units at almost no cost: smart materials, selfassembling structures, vast sensor networks, pervasive computing. How does one engineer robust and prespecified global behavior from the local interactions of immense numbers of unreliable parts? We discuss organizing principles and programming methodologies that have emerged from Amorphous Computing research, that allow us to compile a specification of global behavior into a robust program for local behavior.

  15. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  16. Stride rate and walking intensity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Leslie; Hewitt, Allan; Rowe, David A; Sutherland, Rona

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults. Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials. Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.

  17. Improving Global Multi-target Tracking with Local Updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Anton; Gade, Rikke; Dick, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    -target tracker, if they result in a reduction in the global cost function. Since tracking failures typically arise when targets become occluded, we propose a local data association scheme to maintain the target identities in these situations. We demonstrate a reduction of up to 50% in the global cost function...

  18. Fostering Local Knowledge and Human Development in Globalization of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2004-01-01

    Since there are increasing international concerns with both the positive and negative impacts of globalization on indigenous and national development, how to manage the realities and practices of globalization and localization in education for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the disadvantages for the development of individuals and their…

  19. Cultural Variations in Global versus Local Processing: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Lillard, Angeline S.; Mizokawa, Ai; Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Tsutsui, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    We conducted 3 studies to explore cultural differences in global versus local processing and their developmental trajectories. In Study 1 ("N" = 363), we found that Japanese college students were less globally oriented in their processing than American or Argentine participants. We replicated this effect in Study 2 ("N" =…

  20. Local Convergence and Global Diversity : From Interpersonal to Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    How can minority cultures resist assimilation into a global monolith in an increasingly "small world"? Paradoxically, Axelrod found that local convergence can actually preserve global diversity if cultural influence is combined with homophily, the principle that "likes attract." However, follow-up

  1. Globalization Goes Local: Nationalism in Indonesian Jazz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishnoebroto Wishnoebroto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Article presented how Jazz, as a product of American popular culture, can be very local in Indonesia. Nationalism, in this case, refers to how Indonesian jazz artists translate and create a kind of ‘dialogue’ between jazz and local Indonesian culture. The study used library research by finding what values that jazz had in order to create such dialogue, and how Indonesian nationalism could be transformed in jazz. The evolution of Jazz in Indonesia and the attitude of Indonesian jazz audience were discussed to see the position of jazz in Indonesian popular culture mainstream. It can be concluded that Jazz seems to deconstruct the common notion that music should be understood to be enjoyed. In jazz,  the irrational and sometimes absurd combination between jazz and other indigenous culture, has created a specific kinds of the music itself. Jazz in Indonesia has gone through its own cycle of evolution where the western and the eastern culture has created its own art and nobody knows the direction of jazz in the future.  

  2. Diabetic retinopathy screening: global and local perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwani, R A; Lian, J X; McGhee, S M; Wong, D; Li, K Kw

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a global epidemic. It causes significant macrovascular complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke; as well as microvascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy is known to be the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population and may be asymptomatic until vision loss occurs. Screening for diabetic retinopathy has been shown to reduce blindness by timely detection and effective laser treatment. Diabetic retinopathy screening is being done worldwide either as a national screening programme or hospital-based project or as a community-based screening programme. In this article, we review different methods of screening including grading used to detect the severity of sight-threatening retinopathy and the newer screening methods. This review also includes the method of systematic screening being carried out in Hong Kong, a system that has helped to identify diabetic retinopathy among all attendees in public primary care clinics using a Hong Kong-wide public patients' database.

  3. Testing the developed world: Global CAPM vs. Local CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the developed world is integrated that the pricing difference between using the local CAPM and the global CAPM is not relevant. This paper has analysed the twenty developed countries which have been classified as such in the MSCI global index. The paper breaks down the country and stock to identify where there is a significant difference in the pricing of assets between the local and global CAPM, and the significance of the result.

  4. Turkish Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Local and Global Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…

  5. Global Brand Identity as a Network of Localized Meanings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, Elizabeth; van den Hoven, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070378096

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we develop a semiotic model to analyze advertisement localization. This model focuses on the mental representations that local audiences build of a “global” brand identity. We demonstrate how this model fills up gaps left by a popular marketing model for global advertising. We argue

  6. Tracing the Slow Food Movement: local foodscapes and global networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, B.; Dormans, S.E.M.; Lagendijk, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades alternative food practices have mushroomed across the globe. This proliferation has changed local food scapes, infusing localities with new ideas and ways of food production, circulation and consumption. It has also created global networks of innovation and

  7. Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Yamashita, Noriaki; Tan, Vincent; Irie, Risa; Van Staden, Maryke; Zimmermann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This report complements the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report by providing more detailed information at the city and local levels about policies and activities to promote renewable energy. It is intended to facilitate dialogue and illuminate pathways for future policies and actions at the local level. This 'working draft' version is intended to solicit comments and additional information

  8. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmelat, V.C.M.; Torre, K.; Beek, P.J.; Daffertshofer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may

  9. Stride time synergy in relation to walking during dual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    point of view elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. In this study we propose that the gait pattern can be seen as an on-going movement synergy in which each stride is corrected by the next stride (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait...... (performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate stride time synergy and to identify good and bad stride variability in relation to walking during dual task. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young participants walked along a 2x5 meter figure-of-eight track at a self-selected comfortable speed...... with a positive slope going through the mean of the strides, and bad variance with respect to a similar line with a negative slope. The general variance coefficient (CV%) was also computed. The effect of introducing a concurrent cognitive task (dual task: counting backwards in sequences of 7) was evaluated...

  10. Global and local music perception in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruelle, Christine; Schön, Daniele; Rondan, Cécilie; Mancini, Josette

    2005-04-25

    Musical processing can be decomposed into the appreciation of global and local elements. This global/local dissociation was investigated with the processing of contour-violated and interval-violated melodies. Performance of a group of 16 children with Williams syndrome and a group of 16 control children were compared in a same-different task. Control participants were more accurate in detecting differences in the contour-violated than in the interval-violated condition while Williams syndrome individuals performed equally well in both conditions. This finding suggests that global precedence may occur at an early perceptual stage in normally developing children. In contrast, no such global precedence is observed in the Williams syndrome population. These data are discussed in the context of atypical cognitive profiles of individuals with Williams syndrome.

  11. Emergence of global preferential attachment from local interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Menghui; Fan Ying; Wu Jinshan; Di Zengru; Gao Liang

    2010-01-01

    Global degree/strength-based preferential attachment is widely used as an evolution mechanism of networks. But it is hard to believe that any individual can get global information and shape the network architecture based on it. In this paper, it is found that the global preferential attachment emerges from the local interaction models, including the distance-dependent preferential attachment (DDPA) evolving model of weighted networks (Li et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 72), the acquaintance network model (Davidsen et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 128701) and the connecting nearest-neighbor (CNN) model (Vazquez 2003 Phys. Rev. E 67 056104). For the DDPA model and the CNN model, the attachment rate depends linearly on the degree or vertex strength, whereas for the acquaintance network model, the dependence follows a sublinear power law. It implies that for the evolution of social networks, local contact could be more fundamental than the presumed global preferential attachment.

  12. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Saunders, Megan I; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities.

  13. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Brown

    Full Text Available Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities.

  14. Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xue

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the biggest emerging and developing country, and the second largest economy on the planet, China’s road to sustainability has attracted global attention; therefore, we need to have a deeper understanding to address this issue at very different levels. This editorial mainly reviews the contributions of the published papers in the Special Issue of “Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action”, the main findings in this special edition suggest that the concept of sustainability is more comprehensive and complex, and the transformation process from scientific knowledge to local action still has a long way to go, not only in China, but also in many developing countries. More research on the fundamental and innovative processes of sustainable transformations should be conducted. China needs to make more efforts to strengthen its road to sustainability, by merging all relevant types of knowledge, both within and outside science, as well as locally and globally.As the biggest emerging and developing country, and the second largest economy on the planet, China's road to sustainability has attracted global attention; therefore, we need to have a deeper understanding to address this issue at very different levels. This editorial mainly reviews the contributions of the published papers in the Special Issue of "Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action", the main findings in this special edition suggest that the concept of sustainability is more comprehensive and complex, and the transformation process from scientific knowledge to local action still has a long way to go, not only in China, but also in many developing countries. More research on the fundamental and innovative processes of sustainable transformations should be conducted. China needs to make more efforts to strengthen its road to sustainability, by merging all relevant types of knowledge, both within and outside science, as well as

  15. Synchronization of three electrochemical oscillators: From local to global coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Sebek, Michael; Mori, Fumito; Kiss, István Z.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the formation of synchronization patterns in an oscillatory nickel electrodissolution system in a network obtained by superimposing local and global coupling with three electrodes. We explored the behavior through numerical simulations using kinetic ordinary differential equations, Kuramoto type phase models, and experiments, in which the local to global coupling could be tuned by cross resistances between the three nickel wires. At intermediate coupling strength with predominant global coupling, two of the three oscillators, whose natural frequencies are closer, can synchronize. By adding even a relatively small amount of local coupling (about 9%-25%), a spatially organized partially synchronized state can occur where one of the two synchronized elements is in the center. A formula was derived for predicting the critical coupling strength at which full synchronization will occur independent of the permutation of the natural frequencies of the oscillators over the network. The formula correctly predicts the variation of the critical coupling strength as a function of the global coupling fraction, e.g., with local coupling the critical coupling strength is about twice than that required with global coupling. The results show the importance of the topology of the network on the synchronization properties in a simple three-oscillator setup and could provide guidelines for decrypting coupling topology from identification of synchronization patterns.

  16. Combined discriminative global and generative local models for visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liujun; Zhao, Qingjie; Chen, Yanming; Lv, Peng

    2016-03-01

    It is a challenging task to develop an effective visual tracking algorithm due to factors such as pose variation, rotation, and so on. Combined discriminative global and generative local appearance models are proposed to address this problem. Specifically, we develop a compact global object representation by extracting the low-frequency coefficients of the color and texture of the object based on two-dimensional discrete cosine transform. Then, with the global appearance representation, we learn a discriminative metric classifier in an online fashion to differentiate the target object from its background, which is very important to robustly indicate the changes in appearance. Second, we develop a new generative local model that exploits the scale invariant feature transform and its spatial geometric information. To make use of the advantages of the global discriminative model and the generative local model, we incorporate them into Bayesian inference framework. In this framework, the complementary models help the tracker locate the target more accurately. Furthermore, we use different mechanisms to update global and local templates to capture appearance changes. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy.

  17. Provincial Globalization The Local Struggle of Place-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Andersson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the global presence in the local processes of place-making in a rural area in Sweden. As a result of increased competition – fueled by a reor-ganization of global capitalism – between places, symbolic strategies (i.e. place marketing and place branding have become a central dimension of both urban and rural governance. As a consequent, places – while still being sites for the residents’ day-to-day life – are being turned into commodities in the market of potential investors and tourists to a great extent. Subsequently, this paper deals with how this global agenda affects a rural municipality in the Swedish countryside suffering from depopulation. The paper confirms earlier statements (Woods 2007 that globalization processes should not be considered as external forces reshaping and homogenizing rural villages; rather, globalization processes are locally nego-tiated. This, however, does not mean globalization has no impact on rural places. In these negotiation processes global and local virtues are intertwined but not evenly. In some municipal strategies, the impact of global discourses is more ex-plicit, for example, policy-makers accept and incorporate strategies of place branding and policy networks while they neglect other aspects of a relatively standardized “place marketing tool kit”. Furthermore, the study shows that rural residents, also, consider the village and its global future carefully but differently from the policy-makers. The residents dislike expressions of urbanity and advocate a general small-scaleness as a strategy for the future.

  18. Correlation and network topologies in global and local stock indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobi, A.; Lee, S.; Kim, D. H.

    2014-01-01

    the crises. A significant change in the network topologies was observed due to the financial crises in both markets. The Jaccard similarities identified the change in the market state due to a crisis in both markets. The dynamic change of the Jaccard index can be used as an indicator of systemic risk......We examined how the correlation and network structure of the global indices and local Korean indices have changed during years 2000-2012. The average correlations of the global indices increased with time, while the local indices showed a decreasing trend except for drastic changes during...... or precursors of the crisis. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Correlation and network topologies in global and local stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Sungmin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jae Woo

    2014-07-01

    We examined how the correlation and network structure of the global indices and local Korean indices have changed during years 2000-2012. The average correlations of the global indices increased with time, while the local indices showed a decreasing trend except for drastic changes during the crises. A significant change in the network topologies was observed due to the financial crises in both markets. The Jaccard similarities identified the change in the market state due to a crisis in both markets. The dynamic change of the Jaccard index can be used as an indicator of systemic risk or precursors of the crisis.

  20. Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Brewaeys, K.; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    What does an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceive first: the forest or the trees? In spite of 30 years of research and influential theories like the weak central coherence (WCC) theory and the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) account, the interplay of local and global visual processing in ASD remains only partly understood. Research findings vary in indicating a local processing bias or a global processing deficit, and often contradict each other. We have applied a for...

  1. Local and global Casimir energies for a semitransparent cylindrical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A; Kirsten, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The local Casimir energy density and the global Casimir energy for a massless scalar field associated with a λδ-function potential in a (3 + 1)-dimensional circular cylindrical geometry are considered. The global energy is examined for both weak and strong coupling, the latter being the well-studied Dirichlet cylinder case. For weak coupling, through O(λ 2 ), the total energy is shown to vanish by both analytic and numerical arguments, based both on Green's-function and zeta-function techniques. Divergences occurring in the calculation are shown to be absorbable by renormalization of physical parameters of the model. The global energy may be obtained by integrating the local energy density only when the latter is supplemented by an energy term residing precisely on the surface of the cylinder. The latter is identified as the integrated local energy density of the cylindrical shell when the latter is physically expanded to have finite thickness. Inside and outside the δ-function shell, the local energy density diverges as the surface of the shell is approached; the divergence is weakest when the conformal stress tensor is used to define the energy density. A real global divergence first occurs in O(λ 3 ), as anticipated, but the proof is supplied here for the first time; this divergence is entirely associated with the surface energy and does not reflect divergences in the local energy density as the surface is approached

  2. A Comparison of Local and Global Formulations of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Several educators have advocated teaching thermodynamics using a"global" approach in place of the conventional "local" approach. This article uses four examples of experiments to illustrate the two formulations and the definitions of heat and work associated with them. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are…

  3. Local/global: women artists in the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherry, D.; Helland, J.

    2006-01-01

    Local/Global: Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century is the first book to investigate women artists working in disparate parts of the world. This major new book offers a dazzling array of compelling essays on art, architecture and design by leading writers: Joan Kerr on art in Australia by

  4. Global and Local Sensitivity Analysis Methods for a Physical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is the study of how the different input variations of a mathematical model influence the variability of its output. In this paper, we review the principle of global and local sensitivity analyses of a complex black-box system. A simulated case of application is given at the end of this paper to compare both approaches.…

  5. The role of research to shape local and global engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2017-01-01

    University research has the potential to help solve the grand challenges of the 21st century through local and global engagement. Universities are quintessentially socially engaged institutions that have been supported by external patrons because their activities are socially useful, and that has

  6. Global Norms and local requirements for Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Norms and local requirements for Black South African English ('BSAE')? -- A pilot study of teachers' assessment and perceptions of learner texts ... reports on the pilot study of a still-ongoing research project which investigates teachers' language perceptions and language use in mainly BSAE-using classrooms.

  7. Forests between global warming and local wood use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability of extended energetic wood use in atmospheric burners is questioned because it accelerates global warming for decades and often intensifies local air pollution with serious health impacts. Forest developments in Denmark and Austria are compared, the latter including data...

  8. Connecting the islands - enabling global connectivity through local cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank

    2009-01-01

    In this work we consider the interconnection of islands formed by neighbouring devices in a highly dynamic topology. To allow for high mobility we take offset in a purely wireless infrastructure where all devices incorporate a global and a local wireless communication interface. We consider...

  9. Pragmatic Content in Global and Local ELT Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Meihami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to explore the frequency of pragmatic content occurrence represented as three speech acts of requesting, refusing, and apologizing in global and local English Language Teaching (ELT textbooks. Three global elementary ELT textbooks, namely Interchange, Top Notch, and American English File along with the local elementary textbooks of Iran Language Institute (ILI Series, were examined for their pragmatic content. To analyze the pragmatic content of these textbooks, the researchers used three different frameworks. The results indicated that while both global and local ELT textbooks shared a sufficient number of speech acts of request and refusal, they failed to pay enough attention to the speech act of apology regarding its frequency and the strategies through which it is performed. To sum, the findings of this study highlight the differences in the frequency of different speech acts and the strategies used to perform them in global and local elementary ELT textbooks, which bear some implications for ELT textbook developers and language instructors.

  10. Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Brewaeys, Katrien; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-05-01

    What does an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceive first: the forest or the trees? In spite of 30 years of research and influential theories like the weak central coherence (WCC) theory and the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) account, the interplay of local and global visual processing in ASD remains only partly understood. Research findings vary in indicating a local processing bias or a global processing deficit, and often contradict each other. We have applied a formal meta-analytic approach and combined 56 articles that tested about 1,000 ASD participants and used a wide range of stimuli and tasks to investigate local and global visual processing in ASD. Overall, results show no enhanced local visual processing nor a deficit in global visual processing. Detailed analysis reveals a difference in the temporal pattern of the local-global balance, that is, slow global processing in individuals with ASD. Whereas task-dependent interaction effects are obtained, gender, age, and IQ of either participant groups seem to have no direct influence on performance. Based on the overview of the literature, suggestions are made for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Global corporate workplaces implementing new global workplace standards in a local context

    CERN Document Server

    Hodulak, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, multinational corporations were increasingly engaged in the development of standardized global workplace models. For their implementation and feasibility, it is decisive as how these standards fit the diverse regional workplace cultures. This topic was pursued in the course of a research project, comparing established workplaces in Germany, USA and Japan against global workplace standards of multinational corporations. The analysis confirmed the expected differences among local workplaces and on the other hand a predominant mainstream among global corporate workplace standards. Conspicuous however, are the fundamental differences between local models and corporate standards. For the implementation of global standards in local context, this implies multiple challenges on cultural, organizational and spatial level. The analysis findings provide information for assessing current projects and pinpointing optimization measures. The analysis framework further provides a tool to uncover and assess n...

  12. Globalization and Localization of the Management Control System package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Through an empirical case study, this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems – cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... the organization and others have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls and reward and compensation controls are glocal systems. The finding leads to the conclusion...... controls – through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. Based on a single-case study, the analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, some of which are universal throughout...

  13. Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnus, J.R.; Melenberg, B. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Muris, C. [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

  14. Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, J.R.; Melenberg, B.; Muris, C.

    2011-01-01

    Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

  15. Build Locally, Link Globally: The Social Forum Process in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considered an innovation because of its capacity to develop transnational processes, the World Social Forum however also has strong local roots as well as effects on organizational models and collective identities at the domestic level. Focusing on the Italian case, this article shows how local social forums, as arenas for exchanges of ideas, played a cognitive role in the import, but also the translation of new ideas, as well as helping the emergence of dense network structures and tolerant identities. The first section of the article examines how local social forums contributed to innovation in the organizational formulas of the Global Justice Movement—considering both structure (organizations and process (methodologies aspects—through the development of different, more participatory conceptions of internal decision making. It then addresses the innovations in the definition of collective identities, stressing the linkages of local struggles and global framing as well as the development of a cross-issue discourse around an anti-neoliberal frame. The final section will discuss the contribution of local social forums to contemporary social movements, stressing the role of these new arenas for the cross-fertilization among different movement families and spreading a method of working together that becomes part of the repertoire of action of local social movement organizations. The empirical research consists mainly of in-depth interviews and focus groups with activists from social movement organizations which were involved in local social forums.

  16. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  17. Local and Global Gestalt Laws: A Neurally Based Spectral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Marta; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    This letter presents a mathematical model of figure-ground articulation that takes into account both local and global gestalt laws and is compatible with the functional architecture of the primary visual cortex (V1). The local gestalt law of good continuation is described by means of suitable connectivity kernels that are derived from Lie group theory and quantitatively compared with long-range connectivity in V1. Global gestalt constraints are then introduced in terms of spectral analysis of a connectivity matrix derived from these kernels. This analysis performs grouping of local features and individuates perceptual units with the highest salience. Numerical simulations are performed, and results are obtained by applying the technique to a number of stimuli.

  18. Stimuli & Task characteristics in the global and local processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Zalabarod

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La primacía de los rasgos globales de una forma visual sobre los locales, o viceversa, es todavía una cuestión sin resolver. Algunos autores han señalado que la precedencia global sucede cuando se iguala la excentricidad de los niveles global y local mediante la utilización de estímulos concéntricos. Sin embargo, otras investigaciones con patrones visuales similares han obtenido precedencia local. El presente trabajo incluye dos experimentos planificados para arrojar luz sobre la interpretación de estos resultados inconsistentes. En conjunto, se pretende analizar si la diferencia en la densidad estimular utilizada en los distintos experimentos o la diferencia en el tipo de tarea pueden ser hipótesis plausibles para explicar la obtención de los resultados contradictorios. En el primer experimento, bajo condiciones de atención selectiva y dividida, se incluye una tarea de detección de una figura-objetivo en el estímulo con un tiempo de exposición de 150 msg. y con estímulos concéntricos con mayor número de elementos locales que los empleados en experimentos previos (Blanca, López, Luna, Zalabardo y Rando, 2000; 2001. Los resultados apuntan a una ausencia de ventaja global o local y a una interferencia bidireccional para la condición de atención selectiva, y bidreccional pero asimétrica para la condición de atención dividida, siendo mayor la interferencia global. En el segundo experimento, se instruye a los sujetos para que indiquen la dirección, izquierda o derecha, de la apertura de un semicírculo en el nivel pertinente, según la condición de dirección de la atención. Los estímulos se presentan con un tiempo de exposición de 150 msg. o ilimitado. Los resultados muestran una ventaja global, tanto bajo condiciones de atención dividida como selectiva, la cual es independiente del tiempo de exposición del estímulo. La comparación de los resultados extraídos de los dos experimentos, junto

  19. Globalization, Local and Global Identities of Students (Case study: University of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hobbi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization is both a disputable issue and an ambiguous one and it has been approached through various and sometimes contradictory views. One of the major topics related to the process of globalization is the subject of survival or persistence of local identities in the mainstream of global economy and culture. Different views have been presented in this respect. One of them claims that globalization has a negative influence on local identities, and eliminates the differences. Some others, however, state an opposite view. This paper has identified three fundamental but different approaches and examines them by the research’s data .This research which its subjects are Fars, Turk and Kurd students of Tabriz University, indicates that as the global identity among the students’ increases, their local identities decrease. In other words, with enhancement of globalization process, local identities starts to decrease and it means that second and third approach’s theories in the research is rejected and the first approach’s theories are confirmed.

  20. The effect of sadness on global-local processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mühlenen, Adrian; Bellaera, Lauren; Singh, Amrendra; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2018-05-04

    Gable and Harmon-Jones (Psychological Science, 21(2), 211-215, 2010) reported that sadness broadens attention in a global-local letter task. This finding provided the key test for their motivational intensity account, which states that the level of spatial processing is not determined by emotional valence, but by motivational intensity. However, their finding is at odds with several other studies, showing no effect, or even a narrowing effect of sadness on attention. This paper reports two attempts to replicate the broadening effect of sadness on attention. Both experiments used a global-local letter task, but differed in terms of emotion induction: Experiment 1 used the same pictures as Gable and Harmon-Jones, taken from the IAPS dataset; Experiment 2 used a sad video underlaid with sad music. Results showed a sadness-specific global advantage in the error rates, but not in the reaction times. The same null results were also found in a South-Asian sample in both experiments, showing that effects on global/local processing were not influenced by a culturally related processing bias.

  1. Parasail: SIMD C library for global, semi-global, and local pairwise sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Jeff

    2016-02-10

    Sequence alignment algorithms are a key component of many bioinformatics applications. Though various fast Smith-Waterman local sequence alignment implementations have been developed for x86 CPUs, most are embedded into larger database search tools. In addition, fast implementations of Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment and its semi-global variants are not as widespread. This article presents the first software library for local, global, and semi-global pairwise intra-sequence alignments and improves the performance of previous intra-sequence implementations. A faster intra-sequence local pairwise alignment implementation is described and benchmarked, including new global and semi-global variants. Using a 375 residue query sequence a speed of 136 billion cell updates per second (GCUPS) was achieved on a dual Intel Xeon E5-2670 24-core processor system, the highest reported for an implementation based on Farrar's 'striped' approach. Rognes's SWIPE optimal database search application is still generally the fastest available at 1.2 to at best 2.4 times faster than Parasail for sequences shorter than 500 amino acids. However, Parasail was faster for longer sequences. For global alignments, Parasail's prefix scan implementation is generally the fastest, faster even than Farrar's 'striped' approach, however the opal library is faster for single-threaded applications. The software library is designed for 64 bit Linux, OS X, or Windows on processors with SSE2, SSE41, or AVX2. Source code is available from https://github.com/jeffdaily/parasail under the Battelle BSD-style license. Applications that require optimal alignment scores could benefit from the improved performance. For the first time, SIMD global, semi-global, and local alignments are available in a stand-alone C library.

  2. Albinism, stigma, subjectivity and global-local discourses in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocco, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    Societal ideas and explanations of albinism at the local level in Tanzania are conceived in terms of family history, social relations, economic status, moral-religious positions, global-local flows of information and humanitarian actions on behalf of people with the congenital condition. This paper aims to show how the subjectivities of people with albinism in Tanzania are shaped and re-shaped through local moral conceptions as well as globalizing (bio)medical explanations of albinism. An exemplary case study of a 28-year-old woman, plus episodes from the lives of seven other informants with the condition, are analyzed in order to understand, on the one hand, local social relationships between people with albinism and other individuals in family and community settings, and on the other hand, the interconnections between persons with albinism and global humanitarian actors and the broadcast media. When stigma and marginalizing behaviors are perceived by individuals with albinism in Tanzania as impeding their social lives, they employ different coping strategies and discourses to enhance social acceptance.

  3. Global and local targeted immunization in networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Zheng, Zhiming; Fang, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    Immunization plays an important role in the field of epidemic spreading in complex networks. In previous studies, targeted immunization has been proved to be an effective strategy. However, when extended to networks with community structure, it is unknown whether the superior strategy is to vaccinate the nodes who have the most connections in the entire network (global strategy), or those in the original community where epidemic starts to spread (local strategy). In this work, by using both analytic approaches and simulations, we observe that the answer depends on the closeness between communities. If communities are tied closely, the global strategy is superior to the local strategy. Otherwise, the local targeted immunization is advantageous. The existence of a transitional value of closeness implies that we should adopt different strategies. Furthermore, we extend our investigation from two-community networks to multi-community networks. We consider the mode of community connection and the location of community where epidemic starts to spread. Both simulation results and theoretical predictions show that local strategy is a better option for immunization in most cases. But if the epidemic begins from a core community, global strategy is superior in some cases. (paper)

  4. Wind-energy harnessing - global, national and local considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Bunn, J.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the global issues of wind-energy capture and use is given, along with a case for developing the wind-energy potential of part of the Rhymney Valley, South Wales. Such an energy-supply project should be incorporated into an integrated energy and environmental strategy for the region. This would not only yield benefits with respect to the local, national and global environments, but also aid in enhancing the quality of life for the Rhymney Valley region and its inhabitants. (UK)

  5. The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stoker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of local governance has been too focused on the institutional arrangements of the Systems of different nation states rather than the more fundamental issue of the societal functions performed by local government. This article focuses attention on four societal roles that local government systems undertake. They can support political identity, underwrite economic development, facilitate social welfare provision or act as a lifestyle co-ordinator through the practice of community governance. Linking our investigation to the embedded societal roles of local government in different systems opens up the opportunity for a more genuinely global comparative perspective. It also helps us to understand the likely forms of politics associated with different systems of local governance. It also enables us to explore the sustainability of different systems of local governance. It is suggested that a strong system of local government is likely to be one that is able to combine societal roles to a substantial degree. A vulnerable local government system is one trapped with one function that in changing societal and economic circumstances could find itself under threat.El estudio comparado de la gobernanza local se ha focalizado excesivamente en los arreglos institucionales de los sistemas de los diferentes Estados-nación en lugar de centrarse en el tema esencial de las funciones sociales que desempeñan los gobiernos locales. Este artículo centra su atención en cuatro roles sociales que desempeñan los sistemas de gobierno local. Pueden proporcionar identidad política, garantizar el desarrollo económico, facilitar la provisión de servicios sociales o actuar como coordinador de la forma de vida mediante la práctica de la gobernanza comunitaria. La vinculación de la investigación a los roles sociales asumidos por los gobiernos locales en los diferentes sistemas proporciona la posibilidad de adoptar una perspectiva global comparada

  6. A Novel Support Vector Machine with Globality-Locality Preserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Long Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machine (SVM is regarded as a powerful method for pattern classification. However, the solution of the primal optimal model of SVM is susceptible for class distribution and may result in a nonrobust solution. In order to overcome this shortcoming, an improved model, support vector machine with globality-locality preserving (GLPSVM, is proposed. It introduces globality-locality preserving into the standard SVM, which can preserve the manifold structure of the data space. We complete rich experiments on the UCI machine learning data sets. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, especially on the Wine and Iris databases; the recognition rate is above 97% and outperforms all the algorithms that were developed from SVM.

  7. Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.

  8. A dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Bin; Lian Zhigang; Chen Qunxian

    2009-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been developing rapidly and many results have been reported. PSO algorithm has shown some important advantages by providing high speed of convergence in specific problems, but it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution and one may find it difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine tuning. This paper presents a dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization (DGLCPSO) algorithm to improve the performance of original PSO, in which all particles dynamically share the best information of the local particle, global particle and group particles. It is tested with a set of eight benchmark functions with different dimensions and compared with original PSO. Experimental results indicate that the DGLCPSO algorithm improves the search performance on the benchmark functions significantly, and shows the effectiveness of the algorithm to solve optimization problems.

  9. Emotional state and local versus global spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Augustyn, Jason S; Taylor, Holly A

    2009-02-01

    The present work investigated the effects of participant emotional state on global versus local memory for map-based information. Participants were placed into one of four emotion induction groups, crossing high and low arousal with positive and negative valence, or a control group. They then studied a university campus map and completed two memory tests, free recall and spatial statement verification. Converging evidence from these two tasks demonstrated that arousal amplifies symbolic distance effects and leads to a globally-focused spatial mental representation, partially at the expense of local knowledge. These results were found for both positively- and negatively-valenced affective states. The present study is the first investigation of emotional effects on spatial memory, and has implications for theories of emotion and spatial cognition.

  10. Bioseguridad in Mexico: Pursuing Security between Local and Global Biologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Emily Mannix

    2017-09-01

    In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries. In developing bioseguridad, the idea of globalized biology that animates many public health projects was undermined as scientists attended to the elements of place that affected human health and safety. Scientists argued for the importance of local biologies, generating tension with global public health projects and regulations premised on the universality of biology. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  11. Global Product and Local Consequences. Case of Barbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pilch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has turned various producers, such as international concerns, into leading actors on the global market. Their brands are recognised all around the world and their products are present in a significant number of households. An example of this can be the Barbie doll, created by Mattel, which is sold in 150 different countries. The concerns operate on a global scale but they have a local impact, which can be analysed in terms of individuals, groups or local communities. This applies to the Barbie doll as it affects its users, their environment, people related to the concern and its stakeholders. The aim of the article is to present these influences and assess their meaning.

  12. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae toGlobal Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strain, E.M.A.; van Belzen, J.; van Dalen, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Airoldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local

  13. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 392, č. 1 (2013), s. 184-193 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Capital market efficiency * Fractal dimension * Long-range dependence * Short-range dependence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.722, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-measuring capital market efficiency global and local correlations structure.pdf

  14. Combining local and global optimisation for virtual camera control

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2010 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games

    2010-01-01

    Controlling a virtual camera in 3D computer games is a complex task. The camera is required to react to dynamically changing environments and produce high quality visual results and smooth animations. This paper proposes an approach that combines local and global search to solve the virtual camera control problem. The automatic camera control problem is described and it is decomposed into sub-problems; then a hierarchical architecture that solves each sub-problem using the most appropriate op...

  15. Women in transnational history: connecting the global and the local

    OpenAIRE

    Midgley, Clare; Twells, Alison; Carlier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Women in Transnational History offers a range of fresh perspectives on the field of women’s history, exploring how cross-border connections and global developments since the nineteenth century have shaped diverse women’s lives and the gendered social, cultural, political and economic histories of specific localities. The book is divided into three thematically-organised parts, covering gendered histories of transnational networks, women’s agency in the intersecting histories of imperialis...

  16. THE HANDBOOK OF BLENDED LEARNING:Global Perspectives, Local Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Alev ATES

    2009-01-01

    THE HANDBOOK OF BLENDED LEARNING:Global Perspectives, Local Designs Curtis J. Bonk (ed.) and Charles R. Graham (ed.), Jay Cross (Foreword),Micheal G. Moore Foreword) ISBN: 978-0-7879-7758-0 Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pfeiffer Pages: 624 March 2006.Reviewed by Alev ATESPhD Student at Curriculum and Instruction,Lecturer at Computer Education and Instructional Technologies,Faculty of Education, Ege University, Izmir, TURKEYBlended learning or blended e-learning sounds like aconfusing ter...

  17. Local and Global Function Model of the Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a local and global function model in the liver based on regional and organ function measurements to support individualized adaptive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A local and global model for liver function was developed to include both functional volume and the effect of functional variation of subunits. Adopting the assumption of parallel architecture in the liver, the global function was composed of a sum of local function probabilities of subunits, varying between 0 and 1. The model was fit to 59 datasets of liver regional and organ function measures from 23 patients obtained before, during, and 1 month after RT. The local function probabilities of subunits were modeled by a sigmoid function in relating to MRI-derived portal venous perfusion values. The global function was fitted to a logarithm of an indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (an overall liver function measure). Cross-validation was performed by leave-m-out tests. The model was further evaluated by fitting to the data divided according to whether the patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or not. Results: The liver function model showed that (1) a perfusion value of 68.6 mL/(100 g · min) yielded a local function probability of 0.5; (2) the probability reached 0.9 at a perfusion value of 98 mL/(100 g · min); and (3) at a probability of 0.03 [corresponding perfusion of 38 mL/(100 g · min)] or lower, the contribution to global function was lost. Cross-validations showed that the model parameters were stable. The model fitted to the data from the patients with HCC indicated that the same amount of portal venous perfusion was translated into less local function probability than in the patients with non-HCC tumors. Conclusions: The developed liver function model could provide a means to better assess individual and regional dose-responses of hepatic functions, and provide guidance for individualized treatment planning of RT.

  18. Local-global classifier fusion for screening chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Antani, Sameer; Jaeger, Stefan; Xue, Zhiyun; Candemir, Sema; Kohli, Marc; Thoma, George

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a severe comorbidity of HIV and chest x-ray (CXR) analysis is a necessary step in screening for the infective disease. Automatic analysis of digital CXR images for detecting pulmonary abnormalities is critical for population screening, especially in medical resource constrained developing regions. In this article, we describe steps that improve previously reported performance of NLM's CXR screening algorithms and help advance the state of the art in the field. We propose a local-global classifier fusion method where two complementary classification systems are combined. The local classifier focuses on subtle and partial presentation of the disease leveraging information in radiology reports that roughly indicates locations of the abnormalities. In addition, the global classifier models the dominant spatial structure in the gestalt image using GIST descriptor for the semantic differentiation. Finally, the two complementary classifiers are combined using linear fusion, where the weight of each decision is calculated by the confidence probabilities from the two classifiers. We evaluated our method on three datasets in terms of the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation demonstrates the superiority of our proposed local-global fusion method over any single classifier.

  19. Learning Human Actions by Combining Global Dynamics and Local Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guan; Yang, Shuang; Tian, Guodong; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of human action recognition through combining global temporal dynamics and local visual spatio-temporal appearance features. For this purpose, in the global temporal dimension, we propose to model the motion dynamics with robust linear dynamical systems (LDSs) and use the model parameters as motion descriptors. Since LDSs live in a non-Euclidean space and the descriptors are in non-vector form, we propose a shift invariant subspace angles based distance to measure the similarity between LDSs. In the local visual dimension, we construct curved spatio-temporal cuboids along the trajectories of densely sampled feature points and describe them using histograms of oriented gradients (HOG). The distance between motion sequences is computed with the Chi-Squared histogram distance in the bag-of-words framework. Finally we perform classification using the maximum margin distance learning method by combining the global dynamic distances and the local visual distances. We evaluate our approach for action recognition on five short clips data sets, namely Weizmann, KTH, UCF sports, Hollywood2 and UCF50, as well as three long continuous data sets, namely VIRAT, ADL and CRIM13. We show competitive results as compared with current state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Globalization and pollution: tele-connecting local primary PM2.5 emissions to global consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Globalization pushes production and consumption to geographically diverse locations and generates a variety of sizeable opportunities and challenges. The distribution and associated effects of short-lived primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a representative of local pollution, are significantly affected by the consumption through global supply chain. Tele-connection is used here to represent the link between production and consumption activity at large distances. In this study, we develop a global consumption-based primary PM2.5 emission inventory to track primary PM2.5 emissions embodied in the supply chain and evaluate the extent to which local PM2.5 emissions are triggered by international trade. We further adopt consumption-based accounting and identify the global original source that produced the emissions. We find that anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions from industrial sectors accounted for 24 Tg globally in 2007; approximately 30% (7.2 Tg) of these emissions were embodied in export of products principally from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (3.8 Tg) to developed countries. Large differences (up to 10 times) in the embodied emissions intensity between net importers and exporters greatly increased total global PM2.5 emissions. Tele-connecting production and consumption activity provides valuable insights with respect to mitigating long-range transboundary air pollution and prompts concerted efforts aiming at more environmentally conscious globalization.

  1. Globalization and pollution: tele-connecting local primary PM2.5 emissions to global consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Globalization pushes production and consumption to geographically diverse locations and generates a variety of sizeable opportunities and challenges. The distribution and associated effects of short-lived primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a representative of local pollution, are significantly affected by the consumption through global supply chain. Tele-connection is used here to represent the link between production and consumption activity at large distances. In this study, we develop a global consumption-based primary PM2.5 emission inventory to track primary PM2.5 emissions embodied in the supply chain and evaluate the extent to which local PM2.5 emissions are triggered by international trade. We further adopt consumption-based accounting and identify the global original source that produced the emissions. We find that anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions from industrial sectors accounted for 24 Tg globally in 2007; approximately 30% (7.2 Tg) of these emissions were embodied in export of products principally from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (3.8 Tg) to developed countries. Large differences (up to 10 times) in the embodied emissions intensity between net importers and exporters greatly increased total global PM2.5 emissions. Tele-connecting production and consumption activity provides valuable insights with respect to mitigating long-range transboundary air pollution and prompts concerted efforts aiming at more environmentally conscious globalization. PMID:27956874

  2. Globalization and pollution: tele-connecting local primary PM2.5 emissions to global consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Liu, Junfeng; Xu, Yuan; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Globalization pushes production and consumption to geographically diverse locations and generates a variety of sizeable opportunities and challenges. The distribution and associated effects of short-lived primary fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), a representative of local pollution, are significantly affected by the consumption through global supply chain. Tele-connection is used here to represent the link between production and consumption activity at large distances. In this study, we develop a global consumption-based primary PM 2.5 emission inventory to track primary PM 2.5 emissions embodied in the supply chain and evaluate the extent to which local PM 2.5 emissions are triggered by international trade. We further adopt consumption-based accounting and identify the global original source that produced the emissions. We find that anthropogenic PM 2.5 emissions from industrial sectors accounted for 24 Tg globally in 2007; approximately 30% (7.2 Tg) of these emissions were embodied in export of products principally from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (3.8 Tg) to developed countries. Large differences (up to 10 times) in the embodied emissions intensity between net importers and exporters greatly increased total global PM 2.5 emissions. Tele-connecting production and consumption activity provides valuable insights with respect to mitigating long-range transboundary air pollution and prompts concerted efforts aiming at more environmentally conscious globalization.

  3. Global and local curvature in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-07

    Piecewise linearity of the energy with respect to fractional electron removal or addition is a requirement of an electronic structure method that necessitates the presence of a derivative discontinuity at integer electron occupation. Semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) approximations within density functional theory (DFT) fail to reproduce this behavior, giving rise to deviations from linearity with a convex global curvature that is evidence of many-electron, self-interaction error and electron delocalization. Popular functional tuning strategies focus on reproducing piecewise linearity, especially to improve predictions of optical properties. In a divergent approach, Hubbard U-augmented DFT (i.e., DFT+U) treats self-interaction errors by reducing the local curvature of the energy with respect to electron removal or addition from one localized subshell to the surrounding system. Although it has been suggested that DFT+U should simultaneously alleviate global and local curvature in the atomic limit, no detailed study on real systems has been carried out to probe the validity of this statement. In this work, we show when DFT+U should minimize deviations from linearity and demonstrate that a "+U" correction will never worsen the deviation from linearity of the underlying xc approximation. However, we explain varying degrees of efficiency of the approach over 27 octahedral transition metal complexes with respect to transition metal (Sc-Cu) and ligand strength (CO, NH3, and H2O) and investigate select pathological cases where the delocalization error is invisible to DFT+U within an atomic projection framework. Finally, we demonstrate that the global and local curvatures represent different quantities that show opposing behavior with increasing ligand field strength, and we identify where these two may still coincide.

  4. Local empathy provides global minimization of congestion in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    We present a mechanism to avoid congestion in complex networks based on a local knowledge of traffic conditions and the ability of routers to self-coordinate their dynamical behavior. In particular, routers make use of local information about traffic conditions to either reject or accept information packets from their neighbors. We show that when nodes are only aware of their own congestion state they self-organize into a hierarchical configuration that delays remarkably the onset of congestion although leading to a sharp first-order-like congestion transition. We also consider the case when nodes are aware of the congestion state of their neighbors. In this case, we show that empathy between nodes is strongly beneficial to the overall performance of the system and it is possible to achieve larger values for the critical load together with a smooth, second-order-like, transition. Finally, we show how local empathy minimize the impact of congestion as much as global minimization. Therefore, here we present an outstanding example of how local dynamical rules can optimize the system’s functioning up to the levels reached using global knowledge.

  5. A novel approach for the global localization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe una metodología de planificación, localización y mapeo simultáneos enfocada en el problema de localización global, el robot explora el ambiente eficientemente y también considera los requisitos de un algoritmo de localización y mapeo simultáneos. El método está basado en la generación aleatoria incremental de una estructura de datos llamada árbol aleatorio basado en sensores, la cual representa un mapa de caminos del área explorada con su región segura asociada. Un procedimiento de localización continuo basado encaracterísticas B-splines de la región segura se integró en el esquema.This paper describes a simultaneous planning localization and mapping (SPLAM methodology focussed on the global localization problem, where the robot explores the environment efficiently and also considers the requisites of the simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm. The method is based on the randomized incremental generation of a data structure called Sensor-based Random Tree, which represents a roadmap of the explored area with an associated safe region. A continuous localization procedure based on B-Splines features of the safe region is integrated in the scheme.

  6. Global and local Joule heating effects seen by DE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    In the altitude region between 350 and 550 km, variations in the ion temperature principally reflect similar variations in the local frictional heating produced by a velocity difference between the ions and the neutrals. Here, the distribution of the ion temperature in this altitude region is shown, and its attributes in relation to previous work on local Joule heating rates are discussed. In addition to the ion temperature, instrumentation on the DE 2 satellite also provides a measure of the ion velocity vector representative of the total electric field. From this information, the local Joule heating rate is derived. From an estimate of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity it is also possible to estimate the global (height-integrated) Joule heating rate. Here, the differences and relationships between these various parameters are described.

  7. Global Health Diplomacy, "San Francisco Values," and HIV/AIDS: From the Local to the Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    San Francisco has a distinguished history as a cosmopolitan, progressive, and international city, including extensive associations with global health. These circumstances have contributed to new, interdisciplinary scholarship in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). In the present review, we describe the evolution and history of GHD at the practical and theoretical levels within the San Francisco medical community, trace related associations between the local and the global, and propose a range of potential opportunities for further development of this dynamic field. We provide a historical overview of the development of the "San Francisco Model" of collaborative, community-owned HIV/AIDS treatment and care programs as pioneered under the "Ward 86" paradigm of the 1980s. We traced the expansion and evolution of this model to the national level under the Ryan White Care Act, and internationally via the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In parallel, we describe the evolution of global health diplomacy practices, from the local to the global, including the integration of GHD principles into intervention design to ensure social, political, and cultural acceptability and sensitivity. Global health programs, as informed by lessons learned from the San Francisco Model, are increasingly aligned with diplomatic principles and practices. This awareness has aided implementation, allowed policymakers to pursue related and progressive social and humanitarian issues in conjunction with medical responses, and elevated global health to the realm of "high politics." In the 21st century, the integration between diplomatic, medical, and global health practices will continue under "smart global health" and GHD paradigms. These approaches will enhance intervention cost-effectiveness by addressing and optimizing, in tandem with each other, a wide range of (health and non-health) foreign policy, diplomatic, security, and economic priorities in a synergistic manner

  8. Local and global responses in complex gene regulation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    An exacerbated sensitivity to apparently minor stimuli and a general resilience of the entire system stay together side-by-side in biological systems. This apparent paradox can be explained by the consideration of biological systems as very strongly interconnected network systems. Some nodes of these networks, thanks to their peculiar location in the network architecture, are responsible for the sensitivity aspects, while the large degree of interconnection is at the basis of the resilience properties of the system. One relevant feature of the high degree of connectivity of gene regulation networks is the emergence of collective ordered phenomena influencing the entire genome and not only a specific portion of transcripts. The great majority of existing gene regulation models give the impression of purely local ‘hard-wired’ mechanisms disregarding the emergence of global ordered behavior encompassing thousands of genes while the general, genome wide, aspects are less known. Here we address, on a data analysis perspective, the discrimination between local and global scale regulations, this goal was achieved by means of the examination of two biological systems: innate immune response in macrophages and oscillating growth dynamics in yeast. Our aim was to reconcile the ‘hard-wired’ local view of gene regulation with a global continuous and scalable one borrowed from statistical physics. This reconciliation is based on the network paradigm in which the local ‘hard-wired’ activities correspond to the activation of specific crucial nodes in the regulation network, while the scalable continuous responses can be equated to the collective oscillations of the network after a perturbation.

  9. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate change at the coast: from global to local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkinson, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The IPCC has recently documented substantial changes in the global heat content of the oceans, salinity, sea level, thermal expansion and biogeochemistry. Over the 21. century anticipated climate related changes include: a rise in sea level of up to 0.6 m or more; increases in sea surface temperatures up to 3 deg. C; an intensification of tropical and extra tropical cyclones; larger extreme waves and storm surges; altered precipitation/ run-off; and ocean acidification. The Tyndall Centre has been exploring how to down-scale the global analysis to the local level within the framework of a coastal simulator. The simulator provides information on possible future states of the coast through the 21. Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links models within a nested framework, recognizing three scales: (1) global, (2) regional, and (3) local. The linked models describe a range of processes, including marine climate (waves, surges and mean sea level), sand bank morpho-dynamics, wave transformation, shoreline morpho-dynamics, built environment scenarios, ecosystem change, and erosion and flood risk. Analyses from the simulator reinforce conclusions from IPCC WG2: coasts will be exposed to increasing risks over coming decades due to many compounding climate-change factors; the impact of climate change on coasts will be exacerbated by increasing human induced pressures; the unavoidability of sea-level rise even in the longer-term frequently conflicts with present day human development patterns and trends. (author)

  11. STRIDE: Species Tree Root Inference from Gene Duplication Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emms, David M; Kelly, Steven

    2017-12-01

    The correct interpretation of any phylogenetic tree is dependent on that tree being correctly rooted. We present STRIDE, a fast, effective, and outgroup-free method for identification of gene duplication events and species tree root inference in large-scale molecular phylogenetic analyses. STRIDE identifies sets of well-supported in-group gene duplication events from a set of unrooted gene trees, and analyses these events to infer a probability distribution over an unrooted species tree for the location of its root. We show that STRIDE correctly identifies the root of the species tree in multiple large-scale molecular phylogenetic data sets spanning a wide range of timescales and taxonomic groups. We demonstrate that the novel probability model implemented in STRIDE can accurately represent the ambiguity in species tree root assignment for data sets where information is limited. Furthermore, application of STRIDE to outgroup-free inference of the origin of the eukaryotic tree resulted in a root probability distribution that provides additional support for leading hypotheses for the origin of the eukaryotes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Competition between global and local online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2016-04-01

    The overwhelming success of online social networks, the key actors in the Web 2.0 cosmos, has reshaped human interactions globally. To help understand the fundamental mechanisms which determine the fate of online social networks at the system level, we describe the digital world as a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity in network fitnesses on the competition between an international network, such as Facebook, and local services. The higher fitness of international networks is induced by their ability to attract users from all over the world, which can then establish social interactions without the limitations of local networks. In other words, inter-country social ties lead to increased fitness of the international network. To study the competition between an international network and local ones, we construct a 1:1000 scale model of the digital world, consisting of the 80 countries with the most Internet users. Under certain conditions, this leads to the extinction of local networks; whereas under different conditions, local networks can persist and even dominate completely. In particular, our model suggests that, with the parameters that best reproduce the empirical overtake of Facebook, this overtake could have not taken place with a significant probability.

  13. Competition between global and local online social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2016-04-27

    The overwhelming success of online social networks, the key actors in the Web 2.0 cosmos, has reshaped human interactions globally. To help understand the fundamental mechanisms which determine the fate of online social networks at the system level, we describe the digital world as a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity in network fitnesses on the competition between an international network, such as Facebook, and local services. The higher fitness of international networks is induced by their ability to attract users from all over the world, which can then establish social interactions without the limitations of local networks. In other words, inter-country social ties lead to increased fitness of the international network. To study the competition between an international network and local ones, we construct a 1:1000 scale model of the digital world, consisting of the 80 countries with the most Internet users. Under certain conditions, this leads to the extinction of local networks; whereas under different conditions, local networks can persist and even dominate completely. In particular, our model suggests that, with the parameters that best reproduce the empirical overtake of Facebook, this overtake could have not taken place with a significant probability.

  14. Effects of local and global network connectivity on synergistic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder-Rodgers, David; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2015-12-01

    Epidemics in networks can be affected by cooperation in transmission of infection and also connectivity between nodes. An interplay between these two properties and their influence on epidemic spread are addressed in the paper. A particular type of cooperative effects (called synergy effects) is considered, where the transmission rate between a pair of nodes depends on the number of infected neighbors. The connectivity effects are studied by constructing networks of different topology, starting with lattices with only local connectivity and then with networks that have both local and global connectivity obtained by random bond-rewiring to nodes within a certain distance. The susceptible-infected-removed epidemics were found to exhibit several interesting effects: (i) for epidemics with strong constructive synergy spreading in networks with high local connectivity, the bond rewiring has a negative role in epidemic spread, i.e., it reduces invasion probability; (ii) in contrast, for epidemics with destructive or weak constructive synergy spreading on networks of arbitrary local connectivity, rewiring helps epidemics to spread; (iii) and, finally, rewiring always enhances the spread of epidemics, independent of synergy, if the local connectivity is low.

  15. Should Social Value Obligations be Local or Global?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rahul; Shah, Seema K

    2017-02-01

    According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor (and not just research participants and host communities). To the extent the social value requirement has been understood as geographically constrained to the communities that host research and the countries that can afford the products of research, it has neglected to include the global poor as members of the relevant society. We argue that a new conception of social value obligations is needed for two reasons. First, duties of global beneficence give reason for researchers, sponsors, and institutions to take steps to make their products more widely accessible. Second, public commitments made by many institutions acknowledge and engender responsibilities to make the products of research more accessible to the global poor. Future research is needed to help researchers and sponsors discharge these obligations in ways that unlock their full potential. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Selected Mechanical Aspects of the Ice Skating Stride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, G. Wayne

    This study quantitatively analyzes selected aspects of the skating strides of above-average and below-average ability skaters. Subproblems were to determine how stride length and stride rate are affected by changes in skating velocity, to ascertain whether the basic assumption that stride length accurately approximates horizontal movement of the…

  17. Abnormal global and local event detection in compressive sensing domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Qiao, Meina; Chen, Jie; Wang, Chuanyun; Zhang, Wenjia; Snoussi, Hichem

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal event detection, also known as anomaly detection, is one challenging task in security video surveillance. It is important to develop effective and robust movement representation models for global and local abnormal event detection to fight against factors such as occlusion and illumination change. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed. It can locate the abnormal events on one frame, and detect the global abnormal frame. The proposed algorithm employs a sparse measurement matrix designed to represent the movement feature based on optical flow efficiently. Then, the abnormal detection mission is constructed as a one-class classification task via merely learning from the training normal samples. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm performs well on the benchmark abnormal detection datasets against state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Handbook of international insurance between global dynamics and local contingencies

    CERN Document Server

    Venard, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    THE HANDBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE Gordon Stewart, President, Insurance Information Institute, New York, USA "The globalization of insurance markets means that understanding both international developments and local trends around the world is now fundamental for insurance executives coping with today’s complex and competitive environment. By providing such a comprehensive picture of the world’s insurance markets, this unique and necessary book becomes an essential tool for anyone seeking to operate wisely and successfully. Richard D. Phillips, Professor and Chairman, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA "Comprehensive surveys, written by international experts, provide in depth descriptions and discuss recent developments of the world’s major insurance markets. Each chapter contains essential insights for insurance executives and academic researchers interested in risk management and the globalization of insurance markets." Patrick Liedtke, Secretary Ge...

  19. Abnormal global and local event detection in compressive sensing domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal event detection, also known as anomaly detection, is one challenging task in security video surveillance. It is important to develop effective and robust movement representation models for global and local abnormal event detection to fight against factors such as occlusion and illumination change. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed. It can locate the abnormal events on one frame, and detect the global abnormal frame. The proposed algorithm employs a sparse measurement matrix designed to represent the movement feature based on optical flow efficiently. Then, the abnormal detection mission is constructed as a one-class classification task via merely learning from the training normal samples. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm performs well on the benchmark abnormal detection datasets against state-of-the-art methods.

  20. The Global and Local Characters of Mars Perihelion Cloud Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Cantor, B. A.; Spiga, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the seasonal and spatial distribution of Mars perihelion cloud trails as mapped from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) MARCI (Mars Color Imager) imaging observations in 2 ultraviolet and 3 visible filters. The extended 2007-2013 period of MARCI daily global image maps reveals the widespread distribution of these high altitude clouds, which are somewhat paradoxically associated with specific surface regions. They appear as longitudinally extended (300-700 km) cloud trails with distinct leading plumes of substantial ice cloud optical depths (0.02-0.2) for such high altitudes of occurrence (40-50 km, from cloud surface shadow measurements). These plumes generate small ice particles (Reff~1 to reflect locally elevated mesospheric water ice formation that may impact the global expression of mesospheric water ice aerosols.

  1. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  2. Local communities obstruct global consensus: Naming game on multi-local-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Fan, Zhengping; Xiang, Luna

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is essential for social communications, where individuals belonging to the same community are much more actively interacting and communicating with each other than those in different communities within the human society. Naming game, on the other hand, is a social communication model that simulates the process of learning a name of an object within a community of humans, where the individuals can generally reach global consensus asymptotically through iterative pair-wise conversations. The underlying network indicates the relationships among the individuals. In this paper, three typical topologies, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed, which are embedded with the multi-local-world community structure, to study the naming game. Simulations show that (1) the convergence process to global consensus is getting slower as the community structure becomes more prominent, and eventually might fail; (2) if the inter-community connections are sufficiently dense, neither the number nor the size of the communities affects the convergence process; and (3) for different topologies with the same (or similar) average node-degree, local clustering of individuals obstruct or prohibit global consensus to take place. The results reveal the role of local communities in a global naming game in social network studies.

  3. Correlation Dimension Estimates of Global and Local Temperature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang

    1995-11-01

    The author has attempted to detect the presence of low-dimensional deterministic chaos in temperature data by estimating the correlation dimension with the Hill estimate that has been recently developed by Mikosch and Wang. There is no convincing evidence of low dimensionality with either global dataset (Southern Hemisphere monthly average temperatures from 1858 to 1984) or local temperature dataset (daily minimums at Auckland, New Zealand). Any apparent reduction in the dimension estimates appears to be due large1y, if not entirely, to effects of statistical bias, but neither is it a purely random stochastic process. The dimension of the climatic attractor may be significantly larger than 10.

  4. A geometrical description of local and global anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catenacci, R.; Pirola, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    The general topological framework for testing the possible occurrence of anomalies in gauge theories can be constructed in terms of the theory of group actions on line bundles through the introduction of a suitable group cohomology. In this Letter, we generalize this construction in such a way that it can be applied to a larger class of theories, allowing for a noncontractible configuration space and a nonconnected 'gauge' group. This construction find applications to the problem of the lifts of principal group actions. As a physical application, we compare the mechanisms of the anomalies cancelation in gauge and string theories, through a geometrical splitting of local and global anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Global efficiency of local immunization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics occur in all shapes and forms: infections propagating in our sparse sexual networks, rumours and diseases spreading through our much denser social interactions, or viruses circulating on the Internet. With the advent of large databases and efficient analysis algorithms, these processes can be better predicted and controlled. In this study, we use different characteristics of network organization to identify the influential spreaders in 17 empirical networks of diverse nature using 2 epidemic models. We find that a judicious choice of local measures, based either on the network's connectivity at a microscopic scale or on its community structure at a mesoscopic scale, compares favorably to global measures, such as betweenness centrality, in terms of efficiency, practicality and robustness. We also develop an analytical framework that highlights a transition in the characteristic scale of different epidemic regimes. This allows to decide which local measure should govern immunization in a given scenario.

  6. Global efficiency of local immunization on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J.

    2013-07-01

    Epidemics occur in all shapes and forms: infections propagating in our sparse sexual networks, rumours and diseases spreading through our much denser social interactions, or viruses circulating on the Internet. With the advent of large databases and efficient analysis algorithms, these processes can be better predicted and controlled. In this study, we use different characteristics of network organization to identify the influential spreaders in 17 empirical networks of diverse nature using 2 epidemic models. We find that a judicious choice of local measures, based either on the network's connectivity at a microscopic scale or on its community structure at a mesoscopic scale, compares favorably to global measures, such as betweenness centrality, in terms of efficiency, practicality and robustness. We also develop an analytical framework that highlights a transition in the characteristic scale of different epidemic regimes. This allows to decide which local measure should govern immunization in a given scenario.

  7. Integrating Globality and Locality for Robust Representation Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation based classification method (RBCM has shown huge potential for face recognition since it first emerged. Linear regression classification (LRC method and collaborative representation classification (CRC method are two well-known RBCMs. LRC and CRC exploit training samples of each class and all the training samples to represent the testing sample, respectively, and subsequently conduct classification on the basis of the representation residual. LRC method can be viewed as a “locality representation” method because it just uses the training samples of each class to represent the testing sample and it cannot embody the effectiveness of the “globality representation.” On the contrary, it seems that CRC method cannot own the benefit of locality of the general RBCM. Thus we propose to integrate CRC and LRC to perform more robust representation based classification. The experimental results on benchmark face databases substantially demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high classification accuracy.

  8. Think globally, act locally? Local climate change and energy policies in Sweden and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, U.; Loefstedt, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    While climate change is obviously a global environmental problem, there is nevertheless potential for policy initiatives at the local level. Although the competences of local authorities vary between countries, they all have some responsibilities in the crucial areas of energy and transport policy. This paper examines local competences in Sweden and the UK and looks at the responses to the climate change issue by six local authorities, focussing on energy related developments. The points of departure are very different in the two countries. Swedish local authorities are much more independent than UK ones, especially through the ownership of local energy companies. Yet, UK local authorities are relatively active in the climate change domain, at least in terms of drawing up response strategies, which they see as an opportunity for reasserting their role, after a long period of erosion of their powers. Furthermore, there is more scope for action in the UK, as in Sweden many potential measures, especially in the energy efficiency field, have already been taken. However, in both countries climate change is only a relatively marginal area of local environmental policy making and the political will, as well as the financial resources, for more radical measures are often absent. (Author)

  9. The factor of local cultural specificity and process of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, Viacheslav

    2012-12-01

    Cultural polymorphism is a difficult phenomenon, which has multiform influence on the society's life. The active interest of society to local folk knowledge in life-support activities and Nature using is one of the distinctive marks of modern time. This interest has fallen on the period of active transformations of environment as a result of industrial society's pressing on Nature, and the generating of new approaches in the studying of Nature and human activity based on the "technologies" of wild life. The success of humankind in creating artificial surroundings has led to both great success in improving the quality of peoples' lives, and also to problems with renewable resources and human health and to changing for the worse ecology. In 1992 the Unites Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) set fixed standards defining global violations of the environment. The zAgenda 21', adopted at this Conference, focused on the necessity of new solutions for problems of the relationships between Nature and Society, mentioning interdisciplinary research as a positive way to search for solutions to new problems, and citing as a goal a zbalance of Nature, Society and Humans'. Pre-industrial society had a different experience in using Nature and solving problems of life-support activity under a regime of sparing nature. Experience has shown that Folk knowledge and Folk technology can, in a number of instances, actually assist in solving high level problems caused by human impact on the environment, e.g., farming methods, and, as a result offering possibilities for a more sound and at the same time effective basis for long-term sustainable production at the local level. The traditional cultures of Eurasia were engaged in agricultural pursuits and had acquired unique experiences in maintaining soil fertility and a technology which limited the impact they were having on the environment. The value of Folk heritage in exploiting the environment

  10. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  11. Globally and locally supersymmetric effective theories for light fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizi, Leonardo; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Scrucca, Claudio A.

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the general question of how to characterize most efficiently the low-energy effective theory obtained by integrating out heavy modes in globally and locally supersymmetric theories. We consider theories with chiral and vector multiplets and identify the conditions under which an approximately supersymmetric low-energy effective theory can exist. These conditions translate into the requirements that all the derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields should be small in units of the heavy mass scale. They apply not only to the matter sector, but also to the gravitational one if present, and imply in that case that the gravitino mass should be small. We then show how to determine the unique exactly supersymmetric theory that approximates this effective theory at the lowest order in the counting of derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields, by working both at the superfield level and with component fields. As a result we give a simple prescription for integrating out heavy superfields in an algebraic and manifestly supersymmetric way, which turns out to hold in the same form both for globally and locally supersymmetric theories, meaning that the process of integrating out heavy modes commutes with the process of switching on gravity. More precisely, for heavy chiral and vector multiplets one has to impose respectively stationarity of the superpotential and the Kaehler potential.

  12. Local and global limits on visual processing in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S Tibber

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has been linked to impaired performance on a range of visual processing tasks (e.g. detection of coherent motion and contour detection. It has been proposed that this is due to a general inability to integrate visual information at a global level. To test this theory, we assessed the performance of people with schizophrenia on a battery of tasks designed to probe voluntary averaging in different visual domains. Twenty-three outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age: 40±8 years; 3 female and 20 age-matched control participants (mean age 39±9 years; 3 female performed a motion coherence task and three equivalent noise (averaging tasks, the latter allowing independent quantification of local and global limits on visual processing of motion, orientation and size. All performance measures were indistinguishable between the two groups (ps>0.05, one-way ANCOVAs, with one exception: participants with schizophrenia pooled fewer estimates of local orientation than controls when estimating average orientation (p = 0.01, one-way ANCOVA. These data do not support the notion of a generalised visual integration deficit in schizophrenia. Instead, they suggest that distinct visual dimensions are differentially affected in schizophrenia, with a specific impairment in the integration of visual orientation information.

  13. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  14. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  15. Global versus local mechanisms of temperature sensing in ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Minor, Daniel L

    2018-05-01

    Ion channels turn diverse types of inputs, ranging from neurotransmitters to physical forces, into electrical signals. Channel responses to ligands generally rely on binding to discrete sensor domains that are coupled to the portion of the channel responsible for ion permeation. By contrast, sensing physical cues such as voltage, pressure, and temperature arises from more varied mechanisms. Voltage is commonly sensed by a local, domain-based strategy, whereas the predominant paradigm for pressure sensing employs a global response in channel structure to membrane tension changes. Temperature sensing has been the most challenging response to understand and whether discrete sensor domains exist for pressure and temperature has been the subject of much investigation and debate. Recent exciting advances have uncovered discrete sensor modules for pressure and temperature in force-sensitive and thermal-sensitive ion channels, respectively. In particular, characterization of bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel (BacNa V ) thermal responses has identified a coiled-coil thermosensor that controls channel function through a temperature-dependent unfolding event. This coiled-coil thermosensor blueprint recurs in other temperature sensitive ion channels and thermosensitive proteins. Together with the identification of ion channel pressure sensing domains, these examples demonstrate that "local" domain-based solutions for sensing force and temperature exist and highlight the diversity of both global and local strategies that channels use to sense physical inputs. The modular nature of these newly discovered physical signal sensors provides opportunities to engineer novel pressure-sensitive and thermosensitive proteins and raises new questions about how such modular sensors may have evolved and empowered ion channel pores with new sensibilities.

  16. Localization/Globalization and the Midwife State: Strategic Dilemmas for State Feminism in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Jill

    1999-01-01

    Explores implications of the globalization/localization process for state feminism, focusing on Australia. Localization is one response to globalization, exemplified by devolution to self-managing schools. However, global/local relations have gendered effects that resonate cross-nationally. Problems will emerge as the state withdraws from its…

  17. Global approaches and local strategies for phase unwrapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerriero, L.; Refice, A.; Stramaglia, S.; Chiaradia, M. T.; Satalino, G.; Veneziani, N.; Blonda, P.; Pasquariello, G.

    2001-01-01

    Phase unwrapping, i.e. the retrieval of absolute phases from wrapped, noisy measures, is a tough problem because of the presence of rotational inconsistencies (residues), randomly generated by noise and undersampling on the principal phase gradient field. These inconsistencies prevent the recovery of the absolute phase field by direct integration of the wrapped gradients. In this paper it is examined the relative merit of known global approaches and then it is presented evidence that the approach based on stochastic annealing can recover the true phase field also in noisy areas with severe undersampling, where other methods fail. Then, some experiments with local approaches are presented. A fast neural filter has been trained to eliminate close residue couples by joining them in a way which takes into account the local phase information. Performances are about 60-70% of the residues. Finally, other experiments have been aimed at designing an automated method for the determination of weight matrices to use in conjunction with local phase unwrapping algorithms. The method, tested with the minimum cost flow algorithm, gives good performances over both simulated and real data

  18. Local to global: a collaborative approach to volcanic risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Eliza; Loughlin, Sue; Barsotti, Sara; Bonadonna, Costanza; Jenkins, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    -economic conditions tending to influence longer term well-being and recovery. The volcanological community includes almost 100 Volcano Observatories worldwide, the official institutions responsible for monitoring volcanoes. They may be dedicated institutions, or operate from national institutions (geological surveys, universities, met agencies). They have a key role in early warning, forecasting and long term hazard assessment (often in the form of volcanic hazards maps). The complexity of volcanic systems means that once unrest begins there are multiple potential eruptive outcomes and short term forecasts can change rapidly. This local knowledge of individual volcanoes underpins hazard and risk assessments developed at national, regional and global scales. Combining this local expertise with the knowledge of the international research community (including interdisciplinary perspectives) creates a powerful partnership. A collaborative approach is therefore needed to develop effective volcanic risk assessments at regional to global scale. The World Organisation of Volcano Observatories is a Commission of IAVCEI, alongside other Commissions such as 'Hazard and Risk' (with an active working group on volcanic hazards maps) and the 'Cities and Volcanoes' Commission. The Global Volcano Model network is a collaborative initiative developing hazards and risk information at national to global scales, underpinned by local expertise. Partners include IAVCEI, Smithsonian Institution, International Volcanic Health Hazard Network, VHub and other initiatives and institutions.

  19. Optimal stride frequencies in running at different speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeveren, Ben T.; De Ruiter, Cornelis J.; Beek, Peter J.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    During running at a constant speed, the optimal stride frequency (SF) can be derived from the u-shaped relationship between SF and heart rate (HR). Changing SF towards the optimum of this relationship is beneficial for energy expenditure and may positively change biomechanics of running. In the

  20. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Marmelat

    Full Text Available Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  1. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  2. Global-local optimization of flapping kinematics in hovering flight

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Hajj, M. R.; Mook, Dean T.; Stanford, Bret K.; Bé ran, Philip S.; Watson, Layne T.

    2013-01-01

    The kinematics of a hovering wing are optimized by combining the 2-d unsteady vortex lattice method with a hybrid of global and local optimization algorithms. The objective is to minimize the required aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. The hybrid optimization is used to efficiently navigate the complex design space due to wing-wake interference present in hovering aerodynamics. The flapping wing is chosen so that its chord length and flapping frequency match the morphological and flight properties of two insects with different masses. The results suggest that imposing a delay between the different oscillatory motions defining the flapping kinematics, and controlling the way through which the wing rotates at the end of each half stroke can improve aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. Furthermore, our optimization analysis identified optimal kinematics that agree fairly well with observed insect kinematics, as well as previously published numerical results.

  3. Global-local optimization of flapping kinematics in hovering flight

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    The kinematics of a hovering wing are optimized by combining the 2-d unsteady vortex lattice method with a hybrid of global and local optimization algorithms. The objective is to minimize the required aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. The hybrid optimization is used to efficiently navigate the complex design space due to wing-wake interference present in hovering aerodynamics. The flapping wing is chosen so that its chord length and flapping frequency match the morphological and flight properties of two insects with different masses. The results suggest that imposing a delay between the different oscillatory motions defining the flapping kinematics, and controlling the way through which the wing rotates at the end of each half stroke can improve aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. Furthermore, our optimization analysis identified optimal kinematics that agree fairly well with observed insect kinematics, as well as previously published numerical results.

  4. Globally and locally supersymmetric effective theories for light fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brizi, Leonardo; Scrucca, Claudio A

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the general question of how to characterize most efficiently the low-energy effective theory obtained by integrating out heavy modes in globally and locally supersymmetric theories. We consider theories with chiral and vector multiplets and identify the conditions under which an approximately supersymmetric low-energy effective theory can exist. These conditions translate into the requirements that all the derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields should be small in units of the heavy mass scale. They apply not only to the matter sector, but also to the gravitational one if present, and imply in that case that the gravitino mass should be small. We then show how to determine the unique exactly supersymmetric theory that approximates this effective theory at the lowest order in the counting of derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields, by working both at the superfield level and with component fields. As a result we give a simple prescription for integrating out heavy superfields in an algebrai...

  5. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  6. Magnetic Island Growth A comparison of local and global effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.S.; Gardner, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In stellarators a hot plasma is confined to a torus by a magnetic field with both toroidal and poloidal components generated by external currents. Plasma currents develop to balance the pressure gradient with a J x B force which in turn change the shape of confining magnetic field. Self-consistent equilibrium magnetic fields and plasma currents for some H-1NF configurations were calculated using the HINT code. This code relaxes a simplified set of resistive MHD equations on a coordinate grid until an equilibrium is reached [1]. Islands can occur in the equilibrium magnetic field, surrounding field lines with low-order rational rotational transform. The island widths are influenced by four types of currents. External currents determine the vacuum island widths. Global resonant and non-resonant currents increase linearly with plasma pressure and can act in or out of phase to the external currents. Local resonant currents are caused by the presence of an island and reinforce or counteract the island depending on the field strength gradient [2]. We compare the impact of local resonant and global non-resonant currents by comparing the results of HINT for several related configurations of H-1NF. Two configurations with slightly different rotational transforms (but otherwise very similar parameters) will have very different resonant plasma currents but nearly identical non-resonant plasma currents. Comparing the effect of the currents of the two configurations on island width gives an insight into the different contributions of resonant and non-resonant plasma currents to island growth or self-healing

  7. Ciudad, metrópoli y mundo global/local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana, Francisco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic changes of the 70s, in part to do with the ending of the 'fordist model', decisively affected the structure of cities, especially those which had been significant industrial centers. In the case of Barcelona, the response of institutions and private capital was, through a series of Strategic Plans, to redevelop the city both territorially and economically so as to bring it into the web of global investment capitalism. The approach adopted - the so-called 'Barcelona model' , or 'the model of city as company' - involved (in spite of resistance by residents and by 'okupa' squats re-working the city on the criterion of profit, or financial advantage. The result has been the transformation of Barcelona into a metropolitan space which is both specialized and multi-centered, and wholly integrated into the ebb and flow of multinational capital. Nevertheless, after all the plundering and pillaging, what is clear is that the powers that be have failed in their bid to turn Barcelona into a top-rank global (and local city, the capital of a new southern European macro-region.

  8. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  9. Quality Indicators for Global Benchmarking of Localized Prostate Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampurno, Fanny; Zheng, Jia; Di Stefano, Lydia; Millar, Jeremy L; Foster, Claire; Fuedea, Ferran; Higano, Celestia; Hulan, Hartwig; Mark, Stephen; Moore, Caroline; Richardson, Alison; Sullivan, Frank; Wenger, Neil S; Wittmann, Daniela; Evans, Sue

    2018-03-01

    We sought to develop a core set of clinical indicators to enable international benchmarking of localized prostate cancer management using data available in the TrueNTH (True North) Global Registry. An international expert panel completed an online survey and participated in a face to face meeting. Participants included 3 urologists, 3 radiation oncologists, 2 psychologists, 1 medical oncologist, 1 nurse and 1 epidemiologist with prostate cancer expertise from a total of 7 countries. Current guidelines on prostate cancer treatment and potential quality indicators were identified from a literature review. These potential indicators were refined and developed through a modified Delphi process during which each panelist independently and repeatedly rated each indicator based on importance (satisfying the indicator demonstrated a provision of high quality care) and feasibility (the likelihood that data used to construct the indicator could be collected at a population level). The main outcome measure was items with panel agreement indicted by a disagreement index less 1, median importance 8.5 or greater and median feasibility 9 or greater. The expert panel endorsed 33 indicators. Seven of these 33 prostate cancer quality indicators assessed care relating to diagnosis, 7 assessed primary treatment, 1 assessed salvage treatment and 18 assessed health outcomes. We developed a set of quality indicators to measure prostate cancer care using numerous international evidence-based clinical guidelines. These indicators will be pilot tested in the TrueNTH Global Registry. Reports comparing indicator performance will subsequently be distributed to groups at participating sites with the purpose of improving the consistency and quality of prostate cancer management on a global basis. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extra Facial Landmark Localization via Global Shape Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizing facial landmarks is a popular topic in the field of face analysis. However, problems arose in practical applications such as handling pose variations and partial occlusions while maintaining moderate training model size and computational efficiency still challenges current solutions. In this paper, we present a global shape reconstruction method for locating extra facial landmarks comparing to facial landmarks used in the training phase. In the proposed method, the reduced configuration of facial landmarks is first decomposed into corresponding sparse coefficients. Then explicit face shape correlations are exploited to regress between sparse coefficients of different facial landmark configurations. Finally extra facial landmarks are reconstructed by combining the pretrained shape dictionary and the approximation of sparse coefficients. By applying the proposed method, both the training time and the model size of a class of methods which stack local evidences as an appearance descriptor can be scaled down with only a minor compromise in detection accuracy. Extensive experiments prove that the proposed method is feasible and is able to reconstruct extra facial landmarks even under very asymmetrical face poses.

  11. Local and global perspectives on the virtual water trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tamea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on fluxes of virtual water are showing how the global food and goods trade interconnects the water resources of different and distant countries, conditioning the local water balances. This paper presents and discusses the assessment of virtual water fluxes between a single country and its network of trading partners, delineating a country's virtual water budget in space and time (years 1986–2010. The fluxes between the country under study and its importing/exporting partners are visualized with a geographical representation shaping the trade network as a virtual river/delta. Time variations of exchanged fluxes are quantified to show possible trends in the virtual water balance, while characterizing the time evolution of the trade network and its composition in terms of product categories (plant-based, animal-based, luxury food, and non-edible. The average distance traveled by virtual water to arrive to the place of consumption is also introduced as a new measure for the analysis of globalization of the virtual water trade. Using Italy as an example, we find that food trade has a steadily growing importance compared to domestic production, with a major component represented by plant-based products, and luxury products taking an increasingly larger share (26% in 2010. In 2010 Italy had an average net import of 55 km3 of virtual water (38 km3 in 1986, a value which poses the country among the top net importers in the world. On average each cubic meter of virtual water travels nearly 4000 km before entering Italy, while export goes to relatively closer countries (average distance: 2600 km, with increasing trends in time which are almost unique among the world countries. Analyses proposed for Italy are replicated for 10 other world countries, triggering similar investigations on different socio-economic actualities.

  12. Local and global perspectives on the virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Allamano, P.; Carr, J. A.; Claps, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies on fluxes of virtual water are showing how the global food and goods trade interconnects the water resources of different and distant countries, conditioning the local water balances. This paper presents and discusses the assessment of virtual water fluxes between a single country and its network of trading partners, delineating a country's virtual water budget in space and time (years 1986-2010). The fluxes between the country under study and its importing/exporting partners are visualized with a geographical representation shaping the trade network as a virtual river/delta. Time variations of exchanged fluxes are quantified to show possible trends in the virtual water balance, while characterizing the time evolution of the trade network and its composition in terms of product categories (plant-based, animal-based, luxury food, and non-edible). The average distance traveled by virtual water to arrive to the place of consumption is also introduced as a new measure for the analysis of globalization of the virtual water trade. Using Italy as an example, we find that food trade has a steadily growing importance compared to domestic production, with a major component represented by plant-based products, and luxury products taking an increasingly larger share (26% in 2010). In 2010 Italy had an average net import of 55 km3 of virtual water (38 km3 in 1986), a value which poses the country among the top net importers in the world. On average each cubic meter of virtual water travels nearly 4000 km before entering Italy, while export goes to relatively closer countries (average distance: 2600 km), with increasing trends in time which are almost unique among the world countries. Analyses proposed for Italy are replicated for 10 other world countries, triggering similar investigations on different socio-economic actualities.

  13. "Glocalization": Going beyond the Dichotomy of Global versus Local through Additive Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Michael; Ramani, Esther

    2012-01-01

    This article interrogates the notion of "glocalization" (Moja, 2004, based on Castells, 2001) as a concept that seeks to integrate the local and the global to address both the need for social justice and the need to participate in a global market economy. The article argues that the relation between the global and the local cannot be…

  14. Gender differences in global-local perception? Evidence from orientation and shape judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Amishav, Rama; Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Direct examinations of gender differences in global-local processing are sparse, and the results are inconsistent. We examined this issue with a visuospatial judgment task and with a shape judgment task. Women and men were presented with hierarchical stimuli that varied in closure (open or closed shape) or in line orientation (oblique or horizontal/vertical) at the global or local level. The task was to classify the stimuli on the basis of the variation at the global level (global classification) or at the local level (local classification). Women's classification by closure (global or local) was more accurate than men's for stimuli that varied in closure on both levels, suggesting a female advantage in discriminating shape properties. No gender differences were observed in global-local processing bias. Women and men exhibited a global advantage, and they did not differ in their speed of global or local classification, with only one exception. Women were slower than men in local classification by orientation when the to-be-classified lines were embedded in a global line with a different orientation. This finding suggests that women are more distracted than men by misleading global oriented context when performing local orientation judgments, perhaps because women and men differ in their ability to use cognitive schemes to compensate for the distracting effects of the global context. Our findings further suggest that whether or not gender differences arise depends not only on the nature of the visual task but also on the visual context.

  15. Optimal stride frequencies in running at different speeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben T van Oeveren

    Full Text Available During running at a constant speed, the optimal stride frequency (SF can be derived from the u-shaped relationship between SF and heart rate (HR. Changing SF towards the optimum of this relationship is beneficial for energy expenditure and may positively change biomechanics of running. In the current study, the effects of speed on the optimal SF and the nature of the u-shaped relation were empirically tested using Generalized Estimating Equations. To this end, HR was recorded from twelve healthy (4 males, 8 females inexperienced runners, who completed runs at three speeds. The three speeds were 90%, 100% and 110% of self-selected speed. A self-selected SF (SFself was determined for each of the speeds prior to the speed series. The speed series started with a free-chosen SF condition, followed by five imposed SF conditions (SFself, 70, 80, 90, 100 strides·min-1 assigned in random order. The conditions lasted 3 minutes with 2.5 minutes of walking in between. SFself increased significantly (p<0.05 with speed with averages of 77, 79, 80 strides·min-1 at 2.4, 2.6, 2.9 m·s-1, respectively. As expected, the relation between SF and HR could be described by a parabolic curve for all speeds. Speed did not significantly affect the curvature, nor did it affect optimal SF. We conclude that over the speed range tested, inexperienced runners may not need to adapt their SF to running speed. However, since SFself were lower than the SFopt of 83 strides·min-1, the runners could reduce HR by increasing their SFself.

  16. African states and global challenges in democratic local governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the meantime, the continent of Europe is perceived in the study as having possibly taken local government to a model level of local self-governance, through its European Charter of Local Self-Government. Europe is thus, seen in this study as a region conceivably in the lead in situating the local government, within its ...

  17. Indian Handicrafts in Globalization Times: An analysis of Global-Local Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Jena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization – which refers to the growing integration of societies, economies and cultures around the world, has become one of the most hotly-debated topics and key area of research among the policy makers, statesmen, corporate, politicians and academia respectively over the past few years. As India opens up her doors to the multinationals during the era of economic reform and liberalized market, putting an end to the ‘license raj’, it is not only the economies that often meet in the global market sphere, but also the people and cultures, which bring a new dimension to the multi-cultural setting. What we can see in present day modern world is that there is always a cross-cultural interaction between the ‘local’ and ‘global’ and the much discussed ‘global village’, is now not just a possibility but a reality despite many contradictions. Talking about Indian Handicrafts, which constitutes a significant segment of the decentralized sector of the economy, its export has reached at a commendable height. Indian folk art and crafts which are the integral parts of the Indian culture and tradition, are in high demand among the western consumers. Again, foreign fashion industry borrows a great deal from Indian appliquéd motifs Saree designs, an ethnic Indian wear. Needless to say, the borders between the world cultures are now eroding out and becoming irrelevant, therefore prompting to call it as a deterritorialized world.But notwithstanding, the real concern for many of us is that, can the ‘local’ really meet with the ‘global’ by truly sustaining its localness? The biggest problem in the Indian Handicraft industry is that the village craftsmen remain concerned that with free trade and mass production, hand-made products from other parts of the world will out price the products of their hard labour. So the basic question arises, is globalization a panacea for every human problems that the mother earth is facing now? With a

  18. Local Crisis of Global Brand And Monitoring of Use of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Borba Salvador

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of globalization of products and brands, changes in control of information generation and increased visibility of brand crises, becomes more relevant for marketing managers to assess the possibility of the negative effects of a local crisis of a global brand spillover to different markets. This article has as its aim to investigate the visibility of a local crisis of a global brand in other markets. The method used was contend analyses applied to a database of Twitter posts. The result of the study suggests the confirmation of the existence global repercussion in other markets of a local crisis of a global brand. 

  19. On the Efficiency of Local and Global Communication in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Støy, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    use parameters to describe the topology of modular robots, develop a probabilistic model of local communication using these parameters and, using a model of global communication from literature, compare the transmission times of local and global communication in different robots. Based on our results......As exchange of information is essential to modular robots, deciding between local or global communication is a common design choice. This choice, however, still lacks theoretical support. In this paper we analyse the efficiency of local and global communication in modular robots. To this end, we...

  20. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Hall, Kevin D; McPherson, Klim; Finegood, Diane T; Moodie, Marjory L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-08-27

    The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption-based growth. The global food system drivers interact with local environmental factors to create a wide variation in obesity prevalence between populations. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals. However, even with this individual variation, the epidemic has predictable patterns in subpopulations. In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries, and infectious diseases, there are no exemplar populations in which the obesity epidemic has been reversed by public health measures. This absence increases the urgency for evidence-creating policy action, with a priority on reduction of the supply-side drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Efficiency of Local and Global Communication in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Støy, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    , we conclude that global communication is convenient for centralized control approaches and local communication is convenient for distributed control approaches. In addition, we conclude that global is in general convenient for low-connectivity configurations, such as chains, trees or limbs......As exchange of information is essential to modular robots, deciding between local or global communication is a common design choice. This choice, however, still lacks theoretical support. In this paper we analyse the efficiency of local and global communication in modular robots. To this end, we...... use parameters to describe the topology of modular robots, develop a probabilistic model of local communication using these parameters and, using a model of global communication from literature, compare the transmission times of local and global communication in different robots. Based on our results...

  2. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  3. When global environmentalism meets local livelihoods: policy and management lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2009-01-01

    Creation of national parks often imposes immediate livelihood costs on local people, and tensions between park managers and local people are common. Park managers have tried different approaches to managing relationships with local people, but nearly all include efforts to promote environmental values and behaviors. These efforts have had uneven results, and there is a...

  4. Deformation theory and local-global compatibility of Langlands correspondences

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The deformation theory of automorphic representations is used to study local properties of Galois representations associated to automorphic representations of general linear groups and symplectic groups. In some cases this allows to identify the local Galois representations with representations predicted by a local Langlands correspondence.

  5. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    2008-01-01

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  6. A local-global problem for linear differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Reversat, Marc

    An inhomogeneous linear differential equation Ly = f over a global differential field can have a formal solution for each place without having a global solution. The vector space lgl(L) measures this phenomenon. This space is interpreted in terms of cohomology of linear algebraic groups and is

  7. Globalizing Education, Educating the Local: How Method Made Us Mad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a critical and deconstructive account of global discourses on education, arguing that these overblown "hypernarratives" are neither economically, technically nor philosophically defensible. Nor even sane. Their "mythic economic instrumentalism" mimic rather than meet the economic needs of global capitalism in…

  8. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  9. Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Sandborn, W; Sands, B E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STRIDE) program was initiated by the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD). It examined potential treatment targets for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to be used for a "treat-t...... target. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for selecting the goals for treat-to-target strategies in patients with IBD are made available. Prospective studies are needed to determine how these targets will change disease course and patients' quality of life....

  10. Global/local methods research using a common structural analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Thompson, Danniella M.

    1991-01-01

    Methodologies for global/local stress analysis are described including both two- and three-dimensional analysis methods. These methods are being developed within a common structural analysis framework. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local methodologies being developed.

  11. ECG Identification System Using Neural Network with Global and Local Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lee, Dachao; Chen, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a human identification system via extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Two hierarchical classification structures based on global shape feature and local statistical feature is used to extract ECG signals. Global shape feature represents the outline information of ECG signals and local statistical feature extracts the…

  12. Age-Related Change in Shifting Attention between Global and Local Levels of Hierarchical Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Mariette; Burack, Jacob A.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was the developmental pattern of the ability to shift attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. Children aged 7 years and 11 years and 21-year-old adults were administered a task (two experiments) that allowed for the examination of 1) the direction of attention to global or local stimulus levels;…

  13. Global and local consistencies in distributed fault diagnosis for discrete-event systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, R.; Wonham, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework for distributed diagnosis. We first introduce the concepts of global and local consistency in terms of supremal global and local supports, then present two distributed diagnosis problems based on them. After that, we provide algorithms to achieve

  14. Theory and Algorithms for Global/Local Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haftka, Raphael T

    2004-01-01

    ... the component and overall design as well as on exploration of global optimization algorithms. In the former category, heuristic decomposition was followed with proof that it solves the original problem...

  15. Sustainable Cities: Local Solutions in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-06

    Apr 6, 2012 ... ... on sustainable natural resource management and urban issues in Asia, West Africa and Southern Africa. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation ... New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South.

  16. From Local to Global Dilemmas in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Fl?vio L.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Santos, Francisco C.

    2012-01-01

    Social networks affect in such a fundamental way the dynamics of the population they support that the global, population-wide behavior that one observes often bears no relation to the individual processes it stems from. Up to now, linking the global networked dynamics to such individual mechanisms has remained elusive. Here we study the evolution of cooperation in networked populations and let individuals interact via a 2-person Prisoner's Dilemma ? a characteristic defection dominant social ...

  17. "Global Human Resource Development" and Japanese University Education: "Localism" in Actor Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Aya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the actions of various actors involved in "global human resource development" and to clarify whether discussions on global human resources are based on local perspectives. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) after the year 2000 began, industry started discussions on global human resources in…

  18. Bringing the Global Home: Students Research Local Areas through Postcolonial Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ricarda

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a class that draws on postcolonial insights to create a global sociological imagination. Postcolonial approaches can make visible how global connections have shaped our local environments even if these relations are not always immediately visible. Specifically, students in this class highlight how global relations, such as…

  19. DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESS OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL BRANDS IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of global and local brands in Latin America by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how product category characteristics affect the success of global and local brands in the region. Hypotheses are tested using data obtained from top brands rankings reported in five Latin American markets (Argentina, Brazil, the Caribbean and Central America, Chile and Mexico. The study design considers estimating a logistic regression on a binomial dependent variable measuring whether 475 top brands are global or local brands, with product category characteristics as independent variables. Results reveal that product categories related to subscriptions, local tastes, high-tech, and global citizenship do have an impact on the success of global and local brands in Latin America.

  20. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  1. Structural Health Monitoring Based on Combined Structural Global and Local Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parameter estimation method for Structural Health Monitoring based on the combined measured structural global frequencies and structural local frequencies. First, the global test is experimented to obtain the low order modes which can reflect the global information of the structure. Secondly, the mass is added on the member of structure to increase the local dynamic characteristic and to make the member have local primary frequency, which belongs to structural local frequency and is sensitive to local parameters. Then the parameters of the structure can be optimized accurately using the combined structural global frequencies and structural local frequencies. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are verified by the experiment of a space truss.

  2. Think Globally, Act Locally -- Global Maritime Partnership Initiative and the Necessity for Cooperation and Coalition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reller, Jason S

    2008-01-01

    ... to "police the global commons and suppress common threats." The Global Maritime Partnership Initiative, or GMPI, is intended to play a major role in this effort as one embodiment of the cooperation envisioned...

  3. Book Review: Local Government in a Global World: Australia and Canada in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This book compares reform trends in Australia and Canada’s local government systems over the past two decades, with attention to the impact of globalization on local governments, their bureaucracies, and local democratic accountability. Local governments in Australia and Canada show striking resemblances in relation to history, development, and contemporary issues. This reflects that in both countries, local governments remain an instrument of the states and provinces. The exploration of ...

  4. Effects of global and local contexts on chord processing: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Xuefeng; Chang, Ruohan; Yang, Yufang

    2018-01-31

    In real life, the processing of an incoming event is continuously influenced by prior information at multiple timescales. The present study investigated how harmonic contexts at both local and global levels influence the processing of an incoming chord in an event-related potentials experiment. Chord sequences containing two phrases were presented to musically trained listeners, with the last critical chord either harmonically related or less related to its preceding context at local and/or global levels. ERPs data showed an ERAN-like effect for local context in early time window and a N5-like component for later interaction between the local context and global context. These results suggest that both the local and global contexts influence the processing of an incoming music event, and the local effect happens earlier than the global. Moreover, the interaction between the local context and global context in N5 may suggest that music syntactic integration at local level takes place prior to the integration at global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global and local aspects of causality in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoica Cristinel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics forces us to reconsider certain aspects of classical causality. The ‘central mystery’ of quantum mechanics manifests in different ways, depending on the interpretation. This mystery can be formulated as the possibility of selecting part of the initial conditions of the Universe ‘retroactively’. This talk aims to show that there is a global, timeless, ‘bird’s view’ of the spacetime, which makes this mystery more reasonable. We will review some well-known quantum effects from the perspective of global consistency.

  6. THE HANDBOOK OF BLENDED LEARNING:Global Perspectives, Local Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Alev ATES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available THE HANDBOOK OF BLENDED LEARNING:Global Perspectives, Local Designs Curtis J. Bonk (ed. and Charles R. Graham (ed., Jay Cross (Foreword,Micheal G. Moore Foreword ISBN: 978-0-7879-7758-0 Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pfeiffer Pages: 624 March 2006.Reviewed by Alev ATESPhD Student at Curriculum and Instruction,Lecturer at Computer Education and Instructional Technologies,Faculty of Education, Ege University, Izmir, TURKEYBlended learning or blended e-learning sounds like aconfusing term at first since it is relatively a new term fortoday‘s instructors. However, Moore reports that it can betraced as far back as the 1920s which was called ―supervisedcorrespondence study‖. For clarification of the term ―blendedlearning‖ and informing the instructors about its commonpractices worldwide, the book provides readers a comprehensive resource about blended learning. It aims to raise awareness of adopting BL from institutional perspectives of many chapter authors from Australia, Korea, Malaysia, the UK, Canada and South Africa who are distinguished people mostly in instructional technology era. With this book, I guess the editors aim at both showing the big picture at macro level and present micro level examples which provide details of blended learning applications among their strengths and weaknesses. As introduced in the book, one ofthe editors Curtis J. Bonk, a former corporate controller and CPA, is now professor of educational psychology as well as instructional systems technology at Indiana University; the other editor Charles R. Graham is an assistant professor of instructionalpsychology and technology at Brigham Young University with a focus on technologymediated teaching and learning.The book is of eight parts including 39 chapters besides two forewords. Therefore, theorganization of this review is considered to take a holistic view for each parts while emphasizing the original and/or impressive aspects that chapter authors provided

  7. Migration and Adult Language Learning: Global Flows and Local Transpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne; Roberts, Celia

    2010-01-01

    In the 21st century, global flows politically, socially, economically, and environmentally are creating widespread movements of people around the world and giving rise to increased resettlements of immigrants and refugees internationally. The reality in most countries worldwide is that contemporary populations are multifaceted, multicultural,…

  8. Local Convergence and Global Diversity : The Robustness of Cultural Homophily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cultural diversity is both persistent and precarious. People in different regions of the world are increasingly exposed to global influences from mass media, internet communication, interregional migration and mass tourism. English is rapidly becoming Earth’s Lingua Franca, and Western

  9. Globalization Then and Now: Increasing Scale Reduces Local Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Tainter

    2006-01-01

    One consequence of globalization is that parts of the world that were once remote and minimally influenced by broader political and economic developments now find themselves profoundly affected by forces beyond their comprehension. Communities that were once self-sufficient and resilient come to depend on larger systems, no longer control their own destinies, and...

  10. Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, Ethan E.; Datta, Abhirup; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Chen, Ming; Wythers, Kirk R.; Fazayeli, Farideh; Banerjee, Arindam; Atkin, Owen K.; Kattge, Jens; Amiaud, Bernard; Blonder, Benjamin; Boenisch, Gerhard; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Brown, Kerry A.; Byun, Chaeho; Campetella, Giandiego; Cerabolini, Bruno E.L.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Craine, Joseph M.; Craven, Dylan; Vries, De Franciska T.; Díaz, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F.; Forey, Estelle; González-Melo, Andrés; Gross, Nicolas; Han, Wenxuan; Hattingh, Wesley N.; Hickler, Thomas; Jansen, Steven; Kramer, Koen; Kraft, Nathan J.B.; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Laughlin, Daniel C.; Meir, Patrick; Minden, Vanessa; Niinemets, Ülo; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Read, Quentin; Sack, Lawren; Schamp, Brandon; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; Spasojevic, Marko J.; Sosinski, Enio; Thornton, Peter E.; Valladares, Fernando; Bodegom, Van Peter M.; Williams, Mathew; Wirth, Christian; Reich, Peter B.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been

  11. Persisting Inequalities: Childhood between Global Influences and Local Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler-Niederberger, Doris; Van Kreiken, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the central themes running through the collection of papers in this special issue of Childhood, which were all given as papers at the XVI Durban World Congress of Sociology, 23-29 July 2006. These themes encompass the ways in which global processes of social change combining modernity with tradition have become important for…

  12. Global Crisis: A Local Perspective on the Impacts on Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marjorie Alain

    At the onset of the global financial crisis, there was considerable debate as to ... investment, remittances and aid) of the country and the policies put in place to ... four in Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and the ...

  13. Global-local visual biases correspond with visual-spatial orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michael R; Lowery, Natasha

    2004-02-01

    Within the past decade, numerous investigations have demonstrated reliable associations of global-local visual processing biases with right and left hemisphere function, respectively (cf. Van Kleeck, 1989). Yet the relevance of these biases to other cognitive functions is not well understood. Towards this end, the present research examined the relationship between global-local visual biases and perception of visual-spatial orientation. Twenty-six women and 23 men completed a global-local judgment task (Kimchi and Palmer, 1982) and the Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JLO; Benton, Sivan, Hamsher, Varney, and Spreen, 1994), a measure of visual-spatial orientation. As expected, men had better performance on JLO. Extending previous findings, global biases were related to better visual-spatial acuity on JLO. The findings suggest that global-local biases and visual-spatial orientation may share underlying cerebral mechanisms. Implications of these findings for other visually mediated cognitive outcomes are discussed.

  14. What Is Local or Global about Wine? An Attempt to Objectivize a Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Touzard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What is a “local” food chain as opposed to a “global” chain? Are local food chains more sustainable than global chains? In the context of market globalization and the proliferation of local alternatives, these questions have taken on a new aspect, which has been addressed by the GLAMUR (Global and Local food chain Assessment: a Multidimensional performance-based approach project. Using an analysis of three archetypal wine chains in the south of France, and considering food chains as embedded social constructions, we will first attempt to objectivize which aspects of wine are local, and which are global, using a multidimensional analytical approach. As local vs. global characteristics seem to be strategic assets or constraints, and not structural components, we will then outline an evaluative approach to wine chain sustainability by valuing qualitative indicators to be scored and benchmarked by experts. We will discuss our findings from a scientific and operational perspective by highlighting how a local vs. global approach produces new sustainability issues and practical solutions. Nevertheless, as concrete chains often mix global and local characteristics, further research must be done in order to assess how this combination may be sustainable for different types of actors, depending on their values, capacities, networks and constraints.

  15. Electron transport in radiotherapy using local-to-global Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svatos, M.M.; Chandler, W.P.; Siantar, C.L.H.; Rathkopf, J.A.; Ballinger, C.T.

    1994-09-01

    Local-to-Global (L-G) Monte Carlo methods are a way to make three-dimensional electron transport both fast and accurate relative to other Monte Carlo methods. This is achieved by breaking the simulation into two stages: a local calculation done over small geometries having the size and shape of the ''steps'' to be taken through the mesh; and a global calculation which relies on a stepping code that samples the stored results of the local calculation. The increase in speed results from taking fewer steps in the global calculation than required by ordinary Monte Carlo codes and by speeding up the calculation per step. The potential for accuracy comes from the ability to use long runs of detailed codes to compile probability distribution functions (PDFs) in the local calculation. Specific examples of successful Local-to-Global algorithms are given

  16. The ecology of dust: local- to global-scale perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UA; Belnap, Jayne [NON LANL; Breshears, David D [UA; Neff, Jason [CU; Okin, Gregory S [UCLA; Painter, Thomas H [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Ravi, Sujith [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Reheis, Marith C [UCLA; Reynolds, Richard L [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Emission and redistribution of dust due to wind erosion in drylands drives major biogeochemical dynamics and provides important aeolian environmental connectivity at scales from individual plants up to the global scale. Yet, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than ecological context, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the plant-interspace scale to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of how disturbance affects these interactions and their consequences. Changes in climate and intensification of land use will both likely lead to increased dust production. To address these challenges, environmental scientists, land managers and policy makers need to more explicitly consider dust in resource management decisions.

  17. Innovations in Strategic Philanthropy : Local and global perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    Philanthropy has been around for thousands of years but the study of philanthropic organizations and their role in a civil society is still recent. Most of the research focuses on organizations and institutions in developed market economies, in particular the United States. But in looking at other areas such as the global south and central and eastern Europe, major differences in a number of critical aspects emerge that challenge conventional assumptions and models of philanthropy. There, fre...

  18. Language teachers and teaching global perspectives, local initiatives

    CERN Document Server

    Ben Said, Selim

    2013-01-01

    This volume gathers contributions from a range of global experts in teacher education to address the topic of language teacher education. It shows how teacher education involves the agency of teachers, which forms part of their identity, and which they take on when integrating into the teaching community of practice. In addition, the volume explores the teachers' situated practice--the dynamic negotiation of classroom situations, socialization into the professional teaching culture, and "on the ground experimentation" with pedagogical skills/techniques.

  19. Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Ethan E.; Datta, Abhirup; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Chen, Ming; Wythers, Kirk R.; Fazayeli, Farideh; Banerjee, Arindam; Atkin, Owen K.; Kattge, Jens; Amiaud, Bernard; Blonder, Benjamin; Boenisch, Gerhard; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Brown, Kerry A.; Byun, Chaeho; Campetella, Giandiego; Cerabolini, Bruno E. L.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Craine, Joseph M.; Craven, Dylan; de Vries, Franciska T.; Díaz, Sandra; Domingues, Tomas F.; Forey, Estelle; González-Melo, Andrés; Gross, Nicolas; Han, Wenxuan; Hattingh, Wesley N.; Hickler, Thomas; Jansen, Steven; Kramer, Koen; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Laughlin, Daniel C.; Meir, Patrick; Minden, Vanessa; Niinemets, Ülo; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Read, Quentin; Sack, Lawren; Schamp, Brandon; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; Spasojevic, Marko J.; Sosinski, Enio; Thornton, Peter E.; Valladares, Fernando; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Williams, Mathew; Wirth, Christian; Reich, Peter B.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate trait-environment relationships and global maps of plant trait distributions represent a needed stepping stone in global biogeography and are critical constraints of key parameters for land models. Here, we use a global data set of plant traits to map trait distributions closely coupled to photosynthesis and foliar respiration: specific leaf area (SLA), and dry mass-based concentrations of leaf nitrogen (Nm) and phosphorus (Pm); We propose two models to extrapolate geographically sparse point data to continuous spatial surfaces. The first is a categorical model using species mean trait values, categorized into plant functional types (PFTs) and extrapolating to PFT occurrence ranges identified by remote sensing. The second is a Bayesian spatial model that incorporates information about PFT, location and environmental covariates to estimate trait distributions. Both models are further stratified by varying the number of PFTs; The performance of the models was evaluated based on their explanatory and predictive ability. The Bayesian spatial model leveraging the largest number of PFTs produced the best maps; The interpolation of full trait distributions enables a wider diversity of vegetation to be represented across the land surface. These maps may be used as input to Earth System Models and to evaluate other estimates of functional diversity.

  20. Think Global, Act Local--A Power Generation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 3 photos.)

  1. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  2. Local and global trust based on the concept of promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Burgess, M.

    2009-01-01

    We use the notion of a promise to define local trust between agents possessing autonomous decision-making. An agent is trustworthy if it is expected that it will keep a promise. This definition satisfies most commonplace meanings of trust. Reputation is then an estimation of this expectation value

  3. Beer from the mountains – Value creation through bridging rural/urban and local/global

    OpenAIRE

    Moschitz, Heidrun; Oehen, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a farmers’ cooperative, Gran Alpin, selling mountain cereal products to mainly urban consumers. It employs and constantly reproduces values of local and place while marketing to mostly extra-local consumers. High levels of trust are maintained through multiple relations in the local network and decisive for successfully transporting the cooperative’s values from the local to the global, from the rural to the urban.

  4. Basel III – Between Global Thinking and Local Acting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has demonstrated that self-regulation is not sufficient to markets and financial institutions with systemic importance.Permissive regulatory policies, allowing the development speed of global banking financial system, have played an important role in emphasizing the upward slope of the financial crisis.The new regulations known as Basel III framework aimed the strengthening of prudential capital and liquidity of financial institutions and create a stronger banking and financial system more resilient to shocks.Basel III is trying to eliminate the shortcomings of Basel II, by more extensive rules on integrated risk management in banking and financial environment.

  5. Rede de Protagonismo Local para o Desenvolvimento Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ángela; Hermann, Roberto Rivas

    Este artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre metodologia a ser desenvolvida e utilizada num projeto de desenvolvimento local, através das ações protagonizadas pela própria comunidade. Para isso parte de uma discussão sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a seguir propõe a busca de f...

  6. Total-energy global optimizations using nonorthogonal localized orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Mauri, F.; Galli, G.

    1995-01-01

    An energy functional for orbital-based O(N) calculations is proposed, which depends on a number of nonorthogonal, localized orbitals larger than the number of occupied states in the system, and on a parameter, the electronic chemical potential, determining the number of electrons. We show that the minimization of the functional with respect to overlapping localized orbitals can be performed so as to attain directly the ground-state energy, without being trapped at local minima. The present approach overcomes the multiple-minima problem present within the original formulation of orbital-based O(N) methods; it therefore makes it possible to perform O(N) calculations for an arbitrary system, without including any information about the system bonding properties in the construction of the input wave functions. Furthermore, while retaining the same computational cost as the original approach, our formulation allows one to improve the variational estimate of the ground-state energy, and the energy conservation during a molecular dynamics run. Several numerical examples for surfaces, bulk systems, and clusters are presented and discussed

  7. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Online Adaptive Local-Global Model Reduction for Flows in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Gildin, Eduardo; Yang, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    We propose an online adaptive local-global POD-DEIM model reduction method for flows in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of the proposed method is to use local online indicators to decide on the global update, which is performed via reduced cost local multiscale basis functions. This unique local-global online combination allows (1) developing local indicators that are used for both local and global updates (2) computing global online modes via local multiscale basis functions. The multiscale basis functions consist of offline and some online local basis functions. The approach used for constructing a global reduced system is based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) Galerkin projection. The nonlinearities are approximated by the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM). The online adaption is performed by incorporating new data, which become available at the online stage. Once the criterion for updates is satisfied, we adapt the reduced system online by changing the POD subspace and the DEIM approximation of the nonlinear functions. The main contribution of the paper is that the criterion for adaption and the construction of the global online modes are based on local error indicators and local multiscale basis function which can be cheaply computed. Since the adaption is performed infrequently, the new methodology does not add significant computational overhead associated with when and how to adapt the reduced basis. Our approach is particularly useful for situations where it is desired to solve the reduced system for inputs or controls that result in a solution outside the span of the snapshots generated in the offline stage. Our method also offers an alternative of constructing a robust reduced system even if a potential initial poor choice of snapshots is used. Applications to single-phase and two-phase flow problems demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  9. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-04-20

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26-79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age.

  10. Online Adaptive Local-Global Model Reduction for Flows in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2016-06-07

    We propose an online adaptive local-global POD-DEIM model reduction method for flows in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of the proposed method is to use local online indicators to decide on the global update, which is performed via reduced cost local multiscale basis functions. This unique local-global online combination allows (1) developing local indicators that are used for both local and global updates (2) computing global online modes via local multiscale basis functions. The multiscale basis functions consist of offline and some online local basis functions. The approach used for constructing a global reduced system is based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) Galerkin projection. The nonlinearities are approximated by the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM). The online adaption is performed by incorporating new data, which become available at the online stage. Once the criterion for updates is satisfied, we adapt the reduced system online by changing the POD subspace and the DEIM approximation of the nonlinear functions. The main contribution of the paper is that the criterion for adaption and the construction of the global online modes are based on local error indicators and local multiscale basis function which can be cheaply computed. Since the adaption is performed infrequently, the new methodology does not add significant computational overhead associated with when and how to adapt the reduced basis. Our approach is particularly useful for situations where it is desired to solve the reduced system for inputs or controls that result in a solution outside the span of the snapshots generated in the offline stage. Our method also offers an alternative of constructing a robust reduced system even if a potential initial poor choice of snapshots is used. Applications to single-phase and two-phase flow problems demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  11. Inequality measures perform differently in global and local assessments: An exploratory computational experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yen-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.

  12. Evaluation Methodology between Globalization and Localization Features Approaches for Skin Cancer Lesions Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. M.; Al-azawi, R. J.; Abdulhameed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been put in the developing of diagnostic methods to skin cancer disease. In this paper, two different approaches have been addressed for detection the skin cancer in dermoscopy images. The first approach uses a global method that uses global features for classifying skin lesions, whereas the second approach uses a local method that uses local features for classifying skin lesions. The aim of this paper is selecting the best approach for skin lesion classification. The dataset has been used in this paper consist of 200 dermoscopy images from Pedro Hispano Hospital (PH2). The achieved results are; sensitivity about 96%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 97% for globalization approach while, sensitivity about 100%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 100% for Localization Approach, these results showed that the localization approach achieved acceptable accuracy and better than globalization approach for skin cancer lesions classification.

  13. Distancing from experienced self: how global versus local perception affects estimation of psychological distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberman, N.; Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition).

  14. Taiwanese Consumers’ Perceptions of Local and Global Brands: An Investigation in Taiwan Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Ya-Yun

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how consumers in a newly developed country, Taiwan, perceive local brands and global brands in the computer industry. To access an in-depth understanding and evaluate factors that influence consumers’ assessment of local and global brands, the country-of-origin effect and the association of brand origin are investigated; the effect of consumer ethnocentrism is addressed; and the cultural aspects on collectivism and face concept are examined. The study adopts...

  15. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  16. GLOBAL ECONOMIC FACTORS ON GULF LABOR DYNAMICS: LOCALIZATION VERSUS IMMIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Pakin ALBAYRAKOGLU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC represents an ambitious bloc of six Arab countries in pursuit of deeper integration with the global economy. Although the members differ among themselves in terms of composition of population, natural resources or economic and military capabilities, they look relatively similar as regards conservatism and prosperity based on hydrocarbon revenues. This paper presents an international political economy perspective on the past and present labor crises in the GCC countries and makes suggestions for improving the qualities and conditions of national and foreign work force. It is concluded that the GCC would survive in the post-carbon era, provided that economic diversification went coordinately with necessary adjustments in the labor sector

  17. Equal, global, local: discourses in Taiwan's international medical graduate debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Shaw, Kevin; Liu, Tzu-Hung; Norris, Jessie; Chiu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of medicine, the role of international medical graduates (IMGs) has expanded. Nonetheless, the experiences of native-born IMGs remain under-researched. In Taiwan, public controversy has unfolded around IMGs educated in Poland, calling into question the meaning(s) of equality in policy and medicine. In focusing on the return of IMGs to their countries of origin, this study adds to the growing literature concerning equality and globalisation in medical education. The primary research aim was to analyse how stakeholders in the IMG debate use equality in their arguments. The authors set out to frame the dispute within the recent history of Taiwanese medical governance. An overarching objective was to contribute a critical, historical view of how discourses of globalisation and equality construct different policy approaches to international medical education. The authors performed a critical discourse analysis of a public policy dispute in Taiwan, assembling an archive from online interactions, government reports and news articles. Coding focused on stakeholders' uses of equality to generate broader discourses. International and domestic Taiwanese students conceived of equality differently, referencing both 'equality of opportunity' and 'equality of outcome' within localisation and globalisation frameworks, respectively. The dominance of localisation discourse is reflected in hostile online rhetoric towards Poland-educated IMGs. Rhetorical disagreements over equality in medical education trace shifting state policies, from earlier attempts to remove barriers for IMGs to the present-day push to regulate IMGs for acculturation and quality assurance. The global Internet had a double-sided influence, facilitating both democratic political mobilization and the spread of hate speech. The policy debate in Taiwan mirrors discourses in Canada, where IMGs are likewise conceived either as globally competent physicians or as lacking in merit and technical

  18. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points

  19. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra R; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the "big picture." Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra R.; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A.; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V.; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Eddy, Kamryn T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the “big picture.” Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Method Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination—questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)—trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Results Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. Discussion In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). PMID:28963792

  1. Global and Local Processing of Incidental Information and Memory Retrieval at 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Five experiments examined the role of global and local cues in memory retrieval in infancy. Results showed that infants encode and remember for substantial periods of time not only the shape of figures displayed in their periphery but also the global organization of these figures. They also adapt this information when responding to new events.…

  2. How can global conventions for biodiversity and ecosystem services guide local conservation actions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; van Teeffelen, Astrid; Allison, Hilary; Braun, Daniela; Horgan, K.; Iturrate-Garcia, Maitane; Santos, Maria João; Pellissier, Loïc; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene; Quatrini, Simone; Sakai, Shoko; Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra

    2017-01-01

    With global science-policy conventions for biodiversity and ecosystem services in place, much effort goes into monitoring and reporting on the progress toward policy targets. As conservation actions happen locally, can such global monitoring and reporting efforts effectively guide conservation

  3. Zooming into creativity: individual differences in attentional global-local biases are linked to creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Zmigrod, Leor; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    While recent studies have investigated how processes underlying human creativity are affected by particular visual-attentional states, we tested the impact of more stable attention-related preferences. These were assessed by means of Navon's global-local task, in which participants respond to the global or local features of large letters constructed from smaller letters. Three standard measures were derived from this task: the sizes of the global precedence effect, the global interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the global level on local processing), and the local interference effect (i.e., the impact of incongruent letters at the local level on global processing). These measures were correlated with performance in a convergent-thinking creativity task (the Remote Associates Task), a divergent-thinking creativity task (the Alternate Uses Task), and a measure of fluid intelligence (Raven's matrices). Flexibility in divergent thinking was predicted by the local interference effect while convergent thinking was predicted by intelligence only. We conclude that a stronger attentional bias to visual information about the "bigger picture" promotes cognitive flexibility in searching for multiple solutions.

  4. Attentional selection of relative SF mediates global versus local processing: evidence from EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevaris, Anastasia V; Bentin, Shlomo; Robertson, Lynn C

    2011-06-13

    Previous research on functional hemispheric differences in visual processing has associated global perception with low spatial frequency (LSF) processing biases of the right hemisphere (RH) and local perception with high spatial frequency (HSF) processing biases of the left hemisphere (LH). The Double Filtering by Frequency (DFF) theory expanded this hypothesis by proposing that visual attention selects and is directed to relatively LSFs by the RH and relatively HSFs by the LH, suggesting a direct causal relationship between SF selection and global versus local perception. We tested this idea in the current experiment by comparing activity in the EEG recorded at posterior right and posterior left hemisphere sites while participants' attention was directed to global or local levels of processing after selection of relatively LSFs versus HSFs in a previous stimulus. Hemispheric asymmetry in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) during preparation for global versus local processing was modulated by the selected SF. In contrast, preparatory activity associated with selection of SF was not modulated by the previously attended level (global/local). These results support the DFF theory that top-down attentional selection of SF mediates global and local processing.

  5. Joint local and global consistency on interdocument and interword relationships for co-clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bing-Kun; Min, Weiqing; Li, Teng; Xu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Co-clustering has recently received a lot of attention due to its effectiveness in simultaneously partitioning words and documents by exploiting the relationships between them. However, most of the existing co-clustering methods neglect or only partially reveal the interword and interdocument relationships. To fully utilize those relationships, the local and global consistencies on both word and document spaces need to be considered, respectively. Local consistency indicates that the label of a word/document can be predicted from its neighbors, while global consistency enforces a smoothness constraint on words/documents labels over the whole data manifold. In this paper, we propose a novel co-clustering method, called co-clustering via local and global consistency, to not only make use of the relationship between word and document, but also jointly explore the local and global consistency on both word and document spaces, respectively. The proposed method has the following characteristics: 1) the word-document relationships is modeled by following information-theoretic co-clustering (ITCC); 2) the local consistency on both interword and interdocument relationships is revealed by a local predictor; and 3) the global consistency on both interword and interdocument relationships is explored by a global smoothness regularization. All the fitting errors from these three-folds are finally integrated together to formulate an objective function, which is iteratively optimized by a convergence provable updating procedure. The extensive experiments on two benchmark document datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed co-clustering method.

  6. When does globalization lead to local adaptation? The emergence of hybrid Islamic schools in Turkey, 1985-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çakmaklı, Anıl Divarcı; Boone, Christophe; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Institutional perspectives of globalization envision thehomogenization of the world through global cultural, economic, and political dynamics, while glocalization theory highlights how local cultures may adapt or resist global forces. On the basis of these theories, the authors analyze when, where,

  7. Global Reach, Local Roots: Young Danes and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2003-01-01

    in time, space and place and achieve direct and immediate access to people and places around the globe. At the same time we drag the world into our computer and comprise it into meaning and usefulness in our local context. But, with these general meanings in mind Internet uses - and attitudes towards......een from a meta-perspective young people’s uses of the Internet do not differ essentially from those of the average population of Internet users. We all basically communicate, find information, are entertained or trade on the net. We meet other people, exchange experience and opinions and emotions....... Experience and influence of the various forms and purposes of virtual life are intertwined with our experience and life in the physical world and we develop our identities in the dual realms of the virtual and the physical. The world opens up to us via the Internet when we transgress traditional borders...

  8. Act global, but think local: accountability at the frontlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Lynn P; Schaaf, Marta

    2013-11-01

    There is a worrying divergence between the way that sexual and reproductive health and rights problems and solutions are framed in advocacy at the global level and the complex reality that people experience in health services on the ground. An analysis of approaches to accountability used in advocacy at these different levels highlights the different assumptions at play as to how change happens. This paper makes the case for a reinvigorated approach to accountability that begins with the dynamics of power at the frontlines, where people encounter health providers and institutions. Conventional approaches to accountability avoid grappling with these dynamics, and as a result, many accountability efforts do not lead to transformative change. Implementation science and systems science are promising sources for fresh approaches, beginning with the understanding of health systems as complex adaptive systems embedded in the broader political dynamics of their societies. By drawing insights from disciplines such as political economy, ethnography, and organizational change management - and applying them creatively to the experience of people in health systems - the workings of power can begin to be uncovered and tackled, sharpening accountability towards those whose health and rights are at stake and generating meaningful change. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1996-01-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs

  10. Invasive Fetal Therapy: Global Status and Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few congenital anomalies that can be treated in utero, despite the rapid development of fetal medicine. The number of available antenatal treatments is growing with the advance of supplementary tools, especially ultrasound and endoscopy. Disorders involving accumulation of excessive fluid in the amniotic cavity (polyhydramnios, chest (hydrothorax, abdomen (ascites and urinary system (obstructive uropathy are regularly treated using aspiration or shunt drainage under ultrasound monitoring. Electrolyte solutions or concentrated blood component supplements are used to treat oligohydramnios (amnioinfusion and amniopatch and fetal anemia (fetal transfusion. Placental tumor (chorioangioma and fetal tumors (cystic hygroma and sacrococcygeal teratoma are also successfully treated by antenatal injection of medications. Fetoscopic procedures, especially obstetric endoscopy, are now used regularly in North America, Europe, Australasia and Japan after the validity was established in the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome when compared with traditional amnioreduction. However, most procedures involving surgical fetoscopy or open fetal surgery remain experimental. Their validity and efficacy are not confirmed in a number of fetal diseases for which they were claimed to be effective. A brief review of the global status and history of invasive fetal therapy is given, and its status in Taiwan is also described. Future development in this field relies on greater understanding of the basic physiology and pathology of the diseases involved, as well as on the progress of sophisticated instrumentation.

  11. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

  12. Relating Local to Global Spatial Knowledge: Heuristic Influence of Local Features on Direction Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Daniel W.; Montello, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has examined heuristics--simplified decision-making rules-of-thumb--for geospatial reasoning. This study examined at two locations the influence of beliefs about local coastline orientation on estimated directions to local and distant places; estimates were made immediately or after fifteen seconds. This study goes beyond…

  13. Building Sustainable Local Capacity for Global Health Research in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Paintsil, Elijah; Aliyu, Muktar H; Kwara, Awewura; Ogunsola, Folasade; Afrane, Yaw A; Onoka, Chima; Awandare, Gordon A; Amponsah, Gladys; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Mendy, Gabou; Sturke, Rachel; Ghansah, Anita; Siberry, George K; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    Global health research in resource-limited countries has been largely sponsored and led by foreign institutions. Thus, these countries' training capacity and productivity in global health research is limited. Local participation at all levels of global health knowledge generation promotes equitable access to evidence-based solutions. Additionally, leadership inclusive of competent local professionals promotes best outcomes for local contextualization and implementation of successful global health solutions. Among the sub-Saharan African regions, West Africa in particular lags in research infrastructure, productivity, and impact in global health research. In this paper, experts discuss strategies for scaling up West Africa's participation in global health evidence generation using examples from Ghana and Nigeria. We conducted an online and professional network search to identify grants awarded for global health research and research education in Ghana and Nigeria. Principal investigators, global health educators, and representatives of funding institutions were invited to add their knowledge and expertise with regard to strengthening research capacity in West Africa. While there has been some progress in obtaining foreign funding, foreign institutions still dominate local research. Local research funding opportunities in the 2 countries were found to be insufficient, disjointed, poorly sustained, and inadequately publicized, indicating weak infrastructure. As a result, research training programs produce graduates who ultimately fail to launch independent investigator careers because of lack of mentoring and poor infrastructural support. Research funding and training opportunities in Ghana and Nigeria remain inadequate. We recommend systems-level changes in mentoring, collaboration, and funding to drive the global health research agenda in these countries. Additionally, research training programs should be evaluated not only by numbers of individuals graduated but

  14. Think globally, act locally, and collaborate internationally: global health sciences at the University of California, San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Sarah B; Agabian, Nina; Novotny, Thomas E; Rutherford, George W; Stewart, Christopher C; Debas, Haile T

    2008-02-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) established Global Health Sciences (GHS) as a campus-wide initiative in 2003. The mission of GHS is to facilitate UCSF's engagement in global health across its four schools by (1) creating a supportive environment that promotes UCSF's leadership role in global health, (2) providing education and training in global health, (3) convening and coordinating global health research activities, (4) establishing global health outreach programs locally in San Francisco and California, (5) partnering with academic centers, especially less-well-resourced institutions in low- and middle-income countries, and (6) developing and collaborating in international initiatives that address neglected global health issues.GHS education programs include a master of science (MS) program expected to start in September 2008, an introduction to global health for UCSF residents, and a year of training at UCSF for MS and PhD students from low- and middle-income countries that is "sandwiched" between years in their own education program and results in a UCSF Sandwich Certificate. GHS's work with partner institutions in California has a preliminary focus on migration and health, and its work with academic centers in low- and middle-income countries focuses primarily on academic partnerships to train human resources for health. Recognizing that the existing academic structure at UCSF may be inadequate to address the complexity of global health threats in the 21st century, GHS is working with the nine other campuses of the University of California to develop a university-wide transdisciplinary initiative in global health.

  15. Transfer of perceptual learning of depth discrimination between local and global stereograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Liat; Bedell, Harold E

    2010-08-23

    Several previous studies reported differences when stereothresholds are assessed with local-contour stereograms vs. complex random-dot stereograms (RDSs). Dissimilar thresholds may be due to differences in the properties of the stereograms (e.g. spatial frequency content, contrast, inter-element separation, area) or to different underlying processing mechanisms. This study examined the transfer of perceptual learning of depth discrimination between local and global RDSs with similar properties, and vice versa. If global and local stereograms are processed by separate neural mechanisms, then the magnitude and rate of training for the two types of stimuli are likely to differ, and the transfer of training from one stimulus type to the other should be minimal. Based on previous results, we chose RDSs with element densities of 0.17% and 28.3% to serve as the local and global stereograms, respectively. Fourteen inexperienced subjects with normal binocular vision were randomly assigned to either a local- or global- RDS training group. Stereothresholds for both stimulus types were measured before and after 7700 training trials distributed over 10 sessions. Stereothresholds for the trained condition improve for approximately 3000 trials, by an average of 0.36+/-0.08 for local and 0.29+/-0.10 for global RDSs, and level off thereafter. Neither the rate nor the magnitude of improvement differ statistically between the local- and global-training groups. Further, no significant difference exists in the amount of improvement on the trained vs. the untrained targets for either training group. These results are consistent with the operation of a single mechanism to process both local and global stereograms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Teaching and Learning Road Map for Schools: Global and yet Local!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmohammadi, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    What is a viable theoretical scheme that can guide school curriculum deliberations, maintaining both a global and a local quality OR which curriculum theory has the power of being adopted universally and the versatility of being adapted locally? Can the notion of "Glocal" coined in the field of sociology (2010) be regarded as a meaningful and…

  17. Social influence on selection behaviour: Distinguishing local- and global-driven preferential attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-01-01

    Social influence drives human selection behaviours when numerous objects competing for limited attentions, which leads to the 'rich get richer' dynamics where popular objects tend to get more attentions. However, evidences have been found that, both the global information of the whole system and the local information among one's friends have significant influence over the one's selection. Consequently, a key question raises that, it is the local information or the global information more determinative for one's selection? Here we compare the local-based influence and global-based influence. We show that, the selection behaviour is mainly driven by the local popularity of the objects while the global popularity plays a supplementary role driving the behaviour only when there is little local information for the user to refer to. Thereby, we propose a network model to describe the mechanism of user-object interaction evolution with social influence, where the users perform either local-driven or global-driven preferential attachments to the objects, i.e., the probability of an objects to be selected by a target user is proportional to either its local popularity or global popularity. The simulation suggests that, about 75% of the attachments should be driven by the local popularity to reproduce the empirical observations. It means that, at least in the studied context where users chose businesses on Yelp, there is a probability of 75% for a user to make a selection according to the local popularity. The proposed model and the numerical findings may shed some light on the study of social influence and evolving social systems.

  18. Magnetomechanical local-global effects in magnetostrictive composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhajjar, Rani F.; Law, Chiu T.

    2015-10-01

    A constitutive model for magnetostrictive composite materials (MCMs) that describes the relations among stress, strain, magnetic field, and magnetization Liu and Zheng (2005 Acta Mech. Sin. 21 278-85) is implemented for multiphysics simulation for analysis of non-periodic or non-uniform microstructure effects. The multiphysics models that capture designed and actual microstructural details are used for predicting the responses of magnetostrictive composite materials under various mechanical and magnetic loading conditions. The approach overcomes the limitation with strain gages in the investigation of magnetostrictive strain due to stress localization around magnetostrictive phases. Three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) is used to measure the displacements and strain in the composites under fluctuating magnetic fields. The specimens are prepared using epoxy and particulate magnetostrictive materials with the particles in the range of approximately 20 to 300 microns range. We examine the displacement and strain fields obtained and compare the results to those obtained from fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measurements. The coupling coefficients obtained from this method were in agreement with those measured using other techniques. The validated model allows us to predict the effect of curing, preload, microstructure alignment and particle shape on the magnetostrictive strains.

  19. Magnetomechanical local-global effects in magnetostrictive composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhajjar, Rani F; Law, Chiu T

    2015-01-01

    A constitutive model for magnetostrictive composite materials (MCMs) that describes the relations among stress, strain, magnetic field, and magnetization Liu and Zheng (2005 Acta Mech. Sin. 21 278–85) is implemented for multiphysics simulation for analysis of non-periodic or non-uniform microstructure effects. The multiphysics models that capture designed and actual microstructural details are used for predicting the responses of magnetostrictive composite materials under various mechanical and magnetic loading conditions. The approach overcomes the limitation with strain gages in the investigation of magnetostrictive strain due to stress localization around magnetostrictive phases. Three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) is used to measure the displacements and strain in the composites under fluctuating magnetic fields. The specimens are prepared using epoxy and particulate magnetostrictive materials with the particles in the range of approximately 20 to 300 microns range. We examine the displacement and strain fields obtained and compare the results to those obtained from fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measurements. The coupling coefficients obtained from this method were in agreement with those measured using other techniques. The validated model allows us to predict the effect of curing, preload, microstructure alignment and particle shape on the magnetostrictive strains. (paper)

  20. Globally COnstrained Local Function Approximation via Hierarchical Modelling, a Framework for System Modelling under Partial Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman

    2000-01-01

    be obtained. This paper presents a new approach for system modelling under partial (global) information (or the so called Gray-box modelling) that seeks to perserve the benefits of the global as well as local methodologies sithin a unified framework. While the proposed technique relies on local approximations......Local function approximations concern fitting low order models to weighted data in neighbourhoods of the points where the approximations are desired. Despite their generality and convenience of use, local models typically suffer, among others, from difficulties arising in physical interpretation...... simultaneously with the (local estimates of) function values. The approach is applied to modelling of a linear time variant dynamic system under prior linear time invariant structure where local regression fails as a result of high dimensionality....

  1. Accounting for Government in the Global South: do Global Solutions Match Local Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Lawrence

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of globalised accounting and economic reforms on the public sectors of lessdeveloped countries. Our interest is in the international institutions that have been instrumental inintroducing common, global remedies which appear to be based on theoretical understandings as opposed toexperience of the effects of their interventions. A growing concern is being expressed about suchinterventions, but there is a sparcity of reports from the field. We argue that a re-think is required of type ofthe public sector financial management reforms which the international financial institutions and the nationalaid agencies have been promoting across the Global South for the last decade or so.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of STRIDE programme in primary schools of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjeet, K; Wan Rozita, W M; How, T B; Santhana Raj, L; Baharudin, Omar

    2007-12-01

    The Students' Resilience and Interpersonal Skills Development Education (STRIDE) is a preventive drug education programme. The rational of this programme is that preventive drug education has to begin early in age, before the development of social attitudes and behaviour of students. A pre and a post intervention surveys were performed to evaluate the impact of this programme. Nine schools from three states were identified to participate in the intervention. These schools were selected based on their locations in high-drug-use areas (where the prevalence of drug use exceeds 0.5% of the student population). The new intervention curriculum was put into practice for three months in the nine schools. The overall scores obtained by each respondent to assess their knowledge on drugs and its implications were analysed. The results showed that the programme made a positive impact from the pre to post intervention programme by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p < 0.05). A high percentage of the questions showed significant evidence through the McNemar matched pair Chi-Squared test with Bonferonni correction that there were positive shifts in the answers by comparing the pre and post intervention results (p < 0.05). Recommendations have been discussed with the Ministry of Education to integrate this programme into the national primary school curriculum.

  3. Infrared and visible images registration with adaptable local-global feature integration for rail inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoqing; Tian, Gui Yun; Chen, Xiaotian; Wu, Jianbo; Li, Kongjing; Meng, Hongying

    2017-12-01

    Active thermography provides infrared images that contain sub-surface defect information, while visible images only reveal surface information. Mapping infrared information to visible images offers more comprehensive visualization for decision-making in rail inspection. However, the common information for registration is limited due to different modalities in both local and global level. For example, rail track which has low temperature contrast reveals rich details in visible images, but turns blurry in the infrared counterparts. This paper proposes a registration algorithm called Edge-Guided Speeded-Up-Robust-Features (EG-SURF) to address this issue. Rather than sequentially integrating local and global information in matching stage which suffered from buckets effect, this algorithm adaptively integrates local and global information into a descriptor to gather more common information before matching. This adaptability consists of two facets, an adaptable weighting factor between local and global information, and an adaptable main direction accuracy. The local information is extracted using SURF while the global information is represented by shape context from edges. Meanwhile, in shape context generation process, edges are weighted according to local scale and decomposed into bins using a vector decomposition manner to provide more accurate descriptor. The proposed algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively validated using eddy current pulsed thermography scene in the experiments. In comparison with other algorithms, better performance has been achieved.

  4. The Role of Musical Experience in Hemispheric Lateralization of Global and Local Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emily; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Bish, Joel P

    2017-08-01

    The global precedence effect is a phenomenon in which global aspects of visual and auditory stimuli are processed before local aspects. Individuals with musical experience perform better on all aspects of auditory tasks compared with individuals with less musical experience. The hemispheric lateralization of this auditory processing is less well-defined. The present study aimed to replicate the global precedence effect with auditory stimuli and to explore the lateralization of global and local auditory processing in individuals with differing levels of musical experience. A total of 38 college students completed an auditory-directed attention task while electroencephalography was recorded. Individuals with low musical experience responded significantly faster and more accurately in global trials than in local trials regardless of condition, and significantly faster and more accurately when pitches traveled in the same direction (compatible condition) than when pitches traveled in two different directions (incompatible condition) consistent with a global precedence effect. In contrast, individuals with high musical experience showed less of a global precedence effect with regards to accuracy, but not in terms of reaction time, suggesting an increased ability to overcome global bias. Further, a difference in P300 latency between hemispheres was observed. These findings provide a preliminary neurological framework for auditory processing of individuals with differing degrees of musical experience.

  5. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-04

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. A fingerprint classification algorithm based on combination of local and global information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongjin; Fu, Xiang; Bian, Junjie; Feng, Jufu

    2011-12-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most important technologies in biometric identification and has been wildly applied in commercial and forensic areas. Fingerprint classification, as the fundamental procedure in fingerprint recognition, can sharply decrease the quantity for fingerprint matching and improve the efficiency of fingerprint recognition. Most fingerprint classification algorithms are based on the number and position of singular points. Because the singular points detecting method only considers the local information commonly, the classification algorithms are sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprint classification algorithm combining the local and global information of fingerprint. Firstly we use local information to detect singular points and measure their quality considering orientation structure and image texture in adjacent areas. Furthermore the global orientation model is adopted to measure the reliability of singular points group. Finally the local quality and global reliability is weighted to classify fingerprint. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy and effectivity of our algorithm especially for the poor quality fingerprint images.

  7. Multi-scale spatial modeling of human exposure from local sources to global intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea......, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties...... occur within a 100 km radius from the source. This suggests that, by neglecting distant low-level exposure, local assessments might only account for fractions of global cumulative intakes. We also study ~10,000 emission locations covering France more densely to determine per chemical and exposure route...

  8. Thinking Globally, Interviewing Locally: Using an Intensive Interview Project to Teach Globalization and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norma J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I connect globalization and qualitative methodological practice, describing a semester-long intensive interview project about the anti-apartheid movement. I provide a detailed overview of the project as well as considerations for those who might want to adapt it for their own courses. Using students' reflections on the projects…

  9. Visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping and global positioning system correction for geo-localization of a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrabah, Sid Ahmed; Baudoin, Yvan; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach combining visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) and global positioning system (GPS) correction for accurate multi-sensor localization of an outdoor mobile robot in geo-referenced maps. The proposed framework combines two extended Kalman filters (EKF); the first one, referred to as the integration filter, is dedicated to the improvement of the GPS localization based on data from an inertial navigation system and wheels' encoders. The second EKF implements the V-SLAM process. The linear and angular velocities in the dynamic model of the V-SLAM EKF filter are given by the GPS/INS/Encoders integration filter. On the other hand, the output of the V-SLAM EKF filter is used to update the dynamics estimation in the integration filter and therefore the geo-referenced localization. This solution increases the accuracy and the robustness of the positioning during GPS outage and allows SLAM in less featured environments

  10. Implicit Active Contours Driven by Local and Global Image Fitting Energy for Image Segmentation and Target Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosheng Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel active contour model in a variational level set formulation for image segmentation and target localization. We combine a local image fitting term and a global image fitting term to drive the contour evolution. Our model can efficiently segment the images with intensity inhomogeneity with the contour starting anywhere in the image. In its numerical implementation, an efficient numerical schema is used to ensure sufficient numerical accuracy. We validated its effectiveness in numerous synthetic images and real images, and the promising experimental results show its advantages in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness.

  11. The Role of Global and Local Visual Information during Gaze-Cued Orienting of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Nicolette M; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction is an important social communication tool. Global and local visual information are known to play specific roles in processing socially relevant information from a face. The current study investigated whether global visual information has a primary role during gaze-cued orienting of attention and, as such, may influence quality of interaction. Adults performed a gaze-cueing task in which a centrally presented face cued (valid or invalid) the location of a peripheral target through a gaze shift. We measured brain activity (electroencephalography) towards the cue and target and behavioral responses (manual and saccadic reaction times) towards the target. The faces contained global (i.e. lower spatial frequencies), local (i.e. higher spatial frequencies), or a selection of both global and local (i.e. mid-band spatial frequencies) visual information. We found a gaze cue-validity effect (i.e. valid versus invalid), but no interaction effects with spatial frequency content. Furthermore, behavioral responses towards the target were in all cue conditions slower when lower spatial frequencies were not present in the gaze cue. These results suggest that whereas gaze-cued orienting of attention can be driven by both global and local visual information, global visual information determines the speed of behavioral responses towards other entities appearing in the surrounding of gaze cue stimuli.

  12. Various oscillation patterns in phase models with locally attractive and globally repulsive couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Shima, Shin-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigate a phase model that includes both locally attractive and globally repulsive coupling in one dimension. This model exhibits nontrivial spatiotemporal patterns that have not been observed in systems that contain only local or global coupling. Depending on the relative strengths of the local and global coupling and on the form of global coupling, the system can show a spatially uniform state (in-phase synchronization), a monotonically increasing state (traveling wave), and three types of oscillations of relative phase difference. One of the oscillations of relative phase difference has the characteristic of being locally unstable but globally attractive. That is, any small perturbation to the periodic orbit in phase space destroys its periodic motion, but after a long time the system returns to the original periodic orbit. This behavior is closely related to the emergence of saddle two-cluster states for global coupling only, which are connected to each other by attractive heteroclinic orbits. The mechanism of occurrence of this type of oscillation is discussed.

  13. Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Developing Local Global Health Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J

    2018-02-07

    A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Global and Local Discourses on Climate Change: A Perspective from the Concept of Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailab Kumar Rai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been becoming a major order of business of all including researchers and academics. This is known that global, national and local organizations, institutions and even the individuals are partaking into the issues with their own perspectives and skills of negotiations. Despite the series of international efforts and attempts, there are also a series of national concerns, efforts and attempts in combating against the effects of global climate change. This paper is an attempt to draw on the overview of contexts and concerns of international communities for combating global climate change and its discursive influence in national policy discourses. Moreover, the paper attempts to assess the local socio-cultural discourses and dynamics of climate change in relation to global and national discourses. Finally the paper highlights on how global and local climate change knowledge networks and epistemic communities either from political processes or the socio-economic fabrics are interrelated and determinant to each other. Keywords: climate change; discourses; embeddeness; dynamics; global; local DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4518 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.143-180

  15. Impairment in local and global processing and set-shifting in body dysmorphic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Lauren; Hovav, Sarit; Helleman, Gerhard; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by distressing and often debilitating preoccupations with misperceived defects in appearance. Research suggests that aberrant visual processing may contribute to these misperceptions. This study used two tasks to probe global and local visual processing as well as set shifting in individuals with BDD. Eighteen unmedicated individuals with BDD and 17 non-clinical controls completed two global-local tasks. The embedded figures task requires participants to determine which of three complex figures contained a simpler figure embedded within it. The Navon task utilizes incongruent stimuli comprised of a large letter (global level) made up of smaller letters (local level). The outcome measures were response time and accuracy rate. On the embedded figures task, BDD individuals were slower and less accurate than controls. On the Navon task, BDD individuals processed both global and local stimuli slower and less accurately than controls, and there was a further decrement in performance when shifting attention between the different levels of stimuli. Worse insight correlated with poorer performance on both tasks. Taken together, these results suggest abnormal global and local processing for non-appearance related stimuli among BDD individuals, in addition to evidence of poor set-shifting abilities. Moreover, these abnormalities appear to relate to the important clinical variable of poor insight. Further research is needed to explore these abnormalities and elucidate their possible role in the development and/or persistence of BDD symptoms. PMID:24972487

  16. Multi-site evaluation of the JULES land surface model using global and local data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Slevin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM to simulate photosynthesis using local and global data sets at 12 FLUXNET sites. Model parameters include site-specific (local values for each flux tower site and the default parameters used in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM climate model. Firstly, gross primary productivity (GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from local site measurements were compared to observations from the FLUXNET network. When using local data, the model is biased with total annual GPP underestimated by 16% across all sites compared to observations. Secondly, GPP estimates from driving JULES with data derived from global parameter and atmospheric reanalysis (on scales of 100 km or so were compared to FLUXNET observations. It was found that model performance decreases further, with total annual GPP underestimated by 30% across all sites compared to observations. When JULES was driven using local parameters and global meteorological data, it was shown that global data could be used in place of FLUXNET data with a 7% reduction in total annual simulated GPP. Thirdly, the global meteorological data sets, WFDEI and PRINCETON, were compared to local data to find that the WFDEI data set more closely matches the local meteorological measurements (FLUXNET. Finally, the JULES phenology model was tested by comparing results from simulations using the default phenology model to those forced with the remote sensing product MODIS leaf area index (LAI. Forcing the model with daily satellite LAI results in only small improvements in predicted GPP at a small number of sites, compared to using the default phenology model.

  17. Visual arts training is linked to flexible attention to local and global levels of visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-10-01

    Observational drawing skill has been shown to be associated with the ability to focus on local visual details. It is unclear whether superior performance in local processing is indicative of the ability to attend to, and flexibly switch between, local and global levels of visual stimuli. It is also unknown whether these attentional enhancements remain specific to observational drawing skill or are a product of a wide range of artistic activities. The current study aimed to address these questions by testing if flexible visual processing predicts artistic group membership and observational drawing skill in a sample of first-year bachelor's degree art students (n=23) and non-art students (n=23). A pattern of local and global visual processing enhancements was found in relation to artistic group membership and drawing skill, with local processing ability found to be specifically related to individual differences in drawing skill. Enhanced global processing and more fluent switching between local and global levels of hierarchical stimuli predicted both drawing skill and artistic group membership, suggesting that these are beneficial attentional mechanisms for art-making in a range of domains. These findings support a top-down attentional model of artistic expertise and shed light on the domain specific and domain-general attentional enhancements induced by proficiency in the visual arts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Analysis on localization and Internationalization of Universities Curriculum in the Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasempoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the subject of internationalization has been one of the most discussed issues in academic centers. Higher education experts' beliefs that this subject is a new paradigm and inevitable approach in curriculum development of universities. Internationalization is a term that refers to the process of integrating an international and intercultural dimension into the teaching, research and service functions of the institution. Localization is another approach that refers to promotion, adaptation and development of knowledge, technology, culture and specific values in the specific context and alike internationalization is a response to globalization. The purpose of this study is, surveying the nature of internationalization and its causality, practical models and principals and specifying its relation to multiple theories of fostering local knowledge and localization in globalization of education context. These theories have varied emphasis on global dependence and local orientation and therefore they have their own characteristics, strengths, and limitations in conceptualizing and managing the process of fostering local knowledge and human development. Clearly, their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in internationalization of curriculum are correspondingly different. Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to use one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalizing and internationalizing education may be different from that of others.

  19. Investigating the correlation between paediatric stride interval persistence and gross energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stride interval persistence, a term used to describe the correlation structure of stride interval time series, is thought to provide insight into neuromotor control, though its exact clinical meaning has not yet been realized. Since human locomotion is shaped by energy efficient movements, it has been hypothesized that stride interval dynamics and energy expenditure may be inherently tied, both having demonstrated similar sensitivities to age, disease, and pace-constrained walking. Findings This study tested for correlations between stride interval persistence and measures of energy expenditure including mass-specific gross oxygen consumption per minute (, mass-specific gross oxygen cost per meter (VO2 and heart rate (HR. Metabolic and stride interval data were collected from 30 asymptomatic children who completed one 10-minute walking trial under each of the following conditions: (i overground walking, (ii hands-free treadmill walking, and (iii handrail-supported treadmill walking. Stride interval persistence was not significantly correlated with (p > 0.32, VO2 (p > 0.18 or HR (p > 0.56. Conclusions No simple linear dependence exists between stride interval persistence and measures of gross energy expenditure in asymptomatic children when walking overground and on a treadmill.

  20. Interaction effects of stride angle and strike pattern on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tam, N; Granados, C; Irazusta, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Zabala-Lili, J; Gil, S M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stride angle and running economy (RE) in athletes with different foot strike patterns. 30 male runners completed 4 min running stages on a treadmill at different velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as stride angle, swing time, contact time, stride length and frequency were recorded using an optical measurement system. Their foot strike pattern was determined, and VO2 at velocities below the lactate threshold were measured to calculate RE. Midfoot/forefoot strikers had better RE than rearfoot strikers (201.5±5.6 ml · kg(-1) · km(-1) vs. 213.5±4.2 ml · kg(-1) · km(-1)respectively; p=0.019). Additionally, midfoot/fore-foot strikers presented higher stride angles than rearfoot strikers (p=0.043). Linear modelling analysis showed that stride angle is closely related to RE (r=0.62, pstrike pattern is likely to be more economical, whereas at any lower degree, the midfoot/forefoot strike pattern appears to be more desirable. A biomechanical running technique characterised by high stride angles and a midfoot/forefoot strike pattern is advantageous for a better RE. Athletes may find stride angle useful for improving RE. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Children inhibit global information when the forest is dense and local information when the forest is sparse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Claire-Sara; Borst, Grégoire; Vidal, Julie; Houdé, Olivier; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-09-01

    Visual environments are composed of global shapes and local details that compete for attentional resources. In adults, the global level is processed more rapidly than the local level, and global information must be inhibited in order to process local information when the local information and global information are in conflict. Compared with adults, children present less of a bias toward global visual information and appear to be more sensitive to the density of local elements that constitute the global level. The current study aimed, for the first time, to investigate the key role of inhibition during global/local processing in children. By including two different conditions of global saliency during a negative priming procedure, the results showed that when the global level was salient (dense hierarchical figures), 7-year-old children and adults needed to inhibit the global level to process the local information. However, when the global level was less salient (sparse hierarchical figures), only children needed to inhibit the local level to process the global information. These results confirm a weaker global bias and the greater impact of saliency in children than in adults. Moreover, the results indicate that, regardless of age, inhibition of the most salient hierarchical level is systematically required to select the less salient but more relevant level. These findings have important implications for future research in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Global and local confinement scaling laws of NBI-heated gas-puffing plasmas on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamada, H.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osakabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between global confinement scaling laws and local transport characteristics is evaluated on the Large Helical Device (LHD). Previous 'new LHD' global scaling laws are revised using the precise plasma edge definition and the recent LHD data of 4th, 5th and 6th experimental campaigns. Strong Gyro-Bohm-like feature of global confinement is reconfirmed. The magnetic field dependence and geometrical scale dependence are stronger than the conventional scaling laws. Using same database of LHD data, the radial profiles of transport coefficients are evaluated, and it is reconfirmed that the local transport in the core is Gyro-Bohm-like, and that near the boundary is strong Gyro-Bohm-like. The global confinement property is consistent with effective transport coefficient near the edge. (author)

  3. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  4. Distancing from experienced self: how global-versus-local perception affects estimation of psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Förster, Jens

    2009-08-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition). Relative to the control condition, global processing made participants estimate larger psychological distances in time (Study 1), space (Study 2), social distance (Study 3), and hypotheticality (Study 4). Local processing had the opposite effect. Consistent with CLT, all studies show that the effect of global-versus-local processing did emerge when participants estimated egocentric distances, which are distances from the experienced self in the here and now, but did not emerge with temporal distances not from now (Study 1), spatial distances not from here (Study 2), social distances not from the self (Study 3), or hypothetical events that did not involve altering an experienced reality (Study 4).

  5. Connecting the global with the local through the prism of imprisonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2017-01-01

    -independent Free State it also potentially reveals more nuanced narratives of entanglement with international processes at the time. Utilising historic graffiti recorded between 2014-2016 this chapter will present the architecture of Kilmainham Gaol as an expected witness to Ireland’s interactions with global...... warfare and suffrage movements. In doing so it implicitly asks the question as to whether we need to pay more attention to atypical sources when exploring the relationship between the global and local....

  6. Effects of changing the random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a common practice in Monte Carlo radiation transport codes which is to start each random walk a specified number of steps up the random number sequence from the previous one. This is called the stride in the random number sequence between source particles. It is used for correlated sampling or to provide tree-structured random numbers. A new random number generator algorithm for the major Monte Carlo code MCNP has been written to allow adjustment of the random number stride. This random number generator is machine portable. The effects of varying the stride for several sample problems are examined

  7. Unfavorable Strides in Cache Memory Systems (RNR Technical Report RNR-92-015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Bailey

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in obtaining high performance on a scientific application running on a cache-based computer system is the behavior of the cache when data are accessed at a constant stride. Others who have discussed this issue have noted an odd phenomenon in such situations: A few particular innocent-looking strides result in sharply reduced cache efficiency. In this article, this problem is analyzed, and a simple formula is presented that accurately gives the cache efficiency for various cache parameters and data strides.

  8. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  9. Systems Factorial Technology provides new insights on global-local information processing in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon A; Blaha, Leslie M; Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies of global-local processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have indicated mixed findings, with some evidence of a local processing bias, or preference for detail-level information, and other results suggesting typical global advantage, or preference for the whole or gestalt. Findings resulting from this paradigm have been used to argue for or against a detail focused processing bias in ASDs, and thus have important theoretical implications. We applied Systems Factorial Technology, and the associated Double Factorial Paradigm (both defined in the text), to examine information processing characteristics during a divided attention global-local task in high-functioning individuals with an ASD and typically developing controls. Group data revealed global advantage for both groups, contrary to some current theories of ASDs. Information processing models applied to each participant revealed that task performance, although showing no differences at the group level, was supported by different cognitive mechanisms in ASD participants compared to controls. All control participants demonstrated inhibitory parallel processing and the majority demonstrated a minimum-time stopping rule. In contrast, ASD participants showed exhaustive parallel processing with mild facilitatory interactions between global and local information. Thus our results indicate fundamental differences in the stopping rules and channel dependencies in individuals with an ASD.

  10. Self-Orientation Modulates the Neural Correlates of Global and Local Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Das, Pritha; Battaglini, Eva; Malhi, Gin S; Felmingham, Kim L; Whitford, Thomas J; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Differences in self-orientation (or "self-construal") may affect how the visual environment is attended, but the neural and cultural mechanisms that drive this remain unclear. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that people from Western backgrounds with predominant individualistic values are perceptually biased towards local-level information; whereas people from non-Western backgrounds that support collectivist values are preferentially focused on contextual and global-level information. In this study, we compared two groups differing in predominant individualistic (N = 15) vs collectivistic (N = 15) self-orientation. Participants completed a global/local perceptual conflict task whilst undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanning. When participants high in individualistic values attended to the global level (ignoring the local level), greater activity was observed in the frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular networks that underpin attentional control, compared to the match (congruent) baseline. Participants high in collectivistic values activated similar attentional control networks o only when directly compared with global processing. This suggests that global interference was stronger than local interference in the conflict task in the collectivistic group. Both groups showed increased activity in dorsolateral prefrontal regions involved in resolving perceptual conflict during heightened distractor interference. The findings suggest that self-orientation may play an important role in driving attention networks to facilitate interaction with the visual environment.

  11. A local-to-global singularity theorem for quantum field theory on curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzikowski, M.J.; York Univ.

    1996-01-01

    We prove that if a reference two-point distribution of positive type on a time orientable curved space-time (CST) satisfies a certain condition on its wave front set (the ''class P M,g condition'') and if any other two-point distribution (i) is of positive type, (ii) has the same antisymmetric part as the reference modulo smooth function and (iii) has the same local singularity structure, then it has the same global singularity structure. In the proof we use a smoothing, positivity-preserving pseudo-differential operator the support of whose symbol is restricted to a certain conic region which depends on the wave front set of the reference state. This local-to-global theorem, together with results published elsewhere, leads to a verification of a conjecture by Kay that for quasi-free states of the Klein-Gordon quantum field on a globally hyperbolic CST, the local Hadamard condition implies the global Hadamard condition. A counterexample to the local-to-global theorem on a strip in Minkowski space is given when the class P M,g condition is not assumed. (orig.)

  12. The BRICS’ impacts on local economic development in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter; Carmody, Pádraig

    2016-01-01

    Research on how emerging economies affect other areas of the Global South has flourished in the past decade, and it is now well established that this impact occurs through a variety of channels, but knowledge of local developmental effects is scant. This article seeks to open up this black box...... by scrutinizing the effects of investments by the BRICS in a tourism town and two mining areas in Zambia. Recently, investments by the BRICS have been heralded as a key driver of structural transformation in the rest of the Global South; however, the lack of linkages and spillovers from BRICS actors to the local...

  13. Multicultural adolescents between tradition and postmodernity: Dialogical Self Theory and the paradox of localization and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Toon

    2012-01-01

    This chapter builds on Dialogical Self Theory to investigate the identity development of adolescents growing up in multicultural societies. Their cultural identity is not only compounded by the rapid cultural changes associated with globalization, but also by the paradoxical revival of cultural traditions which the large-scale compression of time and space has incited at local levels of society. Dialogical Self Theory, which is based on the metaphor of the self as a "society of mind," helps to understand the dilemmas of tradition and postmodernity, of localization and globalization, within the self of individual youngsters. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Local and global stability for Lotka-Volterra systems with distributed delays and instantaneous negative feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Teresa; Oliveira, José J.

    This paper addresses the local and global stability of n-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with distributed delays and instantaneous negative feedbacks. Necessary and sufficient conditions for local stability independent of the choice of the delay functions are given, by imposing a weak nondelayed diagonal dominance which cancels the delayed competition effect. The global asymptotic stability of positive equilibria is established under conditions slightly stronger than the ones required for the linear stability. For the case of monotone interactions, however, sharper conditions are presented. This paper generalizes known results for discrete delays to systems with distributed delays. Several applications illustrate the results.

  15. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: beyond central coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottron, L; Peretz, I; Ménard, E

    2000-11-01

    A multi-modal abnormality in the integration of parts and whole has been proposed to account for a bias toward local stimuli in individuals with autism (Frith, 1989; Mottron & Belleville, 1993). In the current experiment, we examined the utility of hierarchical models in characterising musical information processing in autistic individuals. Participants were 13 high-functioning individuals with autism and 13 individuals of normal intelligence matched on chronological age, nonverbal IQ, and laterality, and without musical experience. The task consisted of same-different judgements of pairs of melodies. Differential local and global processing was assessed by manipulating the level, local or global, at which modifications occurred. No deficit was found in the two measures of global processing. In contrast, the clinical group performed better than the comparison group in the detection of change in nontransposed, contour-preserved melodies that tap local processing. These findings confirm the existence of a "local bias" in music perception in individuals with autism, but challenge the notion that it is accounted for by a deficit in global music processing. The present study suggests that enhanced processing of elementary physical properties of incoming stimuli, as found previously in the visual modality, may also exist in the auditory modality.

  16. The role of spatial heterogeneity in the evolution of local and global infections of viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koich Saeki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have two modes spread in a host body, one is to release infectious particles from infected cells (global infection and the other is to infect directly from an infected cell to an adjacent cell (local infection. Since the mode of spread affects the evolution of life history traits, such as virulence, it is important to reveal what level of global and local infection is selected. Previous studies of the evolution of global and local infection have paid little attention to its dependency on the measures of spatial configuration. Here we show the evolutionarily stable proportion of global and local infection, and how it depends on the distribution of target cells. Using an epidemic model on a regular lattice, we consider the infection dynamics by pair approximation and check the evolutionarily stable strategy. We also conduct the Monte-Carlo simulation to observe evolutionary dynamics. We show that a higher local infection is selected as target cells become clustered. Surprisingly, the selected strategy depends not only on the degree of clustering but also the abundance of target cells per se.

  17. Local and global collapse pressure of longitudinally flawed pipes and cylindrical vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Limit loads can be calculated with the finite element method (FEM) for any component, defect geometry, and loading. FEM suggests that published long crack limit formulae for axial defects under-estimate the burst pressure for internal surface defects in thick pipes while limit loads are not conservative for deep cracks and for pressure loaded crack-faces. Very deep cracks have a residual strength, which is modelled by a global collapse load. These observations are combined to derive new analytical local and global collapse loads. The global collapse loads are close to FEM limit analyses for all crack dimensions

  18. Transfer of Perceptual Learning of Depth Discrimination Between Local and Global Stereograms

    OpenAIRE

    Gantz, Liat; Bedell, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Several previous studies reported differences when stereothresholds are assessed with local-contour stereograms vs. complex random-dot stereograms (RDSs). Dissimilar thresholds may be due to differences in the properties of the stereograms (e.g., spatial frequency content, contrast, inter-element separation, area) or to different underlying processing mechanisms. This study examined the transfer of perceptual learning of depth discrimination between local and global RDSs with similar properti...

  19. Model-based synthesis of locally contingent responses to global market signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rural livelihoods and the land systems on which they depend are increasingly influenced by distant markets through economic globalization. Place-based analyses of land and livelihood system sustainability must then consider both proximate and distant influences on local decision-making. Thus, advancing land change theory in the context of economic globalization calls for a systematic understanding of the general processes as well as local contingencies shaping local responses to global signals. Synthesis of insights from place-based case studies of land and livelihood change is a path forward for developing such systematic knowledge. This paper introduces a model-based synthesis approach to investigating the influence of local socio-environmental and agent-level factors in mediating land-use and livelihood responses to changing global market signals. A generalized agent-based modeling framework is applied to six case-study sites that differ in environmental conditions, market access and influence, and livelihood settings. The largest modeled land conversions and livelihood transitions to market-oriented production occurred in sties with relatively productive agricultural land and/or with limited livelihood options. Experimental shifts in the distributions of agents' risk tolerances generally acted to attenuate or amplify responses to changes in global market signals. Importantly, however, responses of agents at different points in the risk tolerance distribution varied widely, with the wealth gap growing wider between agents with higher or lower risk tolerance. These results demonstrate model-based synthesis is a promising approach to overcome many of the challenges of current synthesis methods in land change science, and to identify generalized as well as locally contingent responses to global market signals.

  20. From local to global--an overview of the Croatian National Theatre in the era of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjak, Ana

    2012-09-01

    The article offers an overview of the Croatian National Theatre research. It comes in two parts. The first examines the position theatre in the era of globalization, while the second focuses on the Croatian National Theatre, in the era of globalization, in the context of specific social and national interests, as well as within the limits of the national possibilities. What emerges in this overview is a feel for how complex the field of theatre research is in Croatia, given its specific position since there are four National Theatres in a country of approximately 4 million people. Also, local budgets and the lack of strategical plan and programme for culture in general represent a sort of limitation. The article ends with two conclusions: a) the Croatian National Theatres in the effort to go global experience primarily different economic status; b) the article draws attention to the present and future challenges that the Croatian National Theatres are faced with, posed by issues such as correlation between globalization and theatre.

  1. When does globalization lead to local adaptation? : The emergence of hybrid Islamic schools in Turkey, 1985-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divarci, A.; Boone, C.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    Institutional perspectives of globalization envision the homogenization of the world through global cultural, economic, and political dynamics, while globalization theory highlights how local cultures may adapt or resist global forces. On the basis of these theories, the authors analyze when, where,

  2. Attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affects rapid scene categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Johnson, Aaron P

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated how attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affected the selection of diagnostic spatial scale information used in scene categorization. We explored this issue by asking observers to classify hybrid images (i.e., images that contain low spatial frequency (LSF) content of one image, and high spatial frequency (HSF) content from a second image) immediately following global and local Navon tasks. Hybrid images can be classified according to either their LSF, or HSF content; thus, making them ideal for investigating diagnostic spatial scale preference. Although observers were sensitive to both spatial scales (Experiment 1), they overwhelmingly preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that LSF based hybrid categorization was faster following global Navon tasks, suggesting that LSF processing associated with global Navon tasks primed the selection of LSFs in hybrid images. In Experiment 4, replicating Experiment 3 but suppressing the LSF information in Navon letters by contrast balancing the stimuli examined this hypothesis. Similar to Experiment 3, observers preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content; however and in contrast, LSF based hybrid categorization was slower following global than local Navon tasks.

  3. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y. [British Energy Generation Ltd, Barnett Way, Bamwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yuebao.lei@british-energy.com

    2007-09-15

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one.

  4. Use of local and global limit load solutions for plates with surface cracks under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Some available experimental results for the ductile failure of plates with surface cracks under tension are reviewed. The response of crack driving force, J, and the ligament strain near the local and global limit loads are investigated by performing elastic-perfectly plastic finite element (FE) analysis of a plate with a semi-elliptical crack under tension. The results show that a ligament may survive until the global collapse load is reached when the average ligament strain at the global collapse load, which depends on the uniaxial strain corresponding to the flow stress of the material and the crack geometry, is less than the true fracture strain of the material obtained from uniaxial tension tests. The FE analysis shows that ligament yielding corresponding to the local limit load has little effect on J and the average ligament strain, whereas approach to global collapse corresponds to a sharp increase in both J and the average ligament strain. The prediction of the FE value of J using the reference stress method shows that the global limit load is more relevant to J-estimation than the local one

  5. Compounding local invariant features and global deformable geometry for medical image registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Using deformable models to register medical images can result in problems of initialization of deformable models and robustness and accuracy of matching of inter-subject anatomical variability. To tackle these problems, a novel model is proposed in this paper by compounding local invariant features and global deformable geometry. This model has four steps. First, a set of highly-repeatable and highly-robust local invariant features, called Key Features Model (KFM, are extracted by an effective matching strategy. Second, local features can be matched more accurately through the KFM for the purpose of initializing a global deformable model. Third, the positional relationship between the KFM and the global deformable model can be used to precisely pinpoint all landmarks after initialization. And fourth, the final pose of the global deformable model is determined by an iterative process with a lower time cost. Through the practical experiments, the paper finds three important conclusions. First, it proves that the KFM can detect the matching feature points well. Second, the precision of landmark locations adjusted by the modeled relationship between KFM and global deformable model is greatly improved. Third, regarding the fitting accuracy and efficiency, by observation from the practical experiments, it is found that the proposed method can improve 6~8% of the fitting accuracy and reduce around 50% of the computational time compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Hybridity in the Higher Education of Ukraine: Global Logic or Local Idiosyncrasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gomilko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity as a heuristic concept of the globalization and post-colonialism discourses is used for 1 understanding the logic of the modernization of the higher education of Ukraine (HEU, and 2 for making a meaningful diagnosis of those educational pathologies that restrain it. The educational pathologies are considered as the conditioned by post-coloniality and post-totalitarianism departure or deviation from the undertaking of the original missions of higher education (HE: “to educate, to train and to undertake research” (World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century: Vision and Action, 1998. Modernity as a philosophical concept and normative ideal that focus on increasing rational components in a human life is exploited for showing the ways of carrying out the missions of HE by adjusting particular patterns of rationality to the needs and wants of society. However, globalization puts modernity under challenges due to its bent toward de/or non-modern cultural practices. That’s why the logic of modernization in HEU acquires hybrid characteristics by fitting together different, multiple, opposing educational models and standards – post-colonial, post-totalitarian, modern, de/non-modern and global through the local acceptance. Therefore, the locality turns into a focal point of the modernization of HEU in a global context. The modernization of HEU reveals the ambivalent meaning of hybridity in its producing and destructive potential, i.e. as a global logic or a local idiosyncrasy.

  7. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  8. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-25

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  9. Attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affects rapid scene categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John; Johnson, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated how attention to local and global levels of hierarchical Navon figures affected the selection of diagnostic spatial scale information used in scene categorization. We explored this issue by asking observers to classify hybrid images (i.e., images that contain low spatial frequency (LSF) content of one image, and high spatial frequency (HSF) content from a second image) immediately following global and local Navon tasks. Hybrid images can be classified according to either their LSF, or HSF content; thus, making them ideal for investigating diagnostic spatial scale preference. Although observers were sensitive to both spatial scales (Experiment 1), they overwhelmingly preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that LSF based hybrid categorization was faster following global Navon tasks, suggesting that LSF processing associated with global Navon tasks primed the selection of LSFs in hybrid images. In Experiment 4, replicating Experiment 3 but suppressing the LSF information in Navon letters by contrast balancing the stimuli examined this hypothesis. Similar to Experiment 3, observers preferred to classify hybrids based on LSF content; however and in contrast, LSF based hybrid categorization was slower following global than local Navon tasks. PMID:25520675

  10. Improving Remote Sensing Scene Classification by Integrating Global-Context and Local-Object Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers have been dedicated to using convolutional neural networks (CNNs to extract global-context features (GCFs for remote-sensing scene classification. Commonly, accurate classification of scenes requires knowledge about both the global context and local objects. However, unlike the natural images in which the objects cover most of the image, objects in remote-sensing images are generally small and decentralized. Thus, it is hard for vanilla CNNs to focus on both global context and small local objects. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel end-to-end CNN by integrating the GCFs and local-object-level features (LOFs. The proposed network includes two branches, the local object branch (LOB and global semantic branch (GSB, which are used to generate the LOFs and GCFs, respectively. Then, the concatenation of features extracted from the two branches allows our method to be more discriminative in scene classification. Three challenging benchmark remote-sensing datasets were extensively experimented on; the proposed approach outperformed the existing scene classification methods and achieved state-of-the-art results for all three datasets.

  11. Local and global pitch perception in L1 and L2 readers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Chiara; Postma, Marie; Mos, Maria; Vedder, Kayleigh; Hendriks, Danielle; Maggiore, G.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research showed a relationship between reading skills and pitch perception, however the exact nature remained unclear. By means of reading tests and a pitch perception test, we examined the relation between reading abilities and local and global pitch perception for 92 native Dutch children

  12. Properties of global- and local-ancestry adjustments in genetic association tests in admixed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eden R; Tunc, Ilker; Liu, Zhi; Slifer, Susan H; Beecham, Ashley H; Beecham, Gary W

    2018-03-01

    Population substructure can lead to confounding in tests for genetic association, and failure to adjust properly can result in spurious findings. Here we address this issue of confounding by considering the impact of global ancestry (average ancestry across the genome) and local ancestry (ancestry at a specific chromosomal location) on regression parameters and relative power in ancestry-adjusted and -unadjusted models. We examine theoretical expectations under different scenarios for population substructure; applying different regression models, verifying and generalizing using simulations, and exploring the findings in real-world admixed populations. We show that admixture does not lead to confounding when the trait locus is tested directly in a single admixed population. However, if there is more complex population structure or a marker locus in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the trait locus is tested, both global and local ancestry can be confounders. Additionally, we show the genotype parameters of adjusted and unadjusted models all provide tests for LD between the marker and trait locus, but in different contexts. The local ancestry adjusted model tests for LD in the ancestral populations, while tests using the unadjusted and the global ancestry adjusted models depend on LD in the admixed population(s), which may be enriched due to different ancestral allele frequencies. Practically, this implies that global-ancestry adjustment should be used for screening, but local-ancestry adjustment may better inform fine mapping and provide better effect estimates at trait loci. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Glocal Features of In-flight Magazines: when Local Becomes Global. An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Maria Maci

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In-flights are magazines distributed by commercial airlines to their passengers and contain news items concerning travel, business and general-interest features, including tourist resorts. The choice of resorts to be described in in-flight magazines seems to depend on the destinations reached by the flights and apparently reflects a cultural and business tendency to focus tourists’ attention not just on popular destinations but also on less frequently advertised or less traditional tourism localities, and to invest in the rediscovery of local identities. Such rediscovery allows the exportation of local tourism to an international audience, thus providing considerable financial advantages. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the multimodal and linguistic strategies adopted by in-flight magazines so as to allow the local to become global. The analysis, based on a corpus of ten monthly in-flight magazines published in English and collected between 2009 and 2010, will try to define the linguistic conventions and constraints of this genre. In addition, attention will focus on the extent to which iconicity and interdiscursivity permeate the discourse of tourism in in-flight magazines. The resulting data seem to suggest that the airline industry tends to adopt marketing strategies aimed at promoting and differentiating national interests in an international context. The easiest way to do so is to present themselves as global. By highlighting this characteristic, airline companies construct a global reality which the international, and therefore global, traveller experiences

  14. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  15. Assessing the sensitivity of coral reef condition indicators to local and global stressors with Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are highly valued ecosystems that are currently imperiled. Although the value of coral reefs to human societies is only just being investigated and better understood, for many local and global economies coral reefs are important providers of ecosystem services that su...

  16. ICOM-ICTOP 14 October 2015 Workshop : Applying Global Theory to Local Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.; Con, Aguilar E.O.; Martin, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This workshop is connected to the presentation ‘Transforming global theory to local practice: Case studies from museums and education in the Caribbean’ and provides a practical and creative exercise for participants. The objective of the workshop is to support participants in exploring how to apply

  17. Conceptualising Education Quality in Zambia: A Comparative Analysis across the Local, National and Global Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongmin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2017-01-01

    Building on the Education for All movement, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development re-emphasises quality education as a discrete goal. Contextualising the discussion surrounding this goal in Zambia, this study examines how education quality is conceptualised by educational stakeholders at local, national, and global levels. Triangulating…

  18. Global vs local brands: how home country bias and price differences impact brand evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winit, W.; Gregory, G.; Cleveland, M.; Verlegh, P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the distinction between global and local brands, providing a more comprehensive framework, which considers both geographical distribution and ownership. It examines main and interactive effects of consumers’ perceptions of these factors, and

  19. Pneumothorax detection in chest radiographs using local and global texture signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Ofer; Zimmerman-Moreno, Gali; Lieberman, Sivan; Konen, Eli; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-03-01

    A novel framework for automatic detection of pneumothorax abnormality in chest radiographs is presented. The suggested method is based on a texture analysis approach combined with supervised learning techniques. The proposed framework consists of two main steps: at first, a texture analysis process is performed for detection of local abnormalities. Labeled image patches are extracted in the texture analysis procedure following which local analysis values are incorporated into a novel global image representation. The global representation is used for training and detection of the abnormality at the image level. The presented global representation is designed based on the distinctive shape of the lung, taking into account the characteristics of typical pneumothorax abnormalities. A supervised learning process was performed on both the local and global data, leading to trained detection system. The system was tested on a dataset of 108 upright chest radiographs. Several state of the art texture feature sets were experimented with (Local Binary Patterns, Maximum Response filters). The optimal configuration yielded sensitivity of 81% with specificity of 87%. The results of the evaluation are promising, establishing the current framework as a basis for additional improvements and extensions.

  20. Global and local asymptotics for the busy period of an M/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.E.; Shneer, V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 queue with subexponential service times. We give a simple derivation of the global and local asymptotics for the busy period. Our analysis relies on the explicit formula for the joint distribution for the number of customers and the length of the busy period of an M/G/1 queue.

  1. The Internet as a Global/Local Site of Contestation : The Case of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimardani, M.; Milan, S.; Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter sheds light on the role of the internet as a site of contestation capable of connecting the local and the global dimension of a protest in countries with a virtually closed political arena. It takes Iran as an exemplary case for the study of the technology-related protest cultures that

  2. Forecasting an invasive species’ distribution with global distribution data, local data, and physiological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Talbert, Marian; Talbert, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding invasive species distributions and potential invasions often requires broad‐scale information on the environmental tolerances of the species. Further, resource managers are often faced with knowing these broad‐scale relationships as well as nuanced environmental factors related to their landscape that influence where an invasive species occurs and potentially could occur. Using invasive buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), we developed global models and local models for Saguaro National Park, Arizona, USA, based on location records and literature on physiological tolerances to environmental factors to investigate whether environmental relationships of a species at a global scale are also important at local scales. In addition to correlative models with five commonly used algorithms, we also developed a model using a priori user‐defined relationships between occurrence and environmental characteristics based on a literature review. All correlative models at both scales performed well based on statistical evaluations. The user‐defined curves closely matched those produced by the correlative models, indicating that the correlative models may be capturing mechanisms driving the distribution of buffelgrass. Given climate projections for the region, both global and local models indicate that conditions at Saguaro National Park may become more suitable for buffelgrass. Combining global and local data with correlative models and physiological information provided a holistic approach to forecasting invasive species distributions.

  3. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical ...

  4. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Liberman, N.; Shapiro, O.

    2009-01-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e.,

  5. On the Equivalence between some Local and Global Chinese Postman and Traveling Salesman Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granot, D.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A connected graph G=(V,E), a vertex in V and a non-negative weight function defined on Ecan be used to induce Chinese postman and traveling salesman (cooperative) games. A graph G=(V,E) is said to be locally (respectively, globally) Chinese postman balanced (respectively, totally balanced,

  6. Neoliberalism and Public University Agendas: Tensions along the Global/Local Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanyenya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, internationalization efforts have accelerated at leading postsecondary institutions in North America and elsewhere, with universities now aggressively competing for the most talented students worldwide. With the focus on recruiting international students, one of the major attendant objectives has seemingly been a social-justice-oriented agenda on tackling pressing global issues; the local has indeed become the global. However, not everyone is ostensibly benefiting from this new global focus. For some, their local issues and conditions are increasingly precarious and nonprioritized in institutional and broadening neoliberal governmental agendas. In the Canadian context, various Indigenous and low-income racialized communities, youth in particular, face multiple implications of this reality. For these communities, secondary school completion and postsecondary educational attainment are decreasing, while incarceration rates among the youth are significantly increasing. In this viewpoint paper, we briefly highlight two localized program examples, sharing our experiences as educators, and call for a constructive dialogue regarding how universities’ social justice agendas can better work for all people, both locally and globally.

  7. Modelling of local/global architectures for second level trigger at the LHC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, Z.; Iwanski, W.; Korecyl, K.; Strong, J.

    1994-01-01

    Different architectures of the second level triggering system for experiments on LHC have been simulated. The basic scheme was local/global system with distributed computing power. As a tool the authors have used the object-oriented MODSIM II language

  8. The Global-Local Negotiation: Between the Official and the Implemented History Curriculum in Israeli Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Bronshtein, Yifat

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation and technological advances in the twenty-first century have caused a blurring of national lines, which in the past were the basis of a nearly indisputable model of civic identity. This process has led to a noticeable trend of the globally oriented pressures within the national curricula, on top of the existing locally oriented…

  9. Navigating catastrophes: Local but not global optimisation allows for macro-economic navigation of crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    Two aspects of modern economic theory have dominated the recent discussion on the state of the global economy: Crashes in financial markets and whether or not traditional notions of economic equilibrium have any validity. We have all seen the consequences of market crashes: plummeting share prices, businesses collapsing and considerable uncertainty throughout the global economy. This seems contrary to what might be expected of a system in equilibrium where growth dominates the relatively minor fluctuations in prices. Recent work from within economics as well as by physicists, psychologists and computational scientists has significantly improved our understanding of the more complex aspects of these systems. With this interdisciplinary approach in mind, a behavioural economics model of local optimisation is introduced and three general properties are proven. The first is that under very specific conditions local optimisation leads to a conventional macro-economic notion of a global equilibrium. The second is that if both global optimisation and economic growth are required then under very mild assumptions market catastrophes are an unavoidable consequence. Third, if only local optimisation and economic growth are required then there is sufficient parametric freedom for macro-economic policy makers to steer an economy around catastrophes without overtly disrupting local optimisation.

  10. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  11. l0 Sparsity for Image Denoising with Local and Global Priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a l0 sparsity based approach to remove additive white Gaussian noise from a given image. To achieve this goal, we combine the local prior and global prior together to recover the noise-free values of pixels. The local prior depends on the neighborhood relationships of a search window to help maintain edges and smoothness. The global prior is generated from a hierarchical l0 sparse representation to help eliminate the redundant information and preserve the global consistency. In addition, to make the correlations between pixels more meaningful, we adopt Principle Component Analysis to measure the similarities, which can be both propitious to reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracies. Experiments on the benchmark image set show that the proposed approach can achieve superior performance to the state-of-the-art approaches both in accuracy and perception in removing the zero-mean additive white Gaussian noise.

  12. Effects of footwear and stride length on metatarsal strains and failure in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firminger, Colin R; Fung, Anita; Loundagin, Lindsay L; Edwards, W Brent

    2017-11-01

    The metatarsal bones of the foot are particularly susceptible to stress fracture owing to the high strains they experience during the stance phase of running. Shoe cushioning and stride length reduction represent two potential interventions to decrease metatarsal strain and thus stress fracture risk. Fourteen male recreational runners ran overground at a 5-km pace while motion capture and plantar pressure data were collected during four experimental conditions: traditional shoe at preferred and 90% preferred stride length, and minimalist shoe at preferred and 90% preferred stride length. Combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling based on motion analysis and computed tomography data were used to quantify metatarsal strains and the probability of failure was determined using stress-life predictions. No significant interactions between footwear and stride length were observed. Running in minimalist shoes increased strains for all metatarsals by 28.7% (SD 6.4%; pRunning at 90% preferred stride length decreased strains for metatarsal 4 by 4.2% (SD 2.0%; p≤0.007), and no differences in probability of failure were observed. Significant increases in metatarsal strains and the probability of failure were observed for recreational runners acutely transitioning to minimalist shoes. Running with a 10% reduction in stride length did not appear to be a beneficial technique for reducing the risk of metatarsal stress fracture, however the increased number of loading cycles for a given distance was not detrimental either. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of welding residual distortions of large structures using a local/global approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Y. G.; Bergheau, J. M.; Vincent, Y.; Boitour, F.; Leblond, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of welding residual distortions is more difficult than that of the microstructure and residual stresses. On the one hand, a fine mesh (often 3D) has to be used in the heat affected zone for the sake of the sharp variations of thermal, metallurgical and mechanical fields in this region. On the other hand, the whole structure is required to be meshed for the calculation of residual distortions. But for large structures, a 3D mesh is inconceivable caused by the costs of the calculation. Numerous methods have been developed to reduce the size of models. A local/global approach has been proposed to determine the welding residual distortions of large structures. The plastic strains and the microstructure due to welding are supposed can be determined from a local 3D model which concerns only the weld and its vicinity. They are projected as initial strains into a global 3D model which consists of the whole structure and obviously much less fine in the welded zone than the local model. The residual distortions are then calculated using a simple elastic analysis, which makes this method particularly effective in an industrial context. The aim of this article is to present the principle of the local/global approach then show the capacity of this method in an industrial context and finally study the definition of the local model

  14. Local Wisdom of Kasepuhan Ciptagelar: The Development of Social Solidarity in The Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rohman Ramadhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kasepuhan Ciptagelar is one of the Sundanese traditional village based on agricultural culture in West Java Province, Indonesia. Kasepuhan Ciptagelar people still hold and apply their ancestral cultural values in their daily life. The purpose of this study is to (1 know the existence of local wisdom values that exist in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar society; (2 to know the form of social solidarity values that exist in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar community and (3 Integration of local wisdom value for social solidarity development in globalization era. This research is a descriptive qualitative research, with ethnography approach. The results show that (1 Kasepuhan Ciptagelar community has some local wisdom, they are social solidarity, environment awareness, democratic, honest, responsibility and creative. The values of existing local wisdom still exist and are proven to survive in the era of globalization; (2 social solidarity in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar reflected from social interaction, trust and social awareness that exist in society; and (3 Development of social solidarity in the era of globalization can be done through the integration of local wisdom into education in School.

  15. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  16. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  17. RIPH: A Model for Representing the Reality in the Global and Local Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Hosseynov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is witnessing great changes, and these changes are comprehensible in the realm of performance of "identity", "boundary", "geographic concept” (place and "time". Identities are now segmented, boundaries passed over, and places and time compressed. Television is one of the effective factors in making this happen. However, it seems like television, which itself is one of the evidences of globalization, has now acquired new characteristics. With a little care while reading texts related to globalization and media, we realize the four words "reality", "identity", "power" and "hyper-reality" are constantly repeated in these texts, and very few people doubt the close relationship between television and these topics. Facing such a situation, and to understand the characteristics of the global television, this article plans to start on the basis of a theoretic called "RIPH Model". Based on the presumption that the role and place of television in forming the cultural shapes must not be exaggerated, it tries to present an outlook of the activities of the local and global televisions in the age of globalization and share the outcomes with 20 Iranian experts through interviews. RIPH is the short form which stands for the four words "reality", "identity", "power" and "hyper-reality". These are the concepts with new definitions that have changed our views about life on the Planet Earth, and this article studies the factors related to global and local televisions in the frame of an innovative model suggested by the researcher called "The Lozenge of the Performance of the Global and Local Televisions (RIPH Model", by investigating the relations between television and the above-mentioned concepts.

  18. The Value of Native Plants and Local Production in an Era of Global Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Weisberg, Peter J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2017-01-01

    For addressing potential food shortages, a fundamental tradeoff exists between investing more resources to increasing productivity of existing crops, as opposed to increasing crop diversity by incorporating more species. We explore ways to use local plants as food resources and the potential to promote food diversity and agricultural resilience. We discuss how use of local plants and the practice of local agriculture can contribute to ongoing adaptability in times of global change. Most food crops are now produced, transported, and consumed long distances from their homelands of origin. At the same time, research and practices are directed primarily at improving the productivity of a small number of existing crops that form the cornerstone of a global food economy, rather than to increasing crop diversity. The result is a loss of agro-biodiversity, leading to a food industry that is more susceptible to abiotic and biotic stressors, and more at risk of catastrophic losses. Humans cultivate only about 150 of an estimated 30,000 edible plant species worldwide, with only 30 plant species comprising the vast majority of our diets. To some extent, these practices explain the food disparity among human populations, where nearly 1 billion people suffer insufficient nutrition and 2 billion people are obese or overweight. Commercial uses of new crops and wild plants of local origin have the potential to diversify global food production and better enable local adaptation to the diverse environments humans inhabit. We discuss the advantages, obstacles, and risks of using local plants. We also describe a case study-the missed opportunity to produce pine nuts commercially in the Western United States. We discuss the potential consequences of using local pine nuts rather than importing them overseas. Finally, we provide a list of edible native plants, and synthesize the state of research concerning the potential and challenges in using them for food production. The goal of our

  19. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  20. Switching between global and local levels: the level repetition effect and its hemispheric asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéïta, Luc; Bedoin, Nathalie; Burack, Jacob A.; Lepore, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The global level of hierarchical stimuli (Navon’s stimuli) is typically processed quicker and better than the local level; further differential hemispheric dominance is described for local (left hemisphere, LH) and global (right hemisphere, RH) processing. However, neuroimaging and behavioral data indicate that stimulus category (letter or object) could modulate the hemispheric asymmetry for the local level processing. Besides, when the targets are unpredictably displayed at the global or local level, the participant has to switch between levels, and the magnitude of the switch cost increases with the number of repeated-level trials preceding the switch. The hemispheric asymmetries associated with level switching is an unresolved issue. LH areas may be involved in carrying over the target level information in case of level repetition. These areas may also largely participate in the processing of level-changed trials. Here we hypothesized that RH areas underly the inhibitory mechanism performed on the irrelevant level, as one of the components of the level switching process. In an experiment using a within-subject design, hierarchical stimuli were briefly presented either to the right or to the left visual field. 32 adults were instructed to identify the target at the global or local level. We assessed a possible RH dominance for the non-target level inhibition by varying the attentional demands through the manipulation of level repetitions (two or gour repeated-level trials before the switch). The behavioral data confirmed a LH specialization only for the local level processing of letter-based stimuli, and detrimental effect of increased level repetitions before a switch. Further, data provides evidence for a RH advantage in inhibiting the non-target level. Taken together, the data supports the notion of the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying level-switch effects. PMID:24723903

  1. Hole mobility enhancement of p-MOSFETs using global and local Ge-channel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinichi; Tezuka, T.; Irisawa, T.; Nakaharai, S.; Maeda, T.; Numata, T.; Ikeda, K.; Sugiyama, N.

    2006-01-01

    Mobility enhancement technologies have currently been recognized as mandatory for future scaled MOSFETs. In this paper, we review our recent results on high hole mobility p-MOSFETs using global/local SiGe or Ge channels. There are two directions for introducing SiGe or Ge channels into Si CMOS platform. One is to use SiGe or Ge global substrates and the other is to form SiGe or Ge-channel regions locally on Si wafers. In both cases, the Ge condensation technique, where Ge-channel layers are formed by oxidizing SiGe films on SOI substrates, are effectively utilized. As for the global technologies, ultrathin GOI substrates are prepared and used to fabricate high mobility GOI p-MOSFETs. As for the local technologies, SGOI or GOI channels are formed locally in the active area of p-MOSFETs on SOI wafers. It is shown that the hole mobility enhancement factor of as high as 10 is obtained in locally fabricated p-MOSFETs through the effects of high-Ge content and the compressive strain. Furthermore, the local Ge-channel technologies are combined with global SiGe or Ge substrates for pursuing the optimal and individual design of n-MOSFETs and p-MOSFETs on a single Si wafer. The CMOS device composed of strained-Si n-MOSFETs and SGOI p-MOSFETs is successfully integrated on a same wafer, which is a promising CMOS structure under deep sub 100 nm technology nodes

  2. Selling Local Modernization through the Global Corporation: Coca-Cola Bottling in Colombia, 1927-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ciafone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coca-Cola Company sold drink concentrates and licensed rights to its trademarked brands to contracted bottlers who produced and sold bottled drinks in designated geographic areas around the world, including Colombia, beginning in 1927. The franchise system enabled international expansion without large corporate growth or direct local employment allowing the company to externalize liability and financial risk. The franchise system helped the company situate the production of Coca-Cola within local economies, conscripting local elites and workers into its industry, and negotiating its representational forms to fit local contexts. The Coca-Cola Company thus benefited from the economic and political power of both the U.S. and the Colombian elite as it established its business in the country beginning in 1927. Examining print advertising from the 1920s and 1940s, the papers of Coca-Cola executives, and publications of the U.S. multinational and its Colombian franchise bottler, this article argues that The Coca-Cola Company tenuously constructed its industry, products, and brands as simultaneously global and local. While localizing the Coca-Cola industry, products, and brand, the company alluded to its modernity and global popularity, available for purchase by enterprising merchants and thirsty consumers in Colombia.

  3. Development and verification of local/global analysis techniques for laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis and design methods for laminated composite materials have been the subject of considerable research over the past 20 years, and are currently well developed. In performing the detailed three-dimensional analyses which are often required in proximity to discontinuities, however, analysts often encounter difficulties due to large models. Even with the current availability of powerful computers, models which are too large to run, either from a resource or time standpoint, are often required. There are several approaches which can permit such analyses, including substructuring, use of superelements or transition elements, and the global/local approach. This effort is based on the so-called zoom technique to global/local analysis, where a global analysis is run, with the results of that analysis applied to a smaller region as boundary conditions, in as many iterations as is required to attain an analysis of the desired region. Before beginning the global/local analyses, it was necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the three-dimensional elements currently implemented in the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed. It was also desired to install, using the Experimental Element Capability, a number of displacement formulation elements which have well known behavior when used for analysis of laminated composites.

  4. The local in the global – creating ethical relations between producers and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Torjusen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’explorer comment les produits locaux et localisés jouent un rôle dans la créations de relations « équitables » entre producteurs et consommateurs, dans le système alimentaire globalisé actuel. Dans un premier temps nous discuterons les termes de « local » et de « produits locaux ». Dans un second temps nous présenterons trois exemples de stratégies fondées sur les produits locaux et l’équitabilité : le commerce équitable, Slow Food et les associations pour le maintien de l’agriculture paysanne (AMAP. A partir des ces exemples nous discuterons de l’impact d’un système alimentaire globalisé sur le développement d’un système alimentaire localisé, soulignant le fait que considérer le « local dans le global » offre à la fois une perspective de transformation, de mouvement et de résistance.In this paper we explore how “local” food plays a role in creating ethical relations between producers and consumers in today’s globalized food system. First, understandings of local and local food will be discussed. Second, we will present and reflect on three examples of local food strategies for creating ethical links between producers and consumers: Fair trade, Slow Food and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA. We argue that the process of globalisation of the food system creates space for various local food initiatives, indicating that the local in the global offers both a potential for transformation, movement and site of resistance.

  5. The role of size constancy for the integration of local elements into a global shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception depends on the visual context and is likely to be influenced by size constancy, which predicts a size and distance invariant perception of objects. However, size constancy can also result in optical illusions that allow the manipulation of the perceived size. We thus asked whether the integration of local elements into a global object can be influenced by manipulations of the visual context and size constancy? A set of stimuli was applied in healthy individuals that took advantage of the ‘Kanizsa’ illusion, in which three circles with open wedges oriented towards a center point are placed to form an illusionary perception of a triangle. In addition, a 3D-perspective view was implemented in which the global target (‘Kanizsa’ triangle was placed in combination with several distractor circles either in a close or a distant position. Subjects were engaged in a global recognition task on the location of the ‘Kanizsa’ triangle. Global recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles improved with a decreasing length of the illusory contour. Interestingly, recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles decreased when they were perceived as if they were located further away. We conclude that the integration of local elements into a global object is dependent on the visual context and dominated by size constancy.

  6. Investigation of global and local network properties of music perception with culturally different styles of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Rui, Xue; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Graph theoretical analysis has recently become a popular research tool in neuroscience, however, there have been very few studies on brain responses to music perception, especially when culturally different styles of music are involved. Electroencephalograms were recorded from ten subjects listening to Chinese traditional music, light music and western classical music. For event-related potentials, phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and then constructed into correlation matrices. Clustering coefficients and characteristic path lengths were evaluated for global properties, while clustering coefficients and efficiency were assessed for local network properties. Perception of light music and western classical music manifested small-world network properties, especially with a relatively low proportion of weights of correlation matrices. For local analysis, efficiency was more discernible than clustering coefficient. Nevertheless, there was no significant discrimination between Chinese traditional and western classical music perception. Perception of different styles of music introduces different network properties, both globally and locally. Research into both global and local network properties has been carried out in other areas; however, this is a preliminary investigation aimed at suggesting a possible new approach to brain network properties in music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial expression recognition under partial occlusion based on fusion of global and local features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Xia, Chen; Hu, Min; Ren, Fuji

    2018-04-01

    Facial expression recognition under partial occlusion is a challenging research. This paper proposes a novel framework for facial expression recognition under occlusion by fusing the global and local features. In global aspect, first, information entropy are employed to locate the occluded region. Second, principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is adopted to reconstruct the occlusion region of image. After that, a replace strategy is applied to reconstruct image by replacing the occluded region with the corresponding region of the best matched image in training set, Pyramid Weber Local Descriptor (PWLD) feature is then extracted. At last, the outputs of SVM are fitted to the probabilities of the target class by using sigmoid function. For the local aspect, an overlapping block-based method is adopted to extract WLD features, and each block is weighted adaptively by information entropy, Chi-square distance and similar block summation methods are then applied to obtain the probabilities which emotion belongs to. Finally, fusion at the decision level is employed for the data fusion of the global and local features based on Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Experimental results on the Cohn-Kanade and JAFFE databases demonstrate the effectiveness and fault tolerance of this method.

  8. Abnormal functional global and local brain connectivity in female patients with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton R.; Boehm, Ilka; Ritschel, Franziska; Zwipp, Johannes; Clas, Sabine; King, Joseph A.; Wolff-Stephan, Silvia; Roessner, Veit; Walter, Martin; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous resting-state functional connectivity studies in patients with anorexia nervosa used independent component analysis or seed-based connectivity analysis to probe specific brain networks. Instead, modelling the entire brain as a complex network allows determination of graph-theoretical metrics, which describe global and local properties of how brain networks are organized and how they interact. Methods To determine differences in network properties between female patients with acute anorexia nervosa and pairwise matched healthy controls, we used resting-state fMRI and computed well-established global and local graph metrics across a range of network densities. Results Our analyses included 35 patients and 35 controls. We found that the global functional network structure in patients with anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in both characteristic path length (longer average routes between nodes) and assortativity (more nodes with a similar connectedness link together). Accordingly, we found locally decreased connectivity strength and increased path length in the posterior insula and thalamus. Limitations The present results may be limited to the methods applied during preprocessing and network construction. Conclusion We demonstrated anorexia nervosa–related changes in the network configuration for, to our knowledge, the first time using resting-state fMRI and graph-theoretical measures. Our findings revealed an altered global brain network architecture accompanied by local degradations indicating wide-scale disturbance in information flow across brain networks in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Reduced local network efficiency in the thalamus and posterior insula may reflect a mechanism that helps explain the impaired integration of visuospatial and homeostatic signals in patients with this disorder, which is thought to be linked to abnormal representations of body size and hunger. PMID:26252451

  9. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-02-12

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  10. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing; Wang, B.; Lubineau, Gilles; Moussawi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  11. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam T [Brentwood, CA

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  12. Neutrino Masses in the Landscape and Global-Local Dualities in Eternal Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainemer Katz, Dan

    In this dissertation we study two topics in Theoretical Cosmology: one more formal, the other more phenomenological. We work in the context of eternally inflating cosmologies. These arise in any fundamental theory that contains at least one stable or metastable de Sitter vacuum. Each topic is presented in a different chapter: Chapter 1 deals with the measure problem in eternal inflation. Global-local duality is the equivalence of seemingly different regulators in eternal inflation. For example, the light- cone time cutoff (a global measure, which regulates time) makes the same predictions as the causal patch (a local measure that cuts off space). We show that global-local duality is far more general. It rests on a redundancy inherent in any global cutoff: at late times, an attractor regime is reached, characterized by the unlimited exponential self-reproduction of a certain fundamental region of spacetime. An equivalent local cutoff can be obtained by restricting to this fundamental region. We derive local duals to several global cutoffs of interest. The New Scale Factor Cutoff is dual to the Short Fat Geodesic, a geodesic of fixed infinitesimal proper width. Vilenkin's CAH Cutoff is equivalent to the Hubbletube, whose width is proportional to the local Hubble volume. The famous youngness problem of the Proper Time Cutoff can be readily understood by considering its local dual, the Incredible Shrinking Geodesic. The chapter closely follows our paper. Chapter 2 deals with the question of whether neutrino masses could be anthropically explained. The sum of active neutrino masses is well constrained, 58 meV ≤ mupsilon [is approximately less than] 0.23 eV, but the origin of this scale is not well understood. Here we investigate the possibility that it arises by environmental selection in a large landscape of vacua. Earlier work had noted the detrimental effects of neutrinos on large scale structure. However, using Boltzmann codes to compute the smoothed density

  13. Globalization and local response to epidemiological overlap in 21st century Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters William F

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Third World countries are confronted by a complex overlay of two sets of health problems. Traditional maladies, including communicable diseases, malnutrition, and environmental health hazards coexist with emerging health challenges, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and increasing levels of obesity. Using Ecuador as an example, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for linking epidemiologic overlap to emerging social structures and processes at the national and global levels. Discussion Epidemiologic trends can be seen as part of broader processes related to globalization, but this does not imply that globalization is a monolithic force that inevitably and uniformly affects nations, communities, and households in the same manner. Rather, characteristics and forms of social organization at the subnational level can shape the way that globalization takes place. Thus, globalization has affected Ecuador in specific ways and is, at the same time, intimately related to the form in which the epidemiologic transition has transpired in that country. Summary Ecuador is among neither the poorest nor the wealthiest countries and its situation may illuminate trends in other parts of the world. As in other countries, insertion into the global economy has not taken place in a vacuum; rather, Ecuador has experienced unprecedented social and demographic change in the past several decades, producing profound transformation in its social structure. Examples of local represent alternatives to centralized health systems that do not effectively address the complex overlay of traditional and emerging health problems.

  14. Keyframes Global Map Establishing Method for Robot Localization through Content-Based Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-localization and mapping are important for indoor mobile robot. We report a robust algorithm for map building and subsequent localization especially suited for indoor floor-cleaning robots. Common methods, for example, SLAM, can easily be kidnapped by colliding or disturbed by similar objects. Therefore, keyframes global map establishing method for robot localization in multiple rooms and corridors is needed. Content-based image matching is the core of this method. It is designed for the situation, by establishing keyframes containing both floor and distorted wall images. Image distortion, caused by robot view angle and movement, is analyzed and deduced. And an image matching solution is presented, consisting of extraction of overlap regions of keyframes extraction and overlap region rebuild through subblocks matching. For improving accuracy, ceiling points detecting and mismatching subblocks checking methods are incorporated. This matching method can process environment video effectively. In experiments, less than 5% frames are extracted as keyframes to build global map, which have large space distance and overlap each other. Through this method, robot can localize itself by matching its real-time vision frames with our keyframes map. Even with many similar objects/background in the environment or kidnapping robot, robot localization is achieved with position RMSE <0.5 m.

  15. Participatory monitoring to connect local and global priorities for forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristen; Guariguata, Manuel R; Brancalion, Pedro H S

    2018-03-13

    New global initiatives to restore forest landscapes present an unparalleled opportunity to reverse deforestation and forest degradation. Participatory monitoring could play a crucial role in providing accountability, generating local buy in, and catalyzing learning in monitoring systems that need scalability and adaptability to a range of local sites. We synthesized current knowledge from literature searches and interviews to provide lessons for the development of a scalable, multisite participatory monitoring system. Studies show that local people can collect accurate data on forest change, drivers of change, threats to reforestation, and biophysical and socioeconomic impacts that remote sensing cannot. They can do this at one-third the cost of professionals. Successful participatory monitoring systems collect information on a few simple indicators, respond to local priorities, provide appropriate incentives for participation, and catalyze learning and decision making based on frequent analyses and multilevel interactions with other stakeholders. Participatory monitoring could provide a framework for linking global, national, and local needs, aspirations, and capacities for forest restoration. © 2018 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Speed of quantum evolution of entangled two qubits states: Local vs. global evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curilef, S; Zander, C; Plastino, A R

    2008-01-01

    There is a lower bound for the 'speed' of quantum evolution as measured by the time needed to reach an orthogonal state. We show that, for two-qubits systems, states saturating the quantum speed limit tend to exhibit a small amount of local evolution, as measured by the fidelity between the initial and final single qubit states after the time τ required by the composite system to reach an orthogonal state. Consequently, a trade-off between the speed of global evolution and the amount of local evolution seems to be at work.

  17. Global and local "teachable moments": The role of Nobel Prize and national pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Segev, Elad

    2018-05-01

    This study examined to what extent Nobel Prize announcements and awards trigger global and local searches or "teachable moments" related to the laureates and their discoveries. We examined the longitudinal trends in Google searches for the names and discoveries of Nobel laureates from 2012 to 2017. The findings show that Nobel Prize events clearly trigger more searches for laureates, but also for their respective discoveries. We suggest that fascination with the Nobel prize creates a teachable moment not only for the underlying science, but also about the nature of science. Locality also emerged as playing a significant role in intensifying interest.

  18. Dialogic Cosmopolitanism and the New Wave of Movements: From Local Rupture to Global Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2017-01-01

    cosmopolitanism to account for the kind of cosmopolitanism which characterizes this new cycle. Being dialogic entails connectivity between previous and forthcoming struggles in a process combining determination and anticipation with the constant (re)definition of the movement. This process is considered...... to be the combination of social local ruptures with global openness. Dialogic cosmopolitanism consists of 3 main features: the conflictual dimension, whereby the dominant consensus is questioned and spaces of conflict and dissent are generated; the shaping of translocal solidarities that are able to connect local...

  19. Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A.; Alves, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.

  20. Online 3D Ear Recognition by Combining Global and Local Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Bob; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional shape of the ear has been proven to be a stable candidate for biometric authentication because of its desirable properties such as universality, uniqueness, and permanence. In this paper, a special laser scanner designed for online three-dimensional ear acquisition was described. Based on the dataset collected by our scanner, two novel feature classes were defined from a three-dimensional ear image: the global feature class (empty centers and angles) and local feature class (points, lines, and areas). These features are extracted and combined in an optimal way for three-dimensional ear recognition. Using a large dataset consisting of 2,000 samples, the experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of fusing global and local features, obtaining an equal error rate of 2.2%.

  1. Online 3D Ear Recognition by Combining Global and Local Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional shape of the ear has been proven to be a stable candidate for biometric authentication because of its desirable properties such as universality, uniqueness, and permanence. In this paper, a special laser scanner designed for online three-dimensional ear acquisition was described. Based on the dataset collected by our scanner, two novel feature classes were defined from a three-dimensional ear image: the global feature class (empty centers and angles and local feature class (points, lines, and areas. These features are extracted and combined in an optimal way for three-dimensional ear recognition. Using a large dataset consisting of 2,000 samples, the experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of fusing global and local features, obtaining an equal error rate of 2.2%.

  2. Evidence for local and global redox conditions at an Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cole T.; Fike, David A.; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Lu, Wanyi; Lu, Zunli

    2018-01-01

    Profound changes in environmental conditions, particularly atmospheric oxygen levels, are thought to be important drivers of several major biotic events (e.g. mass extinctions and diversifications). The early Paleozoic represents a key interval in the oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and evolution of the biosphere. Global proxies (e.g. carbon (δ13C) and sulfur (δ34S) isotopes) are used to diagnose potential changes in oxygenation and infer causes of environmental change and biotic turnover. The Cambrian-Ordovician contains several trilobite extinctions (some are apparently local, but others are globally correlative) that are attributed to anoxia based on coeval positive δ13C and δ34S excursions. These extinction and excursion events have yet to be coupled with more recently developed proxies thought to be more reflective of local redox conditions in the water column (e.g. I/Ca) to confirm whether these extinctions were associated with oxygen crises over a regional or global scale. Here we examine an Early Ordovician (Tremadocian Stage) extinction event previously interpreted to reflect a continuation of recurrent early Paleozoic anoxic events that expanded into nearshore environments. δ13C, δ34S, and I/Ca trends were measured from three sections in the Great Basin region to test whether I/Ca trends support the notion that anoxia was locally present in the water column along the Laurentian margin. Evidence for anoxia is based on coincident, but not always synchronous, positive δ13C and δ34S excursions (mainly from carbonate-associated sulfate and less so from pyrite data), a 30% extinction of standing generic diversity, and near-zero I/Ca values. Although evidence for local water column anoxia from the I/Ca proxy broadly agrees with intervals of global anoxia inferred from δ13C and δ34S trends, a more complex picture is evident where spatially and temporally variable local trends are superimposed on time-averaged global trends. Stratigraphic

  3. Relations between perceptual and conceptual scope: how global versus local processing fits a focus on similarity versus dissimilarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Nine studies showed a bidirectional link (a) between a global processing style and generation of similarities and (b) between a local processing style and generation of dissimilarities. In Experiments 1-4, participants were primed with global versus local perception styles and then asked to work on

  4. Sense creative! The impact of global and local vision, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling on creative and analytic thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Denzler, M.

    2012-01-01

    Holistic (global) versus elemental (local) perception reflects a prominent distinction in psychology; however, so far it has almost entirely been examined in the domain of vision. Current work suggests that global/local processing styles operate across sensory modalities. As for vision, it is

  5. Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room: Global and Local Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Shun Eva Lam

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers how global practices of English on the Internet intersect with local practices of English in the territorial or national sphere in constructing the language experiences of immigrant learners. Using a multi-contextual approach to language socialization, this paper examines the social and discursive practices in a Chinese/English bilingual chat room and how this Internet chat room provides an additional context of language socialization for two teenage Chinese immigrants in...

  6. Path integral for spinning particle in the plane wave field: Global and local projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiaf, N.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Green function related to the problem of a Dirac particle interacting with a plane wave is calculated via the path integral formalism proposed recently by Alexandrou et al. according to the two so-called global and local projections. With the help of the incorporation of two simple identities, it is shown that the contribution to the calculation of the integrals comes essentially from classical solutions projected along the direction of wave propagation. (orig.)

  7. From local to global (and back): Towards glocal ethnographies of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Noel B.

    2010-01-01

    Researching cultural tourism, covering the gamut from global standards of hospitality to dyadic host-guest interactions, is a fascinating but challenging endeavour. Since travel-for-leisure is a multi-layered phenomenon, many studies fail to understand and explain it adequately. Using a research project in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, as an example, I demonstrate how a “glocal ethnography” approach helps to capture the details of the local cultural tourism scene while at the same time it pays atten...

  8. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: Evidence from the global-local task

    OpenAIRE

    Colzato, L.S.; Barone, H.; Sellaro, R.; Hommel, B.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40?Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340?Hz (control condition) for 3?min before and during a global?local task. While the size of the ...

  9. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  10. Walking speed-related changes in stride time variability: effects of decreased speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubost Veronique

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results have been reported regarding the relationship between stride time variability (STV and walking speed. While some studies failed to establish any relationship, others reported either a linear or a non-linear relationship. We therefore sought to determine the extent to which decrease in self-selected walking speed influenced STV among healthy young adults. Methods The mean value, the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of stride time, as well as the mean value of stride velocity were recorded while steady-state walking using the GAITRite® system in 29 healthy young adults who walked consecutively at 88%, 79%, 71%, 64%, 58%, 53%, 46% and 39% of their preferred walking speed. Results The decrease in stride velocity increased significantly mean values, SD and CoV of stride time (p Conclusion The results support the assumption that gait variability increases while walking speed decreases and, thus, gait might be more unstable when healthy subjects walk slower compared with their preferred walking speed. Furthermore, these results highlight that a decrease in walking speed can be a potential confounder while evaluating STV.

  11. Project Stride: An Equine-Assisted Intervention to Reduce Symptoms of Social Anxiety in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Sarah V; Alfonso, Lauren A; Llabre, Maria M; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence supporting the use of equine-assisted activities to treat mental disorders, its efficacy in reducing signs and symptoms of social anxiety in young women has not been examined. We developed and pilot tested Project Stride, a brief, six-session intervention combining equine-assisted activities and cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce symptoms of social anxiety. A total of 12 women, 18-29 years of age, were randomly assigned to Project Stride or a no-treatment control. Participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale at baseline, immediate-post, and 6 weeks after treatment. Project Stride was highly acceptable and feasible. Compared to control participants, those in Project Stride had significantly greater reductions in social anxiety scores from baseline to immediate-post [decrease of 24.8 points; t (9) = 3.40, P = .008)] and from baseline to follow-up [decrease of 31.8 points; t (9) = 4.12, P = .003)]. These findings support conducting a full-scale efficacy trial of Project Stride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultura organizacional brasileira pós-globalização: global ou local? Brazilian cultural organization in post-globalization: global or local?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Alves Chu

    2008-10-01

    professionals working in Brazil and with Brazilian professionals with overseas experience. Comparison of the present study with previous ones shows a hybrid picture typical of a transition period marked by the coexistence of pre-and post-globalization traits.

  13. Coupled local facilitation and global hydrologic inhibition drive landscape geometry in a patterned peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Casey, S.; Cohen, M. J.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    Self-organized landscape patterning can arise in response to multiple processes. Discriminating among alternative patterning mechanisms, particularly where experimental manipulations are untenable, requires process-based models. Previous modeling studies have attributed patterning in the Everglades (Florida, USA) to sediment redistribution and anisotropic soil hydraulic properties. In this work, we tested an alternate theory, the self-organizing-canal (SOC) hypothesis, by developing a cellular automata model that simulates pattern evolution via local positive feedbacks (i.e., facilitation) coupled with a global negative feedback based on hydrology. The model is forced by global hydroperiod that drives stochastic transitions between two patch types: ridge (higher elevation) and slough (lower elevation). We evaluated model performance using multiple criteria based on six statistical and geostatistical properties observed in reference portions of the Everglades landscape: patch density, patch anisotropy, semivariogram ranges, power-law scaling of ridge areas, perimeter area fractal dimension, and characteristic pattern wavelength. Model results showed strong statistical agreement with reference landscapes, but only when anisotropically acting local facilitation was coupled with hydrologic global feedback, for which several plausible mechanisms exist. Critically, the model correctly generated fractal landscapes that had no characteristic pattern wavelength, supporting the invocation of global rather than scale-specific negative feedbacks.

  14. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-10

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical paradigm involving the presentation of compound stimuli; large letters composed of smaller letters. Despite the usefulness of this paradigm it remains uncertain whether effects found with compound stimuli relate directly to visual object recognition. It does so because compound stimuli are not actual objects but rather formations of elements and because the elements that form the global shape of compound stimuli are not features of the global shape but rather objects in their own right. To examine the relationship between performance on Navon's paradigm and visual object processing we derived two indexes from Navon's paradigm that reflect different aspects of the relationship between global and local processing. We find that individual differences on these indexes can explain a considerable amount of variance in two standard object classification paradigms; object decision and superordinate categorization, suggesting that Navon's paradigm does relate to visual object processing.

  15. Working memory capacity and Stroop interference: global versus local indices of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a high-congruency or low-congruency Stroop task that restricted trial-to-trial repetitions of stimulus dimensions to examine WMC's relation to congruency-sequence effects while minimizing bottom-up, stimulus-driven contributions. Congruency-sequence effects and congruency-proportion effects were significant but did not interact. WMC predicted global Stroop interference under low-congruency conditions but neither local congruency-sequence effects nor global Stroop interference under high-congruency conditions, contrary to previous studies (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). A high-congruency Stroop task in Experiment 2 removed the Experiment 1 task constraints, and, here, we obtained the typical, global association between WMC and Stroop interference but still no relation between WMC and congruency-sequence effects. We thus examined the methodological differences between Experiments 1 and 2 to determine whether any of these were locally responsible for the global WMC-related differences. They were not, suggesting that the changes between Experiments 1 and 2 created a general task context that engaged (or disengaged) the executive processes associated with WMC.

  16. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  17. Population Policy Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Interplay of Global and Local Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Rachel Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African countries have the highest population growth rates in the world, and are also the poorest. In response to a variety of global and local forces, during the 1980s and 1990s two thirds of sub- Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Drawing from existing research and using the texts of population policies to illustrate key points, this article summarises the factors that drove population policy adoption in the region. Globally, powerful donors with significant leverage promoted population policies as a solution to lagging socioeconomic development while international organizations spread norms about women’s rights and reproductive health. Locally, technocrats working within relevant ministries backed efforts to increase contraceptive prevalence, and population policies furthered political projects unrelated to population. The interplay of global and local forces led to governments adopting population policies. Ultimately, continued high desired fertility and limited implementation capacity have prevented population policies from significantly lowering fertility, but these policies have likely increased the availability of contraception, created important discursive space related to gender and sexuality, and provided countries with an opportunity to test procedures and approaches for policy-making on sensitive issues.

  18. Methods for simultaneously identifying coherent local clusters with smooth global patterns in gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun-Shien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical clustering tree (HCT with a dendrogram 1 and the singular value decomposition (SVD with a dimension-reduced representative map 2 are popular methods for two-way sorting the gene-by-array matrix map employed in gene expression profiling. While HCT dendrograms tend to optimize local coherent clustering patterns, SVD leading eigenvectors usually identify better global grouping and transitional structures. Results This study proposes a flipping mechanism for a conventional agglomerative HCT using a rank-two ellipse (R2E, an improved SVD algorithm for sorting purpose seriation by Chen 3 as an external reference. While HCTs always produce permutations with good local behaviour, the rank-two ellipse seriation gives the best global grouping patterns and smooth transitional trends. The resulting algorithm automatically integrates the desirable properties of each method so that users have access to a clustering and visualization environment for gene expression profiles that preserves coherent local clusters and identifies global grouping trends. Conclusion We demonstrate, through four examples, that the proposed method not only possesses better numerical and statistical properties, it also provides more meaningful biomedical insights than other sorting algorithms. We suggest that sorted proximity matrices for genes and arrays, in addition to the gene-by-array expression matrix, can greatly aid in the search for comprehensive understanding of gene expression structures. Software for the proposed methods can be obtained at http://gap.stat.sinica.edu.tw/Software/GAP.

  19. Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Ramona; Mammarella, Irene C; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-05-01

    Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure. The figures used in the tasks were devised by manipulating two variables: the perceptual cohesiveness and the task uncertainty, stimulating global or local processes. Our results confirmed that children with NLD had more problems with the visuo-constructive version of the task, whereas those with dyslexia showed only a slight difficulty with the visuo-constructive version, but were in greater difficulty with the perceptual version, especially in terms of response times. These findings are interpreted in relation to the slower visual processing speed of children with dyslexia, and to the visuo-constructive problems and difficulty in using flexibly-experienced global vs local processes of children with NLD. The clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of Global-Appearance Descriptors in Map Building and Localization Using Omnidirectional Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Payá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Map building and localization are two crucial abilities that autonomous robots must develop. Vision sensors have become a widespread option to solve these problems. When using this kind of sensors, the robot must extract the necessary information from the scenes to build a representation of the environment where it has to move and to estimate its position and orientation with robustness. The techniques based on the global appearance of the scenes constitute one of the possible approaches to extract this information. They consist in representing each scene using only one descriptor which gathers global information from the scene. These techniques present some advantages comparing to other classical descriptors, based on the extraction of local features. However, it is important a good configuration of the parameters to reach a compromise between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper we make an exhaustive comparison among some global appearance descriptors to solve the mapping and localization problem. With this aim, we make use of several image sets captured in indoor environments under realistic working conditions. The datasets have been collected using an omnidirectional vision sensor mounted on the robot.

  1. Global similarity and local divergence in human and mouse gene co-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide comparative analysis of human and mouse gene expression patterns was performed in order to evaluate the evolutionary divergence of mammalian gene expression. Tissue-specific expression profiles were analyzed for 9,105 human-mouse orthologous gene pairs across 28 tissues. Expression profiles were resolved into species-specific coexpression networks, and the topological properties of the networks were compared between species. Results At the global level, the topological properties of the human and mouse gene coexpression networks are, essentially, identical. For instance, both networks have topologies with small-world and scale-free properties as well as closely similar average node degrees, clustering coefficients, and path lengths. However, the human and mouse coexpression networks are highly divergent at the local level: only a small fraction ( Conclusion The dissonance between global versus local network divergence suggests that the interspecies similarity of the global network properties is of limited biological significance, at best, and that the biologically relevant aspects of the architectures of gene coexpression are specific and particular, rather than universal. Nevertheless, there is substantial evolutionary conservation of the local network structure which is compatible with the notion that gene coexpression networks are subject to purifying selection.

  2. GLOBAL-LOCAL ENVIRONMENT CERTIFICATION AT FIVE STAR HOTELS IN TOURISM AREA OF NUSA DUA, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Gst Nym Suci Murni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to examine the various form of environment certification, ideology behind the practice of green tourism (global award and Tri Hita Karana (local award, and the implication of environment practice at five star hotel in Nusa Dua tourism area. The data of the reserach was assessed by postmodern critical theory (theory of discourse regarding power/knowledge, hegemony theory, practice theory, and theory of deep/shallow ecology. The method used in this cultural studies is the qualitative one, where the data collection were obtained through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and related documentation. The sample used 6 five star hotels which practise green award, of 14 established five star hotels (some hotel is not in full operation.  The results showed that (1 there are some variation of environment practice in five star hotel, (2 ideology working behind these practices can be seen from global ideology in the form of sustainable development deriving green tourism, and the local ideology, in the form of Tri Hita Karana (THK used in THK award, (3 implication of global-local invironment practice in tourism area and surrounding.

  3. Use of the local-global concept in detecting component vibration in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ammar, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The local-global concept, based on the detector adjoint function, was used to develop the response of a detector to an absorber vibrating in one dimension. A one-dimensional two-group diffusion code was developed to calculate the frequency dependent detector response as a function of detector and absorber positions for the coupled-core UTR-10 reactor. Results from this code indicated the best possible detector and absorber locations, where more detailed calculations were made using a two-group, three-dimensional diffusion code with finite detector and absorber volumes. An experiment was then designed, for the chosen positions, using a vibrating cadmium absorber with a detector on each side. The assembly was placed in the vertical central stringer of the reactor. Investigations were carried out for vibrations in two flux gradients and experimental data were analyzed in the frequency domain using a microcomputer-based data acquisition system. The experimental investigation showed the validity of the local-global concept. A normalized outputs cross power spectral density was developed that correctly predicted the different flux tilts in the two flux gradients. It was also shown that the frequency response of the local component had a wide plateau region. Monitoring the behavior of the normalized cross power spectral density was thought to be a promising indicator for the detection and localization of malfunctioning vibrating components. It might also be used to detect flux irregularities in the vicinity of a vibrating component

  4. Local Community Versus Globalization Tendencies: Case Study of Czech Villages in Romanian Banat Region

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    Šantrůčková Markéta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research question is the relationship between the local community and globalization tendencies and transformation or maintenance of local traditions. The research area is a specific locality of a Czech village in Romanian Banat. The local community has evolved in a relative isolation. Agriculture was the most important activity despite the fact that a mining factory was opened there. Agriculture was and in many features still is traditional, self-supplying, and hard-work. The life-style has always been environmentally friendly as it has been without modern technologies. Nevertheless, modernization exploded dramatically in these villages after 1989, when the communist policies collapsed along with Romania's isolation. People from the Czech Republic have rediscovered Romanian Banat and a rather busy (agro tourism has developed there. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports development projects for making living conditions in the village better. Simultaneously, strong migration from Banat to the Czech Republic has started. People find living conditions in the Czech Republic easier and leave hard work, poverty and unemployment. It brings huge land cover changes because people who remain cannot use all arable land, which is thus abandoned and left for the natural process. One of the distinct manifestations of globalization tendencies is the build-up of wind power plants.

  5. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Katie L; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering-global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.

  6. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering–global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.

  7. Assessing water resources in Azerbaijan using a local distributed model forced and constrained with global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Hegnauer, Mark; Schellekens, Jaap; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; ten Velden, Corine

    2017-04-01

    In many countries, data is scarce, incomplete and often not easily shared. In these cases, global satellite and reanalysis data provide an alternative to assess water resources. To assess water resources in Azerbaijan, a completely distributed and physically based hydrological wflow-sbm model was set-up for the entire Kura basin. We used SRTM elevation data, a locally available river map and one from OpenStreetMap to derive the drainage direction network at the model resolution of approximately 1x1 km. OpenStreetMap data was also used to derive the fraction of paved area per cell to account for the reduced infiltration capacity (c.f. Schellekens et al. 2014). We used the results of a global study to derive root zone capacity based on climate data (Wang-Erlandsson et al., 2016). To account for the variation in vegetation cover over the year, monthly averages of Leaf Area Index, based on MODIS data, were used. For the soil-related parameters, we used global estimates as provided by Dai et al. (2013). This enabled the rapid derivation of a first estimate of parameter values for our hydrological model. Digitized local meteorological observations were scarce and available only for limited time period. Therefore several sources of global meteorological data were evaluated: (1) EU-WATCH global precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1958-2001 (Harding et al., 2011), (2) WFDEI precipitation, temperature and derived potential evaporation for the period 1979-2014 (by Weedon et al., 2014), (3) MSWEP precipitation (Beck et al., 2016) and (4) local precipitation data from more than 200 stations in the Kura basin were available from the NOAA website for a period up to 1991. The latter, together with data archives from Azerbaijan, were used as a benchmark to evaluate the global precipitation datasets for the overlapping period 1958-1991. By comparing the datasets, we found that monthly mean precipitation of EU-WATCH and WFDEI coincided well

  8. From local pixel structure to global image super-resolution: a new face hallucination framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Lam, Kin-Man; Qiu, Guoping; Shen, Tingzhi

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a new face hallucination framework termed from local pixel structure to global image super-resolution (LPS-GIS). Based on the assumption that two similar face images should have similar local pixel structures, the new framework first uses the input low-resolution (LR) face image to search a face database for similar example high-resolution (HR) faces in order to learn the local pixel structures for the target HR face. It then uses the input LR face and the learned pixel structures as priors to estimate the target HR face. We present a three-step implementation procedure for the framework. Step 1 searches the database for K example faces that are the most similar to the input, and then warps the K example images to the input using optical flow. Step 2 uses the warped HR version of the K example faces to learn the local pixel structures for the target HR face. An effective method for learning local pixel structures from an individual face, and an adaptive procedure for fusing the local pixel structures of different example faces to reduce the influence of warping errors, have been developed. Step 3 estimates the target HR face by solving a constrained optimization problem by means of an iterative procedure. Experimental results show that our new method can provide good performances for face hallucination, both in terms of reconstruction error and visual quality; and that it is competitive with existing state-of-the-art methods.

  9. RDEL: Restart Differential Evolution algorithm with Local Search Mutation for global numerical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel version of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm based on a couple of local search mutation and a restart mechanism for solving global numerical optimization problems over continuous space is presented. The proposed algorithm is named as Restart Differential Evolution algorithm with Local Search Mutation (RDEL. In RDEL, inspired by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, a novel local mutation rule based on the position of the best and the worst individuals among the entire population of a particular generation is introduced. The novel local mutation scheme is joined with the basic mutation rule through a linear decreasing function. The proposed local mutation scheme is proven to enhance local search tendency of the basic DE and speed up the convergence. Furthermore, a restart mechanism based on random mutation scheme and a modified Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA mutation scheme is combined to avoid stagnation and/or premature convergence. Additionally, an exponent increased crossover probability rule and a uniform scaling factors of DE are introduced to promote the diversity of the population and to improve the search process, respectively. The performance of RDEL is investigated and compared with basic differential evolution, and state-of-the-art parameter adaptive differential evolution variants. It is discovered that the proposed modifications significantly improve the performance of DE in terms of quality of solution, efficiency and robustness.

  10. Human Impacts on the Hydrologic Cycle: Comparing Global Climate Change and Local Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is significantly altering the hydrologic cycle at global and regional scales, with potentially devastating impacts on water resources. Recent studies demonstrate that hydrologic response to climate change will depend on local-scale feedbacks between groundwater, surface water, and land surface processes. These studies suggest that local water management practices that alter the quantity and distribution of water in the terrestrial system—e.g., groundwater pumping and irrigation—may also feed back across the hydrologic cycle, with impacts on land-atmosphere fluxes and thus weather and climate. Here we use an integrated hydrologic model to compare the impacts of large-scale climate change and local water management practices on water and energy budgets at local and watershed scales. We consider three climate scenarios (hot, hot+wet, and hot+dry) and three management scenarios (pumping only, irrigation only, and pumping+irrigation). Results demonstrate that impacts of local water management on basin-integrated groundwater storage, evapotranspiration, and stream discharge are comparable to those of changing climate conditions. However, impacts of climate change are shown to have a smaller magnitude and greater spatial extent, while impacts of pumping and irrigation are shown to have a greater magnitude but are local to areas where pumping and irrigation occur. These results have important implications regarding the scales of human impacts on both water resources and climate and the sustainability of water resources.

  11. Impact of bulk atmospheric motion on local and global containment heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.A.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    Local and global correlations for condensing energy transfer in the presence of noncondensable gases in a containment facility have been evaluated. The database employed stems from the E11.2 and E11.4 tests conducted at the German HDR facility. The HDR containment is a 11060-ml, 60-m-high decommissioned light water reactor. The tests simulated long-term (up to 56 h) accident conditions. Numerous instrumented structural blocks (concrete and lead) were located throughout the containment to provide detailed local heat transfer measurements. These data represent what is probably the most extensive database of integral energy transfer measurements available. It is well established that the major resistance to condensation heat transfer in the presence of noncondensable gases is a gaseous boundary layer that builds up in front of the condensing surface. Correlations that seek to model heat transfer for these conditions should depend on parameters that most strongly determine the buildup and thickness of this boundary layer. Two of the most important parameters are the vapor/noncondensable concentration ratio and the local atmospheric motion. Secondary parameters include the atmosphere-to-surface temperature difference, the pressure, and condensing surface properties. The HDR tests are unique in terms of the quantity and variety of instrumentation employed. However, one of the most important parameters, the local bulk atmospheric velocity, is inherently difficult to measure, and only fragmentary measurements are available even in the HDR data-base. A detailed analysis of these data is presented by Green. This study uses statistical methods to evaluate local and global empirical correlations that do not include the atmospheric velocity. The magnitude of the differences between the correlations emphasizes the importance of the local atmospheric velocity and serves to illustrate the accuracy limits of correlations that neglect this essential parameter

  12. Possible biomechanical origins of the long-range correlations in stride intervals of walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H.; Su, Jimmy L.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2007-07-01

    When humans walk, the time duration of each stride varies from one stride to the next. These temporal fluctuations exhibit long-range correlations. It has been suggested that these correlations stem from higher nervous system centers in the brain that control gait cycle timing. Existing proposed models of this phenomenon have focused on neurophysiological mechanisms that might give rise to these long-range correlations, and generally ignored potential alternative mechanical explanations. We hypothesized that a simple mechanical system could also generate similar long-range correlations in stride times. We modified a very simple passive dynamic model of bipedal walking to incorporate forward propulsion through an impulsive force applied to the trailing leg at each push-off. Push-off forces were varied from step to step by incorporating both “sensory” and “motor” noise terms that were regulated by a simple proportional feedback controller. We generated 400 simulations of walking, with different combinations of sensory noise, motor noise, and feedback gain. The stride time data from each simulation were analyzed using detrended fluctuation analysis to compute a scaling exponent, α. This exponent quantified how each stride interval was correlated with previous and subsequent stride intervals over different time scales. For different variations of the noise terms and feedback gain, we obtained short-range correlations (α1.0). Our results indicate that a simple biomechanical model of walking can generate long-range correlations and thus perhaps these correlations are not a complex result of higher level neuronal control, as has been previously suggested.

  13. Hooke–Jeeves Method-used Local Search in a Hybrid Global Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sulimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods for optimization investigation of complex systems are based on development and updating the mathematical models of systems because of solving the appropriate inverse problems. Input data desirable for solution are obtained from the analysis of experimentally defined consecutive characteristics for a system or a process. Causal characteristics are the sought ones to which equation coefficients of mathematical models of object, limit conditions, etc. belong. The optimization approach is one of the main ones to solve the inverse problems. In the main case it is necessary to find a global extremum of not everywhere differentiable criterion function. Global optimization methods are widely used in problems of identification and computation diagnosis system as well as in optimal control, computing to-mography, image restoration, teaching the neuron networks, other intelligence technologies. Increasingly complicated systems of optimization observed during last decades lead to more complicated mathematical models, thereby making solution of appropriate extreme problems significantly more difficult. A great deal of practical applications may have the problem con-ditions, which can restrict modeling. As a consequence, in inverse problems the criterion functions can be not everywhere differentiable and noisy. Available noise means that calculat-ing the derivatives is difficult and unreliable. It results in using the optimization methods without calculating the derivatives.An efficiency of deterministic algorithms of global optimization is significantly restrict-ed by their dependence on the extreme problem dimension. When the number of variables is large they use the stochastic global optimization algorithms. As stochastic algorithms yield too expensive solutions, so this drawback restricts their applications. Developing hybrid algo-rithms that combine a stochastic algorithm for scanning the variable space with deterministic local search

  14. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  15. Modeling resting-state functional networks when the cortex falls asleep: local and global changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, Gustavo; Hagmann, Patric; Hudetz, Anthony G; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-12-01

    The transition from wakefulness to sleep represents the most conspicuous change in behavior and the level of consciousness occurring in the healthy brain. It is accompanied by similarly conspicuous changes in neural dynamics, traditionally exemplified by the change from "desynchronized" electroencephalogram activity in wake to globally synchronized slow wave activity of early sleep. However, unit and local field recordings indicate that the transition is more gradual than it might appear: On one hand, local slow waves already appear during wake; on the other hand, slow sleep waves are only rarely global. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging also reveal changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between wake and slow wave sleep. However, it remains unclear how resting-state networks may change during this transition period. Here, we employ large-scale modeling of the human cortico-cortical anatomical connectivity to evaluate changes in resting-state FC when the model "falls asleep" due to the progressive decrease in arousal-promoting neuromodulation. When cholinergic neuromodulation is parametrically decreased, local slow waves appear, while the overall organization of resting-state networks does not change. Furthermore, we show that these local slow waves are structured macroscopically in networks that resemble the resting-state networks. In contrast, when the neuromodulator decrease further to very low levels, slow waves become global and resting-state networks merge into a single undifferentiated, broadly synchronized network. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Downscaling global precipitation for local applications - a case for the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; van Verseveld, Willem; Schellekens, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU FP7 project eartH2Observe a global Water Resources Re-analysis (WRR) is being developed. This re-analysis consists of meteorological and hydrological water balance variables with global coverage, spanning the period 1979-2014 at 0.25 degrees resolution (Schellekens et al., 2016). The dataset can be of special interest in regions with limited in-situ data availability, yet for local scale analysis particularly in mountainous regions, a resolution of 0.25 degrees may be too coarse and downscaling the data to a higher resolution may be required. A downscaling toolbox has been made that includes spatial downscaling of precipitation based on the global WorldClim dataset that is available at 1 km resolution as a monthly climatology (Hijmans et al., 2005). The input of the down-scaling tool are either the global eartH2Observe WRR1 and WRR2 datasets based on the WFDEI correction methodology (Weedon et al., 2014) or the global Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) dataset (Beck et al., 2016). Here we present a validation of the datasets over the Rhine catchment by means of a distributed hydrological model (wflow, Schellekens et al., 2014) using a number of precipitation scenarios. (1) We start by running the model using the local reference dataset derived by spatial interpolation of gauge observations. Furthermore we use (2) the MSWEP dataset at the native 0.25-degree resolution followed by (3) MSWEP downscaled with the WorldClim dataset and final (4) MSWEP downscaled with the local reference dataset. The validation will be based on comparison of the modeled river discharges as well as rainfall statistics. We expect that down-scaling the MSWEP dataset with the WorldClim data to higher resolution will increase its performance. To test the performance of the down-scaling routine we have added a run with MSWEP data down-scaled with the local dataset and compare this with the run based on the local dataset itself. - Beck, H. E. et al., 2016. MSWEP

  17. Stock return predictability and market integration: The role of global and local information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. McMillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the predictability of a range of international stock markets where we allow the presence of both local and global predictive factors. Recent research has argued that US returns have predictive power for international stock returns. We expand this line of research, following work on market integration, to include a more general definition of the global factor, based on principal components analysis. Results identify three global expected returns factors, one related to the major stock markets of the US, UK and Asia and one related to the other markets analysed. The third component is related to dividend growth. A single dominant realised returns factor is also noted. A forecasting exercise comparing the principal components based factors to a US return factor and local market only factors, as well as the historical mean benchmark finds supportive evidence for the former approach. It is hoped that the results from this paper will be informative on three counts. First, to academics interested in understanding the dynamics asset price movement. Second, to market participants who aim to time the market and engage in portfolio and risk management. Third, to those (policy makers and others who are interested in linkages across international markets and the nature and degree of integration.

  18. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2013-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  19. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Presho, Michael; Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Competition of the connectivity with the local and the global order in polymer melts and crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, S.; Puosi, F.; Barucco, M.; Leporini, D., E-mail: dino.leporini@df.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Largo B.Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-11-14

    The competition between the connectivity and the local or global order in model fully flexible chain molecules is investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. States with both missing (melts) and high (crystal) global order are considered. Local order is characterized within the first coordination shell (FCS) of a tagged monomer and found to be lower than in atomic systems in both melt and crystal. The role played by the bonds linking the tagged monomer to FCS monomers (radial bonds), and the bonds linking two FCS monomers (shell bonds) is investigated. The detailed analysis in terms of Steinhardt's orientation order parameters Q{sub l} (l = 2 − 10) reveals that increasing the number of shell bonds decreases the FCS order in both melt and crystal. Differently, the FCS arrangements organize the radial bonds. Even if the molecular chains are fully flexible, the distribution of the angle formed by adjacent radial bonds exhibits sharp contributions at the characteristic angles θ ≈ 70°, 122°, 180°. The fractions of adjacent radial bonds with θ ≈ 122°, 180° are enhanced by the global order of the crystal, whereas the fraction with 70° ≲ θ ≲ 110° is nearly unaffected by the crystallization. Kink defects, i.e., large lateral displacements of the chains, are evidenced in the crystalline state.

  2. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  3. Learning Global-Local Distance Metrics for Signature-Based Biometric Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Eskander Ekladious

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex variability of behavioral biometrics like signatures. In this paper, a Global-Local Distance Metric (GLDM framework is proposed to learn cost-effective distance metrics, which reduce within-class variability and augment between-class variability, so that simple error correction thresholds of bio-cryptosystems provide high classification accuracy. First, a large number of samples from a development dataset are used to train a global distance metric that differentiates within-class from between-class samples of the population. Then, once user-specific samples are available for enrollment, the global metric is tuned to a local user-specific one. Proof-of-concept experiments on two reference offline signature databases confirm the viability of the proposed approach. Distance metrics are produced based on concise signature representations consisting of about 20 features and a single prototype. A signature-based bio-cryptosystem is designed using the produced metrics and has shown average classification error rates of about 7% and 17% for the PUCPR and the GPDS-300 databases, respectively. This level of performance is comparable to that obtained with complex state-of-the-art classifiers.

  4. Desvelamento do limiar discursivo de uma marca global em uma cultura local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Zimmerle da Nóbrega Costa

    Full Text Available Com o advento da globalização inicia-se uma nova forma de convivência entre as sociedades, cuja possibilidade contribui para gerar um emaranhado campo de cruzamentos culturais e permite o estabelecimento de valores universais em meios locais. Este contexto, aliado à cultura de massas, promoveu as marcas a símbolos culturais complexos e globais. Inspirados no projeto arqueológico de Michel Foucault, elegemos uma marca global para realizar um estudo de caso fotoetnográfico de práticas cotidianas mundanas. Este processo nos possibilitou realizar a análise por meio de um trabalho de ordenação, definição e descrição, elaborado no interior do campo discursivo, permitindo que os resultados revelassem descrições enunciativas pautadas nas ações de marketing da marca. Estas nos revelaram funções e suas relações nos permitiram decifrar as regras sob as quais essas se encontravam regidas. A análise nos revelou o limiar relacional entre as culturas global e local e nos possibilitou desvelar as relações existentes nesta teia discursiva, possibilitando a compreensão de como uma marca transnacional se estabelece numa cultura local reproduzindo a cultura global. Neste sentido, apontamos alguns caminhos para reflexão acerca das sociedades ocidentais no contemporâneo.

  5. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  6. Influence of Global and Local Membrane Curvature on Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: A Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Bavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanosensitive (MS channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One of the main mechanisms to functionally study these channels is the patch clamp technique. However, the patch of membrane surveyed using this methodology is far from physiological. Here we use continuum mechanics to probe the question of how curvature, in a standard patch clamp experiment, at different length scales (global and local affects a model MS channel. Firstly, to increase the accuracy of the Laplace’s equation in tension estimation in a patch membrane and to be able to more precisely describe the transient phenomena happening during patch clamping, we propose a modified Laplace’s equation. Most importantly, we unambiguously show that the global curvature of a patch, which is visible under the microscope during patch clamp experiments, is of negligible energetic consequence for activation of an MS channel in a model membrane. However, the local curvature (RL < 50 and the direction of bending are able to cause considerable changes in the stress distribution through the thickness of the membrane. Not only does local bending, in the order of physiologically relevant curvatures, cause a substantial change in the pressure profile but it also significantly modifies the stress distribution in response to force application. Understanding these stress variations in regions of high local bending is essential for a complete understanding of the effects of curvature on MS channels.

  7. The Sustainability of Global Chain Governance: Network Structures and Local Supplier Upgrading in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been widely accepted that insertion into global production networks may play a critical role in fostering local supplier upgrading, scholars have yet to fully incorporate heterogeneous configurations of buyer-supplier relationships within networks into empirical testing. Using a representative sample of manufacturing firms in Thailand, we propose a more nuanced empirical framework that asks which features of buyer-supplier relationships are related to which aspects of local supplier upgrading. Our findings, derived from latent class analysis, show that the ways value chains are governed can exert varying effects on different types of technological upgrading. Being a multinational corporation (MNC supplier was found to have positive effects on process and minor product upgrading, irrespective of the types of buyer-supplier networks. However, we found a more radical type of upgrading (i.e., the development of own brands to be negatively related to insertion into ‘quasi-hierarchical’ or ‘buyer-driven relationships’, whilst involvement in ‘cooperative networks’ was associated with a significantly higher tendency of product and brand upgrading. Understanding this inherent relationality provides a crucial balance to previous firm-level findings, suggesting that the sustainability of participation in global value chains depends on the relational structures in which local manufacturers are embedded.

  8. Microtheories for Spatial Data Infrastructures - Accounting for Diversity of Local Conceptualizations at a Global Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duce, Stephanie; Janowicz, Krzysztof

    The categorization of our environment into feature types is an essential prerequisite for cartography, geographic information retrieval, routing applications, spatial decision support systems, and data sharing in general. However, there is no a priori conceptualization of the world and the creation of features and types is an act of cognition. Humans conceptualize their environment based on multiple criteria such as their cultural background, knowledge, motivation, and particularly by space and time. Sharing and making these conceptualizations explicit in a formal, unambiguous way is at the core of semantic interoperability. One way to cope with semantic heterogeneities is by standardization, i.e., by agreeing on a shared conceptualization. This bears the danger of losing local diversity. In contrast, this work proposes the use of microtheories for Spatial Data Infrastructures, such as INSPIRE, to account for the diversity of local conceptualizations while maintaining their semantic interoperability at a global level. We introduce a novel methodology to structure ontologies by spatial and temporal aspects, in our case administrative boundaries, which reflect variations in feature conceptualization. A local, bottom-up approach, based on non-standard inference, is used to compute global feature definitions which are neither too broad nor too specific. Using different conceptualizations of rivers and other geographic feature types, we demonstrate how the present approach can improve the INSPIRE data model and ease its adoption by European member states.

  9. Differences and implications in biogeochemistry from maximizing entropy production locally versus globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vallino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we investigate the use of the maximum entropy production (MEP principle for modeling biogeochemical processes that are catalyzed by living systems. Because of novelties introduced by the MEP approach, many questions need to be answered and techniques developed in the application of MEP to describe biological systems that are responsible for energy and mass transformations on a planetary scale. In previous work we introduce the importance of integrating entropy production over time to distinguish abiotic from biotic processes under transient conditions. Here we investigate the ramifications of modeling biological systems involving one or more spatial dimensions. When modeling systems over space, entropy production can be maximized either locally at each point in space asynchronously or globally over the system domain synchronously. We use a simple two-box model inspired by two-layer ocean models to illustrate the differences in local versus global entropy maximization. Synthesis and oxidation of biological structure is modeled using two autocatalytic reactions that account for changes in community kinetics using a single parameter each. Our results show that entropy production can be increased if maximized over the system domain rather than locally, which has important implications regarding how biological systems organize and supports the hypothesis for multiple levels of selection and cooperation in biology for the dissipation of free energy.

  10. Robust Myocardial Motion Tracking for Echocardiography: Variational Framework Integrating Local-to-Global Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Young Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust real-time myocardial border tracking algorithm for echocardiography. Commonly, after an initial contour of LV border is traced at one or two frames from the entire cardiac cycle, LV contour tracking is performed over the remaining frames. Among a variety of tracking techniques, optical flow method is the most widely used for motion estimation of moving objects. However, when echocardiography data is heavily corrupted in some local regions, the errors bring the tracking point out of the endocardial border, resulting in distorted LV contours. This shape distortion often occurs in practice since the data acquisition is affected by ultrasound artifacts, dropouts, or shadowing phenomena of cardiac walls. The proposed method is designed to deal with this shape distortion problem by integrating local optical flow motion and global deformation into a variational framework. The proposed descent method controls the individual tracking points to follow the local motions of a specific speckle pattern, while their overall motions are confined to the global motion constraint being approximately an affine transform of the initial tracking points. Many real experiments show that the proposed method achieves better overall performance than conventional methods.

  11. Finding synergy between local competitiveness and global sustainability to provide a future to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The world's future energy needs will require a mix of energy conversion technologies matched to the local energy market needs while also responding to both local and global socio-political concerns, e.g. energy security, environmental impact, safety and non-proliferation. There is growing recognition worldwide that nuclear energy should not only be part of the solution but maybe as well play a larger share in future's energy supply. The sustainability of future nuclear energy systems is hereby important and a variety of studies have already shown that sustainability of nuclear energy from a resource perspective is achievable via the nuclear fuel cycle though where economic sustainability is essentially defined by the nuclear power plants. The main challenge in deploying sustainable nuclear energy systems will be to find synergies between this local competitiveness of nuclear power plants and the global resource sustainability defined via the nuclear fuel cycle. Both may go hand-in-hand in the long-term but may need government guidance in starting the transition towards such future sustainable nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  12. The Global and Local Climatic Response to the Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, K. M.; Singh, H.; Steiger, N. J.; Frierson, D. M.; Steig, E. J.; Bitz, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciologists have suggested that a relatively small external forcing may compromise the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Further, there is compelling physical evidence that the WAIS has collapsed in the past, at times when the mean global temperature was only a few degrees warmer than it is today. In addition to a rapid increase in global sea level, the collapse of the WAIS could also affect the global circulation of the atmosphere. Ice sheets are some of the largest topographic features on Earth, causing large regional anomalies in albedo and radiative balance. Our work uses idealized aquaplanet models in tandem with a fully coupled ocean/atmosphere/sea-ice model (CCSM4) to compare the atmospheric, radiative, and oceanic response to a complete loss of the WAIS. Initial findings indicate that the loss of the WAIS leads to a weakening and equator-ward shift of the zonal winds, a development of strong zonal asymmetries in the meridional wind, and a northward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. We aim to characterize how the local and global climate is affected by the presence of the WAIS, and how changes in the distribution of Southern Hemisphere ice may be represented in the proxy record.

  13. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  14. THE PRESENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AFTER CRISES AND LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel–Lucian SANDU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual article is intended to underline the way in which crises and local and regional conflicts nowadays influence the global economic development The dependence of the small states on the actions of the more developed countries, the economic growth accelerated by the scientific-technological developments and the attitude of the geopolitical actors on global context, describe in detail the ideas extracted from the theme of this article. The economic development is necessary, convenient and unavoidable, the main problems appearing when the main raw materials and essential resources for human survival must be insured. The present international relations and the ways in which political-diplomatic differences are solved, support the need of existence and involvement of some organizations and unbiased pacifist forums wherever societies have differences of opinions.

  15. More attentional focusing through binaural beats: evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Barone, Hayley; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    A recent study showed that binaural beats have an impact on the efficiency of allocating attention over time. We were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional focusing or, even further, the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats, which are assumed to increase attentional concentration, or a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for 3 min before and during a global-local task. While the size of the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was considerably smaller after gamma-frequency binaural beats than after the control condition. Our findings suggest that high-frequency binaural beats bias the individual attentional processing style towards a reduced spotlight of attention.

  16. Alterations to global but not local motion processing in long-term ecstasy (MDMA) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Claire; Brown, John; Edwards, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the main psychoactive ingredient in the illegal drug "ecstasy" (methylendioxymethamphetamine) causes reduced activity in the serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in humans. On the basis of substantial serotonin input to the occipital lobe, recent research investigated visual processing in long-term users and found a larger magnitude of the tilt aftereffect, interpreted to reflect broadened orientation tuning bandwidths. Further research found higher orientation discrimination thresholds and reduced long-range interactions in the primary visual area of ecstasy users. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether serotonin-mediated V1 visual processing deficits in ecstasy users extend to motion processing mechanisms. Forty-five participants (21 controls, 24 drug users) completed two psychophysical studies: A direction discrimination study directly measured local motion processing in V1, while a motion coherence task tested global motion processing in area V5/MT. "Primary" ecstasy users (n = 18), those without substantial polydrug use, had significantly lower global motion thresholds than controls [p = 0.027, Cohen's d = 0.78 (large)], indicating increased sensitivity to global motion stimuli, but no difference in local motion processing (p = 0.365). These results extend on previous research investigating the long-term effects of illicit drugs on visual processing. Two possible explanations are explored: defuse attentional processes may be facilitating spatial pooling of motion signals in users. Alternatively, it may be that a GABA-mediated disruption to V5/MT processing is reducing spatial suppression and therefore improving global motion perception in ecstasy users.

  17. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmospherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Carter

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and charge exchange with ambient ions. Global transport arising from daytime electric fields and poleward/ downward di.usion along geomagnetic field lines, localized transport and layer formation through de- scending convergent nulls in the thermospheric wind field, and finally annihilation by chemical neutralization and compound formation are treated. The model thus sheds new light on the interdependencies of the physical and chemical processes a.ecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis confirms the dominant role of both global and local transport to the ion's life cycle, showing that upward forcing from the equatorial electric field is critical to global movement, and that diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are responsible for the forma- tion of dense ion layers in the 90±250 km height region. It is demonstrated that the assumed combination of sources, chemical sinks, and transport mechanisms actually produces F-region densities and E-region layer densities similar to those observed. The model also shows that zonal and meridional winds and electric fields each play distinct roles in local transport, whereas the ion distribution is relatively insensitive to reasonable variations in meteoric deposition and chemical reaction rates.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  18. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmospherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Carter

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and charge exchange with ambient ions. Global transport arising from daytime electric fields and poleward/ downward di.usion along geomagnetic field lines, localized transport and layer formation through de- scending convergent nulls in the thermospheric wind field, and finally annihilation by chemical neutralization and compound formation are treated. The model thus sheds new light on the interdependencies of the physical and chemical processes a.ecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis confirms the dominant role of both global and local transport to the ion's life cycle, showing that upward forcing from the equatorial electric field is critical to global movement, and that diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are responsible for the forma- tion of dense ion layers in the 90±250 km height region. It is demonstrated that the assumed combination of sources, chemical sinks, and transport mechanisms actually produces F-region densities and E-region layer densities similar to those observed. The model also shows that zonal and meridional winds and electric fields each play distinct roles in local transport, whereas the ion distribution is relatively insensitive to reasonable variations in meteoric deposition and chemical reaction rates.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  19. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  20. Tra locale e globale. Sostenibilità ed empowerment nelle retoriche delle esperienze di microcredito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Guerzoni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Yunus (Nobel Peace Prize 2006 success in Bangladesh, has made microcredit a globally widespread practice. Since the early nineties, microcredit has been adopted by international development organizations as the privileged strategy not only in the struggle against poverty, but also in the promotion of women’s empowerment. The paper critically explores the rhetoric  underpinning the discourse on microcredit, sustainability and the impact on local communities of microfinance programs. Special attention is devoted to the case studies concerning the relationship between access to credit by women and empowerment processes.

  1. The KNK II instrumentation for global and local supervision of the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, W.O.

    1990-01-01

    After an introduction into the KNK plant itself, their historical development and their present situation, the instrumentation of the global and local supervision of the KNK II-core as well as the main safety-related i- and c-systems are described. Special emphasis is laid on the instrumentation of the reactor protection systems and the shutdown systems. After that some practices are reported about instrumentation behavior and lessons learned from the operation and maintenance of the above mentioned systems. At last follows a short description of the special instrumentation for the detection of failed fuel subassemblies and of the plant data processing system. (orig.)

  2. Local y global: Periodismo y xenofobia en la era de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Dalva Aleixo Dias

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de globalización ha provocado cambios sociales que pone en evidencia contradicciones que alcanzan también la práctica periodística. Estas contradicciones son visibles en las diversas formas de inserción de noticias sobre extranjeros en la prensa española, que oscilan entre las denuncias de malos tratos y la campaña en contra, entre la solidaridad y el rechazo. Discutir la labor periodística en este momento con sus contradicciones entre lo global y lo local es el objetivo de este trabajo.

  3. Coordination Analysis Using Global Structural Constraints and Alignment-based Local Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuo; Shimbo, Masashi; Matsumoto, Yuji

    We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignment-based features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efficiently finds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or non-overlapping flat coordinations into account. We demonstrate that our approach outperforms existing parsers in coordination scope detection on the Genia corpus.

  4. Field theories on supermanifolds: general formalism, local supersymmetry, and the limit of global supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzo, V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports briefly on recent investigations concerning the formulation of field theories on supermanifolds. The usual formulations are unsatisfactory from a mathematical viewpoint, hence, this report. A variational theory for fields on a supermanifold is described where the action is a map between Banach spaces. The relationship between the field theory on the supermanifold and a suitably constructed field theory on space-time is also discussed. On-shell local supersymmetry are examined and the limit of global (rigid) supersymmetry is considered. A specific example is given which shows that the limit reproduces the known results

  5. Probing the parameter space of HD 49933: A comparison between global and local methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creevey, O L [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bazot, M, E-mail: orlagh@iac.es, E-mail: bazot@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-01-01

    We present two independent methods for studying the global stellar parameter space (mass M, age, chemical composition X{sub 0}, Z{sub 0}) of HD 49933 with seismic data. Using a local minimization and an MCMC algorithm, we obtain consistent results for the determination of the stellar properties: M 1.1-1.2 M{sub sun} Age {approx} 3.0 Gyr, Z{sub 0} {approx} 0.008. A description of the error ellipses can be defined using Singular Value Decomposition techniques, and this is validated by comparing the errors with those from the MCMC method.

  6. GOING GLOBAL — ACTING LOCAL: SIEMENS IN THE CHINESE ELECTRICAL MARKET, 1904-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mutz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The German electrical manufacturer Siemens has been active in the Chinese market since the 1870s and established its first office in Shanghai in 1904. Focusing on marketing, the paper analyzes Siemens' business activities in China in the period from 1904 to 1937, and argues that the company exemplified a strategy of "glocalization," i.e. combining global business objectives and local adjustments. At the same time, the growing importance of international markets affected the development of the company as a whole. Referring to the contributions of "product," "price, "place" and "promotion" to the enterprise's development, this paper emphasizes the close connection between marketing and internationalization.

  7. Global and local football : politics and Europeanization on the fringes of the EU [Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book, focusing on one of international football’s minnows, Malta, is intended to provide a case study concerning the dialectic of the local and the global within the context of the politics of European and world football. The authors stir up football memories, for people of my age, against the backdrop of important political events occurring in a country which has just joined the European Union. It draws heavily on the work of Carmel Baldacchino , rightly regarded by the authors as Malta...

  8. Local and global synchronization in general complex dynamical networks with delay coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianquan; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Local and global synchronization of complex dynamical networks are studied in this paper. Some simple yet generic criteria ensuring delay-independent and delay-dependent synchronization are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be verified easily via interior-point algorithm. The assumption that the coupling configuration matrix is symmetric and irreducible, which is frequently used in other literatures, is removed. A network with a fixed delay and a special coupling scheme is given as an example to illustrate the theoretical results and the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme

  9. Hitting times of local and global optima in genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to upper bounds on the expected first hitting times of the sets of local or global optima for non-elitist genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure. The results of this paper extend the range of situations where the upper bounds on the expected runtime are known for genetic algorithms and apply, in particular, to the Canonical Genetic Algorithm. The obtained bounds do not require the probability of fitness-decreasing mutation to be bounded by a constant which is less than one.

  10. Global and local approaches to population analysis: Bonding patterns in superheavy element compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynichenko, Alexander; Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Romanov, Stepan; Skripnikov, Leonid V.; Titov, Anatoly V.

    2018-03-01

    Relativistic effective atomic configurations of superheavy elements Cn, Nh and Fl and their lighter homologues (Hg, Tl and Pb) in their simple compounds with fluorine and oxygen are determined using the analysis of local properties of molecular Kohn-Sham density matrices in the vicinity of heavy nuclei. The difference in populations of atomic spinors with the same orbital angular momentum and different total angular momenta is demonstrated to be essential for understanding the peculiarities of chemical bonding in superheavy element compounds. The results are fully compatible with those obtained by the relativistic iterative version of conventional projection analysis of global density matrices.

  11. The KNK II instrumentation for global and local supervision of the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiger, W.O.

    1991-01-01

    After an introduction into the KNK plant itself, their historical development and their present situation, the instrumentation of the global and local supervision of the KNK II-core as well as the main safety-related instrumentation and control systems is described. Special emphasis is laid on the instrumentation of the reactor protection systems and the shut down systems. After that some practices are reported about instrumentation behavior and lessons learned from the operation and maintenance of the above mentioned systems. At last follows a short description of the special instrumentation for the detection of failed fuel subassemblies and of the plant data processing system. (author). 4 refs, 18 tabs

  12. Global-local feature attention network with reranking strategy for image caption generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Si-ya; Shi, Xin-bao; Chen, Yao-wen

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel framework, named as global-local feature attention network with reranking strategy (GLAN-RS), is presented for image captioning task. Rather than only adopting unitary visual information in the classical models, GLAN-RS explores the attention mechanism to capture local convolutional salient image maps. Furthermore, we adopt reranking strategy to adjust the priority of the candidate captions and select the best one. The proposed model is verified using the Microsoft Common Objects in Context (MSCOCO) benchmark dataset across seven standard evaluation metrics. Experimental results show that GLAN-RS significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches, such as multimodal recurrent neural network (MRNN) and Google NIC, which gets an improvement of 20% in terms of BLEU4 score and 13 points in terms of CIDER score.

  13. The meat industry: do we think and behave globally or locally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Delmore, R J; Tatum, J D; Yang, H; Sofos, J N

    2014-11-01

    For generations, those that produce livestock and meat generally felt that their country or geographical region (i.e., provenance) reflected a basis for product differentiation. This occurs to the extent that geography of production often is considered a "brand." For example, there exists "U.S. Grain-Fed Beef" or "Kobe Black Wagyu" or "Uruguayan Grass-Fed Lamb" or "Danish Pork." However, for most meat trade, industry has evolved beyond this. With the exception perhaps of farms onto which livestock are born, meat company's profits are not generally tied to geographical considerations. Most major companies (e.g., JBS, Marfrig, Tyson, Cargill, Danish Crown, Nippon Meat Packers, etc.) operate in multiple countries and represent to consumers the production of a number of locations. However, there also now exist entrepreneurial options for meat production and "local" sales, albeit at lesser volumes. This discussion explores "global" and "local" meat marketing options. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Single Image Super-Resolution Using Global Regression Based on Multiple Local Linear Mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Seok; Kim, Munchurl

    2017-03-01

    Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) performances and computational complexity. However, since SI only utilizes simple linear mappings, it may fail to precisely reconstruct HR patches with complex texture. In this paper, we present a novel SR method, which inherits the large-to-small patch conversion scheme from SI but uses global regression based on local linear mappings (GLM). Thus, our new SR method is called GLM-SI. In GLM-SI, each LR input patch is divided into 25 overlapped subpatches. Next, based on the local properties of these subpatches, 25 different local linear mappings are applied to the current LR input patch to generate 25 HR patch candidates, which are then regressed into one final HR patch using a global regressor. The local linear mappings are learned cluster-wise in our off-line training phase. The main contribution of this paper is as follows: Previously, linear-mapping-based conventional SR methods, including SI only used one simple yet coarse linear mapping to each patch to reconstruct its HR version. On the contrary, for each LR input patch, our GLM-SI is the first to apply a combination of multiple local linear mappings, where each local linear mapping is found according to local properties of the current LR patch. Therefore, it can better approximate nonlinear LR-to-HR mappings for HR patches with complex texture. Experiment results show that the proposed GLM-SI method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art methods, and shows comparable PSNR performance with much lower

  15. Comparing the Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: A Case Study of Cheese Products in Switzerland and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Schmitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Local food has recently gained popularity under the assumption that it is more sustainable than food from distant locations. However, evidence is still lacking to fully support this assumption. The goal of this study is to compare local and global food chains in five dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, ethical and health, covering all stages of the chain. In particular, four cheese supply chains are compared in detail: a local (L’Etivaz and global (Le Gruyère case in Switzerland and a local (Single Gloucester and global (Cheddar case in the UK. A multi-dimensional perspective is adopted to compare their sustainability performance. Eight attributes of performance (affordability, creation and distribution of added value, information and communication, consumer behaviour, resource use, biodiversity, nutrition and animal welfare are used to frame the comparative analysis. The results suggest that local cheese performs better in the field of added value creation and distribution, animal welfare and biodiversity. Global chains, by contrast, perform better in terms of affordability and efficiency and some environmental indicators. This analysis needed to be expressed in qualitative terms rather than quantified indicators and it has been especially useful to identify the critical issues and trade-offs that hinder sustainability at different scales. Cheese supply chains in Switzerland and the UK also often present hybrid arrangements in term of local and global scales. Comparison is therefore most meaningful when presented on a local (farmhouse/global (creamery continuum.

  16. Comprehensive simulation study on local and global development of auroral arcs and field-aligned potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomohiko; Oya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1992-10-01

    Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling are performed to study self-excitation of auroral arcs with special emphasis on 1) nonlinear evolution of the feedback instability in the M-I coupling system, 2) controlling mechanisms of the auroral arc structure, 3) formation of a field-aligned electric potential structure in association with the development of the feedback instability, and 4) effects of the parallel potential generation on auroral arc development. It is reconfirmed that the feedback instability produces a longitudinally elongated, latitudinally striated structure where the upward field-aligned current and the ionospheric density are locally enhanced. The following important new features are revealed. 1) The global distribution of the striation structure is primarily governed by the magnetospheric convection pattern and the ionospheric density distribution. 2) There appears a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry in the auroral arc formation, even though the apparent geometrical relationship is symmetric. 3) The recombination effect plays a significant role in the global, as well as local, development of the auroral arc structure. The nonlinearity of recombination, in conjunction with the closure of an arc-associated local field-aligned current system, acts to destroy an old arc and creates a new arc in a different but adjacent position. 4) A V-shaped field aligned potential structure is created in association with an auroral arc. Rapid increase in the electron density and the local upward field-aligned current of an arc arises as a result of enhanced ionization by precipitating electrons accelerated by the parallel potential. 5) A drastic oscillatory behavior of appearance and disappearance of auroral arcs is obtained when the ionization effect is strong. The period is primarily given by the Alfven bounce time. (J.P.N.)

  17. The nonstationary impact of local temperature changes and ENSO on extreme precipitation at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Qingyun

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and local temperature are important drivers of extreme precipitation. Understanding the impact of ENSO and temperature on the risk of extreme precipitation over global land will provide a foundation for risk assessment and climate-adaptive design of infrastructure in a changing climate. In this study, nonstationary generalized extreme value distributions were used to model extreme precipitation over global land for the period 1979-2015, with ENSO indicator and temperature as covariates. Risk factors were estimated to quantify the contrast between the influence of different ENSO phases and temperature. The results show that extreme precipitation is dominated by ENSO over 22% of global land and by temperature over 26% of global land. With a warming climate, the risk of high-intensity daily extreme precipitation increases at high latitudes but decreases in tropical regions. For ENSO, large parts of North America, southern South America, and southeastern and northeastern China are shown to suffer greater risk in El Niño years, with more than double the chance of intense extreme precipitation in El Niño years compared with La Niña years. Moreover, regions with more intense precipitation are more sensitive to ENSO. Global climate models were used to investigate the changing relationship between extreme precipitation and the covariates. The risk of extreme, high-intensity precipitation increases across high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but decreases in middle and lower latitudes under a warming climate scenario, and will likely trigger increases in severe flooding and droughts across the globe. However, there is some uncertainties associated with the influence of ENSO on predictions of future extreme precipitation, with the spatial extent and risk varying among the different models.

  18. Contributions of projected land use to global radiative forcing ascribed to local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2013-12-01

    With global demand for food expected to dramatically increase and put additional pressures on natural lands, there is a need to understand the environmental impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Previous studies have shown that the magnitude and even the sign of the radiative forcing (RF) of biogeophysical effects from LULCC depends on the latitude and forest ecology of the disturbed region. Here we ascribe the contributions to the global RF by land-use related anthropogenic activities to their local sources, organized on a grid of 1.9 degrees latitude by 2.5 degrees longitude. We use RF estimates for the year 2100, using five future LULCC projections, computed from simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. Our definition of the LULCC RF includes changes to terrestrial carbon storage, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol emissions, and surface albedo. We ascribe the RF to gridded locations based on LULCC-related emissions of relevant trace gases and aerosols, including emissions from fires. We find that the largest contributions to the global RF in year 2100 from LULCC originate in the tropics for all future scenarios. In fact, LULCC is the largest tropical source of anthropogenic RF. The LULCC RF in the tropics is dominated by emissions of CO2 from deforestation and methane emissions from livestock and soils. Land surface albedo change is rarely the dominant forcing agent in any of the future LULCC projections, at any location. By combining the five future scenarios we find that deforested area at a specific tropical location can be used to predict the contribution to global RF from LULCC at that location (the relationship does not hold as well in the extratropics). This information could support global efforts like REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), that aim to reduce greenhouse gas

  19. A scalable global positioning system-free localization scheme for underwater wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, A.M.

    2013-05-07

    Seaweb is an acoustic communication technology that enables communication between sensor nodes. Seaweb technology utilizes the commercially available telesonar modems that has developed link and network layer firmware to provide a robust undersea communication capability. Seaweb interconnects the underwater nodes through digital signal processing-based modem by using acoustic links between the neighboring sensors. In this paper, we design and investigate a global positioning system-free passive localization protocol by integrating the innovations of levelling and localization with the Seaweb technology. This protocol uses the range data and planar trigonometry principles to estimate the positions of the underwater sensor nodes. Moreover, for precise localization, we consider more realistic conditions namely, (a) small displacement of sensor nodes due to watch circles and (b) deployment of sensor nodes over non-uniform water surface. Once the nodes are localized, we divide the whole network field into circular levels and sectors to minimize the traffic complexity and thereby increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes in the network field. We then form the mesh network inside each of the sectors that increases the reliability. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it overcomes the ambiguous nodes errata and reflected paths and therefore makes the algorithm more robust. The synthetic network geometries are so designed which can evaluate the algorithm in the presence of perfect or imperfect ranges or in case of incomplete data. A comparative study is made with the existing algorithms which proves the efficiency of our newly proposed algorithm. 2013 Mohammed et al.

  20. A Local Texture-Based Superpixel Feature Coding for Saliency Detection Combined with Global Saliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfei Nan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because saliency can be used as the prior knowledge of image content, saliency detection has been an active research area in image segmentation, object detection, image semantic understanding and other relevant image-based applications. In the case of saliency detection from cluster scenes, the salient object/region detected needs to not only be distinguished clearly from the background, but, preferably, to also be informative in terms of complete contour and local texture details to facilitate the successive processing. In this paper, a Local Texture-based Region Sparse Histogram (LTRSH model is proposed for saliency detection from cluster scenes. This model uses a combination of local texture patterns and color distribution as well as contour information to encode the superpixels to characterize the local feature of image for region contrast computing. Combining the region contrast as computed with the global saliency probability, a full-resolution salient map, in which the salient object/region detected adheres more closely to its inherent feature, is obtained on the bases of the corresponding high-level saliency spatial distribution as well as on the pixel-level saliency enhancement. Quantitative comparisons with five state-of-the-art saliency detection methods on benchmark datasets are carried out, and the comparative results show that the method we propose improves the detection performance in terms of corresponding measurements.

  1. Full-wave modeling of ICRF waves: global and quasi-local descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) undergo significant space dispersion as they propagate in magnetic fusion plasmas, making it necessary to incorporate non-local effects in their physical description. Full-wave codes are routinely employed to simulate ICRF heating experiments in tokamaks. The vast majority of these codes rely on a description of the plasma based on a 'quasi-local' derivation of the dielectric tensor, i.e. assuming that the range of space dispersion remains small compared to the system dimensions. However, non-local effects caused by wide particle orbits are expected to play a significant role in current and future experiments featuring wave-driven fast ions, fusion-born alpha particles... Global formalisms have thus been proposed to include these effects in a more comprehensive fashion. Based on a description of the particle dynamics in terms of action-angle variables, a full-wave code, named EVE, is currently under development. Its first version, presented here, incorporates quasi-local expressions valid to second order in Larmor radius, derived from the more general Hamiltonian formalism. The obtained tool has the advantage of being compatible with the current requirements of integrated modeling, and lends itself to direct comparisons with existing codes

  2. On Corestriction Principle in non-abelian Galois cohomology over local and global fields. II: Characteristic p > 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Thang

    2004-08-01

    We show the validity of te Corestriction Principle for non-abelian cohomology of connected reductive groups over local ad global fields of characteristic p > 0 , by extending some results by Kneser and Douai. (author)

  3. Comparison of subset-based local and FE-based global digital image correlation: Theoretical error analysis and validation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, B.; Wang, Bo; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Subset-based local and finite-element-based (FE-based) global digital image correlation (DIC) approaches are the two primary image matching algorithms widely used for full-field displacement mapping. Very recently, the performances

  4. 78 FR 61358 - Mylan, Inc., Agila Specialties Global Pte. Limited, Agila Specialties Private Limited and Strides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... following the instructions on the web-based form. If you prefer to file your comment on paper, mail or... instructions on the web-based form. If this Notice appears at http://www.regulations.gov/#!home . you also may...--Mylan, [[Page 61360

  5. Marine microbiology: A glimpse of the strides in the Indian and the global arena

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    to understand the form and function of bacteria that are responsible for mediating the various processes in the sea. The field evolves from culture based ecology to direct quantification of these in different marine niches. Insights into some...

  6. Unravelling Copenhagen's stride into the Anthropocene using lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Norman; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Frei, Robert; Ilsøe, Peter; Louchouarn, Patrick; Andersen, Kenneth; Funder, Svend; Rasmussen, Peter; Andresen, Camilla S.; Odgaard, Bent; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2014-05-01

    lead from gasoline and increased cleaning of the emissions from local power plants have had an effect. Also a change of fuel from coal to natural gas in the power plants has been very important. The present study shows how a detailed record of past levels of air pollution in large cities may be achieved by analyzing the sediment accumulated in urban lakes provided that a reliable chronology can be established.

  7. Position Estimation and Local Mapping Using Omnidirectional Images and Global Appearance Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerai Berenguer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some methods to create local maps and to estimate the position of a mobile robot, using the global appearance of omnidirectional images. We use a robot that carries an omnidirectional vision system on it. Every omnidirectional image acquired by the robot is described only with one global appearance descriptor, based on the Radon transform. In the work presented in this paper, two different possibilities have been considered. In the first one, we assume the existence of a map previously built composed of omnidirectional images that have been captured from previously-known positions. The purpose in this case consists of estimating the nearest position of the map to the current position of the robot, making use of the visual information acquired by the robot from its current (unknown position. In the second one, we assume that we have a model of the environment composed of omnidirectional images, but with no information about the location of where the images were acquired. The purpose in this case consists of building a local map and estimating the position of the robot within this map. Both methods are tested with different databases (including virtual and real images taking into consideration the changes of the position of different objects in the environment, different lighting conditions and occlusions. The results show the effectiveness and the robustness of both methods.

  8. Tensions between the local and the global: contemporary rural and teaching in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Clementino de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate potential tensions between local and global context of contemporary ruralities, emphasizing the times, rhythms and spaces constructed from the experiences of teachers and students in the organization of the routines of rural schools. The paper presents theoretical considerations resulting from two studies in the Graduate Program in Education and Contemporary - PPGEduC / UNEB. The clipping and analysis undertaken focus on education developed in rural areas and tensions present in this context in view, discuss issues concerning the new ruralities contemporary. This discussion has as its central theme the issues of timing and the rhythm in schools with multigrade classes Island Tide that articulates with dilemmas and tensions surrounding the experience lived by teachers of geography of the city engaged in teaching in rural areas in semi-arid region of Bahia. Research has pointed to difficulties faced by rural school to consider the different temporalities that exist in rural areas in their educational processes, as well as difficulties of articulation in these contexts of learning, between the local-global dimensions through which passes the contemporary space. This movement creates stress for teachers’ work, since it complicates the relationship between the times established, standardized and rigid, with times of personal students and teachers, covering aspects such as age, life histories, movements and experiences socio-historical and geographical subjects involved in the processes of teaching and learning in rural settings in contemporary times.

  9. Global-local nonlinear model reduction for flows in heterogeneous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    AlOtaibi, Manal; Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Ghommem, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we combine discrete empirical interpolation techniques, global mode decomposition methods, and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM), to reduce the computational complexity associated with nonlinear flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media. To solve the nonlinear governing equations, we employ the GMsFEM to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions and apply proper orthogonal decomposition on a coarse grid. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the residual and the Jacobian on a fine grid. As such, we use local and global empirical interpolation concepts to circumvent performing these computations on the fine grid. The resulting reduced-order approach significantly reduces the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider several numerical examples of nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations that are numerically integrated using fully-implicit time marching schemes to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model reduction approach to speed up simulations of nonlinear flows in high-contrast porous media.

  10. Spatiotemporal variability of urban growth factors: A global and local perspective on the megacity of Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Helbich, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth of megacities requires special attention among urban planners worldwide, and particularly in Mumbai, India, where growth is very pronounced. To cope with the planning challenges this will bring, developing a retrospective understanding of urban land-use dynamics and the underlying driving-forces behind urban growth is a key prerequisite. This research uses regression-based land-use change models - and in particular non-spatial logistic regression models (LR) and auto-logistic regression models (ALR) - for the Mumbai region over the period 1973-2010, in order to determine the drivers behind spatiotemporal urban expansion. Both global models are complemented by a local, spatial model, the so-called geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR) model, one that explicitly permits variations in driving-forces across space. The study comes to two main conclusions. First, both global models suggest similar driving-forces behind urban growth over time, revealing that LRs and ALRs result in estimated coefficients with comparable magnitudes. Second, all the local coefficients show distinctive temporal and spatial variations. It is therefore concluded that GWLR aids our understanding of urban growth processes, and so can assist context-related planning and policymaking activities when seeking to secure a sustainable urban future.

  11. The Globalization of Qualitative Research: Challenging Anglo-American Domination and Local Hegemonic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, scholarly interest has led to publications on the practices and development of qualitative research (QR in countries outside of the Anglo-American core. Much of the writing is descriptive, providing an overview of the QR path and development in a particular country. Recently, qualitative researchers in the periphery have begun to articulate a collective professional identity in relation to the Anglo-American core by questioning both the dominance of the Anglo-American core and the current divide between QR in the core and the periphery. To date, insufficient effort has been made to develop this collective professional identity in order to overcome Anglo-American domination in the periphery and to indigenize QR. In this article, I propose a globally-informed, locally-situated analytical framework as a means of developing a globalized QR (GQR. I argue that qualitative scholars in the periphery must simultaneously confront Anglo-American domination and local hegemonic discourses. I discuss what scholars in the core and periphery can do to lead to a shift in the current division of labor that sees scholarship in the core producing theory and methods while those in the periphery consume and reproduce it. More attention needs to be paid to the indigenization of QR in the periphery. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201216

  12. Tensor voting for image correction by global and local intensity alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a voting method to perform image correction by global and local intensity alignment. The key to our modeless approach is the estimation of global and local replacement functions by reducing the complex estimation problem to the robust 2D tensor voting in the corresponding voting spaces. No complicated model for replacement function (curve) is assumed. Subject to the monotonic constraint only, we vote for an optimal replacement function by propagating the curve smoothness constraint using a dense tensor field. Our method effectively infers missing curve segments and rejects image outliers. Applications using our tensor voting approach are proposed and described. The first application consists of image mosaicking of static scenes, where the voted replacement functions are used in our iterative registration algorithm for computing the best warping matrix. In the presence of occlusion, our replacement function can be employed to construct a visually acceptable mosaic by detecting occlusion which has large and piecewise constant color. Furthermore, by the simultaneous consideration of color matches and spatial constraints in the voting space, we perform image intensity compensation and high contrast image correction using our voting framework, when only two defective input images are given.

  13. Perspectives of Complexity in Water Governance: Local Experiences of Global Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Those responsible for water governance face great complexity. However, the conceptualisations of what comprises that complexity have been broad and inconsistent. When efforts are made to address the complexity in water governance, it is unclear whether the problems and the related solutions will be understood across the actors and institutions involved. This paper provides a review of the literature focused on global water governance to discern core themes that commonly characterise discussions of complexity. It then considers how the consequences of these issues are manifested at the local scale through an examination of empirical research of the Murray-Darling Basin Authority and the Prachinburi River Basin Committee. The results demonstrate that a history of a technical, depoliticised discourse is often perceived to contribute to complexity. The consequence is that when a severe ecological disturbance occurs within a river basin with poorly understood causes, few tools are available to support river basin organisations to address the political nature of these challenges. Additionally, a lack of clear authority structures has been recognised globally, but locally this can contribute to conflict amongst the 'governors' of water. Finally, a range of contested definitions and governance frameworks exists that contributes to complexity, but confronting the diversity of perspectives can lead to ethical dilemmas given that the decisions will affect the health and livelihoods of basin communities.

  14. Global and local missions of cAMP signaling in neural plasticity, learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daewoo eLee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a popular model to study cAMP signaling and resultant behaviors due to its powerful genetic approaches. All molecular components (AC, PDE, PKA, CREB, etc essential for cAMP signaling have been identified in the fly. Among them, adenylyl cyclase (AC gene rutabaga and phosphodiesterase (PDE gene dunce have been intensively studied to understand the role of cAMP signaling. Interestingly, these two mutant genes were originally identified on the basis of associative learning deficits. This commentary summarizes findings on the role of cAMP in Drosophila neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and memory. It mainly focuses on two distinct mechanisms (global versus local regulating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity related to cAMP homeostasis. This dual regulatory role of cAMP is to increase the strength of excitatory neural circuits on one hand, but to act locally on postsynaptic GABA receptors to decrease inhibitory synaptic plasticity on the other. Thus the action of cAMP could result in a global increase in the neural circuit excitability and memory. Implications of this cAMP signaling related to drug discovery for neural diseases are also described.

  15. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-04

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized.

  16. Global-local nonlinear model reduction for flows in heterogeneous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    AlOtaibi, Manal

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we combine discrete empirical interpolation techniques, global mode decomposition methods, and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM), to reduce the computational complexity associated with nonlinear flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media. To solve the nonlinear governing equations, we employ the GMsFEM to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions and apply proper orthogonal decomposition on a coarse grid. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the residual and the Jacobian on a fine grid. As such, we use local and global empirical interpolation concepts to circumvent performing these computations on the fine grid. The resulting reduced-order approach significantly reduces the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider several numerical examples of nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations that are numerically integrated using fully-implicit time marching schemes to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model reduction approach to speed up simulations of nonlinear flows in high-contrast porous media.

  17. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  18. MAPPING THE SIMILARITIES OF SPECTRA: GLOBAL AND LOCALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, David [Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (United States); Budavári, Tamás [Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University (United States); Mahoney, Michael W. [International Computer Science Institute (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors . Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  19. Mapping the Similarities of Spectra: Global and Locally-biased Approaches to SDSS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, David; Budavári, Tamás; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors. Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  20. MAPPING THE SIMILARITIES OF SPECTRA: GLOBAL AND LOCALLY-BIASED APPROACHES TO SDSS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawlor, David; Budavári, Tamás; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to studying the diversity of galaxies. It is based on a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors . Our method introduces new coordinates that summarize an entire spectrum, similar to but going well beyond the widely used Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Unlike PCA, however, this technique does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity. Instead, we relax that condition to only the most similar spectra, and we show that doing so yields more reliable results for many astronomical questions of interest. The global variant of our approach can identify very finely numerous astronomical phenomena of interest. The locally-biased variants of our basic approach enable us to explore subtle trends around a set of chosen objects. The power of the method is demonstrated in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample, by illustrating that the derived spectral coordinates carry an unprecedented amount of information.

  1. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  2. Global analysis of dynamical decision-making models through local computation around the hidden saddle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Trotta

    Full Text Available Bistable dynamical switches are frequently encountered in mathematical modeling of biological systems because binary decisions are at the core of many cellular processes. Bistable switches present two stable steady-states, each of them corresponding to a distinct decision. In response to a transient signal, the system can flip back and forth between these two stable steady-states, switching between both decisions. Understanding which parameters and states affect this switch between stable states may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the decision-making process. Yet, answering such a question involves analyzing the global dynamical (i.e., transient behavior of a nonlinear, possibly high dimensional model. In this paper, we show how a local analysis at a particular equilibrium point of bistable systems is highly relevant to understand the global properties of the switching system. The local analysis is performed at the saddle point, an often disregarded equilibrium point of bistable models but which is shown to be a key ruler of the decision-making process. Results are illustrated on three previously published models of biological switches: two models of apoptosis, the programmed cell death and one model of long-term potentiation, a phenomenon underlying synaptic plasticity.

  3. Global Qualitative Flow-Path Modeling for Local State Determination in Simulation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Fleming, Land D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    For qualitative modeling and analysis, a general qualitative abstraction of power transmission variables (flow and effort) for elements of flow paths includes information on resistance, net flow, permissible directions of flow, and qualitative potential is discussed. Each type of component model has flow-related variables and an associated internal flow map, connected into an overall flow network of the system. For storage devices, the implicit power transfer to the environment is represented by "virtual" circuits that include an environmental junction. A heterogeneous aggregation method simplifies the path structure. A method determines global flow-path changes during dynamic simulation and analysis, and identifies corresponding local flow state changes that are effects of global configuration changes. Flow-path determination is triggered by any change in a flow-related device variable in a simulation or analysis. Components (path elements) that may be affected are identified, and flow-related attributes favoring flow in the two possible directions are collected for each of them. Next, flow-related attributes are determined for each affected path element, based on possibly conflicting indications of flow direction. Spurious qualitative ambiguities are minimized by using relative magnitudes and permissible directions of flow, and by favoring flow sources over effort sources when comparing flow tendencies. The results are output to local flow states of affected components.

  4. Exploring Social Justice in Mixed/Divided Cities: From Local to Global Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shdaimah, Corey; Lipscomb, Jane; Strier, Roni; Postan-Aizik, Dassi; Leviton, Susan; Olsen, Jody

    University of Haifa and the University of Maryland, Baltimore faculty developed a parallel binational, interprofessional American-Israeli course which explores social justice in the context of increasing urban, local, and global inequities. This article describes the course's innovative approach to critically examine how social justice is framed in mixed/divided cities from different professional perspectives (social work, health, law). Participatory methods such as photo-voice, experiential learning, and theatre of the oppressed provide students with a shared language and multiple media to express and problematize their own and others' understanding of social (in)justice and to imagine social change. Much learning about "self" takes place in an immersion experience with "others." Crucial conversations about "the other" and social justice can occur more easily within the intercultural context. In these conversations, students and faculty experience culture as diverse, complex, and personal. Students and faculty alike found the course personally and professionally transformative. Examination of social justice in Haifa and Baltimore strengthened our appreciation for the importance of context and the value of global learning to provide insights on local challenges and opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: review and predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, C.R. [Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville, Qld. (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Factors causing global degradation of coral reefs are examined briefly as a basis for predicting the likely consequences of increases in these factors. The earlier consensus was that widespread but localized damage from natural factors such as storms, and direct anthropogenic effects such as increased sedimentation, pollution and exploitation, posed the largest immediate threat to coral reefs. Now truly global factors associated with accelerating Global Climate Change are either damaging coral reefs or have the potential to inflict greater damage in the immediate future e.g. increases in coral bleaching and mortality, and reduction in coral calcification due to changes in sea-water chemistry with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. Rises in sea level will probably disrupt human communities and their cultures by making coral cays uninhabitable, whereas coral reefs will sustain minimal damage from the rise in sea level. The short-term (decades) prognosis is that major reductions are almost certain in the extent and biodiversity of coral reefs, and severe disruptions to cultures and economies dependent on reef resources will occur. The long-term (centuries to millennia) prognosis is more encouraging because coral reefs have remarkable resilience to severe disruption and will probably show this resilience in the future when climate changes either stabilize or reverse.

  6. Circuit Mechanisms Governing Local vs. Global Motion Processing in Mouse Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Rasmussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A withstanding question in neuroscience is how neural circuits encode representations and perceptions of the external world. A particularly well-defined visual computation is the representation of global object motion by pattern direction-selective (PDS cells from convergence of motion of local components represented by component direction-selective (CDS cells. However, how PDS and CDS cells develop their distinct response properties is still unresolved. The visual cortex of the mouse is an attractive model for experimentally solving this issue due to the large molecular and genetic toolbox available. Although mouse visual cortex lacks the highly ordered orientation columns of primates, it is organized in functional sub-networks and contains striate- and extrastriate areas like its primate counterparts. In this Perspective article, we provide an overview of the experimental and theoretical literature on global motion processing based on works in primates and mice. Lastly, we propose what types of experiments could illuminate what circuit mechanisms are governing cortical global visual motion processing. We propose that PDS cells in mouse visual cortex appear as the perfect arena for delineating and solving how individual sensory features extracted by neural circuits in peripheral brain areas are integrated to build our rich cohesive sensory experiences.

  7. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Albatross as Sentinels of Heavy Metal Pollution: Local and Global Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, W.; Edwards, S. V.; Vo, A. E.; Bank, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the Pacific Ocean has garnered significant attention in recent years, especially with regard to rising mercury emissions from Asia. Uncertainty exists over the extent to which mercury in biota may have resulted from increases in anthropogenic emissions over time. Albatrosses, including those inhabiting the North Pacific, are wide-ranging, long-lived, keystone, avian predators. Consequently, they serve as ideal sentinel species for investigating the effects of historical and contemporary pollution as well as local and global factors related to heavy metal bioaccumulation, exposure, and ecotoxicological risk. To date, high levels of mercury and lead have been documented in albatross species throughout the Pacific. To address biotic exposure to these multiple stressors, here we synthesize and conduct meta-analyses of total mercury, methylmercury, and lead exposure data in Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis). Our approach uses data from the field and literature and for methyl mercury uses museum feathers spanning the past 130 years for Black-Footed albatross. We discuss the use and application of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) as a way to control for temporal changes in trophic structure and diet and the importance of conducting speciation analyses, for mercury, to account for curator mediated inorganic mercury in older specimens. Our data showed higher levels of inorganic mercury in older specimens of Black-Footed albatross as well as two non-pelagic species (control samples) lacking historical sources of bioavailable mercury exposure, which suggests that studies on bioaccumulation should measure methylmercury rather than total mercury when utilizing museum collections. Additionally, at the local scale, previous research has reported that lead paint exposure from buildings was also an important environmental stressor for Laysan albatross, suggesting that albatross species face heavy

  9. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  10. Variation in Maltese English: The Interplay of the Local and the Global in an Emerging Postcolonial Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Lisa Marie

    2010-01-01

    In our current era of increased globalization, constraints on language variation in postcolonial English varieties are multifaceted. Local and global language ideologies collide and multiple sources of influence converge in present-day patterns of linguistic variation in emerging English varieties. While research into the structure and…

  11. Places of popular music heritage: the local framing of a global cultural form in Dutch museums and archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno); A.M.C. Brandellero (Amanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThrough the prism of popular music, this article examines how the preservation and display of this global cultural form positions itself at the nexus of the local and the global, and in so doing mediates attachment to place. Springing from the increasing cultural legitimacy of popular

  12. Places of popular music heritage: the local framing of a global cultural form in Dutch museums and archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, A.; Brandellero, A.

    2015-01-01

    Through the prism of popular music, this article examines how the preservation and display of this global cultural form positions itself at the nexus of the local and the global, and in so doing mediates attachment to place. Springing from the increasing cultural legitimacy of popular music and the

  13. Implementation status of the global and local beam position feedback systems for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lumpkin, A.; Votaw, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is implementing an extensive beam position feedback system for both global and local stabilization of particle and photon beams based on digital signal processing. The description and operational experience of the system will be given in this paper. In particular, we will discuss the underlying fundamental principles, hardware layout, controls interface, and automatic software generation for multiple digital signal processors (DSPS) distributed in 20 VME crates around the ring. The feedback system runs at 4-kHz sampling frequency in order to achieve the correction bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. For the maximum correction efficiency and resolution of conflicts among multiple local feedback systems due to the local bump closure error, the global and local feedback systems are combined into a single unified system. This novel approach is made possible through data sharing among the global and local systems via the fiber-optically networked reflective memories

  14. LINKING LOCAL AND GLOBAL: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR SMES – THE CASE OF THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Lalita Kraus

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the article is on global-local interrelation in a globally integrated system of production, analysed through the Global Value Chain (GVC) framework. The unit of analysis is the small and medium enterprise (SME) as relevant unit when dealing with poverty reduction and distribution. The GVC allows to determine how the SMEs insert themselves in this system and what are the factors that cause a potential suboptimal insertion. The picture is further complicated by specific internatio...

  15. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  16. Coding Local and Global Binary Visual Features Extracted From Video Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroffio, Luca; Canclini, Antonio; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Binary local features represent an effective alternative to real-valued descriptors, leading to comparable results for many visual analysis tasks, while being characterized by significantly lower computational complexity and memory requirements. When dealing with large collections, a more compact representation based on global features is often preferred, which can be obtained from local features by means of, e.g., the Bag-of-Visual-Word (BoVW) model. Several applications, including for example visual sensor networks and mobile augmented reality, require visual features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques that aim at reducing the required bit budget, while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper we investigate a coding scheme tailored to both local and global binary features, which aims at exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intra- and inter-frame coding. In this respect, the proposed coding scheme can be conveniently adopted to support the Analyze-Then-Compress (ATC) paradigm. That is, visual features are extracted from the acquired content, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs visual analysis. This is in contrast with the traditional approach, in which visual content is acquired at a node, compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing, according to the Compress-Then-Analyze (CTA) paradigm. In this paper we experimentally compare ATC and CTA by means of rate-efficiency curves in the context of two different visual analysis tasks: homography estimation and content-based retrieval. Our results show that the novel ATC paradigm based on the proposed coding primitives can be competitive with CTA, especially in bandwidth limited scenarios.

  17. Coding Local and Global Binary Visual Features Extracted From Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroffio, Luca; Canclini, Antonio; Cesana, Matteo; Redondi, Alessandro; Tagliasacchi, Marco; Tubaro, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Binary local features represent an effective alternative to real-valued descriptors, leading to comparable results for many visual analysis tasks while being characterized by significantly lower computational complexity and memory requirements. When dealing with large collections, a more compact representation based on global features is often preferred, which can be obtained from local features by means of, e.g., the bag-of-visual word model. Several applications, including, for example, visual sensor networks and mobile augmented reality, require visual features to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited network, thus calling for coding techniques that aim at reducing the required bit budget while attaining a target level of efficiency. In this paper, we investigate a coding scheme tailored to both local and global binary features, which aims at exploiting both spatial and temporal redundancy by means of intra- and inter-frame coding. In this respect, the proposed coding scheme can conveniently be adopted to support the analyze-then-compress (ATC) paradigm. That is, visual features are extracted from the acquired content, encoded at remote nodes, and finally transmitted to a central controller that performs the visual analysis. This is in contrast with the traditional approach, in which visual content is acquired at a node, compressed and then sent to a central unit for further processing, according to the compress-then-analyze (CTA) paradigm. In this paper, we experimentally compare the ATC and the CTA by means of rate-efficiency curves in the context of two different visual analysis tasks: 1) homography estimation and 2) content-based retrieval. Our results show that the novel ATC paradigm based on the proposed coding primitives can be competitive with the CTA, especially in bandwidth limited scenarios.

  18. Category structure determines the relative attractiveness of global versus local averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Carr, Evan W; Davis, Tyler; Winkielman, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Stimuli that capture the central tendency of presented exemplars are often preferred-a phenomenon also known as the classic beauty-in-averageness effect . However, recent studies have shown that this effect can reverse under certain conditions. We propose that a key variable for such ugliness-in-averageness effects is the category structure of the presented exemplars. When exemplars cluster into multiple subcategories, the global average should no longer reflect the underlying stimulus distributions, and will thereby become unattractive. In contrast, the subcategory averages (i.e., local averages) should better reflect the stimulus distributions, and become more attractive. In 3 studies, we presented participants with dot patterns belonging to 2 different subcategories. Importantly, across studies, we also manipulated the distinctiveness of the subcategories. We found that participants preferred the local averages over the global average when they first learned to classify the patterns into 2 different subcategories in a contrastive categorization paradigm (Experiment 1). Moreover, participants still preferred local averages when first classifying patterns into a single category (Experiment 2) or when not classifying patterns at all during incidental learning (Experiment 3), as long as the subcategories were sufficiently distinct. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, we mapped our empirical results onto predictions generated by a well-known computational model of category learning (the Generalized Context Model [GCM]). Overall, our findings emphasize the key role of categorization for understanding the nature of preferences, including any effects that emerge from stimulus averaging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Assessment of Global Emissions, Local Emissions and Immissions of Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Erdmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses and compares existing and new technologies for space heating in Germany (e.g., heat pumps, and solar thermal and wood pellet systems in terms of their environmental impacts. The various technologies were analyzed within the context of the new German legislation. The assessment was carried out on three levels: 1. Global emissions: a life cycle assessment was carried out in order to find the global environmental footprint of the various technologies; 2. Local emissions: the effects of local emissions on human health were analyzed; and 3. Immissions: the immissions were evaluated for the various technologies using a dispersion calculation. A special feature of this study is the substitution of frequently used database emission values by values obtained from field studies and our own measurements. The results show large differences between the different technologies: while electric heat pumps performed quite well in most categories, wood pellet systems performed the best with respect to climate change. The latter, however, are associated with high impacts in other environmental impact categories and on a local scale. The promotion of some technologies (especially systems based on fuel oil, a mixture of fuel oil and rapeseed oil, or a mixture of natural gas and biomethane by the newly introduced German legislation is doubtful. In terms of the immissions of wood pellet systems, it can be concluded that, even for extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, the regulatory limits are not exceeded and the heating systems have a negligible influence on the total PM load in the ambient air.

  20. Community Observatories: Fostering Ideas that STEM From Ocean Sense: Local Observations. Global Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses education and communication to inspire, engage and educate via innovative "meet them where they are, and take them where they need to go" programs. ONC data are accessible via the internet allowing for the promotion of programs wherever the learners are located. We use technologies such as web portals, mobile apps and citizen science to share ocean science data with many different audiences. Here we focus specifically on one of ONC's most innovative programs: community observatories and the accompanying Ocean Sense program. The approach is based on equipping communities with the same technology enabled on ONC's large cabled observatories. ONC operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories and they collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex Earth processes in ways not previously possible. Community observatories allow for similar monitoring on a smaller scale, and support STEM efforts via a teacher-led program: Ocean Sense. This program, based on local observations and global connections improves data-rich teaching and learning via visualization tools, interactive plotting interfaces and lesson plans for teachers that focus on student inquiry and exploration. For example, students use all aspects of STEM by accessing, selecting, and interpreting data in multiple dimensions, from their local community observatories to the larger VENUS and NEPTUNE networks. The students make local observations and global connections in all STEM areas. The first year of the program with teachers and students who use this innovative technology is described. Future community observatories and their technological applications in education, communication and STEM efforts are also described.